Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

Search results for: SHPB

10 Behaviour of Polypropylene Fiber Reinforced Concrete under Dynamic Impact Loads

Authors: Masoud Abedini, Azrul A. Mutalib


A study of the used of additives which mixed with concrete in order to increase the strength and durability of concrete was examined to improve the quality of many aspects in the concrete. This paper presents a polypropylene (PP) fibre was added into concrete to study the dynamic response under impact load. References related to dynamic impact test for sample polypropylene fibre reinforced concrete (PPFRC) is very limited and there is no specific research and information related to this research. Therefore, the study on the dynamic impact of PPFRC using a Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB) was done in this study. Provided samples for this study was composed of 1.0 kg/m³ PP fibres, 2.0 kg/m³ PP fibres and plain concrete as a control samples. This PP fibre contains twisted bundle non-fibrillating monofilament and fibrillating network fibres. Samples were prepared by cylindrical mould with three samples of each mix proportion, 28 days curing period and concrete grade 35 Mpa. These samples are then tested for dynamic impact by SHPB at 2 Mpa pressure under the strain rate of 10 s-1. Dynamic compressive strength results showed an increase of SC1 and SC2 samples than the control sample which is 13.22 % and 76.9 % respectively with the dynamic compressive strength of 74.5 MPa and 116.4 MPa compared to 65.8 MPa. Dynamic increased factor (DIF) shows that, sample SC2 gives higher value with 4.15 than others samples SC1 and SC3 that gives the value of 2.14 and 1.97 respectively.

Keywords: polypropylene fiber, Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar, impact load, dynamic compressive strength

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9 High Strain Rate Behavior of Harmonic Structure Designed Pure Nickel: Mechanical Characterization Microstructure Analysis and 3D Modelisation

Authors: D. Varadaradjou, H. Kebir, J. Mespoulet, D. Tingaud, S. Bouvier, P. Deconick, K. Ameyama, G. Dirras


The development of new architecture metallic alloys with controlled microstructures is one of the strategic ways for designing materials with high innovation potential and, particularly, with improved mechanical properties as required for structural materials. Indeed, unlike conventional counterparts, metallic materials having so-called harmonic structure displays strength and ductility synergy. The latter occurs due to a unique microstructure design: a coarse grain structure surrounded by a 3D continuous network of ultra-fine grain known as “core” and “shell,” respectively. In the present study, pure harmonic-structured (HS) Nickel samples were processed via controlled mechanical milling and followed by spark plasma sintering (SPS). The present work aims at characterizing the mechanical properties of HS pure Nickel under room temperature dynamic loading through a Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB) test and the underlying microstructure evolution. A stopper ring was used to maintain the strain at a fixed value of about 20%. Five samples (named B1 to B5) were impacted using different striker bar velocities from 14 m/s to 28 m/s, yielding strain rate in the range 4000-7000 s-1. Results were considered until a 10% deformation value, which is the deformation threshold for the constant strain rate assumption. The non-deformed (INIT – post-SPS process) and post-SHPB microstructure (B1 to B5) were investigated by EBSD. It was observed that while the strain rate is increased, the average grain size within the core decreases. An in-depth analysis of grains and grain boundaries was made to highlight the thermal (such as dynamic recrystallization) or mechanical (such as grains fragmentation by dislocation) contribution within the “core” and “shell.” One of the most widely used methods for determining the dynamic behavior of materials is the SHPB technique developed by Kolsky. A 3D simulation of the SHPB test was created through ABAQUS in dynamic explicit. This 3D simulation allows taking into account all modes of vibration. An inverse approach was used to identify the material parameters from the equation of Johnson-Cook (JC) by minimizing the difference between the numerical and experimental data. The JC’s parameters were identified using B1 and B5 samples configurations. Predictively, identified parameters of JC’s equation shows good result for the other sample configuration. Furthermore, mean rise of temperature within the harmonic Nickel sample can be obtained through ABAQUS and show an elevation of about 35°C for all fives samples. At this temperature, a thermal mechanism cannot be activated. Therefore, grains fragmentation within the core is mainly due to mechanical phenomena for a fixed final strain of 20%.

Keywords: 3D simulation, fragmentation, harmonic structure, high strain rate, Johnson-cook model, microstructure

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8 Experimental Investigation on the Effect of Prestress on the Dynamic Mechanical Properties of Conglomerate Based on 3D-SHPB System

Authors: Wei Jun, Liao Hualin, Wang Huajian, Chen Jingkai, Liang Hongjun, Liu Chuanfu


Kuqa Piedmont is rich in oil and gas resources and has great development potential in Tarim Basin, China. However, there is a huge thick gravel layer developed with high content, wide distribution and variation in size of gravel, leading to the condition of strong heterogeneity. So that, the drill string is in a state of severe vibration and the drill bit is worn seriously while drilling, which greatly reduces the rock-breaking efficiency, and there is a complex load state of impact and three-dimensional in-situ stress acting on the rock in the bottom hole. The dynamic mechanical properties and the influencing factors of conglomerate, the main component of gravel layer, are the basis of engineering design and efficient rock breaking method and theoretical research. Limited by the previously experimental technique, there are few works published yet about conglomerate, especially rare in dynamic load. Based on this, a kind of 3D SHPB system, three-dimensional prestress, can be applied to simulate the in-situ stress characteristics, is adopted for the dynamic test of the conglomerate. The results show that the dynamic strength is higher than its static strength obviously, and while the three-dimensional prestress is 0 and the loading strain rate is 81.25~228.42 s-1, the true triaxial equivalent strength is 167.17~199.87 MPa, and the strong growth factor of dynamic and static is 1.61~1.92. And the higher the impact velocity, the greater the loading strain rate, the higher the dynamic strength and the greater the failure strain, which all increase linearly. There is a critical prestress in the impact direction and its vertical direction. In the impact direction, while the prestress is less than the critical one, the dynamic strength and the loading strain rate increase linearly; otherwise, the strength decreases slightly and the strain rate decreases rapidly. In the vertical direction of impact load, the strength increases and the strain rate decreases linearly before the critical prestress, after that, oppositely. The dynamic strength of the conglomerate can be reduced properly by reducing the amplitude of impact load so that the service life of rock-breaking tools can be prolonged while drilling in the stratum rich in gravel. The research has important reference significance for the speed-increasing technology and theoretical research while drilling in gravel layer.

Keywords: huge thick gravel layer, conglomerate, 3D SHPB, dynamic strength, the deformation characteristics, prestress

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7 Relation between Energy Absorption and Box Dimension of Rock Fragments under Impact Loading

Authors: Li Hung-Hui, Chen Chi-Chieh, Yang Zon-Yee


This study aims to explore the impact energy absorption in the fragmented processes of rock samples during the split-Hopkinson-pressure-bar tests. Three kinds of rock samples including granite, marble and sandstone were tested. The impact energy absorptions were calculated according to the incident, reflected and transmitted strain wave histories measured by a oscilloscope. The degree of fragment rocks after tests was quantified by the box dimension of the fractal theory. The box dimension of rock fragments was obtained from the particle size distribution curve by the sieve analysis. The results can be concluded that: (1) the degree of rock fragments after tests can be well described by the value of box dimension; (2) with the impact energy absorption increasing, the degrees of rock fragments are varied from the very large fragments to very small fragments, and the corresponding box dimension varies from 2.9 to 1.2.

Keywords: SHPB test, energy absorption, rock fragments, impact loading, box dimension

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6 An Experimental Study of Dynamic Compressive Strength of Bushveld Complex Brittle Rocks under Impact Loadingsa Chemicals and Fibre Corporation, Changhua Branch

Authors: A. Mudau, T. R. Stacey, R. A. Govender


This paper reports for the first time the findings on the dynamic compressive strength data of Bushveld Complex brittle rock materials. These rocks were subjected to both quasi-static and impact loading tests to help understand their behaviour both under quasi-static and dynamic loading conditions. Unlike quasi-static tests, characterization of dynamic behaviour of materials is challenging, in particularly brittle rock materials. The split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) results reported for anorthosite and norite showed relatively low values for dynamic compressive strength compared to the quasi-static uniaxial compressive strength data. It was noticed that the dynamic stress conditions were not fully attained during testing, as well as constant strain rate.

Keywords: Bushveld Complex, dynamic comperession, rock brittleness, stress equilibrium

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5 Dynamic Thermomechanical Behavior of Adhesively Bonded Composite Joints

Authors: Sonia Sassi, Mostapha Tarfaoui, Hamza Benyahia


Composite materials are increasingly being used as a substitute for metallic materials in many technological applications like aeronautics, aerospace, marine and civil engineering applications. For composite materials, the thermomechanical response evolves with the strain rate. The energy balance equation for anisotropic, elastic materials includes heat source terms that govern the conversion of some of the kinetic work into heat. The remainder contributes to the stored energy creating the damage process in the composite material. In this paper, we investigate the bulk thermomechanical behavior of adhesively-bonded composite assemblies to quantitatively asses the temperature rise which accompanies adiabatic deformations. In particular, adhesively bonded joints in glass/vinylester composite material are subjected to in-plane dynamic loads under a range of strain rates. Dynamic thermomechanical behavior of this material is investigated using compression Split Hopkinson Pressure Bars (SHPB) coupled with a high speed infrared camera and a high speed camera to measure in real time the dynamic behavior, the damage kinetic and the temperature variation in the material. The interest of using high speed IR camera is in order to view in real time the evolution of heat dissipation in the material when damage occurs. But, this technique does not produce thermal values in correlation with the stress-strain curves of composite material because of its high time response in comparison with the dynamic test time. For this reason, the authors revisit the application of specific thermocouples placed on the surface of the material to ensure the real thermal measurements under dynamic loading using small thermocouples. Experiments with dynamically loaded material show that the thermocouples record temperatures values with a short typical rise time as a result of the conversion of kinetic work into heat during compression test. This results show that small thermocouples can be used to provide an important complement to other noncontact techniques such as the high speed infrared camera. Significant temperature rise was observed in in-plane compression tests especially under high strain rates. During the tests, it has been noticed that sudden temperature rise occur when macroscopic damage occur. This rise in temperature is linked to the rate of damage. The more serve the damage is, a higher localized temperature is detected. This shows the strong relationship between the occurrence of damage and induced heat dissipation. For the case of the in plane tests, the damage takes place more abruptly as the strain rate is increased. The difference observed in the obtained thermomechanical response in plane compression is explained only by the difference in the damage process being active during the compression tests. In this study, we highlighted the dependence of the thermomechanical response on the strain rate of bonded specimens. The effect of heat dissipation of this material cannot hence be ignored and should be taken into account when defining damage models during impact loading.

Keywords: adhesively-bonded composite joints, damage, dynamic compression tests, energy balance, heat dissipation, SHPB, thermomechanical behavior

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4 Advanced Energy Absorbers Used in Blast Resistant Systems

Authors: Martina Drdlová, Michal Frank, Radek Řídký, Jaroslav Buchar, Josef Krátký


The main aim of the presented experiments is to improve behaviour of sandwich structures under dynamic loading, such as crash or explosion. This paper describes experimental investigation on the response of new advanced materials to low and high velocity load. Blast wave energy absorbers were designed using two types of porous lightweight raw particle materials based on expanded glass and ceramics with dimensions of 0.5-1 mm, combined with polymeric binder. The effect of binder amount on the static and dynamic properties of designed materials was observed. Prism shaped specimens were prepared and loaded to obtain physico-mechanical parameters – bulk density, compressive and flexural strength under quasistatic load, the dynamic response was determined using Split Hopkinson Pressure bar apparatus. Numerical investigation of the material behaviour in sandwich structure was performed using implicit/explicit solver LS-Dyna. As the last step, the developed material was used as the interlayer of blast resistant litter bin, and it´s functionality was verified by real field blast tests.

Keywords: blast energy absorber, SHPB, expanded glass, expanded ceramics

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3 Experimental and Numerical Investigations of Impact Response on High-Speed Train Windshield

Authors: Wen Ma, Yong Peng, Zhixiang Li


Security journey is a vital focus on the field of Rail Transportation. Accidents caused by the damage of the high-speed train windshield have occurred many times and have given rise to terrible consequences. Train windshield consists of tempered glass and polyvinyl butyral (PVB) film. In this work, the quasi-static tests and the split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) tests were carried out first to obtain the mechanical properties and constitutive model for the tempered glass and PVB film. These tests results revealed that stress and Young’s modulus of tempered glass were wake-sensitive to strain rate, but stress and Young’s modulus of PVB film were strong-sensitive to strain rate. Then impact experiment of the windshield was carried out to investigate dynamic response and failure characteristics of train windshield. In addition, a finite element model based on the combined finite element method was proposed to investigate fracture and fragmentation responses of train windshield under different-velocity impact. The results can be used for further design and optimization of the windshield for high-speed train application.

Keywords: constitutive model, impact response, mechanism properties, PVB film, tempered glass

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2 Effect of Strains and Temperature on the Twinning Behavior of High Purity Titanium Compressed by Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar

Authors: Ping Zhou, Dawu Xiao, Chunli Jiang, Ge Sang


Deformation twinning plays an important role in the mechanical properties of Ti which has high specific strength and excellent corrosion resistance ability. To investigate the twinning behavior of Ti under high strain rate compression, the split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) was adopted to deform samples to different strains at room temperature. In addition, twinning behaviors under varied temperatures of 373K, 573K and 873K were also investigated. The cylindrical-shaped samples with purity 99.995% were annealed at 1073K for 1 hour in vacuum before compression. All the deformation twins were identified by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) techniques. The mechanical behavior showed three-stage work hardening in stress-strain curves for samples deformed at temperature 573K and 873K, while only two stages were observed for those deformed at room temperature. For samples compressed at room temperature, the predominant twin types are {10-12}<10-11> (E1), {11-21}<11-26> (E2) and {11-21}<11-23> (C1). The secondary and tertiary twinning was observed inside some E1, E2 and C1 twins. Most of the twin boundaries of E2 acted as the nucleate sites of E1. The densities of twins increase remarkably with increment of strains. For samples compressed at relatively higher temperatures, the migration of twin boundaries of E1, E2 and C1 was observed. All the twin lamellas shorten with temperature, and nearly disappeared at 873K except some remaining E1 twins. Polygonizations of grain boundaries were observed above 573K. The microstructure intended to have a texture with c-axes parallel to compression direction with temperature increment. Factors affecting the dynamic recovery and re-crystallization were discussed.

Keywords: deformation twins, EBSD, mechanical behavior, high strain rate, titanium

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1 Experimental Investigation of the Out-of-Plane Dynamic Behavior of Adhesively Bonded Composite Joints at High Strain Rates

Authors: Sonia Sassi, Mostapha Tarfaoui, Hamza Ben Yahia


In this investigation, an experimental technique in which the dynamic response, damage kinetic and heat dissipation are measured simultaneously during high strain rates on adhesively bonded joints materials. The material used in this study is widely used in the design of structures for military applications. It was composed of a 45° Bi-axial fiber-glass mat of 0.286 mm thickness in a Polyester resin matrix. In adhesive bonding, a NORPOL Polyvinylester of 1 mm thickness was used to assemble the composite substrate. The experimental setup consists of a compression Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB), a high-speed infrared camera and a high-speed Fastcam rapid camera. For the dynamic compression tests, 13 mm x 13 mm x 9 mm samples for out-of-plane tests were considered from 372 to 1030 s-1. Specimen surface is controlled and monitored in situ and in real time using the high-speed camera which acquires the damage progressive in specimens and with the infrared camera which provides thermal images in time sequence. Preliminary compressive stress-strain vs. strain rates data obtained show that the dynamic material strength increases with increasing strain rates. Damage investigations have revealed that the failure mainly occurred in the adhesive/adherent interface because of the brittle nature of the polymeric adhesive. Results have shown the dependency of the dynamic parameters on strain rates. Significant temperature rise was observed in dynamic compression tests. Experimental results show that the temperature change depending on the strain rate and the damage mode and their maximum exceed 100 °C. The dependence of these results on strain rate indicates that there exists a strong correlation between damage rate sensitivity and heat dissipation, which might be useful when developing damage models under dynamic loading tacking into account the effect of the energy balance of adhesively bonded joints.

Keywords: adhesive bonded joints, Hopkinson bars, out-of-plane tests, dynamic compression properties, damage mechanisms, heat dissipation

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