Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1932

Search results for: adhesively-bonded composite joints

1932 Design of Composite Joints from Carbon Fibre for Automotive Parts

Authors: G. Hemath Kumar, H. Mohit, K. Karthick

Abstract:

One of the most important issues in the composite technology is the repairing of parts of aircraft structures which is manufactured from composite materials. In such applications and also for joining various composite parts together, they are fastened together either using adhesives or mechanical fasteners. The tensile strength of these joints was carried out using Universal Testing Machine (UTM). A parametric study was also conducted to compare the performance of the hybrid joint with varying adherent thickness, adhesive thickness and overlap length. The composition of the material is combination of epoxy resin and carbon fibre under the method of reinforcement. To utilize the full potential of composite materials as structural elements, the strength and stress distribution of these joints must be understood. The study of tensile strength in the members involved under various design conditions and various joints were took place.

Keywords: carbon fiber, FRP composite, MMC, automotive

Procedia PDF Downloads 295
1931 Studying the Load Sharing and Failure Mechanism of Hybrid Composite Joints Using Experiment and Finite Element Modeling

Authors: Seyyed Mohammad Hasheminia, Heoung Jae Chun, Jong Chan Park, Hong Suk Chang

Abstract:

Composite joints have been getting attention recently due to their high specific mechanical strength to weight ratio that is crucial for structures such as aircrafts and automobiles. In this study on hybrid joints, quasi-static experiments and finite element analysis were performed to investigate the failure mechanism of hybrid composite joint with respect to the joint properties such as the adhesive material, clamping force, and joint geometry. The outcomes demonstrated that the stiffness of the adhesive is the most imperative design parameter. In this investigation, two adhesives with various stiffness values were utilized. Regarding the joints utilizing the adhesive with the lower stiffness modulus, it was observed that the load was exchanged promptly through the adhesive since it was shared more proficiently between the bolt and adhesive. This phenomenon permitted the hybrid joints with low-modulus adhesive to support more prominent loads before failure when contrasted with the joints that utilize the stiffer adhesive. In the next step, the stress share between the bond and bolt as a function of various design parameters was studied using a finite element model in which it was understood that the geometrical parameters such as joint overlap and width have a significant influence on the load sharing between the bolt and the adhesive.

Keywords: composite joints, composite materials, hybrid joints, single-lap joint

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
1930 Effects of Different Fiber Orientations on the Shear Strength Performance of Composite Adhesive Joints

Authors: Ferhat Kadioglu, Hasan Puskul

Abstract:

A composite material with carbon fiber and polymer matrix has been used as adherent for manufacturing adhesive joints. In order to evaluate different fiber orientations on joint performance, the adherents with the 0°, ±15°, ±30°, ±45° fiber orientations were used in the single lap joint configuration. The joints with an overlap length of 25 mm were prepared according to the ASTM 1002 specifications and subjected to tensile loadings. The structural adhesive used was a two-part epoxy to be cured at 70°C for an hour. First, mechanical behaviors of the adherents were measured using three point bending test. In the test, considerations were given to stress to failure and elastic modulus. The results were compared with theoretical ones using rule of mixture. Then, the joints were manufactured in a specially prepared jig, after a proper surface preparation. Experimental results showed that the fiber orientations of the adherents affected the joint performance considerably; the joints with ±45° adherents experienced the worst shear strength, half of those with 0° adherents, and in general, there was a great relationship between the fiber orientations and failure mechanisms. Delamination problems were observed for many joints, which were thought to be due to peel effects at the ends of the overlap. It was proved that the surface preparation applied to the adherent surface was adequate. For further explanation of the results, a numerical work should be carried out using a possible non-linear analysis.

Keywords: composite materials, adhesive bonding, bonding strength, lap joint, tensile strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 269
1929 Experimental Investigation of the Static and Dynamic Behaviour of Double Lap Joints

Authors: H. I. Beloufa, M. Tarfaoui

Abstract:

For many applications, adhesively bonded assemblies have gained an increasing interest in the industry due to several advantages over welding, riveting and bolting, such as reduction of stress concentrations, lightness, low cost and easy manufacturing. This work is largely concerned to show the effects of the loading rate of the adhesively bonded joints under different speed rates. The tensile tests were conducted at four different rates; static (5mm/min, 50mm/min) and dynamic tests (1m/s, and 10m/s). An attempt was made to determine the damage kinetic and a comparison between the use of aluminium and composite laminate substrates is introduced. Aluminum T6082 and glass/vinylester laminated composite Substrates were used to construct aluminum/aluminum and laminate/laminate specimens. The adhesive used in this study was Araldite 2015. The results showed the effects of the loading rate évolution on the double joint strength. The comparison of the results of static and dynamic tests showed a raise of the strength of the specimens while the load velocity is elevated. In the case of composite substrates double joint lap, the stiffness increased by more than 60% between static and dynamic tests. However, in the case of aluminum substrates, the rigidity improved about 28% from static to moderately high velocity loading. For both aluminum and composite double joint lap, the strength increased by approximately 25% when the tensile velocity is increased from 5 mm/min to 50 mm/min (static tests). Nevertheless, the tensile velocity is extended to 1m/s the strength increased by 13% and 25% respectively for composite and aluminum substrates.

Keywords: adhesive, double lap joints, static and dynamic behavior, tensile tests

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
1928 Thermo-Mechanical Analysis of Dissimilar Al/Cu Foil Single Lap Joints Made by Composite Metal Foil Manufacturing

Authors: Javaid Butt, Habtom Mebrahtu, Hassan Shirvani

Abstract:

The paper presents a new additive manufacturing process for the production of metal and composite parts. It is termed as composite metal foil manufacturing and is a combination of laminated object manufacturing and brazing techniques. The process has been described in detail and is being used to produce dissimilar aluminum to copper foil single lap joints. A three dimensional finite element model has been developed to study the thermo-mechanical characteristics of the dissimilar Al/Cu single lap joint. The effects of thermal stress and strain have been analyzed by carrying out transient thermal analysis on the heated plates used to join the two 0.1mm thin metal foils. Tensile test has been carried out on the foils before joining and after the single Al/Cu lap joints are made, they are subjected to tensile lap-shear test to analyze the effect of heat on the foils. The analyses are designed to assess the mechanical integrity of the foils after the brazing process and understand whether or not the heat treatment has an effect on the fracture modes of the produced specimens.

Keywords: brazing, laminated object manufacturing, tensile lap-shear test, thermo-mechanical analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 255
1927 Developing an Empirical Relationship to Predict Tensile Strength and Micro Hardness of Friction Stir Welded Aluminium Alloy Joints

Authors: Gurmeet Singh Cheema, Gurjinder Singh, Amardeep Singh Kang

Abstract:

Aluminium alloy 6061 is a medium to high strength heat-treatable alloy which has very good corrosion resistance and very good weldability. Friction Stir Welding was developed and this technique has attracted considerable interest from the aerospace and automotive industries since it is able to produce defect free joints particularly for light metals i.e aluminum alloy and magnesium alloy. In the friction stir welding process, welding parameters such as tool rotational speed, welding speed and tool shoulder diameter play a major role in deciding the weld quality. In this research work, an attempt has been made to understand the effect of tool rotational speed, welding speed and tool shoulder diameter on friction stir welded AA6061 aluminium alloy joints. Statistical tool such as central composite design is used to develop the mathematical relationships. The mathematical model was developed to predict mechanical properties of friction stir welded aluminium alloy joints at the 95% confidence level.

Keywords: aluminium alloy, friction stir welding, central composite design, mathematical relationship

Procedia PDF Downloads 280
1926 Numerical Modelling and Experiment of a Composite Single-Lap Joint Reinforced by Multifunctional Thermoplastic Composite Fastener

Authors: Wenhao Li, Shijun Guo

Abstract:

Carbon fibre reinforced composites are progressively replacing metal structures in modern civil aircraft. This is because composite materials have large potential of weight saving compared with metal. However, the achievement to date of weight saving in composite structure is far less than the theoretical potential due to many uncertainties in structural integrity and safety concern. Unlike the conventional metallic structure, composite components are bonded together along the joints where structural integrity is a major concern. To ensure the safety, metal fasteners are used to reinforce the composite bonded joints. One of the solutions for a significant weight saving of composite structure is to develop an effective technology of on-board Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) System. By monitoring the real-life stress status of composite structures during service, the safety margin set in the structure design can be reduced with confidence. It provides a means of safeguard to minimize the need for programmed inspections and allow for maintenance to be need-driven, rather than usage-driven. The aim of this paper is to develop smart composite joint. The key technology is a multifunctional thermoplastic composite fastener (MTCF). The MTCF will replace some of the existing metallic fasteners in the most concerned locations distributed over the aircraft composite structures to reinforce the joints and form an on-board SHM network system. Each of the MTCFs will work as a unit of the AU and AE technology. The proposed MTCF technology has been patented and developed by Prof. Guo in Cranfield University, UK in the past a few years. The manufactured MTCF has been successfully employed in the composite SLJ (Single-Lap Joint). In terms of the structure integrity, the hybrid SLJ reinforced by MTCF achieves 19.1% improvement in the ultimate failure strength in comparison to the bonded SLJ. By increasing the diameter or rearranging the lay-up sequence of MTCF, the hybrid SLJ reinforced by MTCF is able to achieve the equivalent ultimate strength as that reinforced by titanium fastener. The predicted ultimate strength in simulation is in good agreement with the test results. In terms of the structural health monitoring, a signal from the MTCF was measured well before the load of mechanical failure. This signal provides a warning of initial crack in the joint which could not be detected by the strain gauge until the final failure.

Keywords: composite single-lap joint, crack propagation, multifunctional composite fastener, structural health monitoring

Procedia PDF Downloads 45
1925 Novel CFRP Adhesive Joints and Structures for Offshore Application

Authors: M. R. Abusrea, Shiyi Jiang, Dingding Chen, Kazuo Arakawa

Abstract:

Novel wind-lens turbine designs can augment power output. Vacuum-Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (VARTM) is used to form large and complex structures from a Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) composite. Typically, wind-lens turbine structures are fabricated in segments, and then bonded to form the final structure. This paper introduces five new adhesive joints, divided into two groups: One is constructed between dry carbon and CFRP fabrics, and the other is constructed with two dry carbon fibers. All joints and CFRP fabrics were made in our laboratory using VARTM manufacturing techniques. Specimens were prepared for tensile testing to measure joint performance. The results showed that the second group of joints achieved a higher tensile strength than the first group. On the other hand, the tensile fracture behavior of the two groups showed the same pattern of crack originating near the joint ends followed by crack propagation until fracture.

Keywords: adhesive joints, CFRP, VARTM, resin transfer molding

Procedia PDF Downloads 200
1924 Investigation of Distortion and Impact Strength of 304L Butt Joint Using Different Weld Groove

Authors: A. Sharma, S. S. Sandhu, A. Shahi, A. Kumar

Abstract:

The aim of present investigation was to carry out Finite element modeling of distortion in the case of butt weld. 12mm thick AISI 304L plates were butt welded using three different combinations of groove design namely Double U, Double V and Composite. A full simulation of shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) of nonlinear heat transfer is carried out. Aspects like, temperature-dependent thermal properties of AISI stainless steel above liquid phase, the effect of thermal boundary conditions, were included in the model. Since welding heat dissipation characteristics changed due to variable groove design significant changes in the microhardness tensile strength and impact toughness of the joints were observed. The cumulative distortion was found to be least in double V joint followed by the Composite and Double U-joints. All the joints have joint efficiency more than 100%. CVN value of the Double V-groove weld metal was highest. The experimental results and the FEM results were compared and reveal a very good correlation for distortion and weld groove design for a multipass joint with a standard analogy of 83%.

Keywords: AISI 304 L, Butt joint, distortion, FEM, groove design, SMAW

Procedia PDF Downloads 268
1923 Effective Slab Width for Beam-End Flexural Strength of Composite Frames with Circular-Section Columns

Authors: Jizhi Zhao, Qiliang Zhou, Muxuan Tao

Abstract:

The calculation of the ultimate loading capacity of composite frame beams is an important step in the design of composite frame structural systems. Currently, the plastic limit theory is mainly used for this calculation in the codes adopted by many countries; however, the effective slab width recommended in most codes is based on the elastic theory, which does not accurately reflect the complex stress mechanism at the beam-column joints in the ultimate loading state. Therefore, the authors’ research group put forward the Compression-on-Column-Face mechanism and Tension-on-Transverse-Beam mechanism to explain the mechanism in the ultimate loading state. Formulae are derived for calculating the effective slab width in composite frames with rectangular/square-section columns under ultimate lateral loading. Moreover, this paper discusses the calculation method of the effective slab width for the beam-end flexural strength of composite frames with circular-section columns. The proposed design formula is suitable for exterior and interior joints. Finally, this paper compares the proposed formulae with available formulae in other literature, current design codes, and experimental results, providing the most accurate results to predict the effective slab width and ultimate loading capacity.

Keywords: composite frame structure, effective slab width, circular-section column, design formulae, ultimate loading capacity

Procedia PDF Downloads 39
1922 Prediction of Crack Propagation in Bonded Joints Using Fracture Mechanics

Authors: Reza Hedayati, Meysam Jahanbakhshi

Abstract:

In this work, Fracture Mechanics is used to predict crack propagation in the adhesive jointing aluminum and composite plates. Three types of loadings and two types of glass-epoxy composite sequences: [0/90]2s and [0/45/-45/90]s are considered for the composite plate. Therefore 2*3=6 cases are considered and their results are compared. The debonding initiation load, complete debonding load, crack face profile and load-displacement diagram have been compared for the six cases.

Keywords: fracture, adhesive joint, debonding, APDL, LEFM

Procedia PDF Downloads 265
1921 Effect of Welding Processes on Tensile Behavior of Aluminum Alloy Joints

Authors: Chaitanya Sharma, Vikas Upadhyay, A. Tripathi

Abstract:

Friction stir welding and tungsten inert gas welding techniques were employed to weld armor grade aluminum alloy to investigate the effect of welding processes on tensile behavior of weld joints. Tensile tests, Vicker microhardness tests and optical microscopy were performed on developed weld joints and base metal. Welding process influenced tensile behavior and microstructure of weld joints. Friction stir welded joints showed tensile behavior better than tungsten inert gas weld joints.

Keywords: friction stir welding, microstructure, tensile properties, fracture locations

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
1920 Stress Analysis of Tubular Bonded Joints under Torsion and Hygrothermal Effects Using DQM

Authors: Mansour Mohieddin Ghomshei, Reza Shahi

Abstract:

Laminated composite tubes with adhesively bonded joints are widely used in aerospace and automotive industries as well as oil and gas industries. In this research, adhesively tubular single lap joints subjected to torsional and hygrothermal loadings are studied using the differential quadrature method (DQM). The analysis is based on the classical shell theory. At first, an approximate closed form solution is developed by omitting the lateral deflections in the connecting tubes. Using the analytical model, the circumferential displacements in tubes and the shear stresses in the interfacing adhesive layer are determined. Then, a numerical formulation is presented using DQM in which the lateral deflections are taken into account. By using the DQM formulation, the circumferential and radial displacements in tubes as well as shear and peel stresses in the adhesive layer are calculated. Results obtained from the proposed DQM solutions are compared well with those of the approximate analytical model and those of some published references. Finally using the DQM model, parametric studies are carried out to investigate the influence of various parameters such as adhesive layer thickness, torsional loading, overlap length, tubes radii, relative humidity, and temperature.

Keywords: adhesively bonded joint, differential quadrature method (DQM), hygrothermal, laminated composite tube

Procedia PDF Downloads 182
1919 Influence of Nano-ATH on Electrical Performance of LSR for HVDC Insulation

Authors: Ju-Na Hwang, Min-Hae Park, Kee-Joe Lim

Abstract:

Many studies have been conducted on DC transmission. Of power apparatus for DC transmission, High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) cable systems are being evaluated because of the increase in power demand and transmission distance. Therefore, dc insulation characteristics of Liquid Silicone Rubber (LSR), which has various advantages such as short curing time and the ease of maintenance, were investigated to assess its performance as a HVDC insulation material for cable joints. The electrical performance of LSR added to Nano-Aluminum Trihydrate (ATH) was confirmed by measurements of the breakdown strength and electrical conductivity. In addition, field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) was used as a means of confirmation of nano-filler dispersion state. The LSR nano-composite was prepared by compounding LSR filled nano-sized ATH filler. The DC insulation properties of LSR added to nano-sized ATH fillers were found to be superior to those of the LSR without filler.

Keywords: liquid silicone rubber, nano-composite, HVDC insulation, cable joints

Procedia PDF Downloads 355
1918 Prediction of Fatigue Crack Propagation in Bonded Joints Using Fracture Mechanics

Authors: Reza Hedayati, Meysam Jahanbakhshi

Abstract:

Fracture Mechanics is used to predict debonding propagation in adhesive joint between aluminum and composite plates. Three types of loadings and two types of glass-epoxy composite sequences: [0/90]2s and [0/45/-45/90]s are considered for the composite plate and their results are compared. It was seen that generally the cases with stacking sequence of [0/45/-45/90]s have much shorter lives than cases with [0/90]2s. It was also seen that in cases with λ=0 the ends of the debonding front propagates forward more than its middle, while in cases with λ=0.5 or λ=1 it is vice versa. Moreover, regardless of value of λ, the difference between the debonding propagations of the ends and the middle of the debonding front is very close in cases λ=0.5 and λ=1. Another main conclusion was the non-dimensionalized debonding front profile is almost independent of sequence type or the applied load value.

Keywords: fatigue, debonding, Paris law, APDL, adhesive

Procedia PDF Downloads 242
1917 Bonding Strength of Adhesive Scarf Joints Improved by Nano-Silica Subjected to Humidity

Authors: B. Paygozar, S.A. Dizaji, A.C. Kandemir

Abstract:

In this study, the effects of the modified adhesive including different concentrations of Nano-silica are surveyed on the bonding strength of the adhesive scarf joints. The nanoparticles are added in two different concentrations, to an epoxy-based two-component structural adhesive, Araldite 2011, to survey the influences of the nanoparticle weight percentage on the failure load of the joints compared to that of the joints manufactured by the neat adhesive. The effects of being exposure to a moist ambience on the joint strength are also investigated for the joints produced of both neat and modified adhesives. For this purpose, an ageing process was carried out on the joints of both neat and improved kinds with variable immersion periods (20, 40 and 60 days). All the specimens were tested under a quasi-static tensile loading of 2 mm/min speed so as to find the quantities of the failure loads. Outcomes indicate that the failure loads of the joints with modified adhesives are measurably higher than that of the joint with neat adhesive, even while being put for a while under a moist condition. Another result points out that humidity lessens the bonding strength of all the joints of both types as the exposure time increases, which can be attributed to the change in the failure mode.

Keywords: bonding strength, humidity, nano-silica, scarf joint

Procedia PDF Downloads 29
1916 Effects of Geometrical Parameters on Static Strength of Tubular KT-Joints at Fire Condition

Authors: Hamid Ahmadi, Neda Azari Dodaran

Abstract:

This paper aims to study the structural behavior of tubular KT-joints subjected to axial loading at fire induced elevated temperatures. At first, a finite element (FE) model was developed and validated against the data available from experimental tests. Then, a set of 810 FE analyses were performed to study the influence of temperature and dimensionless geometrical parameters (β, γ, θ, and τ) on the ultimate strength and initial stiffness. The joints were analyzed under two types of axial loading and five different temperatures (20 ºC, 200 ºC, 400 ºC, 550 ºC, and 700 ºC). Results show that the ultimate strength and initial stiffness of KT-joints decrease considerably by increasing the temperature. In the joints having bigger values of the β, the temperature elevation leads to less reduction in ultimate strength; while in the joints with bigger values of the γ, the temperature elevation results in more reduction in ultimate strength. The influence of the θ on the ultimate strength is independent from the temperature. To our knowledge, there is no design formula available for determining the ultimate strength of KT-joints at elevated temperatures. Hence, after parametric study, two equations were developed through nonlinear regression, for calculating the ultimate strength of KT-joints at elevated temperatures.

Keywords: axial loads, fire condition, parametric formula, static strength, tubular KT-joint

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
1915 Effect of Horizontal Joint Reinforcement on Shear Behaviour of RC Knee Connections

Authors: N. Zhang, J. S. Kuang, S. Mogili

Abstract:

To investigate seismic performance of beam-column knee joints, four full-scale reinforced concrete beam-column knee joints, which were fabricated to simulate those in as-built RC frame buildings designed to ACI 318-14 and ACI-ASCE 352R-02, were tested under reversed cyclic loading. In the experimental programme, particular emphasis was given to the effect of horizontal reinforcement (in format of inverted U-shape bars) on the shear strength and ductility capacity of knee joints. Test results are compared with those predicted by four seismic design codes, including ACI 318-14, EC8, NZS3101 and GB50010. It is seen that the current design codes of practice cannot accurately predict the shear strength of seismically designed knee joints.

Keywords: large-scale tests, RC beam-column knee joints, seismic performance, shear strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 152
1914 Application of Shape Memory Alloy as Shear Connector in Composite Bridges: Overview of State-of-the-Art

Authors: Apurwa Rastogi, Anant Parghi

Abstract:

Shape memory alloys (SMAs) are memory metals with a high calibre to outperform as a civil construction material. They showcase novel functionality of undergoing large deformations and self-healing capability (pseudoelasticity) that leads to its emerging applications in a variety of areas. In the existing literature, most of the studies focused on the behaviour of SMA when used in critical regions of the smart buildings/bridges designed to withstand severe earthquakes without collapse and also its various applications in retrofitting works. However, despite having high ductility, their uses as construction joints and shear connectors in composite bridges are still unexplored in the research domain. This article presents to gain a broad outlook on whether SMAs can be partially used as shear connectors in composite bridges. In this regard, existing papers on the characteristics of shear connectors in the composite bridges will be discussed thoroughly and matched with the fundamental characteristics and properties of SMA. Since due to the high strength, stiffness, and ductility phenomena of SMAs, it is expected to be a good material for the shear connectors in composite bridges, and the collected evidence encourages the prior scrutiny of its partial use in the composite constructions. Based on the comprehensive review, important and necessary conclusions will be affirmed, and further emergence of research direction on the use of SMA will be discussed. This opens the window of new possibilities of using smart materials to enhance the performance of bridges even more in the near future.

Keywords: composite bridges, ductility, pseudoelasticity, shape memory alloy, shear connectors

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
1913 Seismic Performance Evaluation of the Composite Structural System with Separated Gravity and Lateral Resistant Systems

Authors: Zi-Ang Li, Mu-Xuan Tao

Abstract:

During the process of the industrialization of steel structure housing, a composite structural system with separated gravity and lateral resistant systems has been applied in engineering practices, which consists of composite frame with hinged beam-column joints, steel brace and RC shear wall. As an attempt in steel structural system area, seismic performance evaluation of the separated composite structure is important for further application in steel housing. This paper focuses on the seismic performance comparison of the separated composite structural system and traditional steel frame-shear wall system under the same inter-story drift ratio (IDR) provision limit. The same architectural layout of a high-rise building is designed as two different structural systems at the same IDR level, and finite element analysis using pushover method is carried out. Static pushover analysis implies that the separated structural system exhibits different lateral deformation mode and failure mechanism with traditional steel frame-shear wall system. Different indexes are adopted and discussed in seismic performance evaluation, including IDR, safe factor (SF), shear wall damage, etc. The performance under maximum considered earthquake (MCE) demand spectrum shows that the shear wall damage of two structural systems are similar; the separated composite structural system exhibits less plastic hinges; and the SF index value of the separated composite structural system is higher than the steel frame shear wall structural system.

Keywords: finite element analysis, new composite structural system, seismic performance evaluation, static pushover analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 20
1912 Degree of Bending in Axially Loaded Tubular KT-Joints of Offshore Structures: Parametric Study and Formulation

Authors: Hamid Ahmadi, Shadi Asoodeh

Abstract:

The fatigue life of tubular joints commonly found in offshore industry is not only dependent on the value of hot-spot stress (HSS), but is also significantly influenced by the through-the-thickness stress distribution characterized by the degree of bending (DoB). The determination of DoB values in a tubular joint is essential for improving the accuracy of fatigue life estimation using the stress-life (S–N) method and particularly for predicting the fatigue crack growth based on the fracture mechanics (FM) approach. In the present paper, data extracted from finite element (FE) analyses of tubular KT-joints, verified against experimental data and parametric equations, was used to investigate the effects of geometrical parameters on DoB values at the crown 0˚, saddle, and crown 180˚ positions along the weld toe of central brace in tubular KT-joints subjected to axial loading. Parametric study was followed by a set of nonlinear regression analyses to derive DoB parametric formulas for the fatigue analysis of KT-joints under axial loads. The tubular KT-joint is a quite common joint type found in steel offshore structures. However, despite the crucial role of the DoB in evaluating the fatigue performance of tubular joints, this paper is the first attempt to study and formulate the DoB values in KT-joints.

Keywords: tubular KT-joint, fatigue, degree of bending (DoB), axial loading, parametric formula

Procedia PDF Downloads 267
1911 Beam, Column Joints Concrete in Seismic Zone

Authors: Khalifa Kherafa

Abstract:

This east project consists in studying beam–column joints concrete subjected to seismic loads. A bibliographical study was introduced to clarify the work undertaken by the researchers in the field during the three last decades and especially the two last year’s results which were to study for the determination of the method of calculating of transverse reinforcement in the various nodes of a structure. For application, the efforts in the posts el the beams of a building in R+4 in zone 3 were calculate according to the finite element method through the software .

Keywords: beam–column joints, cyclic loading, shearing force, damaged joint

Procedia PDF Downloads 305
1910 Experimental Investigation of the Out-of-Plane Dynamic Behavior of Adhesively Bonded Composite Joints at High Strain Rates

Authors: Sonia Sassi, Mostapha Tarfaoui, Hamza Ben Yahia

Abstract:

In this investigation, an experimental technique in which the dynamic response, damage kinetic and heat dissipation are measured simultaneously during high strain rates on adhesively bonded joints materials. The material used in this study is widely used in the design of structures for military applications. It was composed of a 45° Bi-axial fiber-glass mat of 0.286 mm thickness in a Polyester resin matrix. In adhesive bonding, a NORPOL Polyvinylester of 1 mm thickness was used to assemble the composite substrate. The experimental setup consists of a compression Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB), a high-speed infrared camera and a high-speed Fastcam rapid camera. For the dynamic compression tests, 13 mm x 13 mm x 9 mm samples for out-of-plane tests were considered from 372 to 1030 s-1. Specimen surface is controlled and monitored in situ and in real time using the high-speed camera which acquires the damage progressive in specimens and with the infrared camera which provides thermal images in time sequence. Preliminary compressive stress-strain vs. strain rates data obtained show that the dynamic material strength increases with increasing strain rates. Damage investigations have revealed that the failure mainly occurred in the adhesive/adherent interface because of the brittle nature of the polymeric adhesive. Results have shown the dependency of the dynamic parameters on strain rates. Significant temperature rise was observed in dynamic compression tests. Experimental results show that the temperature change depending on the strain rate and the damage mode and their maximum exceed 100 °C. The dependence of these results on strain rate indicates that there exists a strong correlation between damage rate sensitivity and heat dissipation, which might be useful when developing damage models under dynamic loading tacking into account the effect of the energy balance of adhesively bonded joints.

Keywords: adhesive bonded joints, Hopkinson bars, out-of-plane tests, dynamic compression properties, damage mechanisms, heat dissipation

Procedia PDF Downloads 90
1909 The Influence of Brazing Method on Corrosion Behavior of Brazed Aluminum Joints

Authors: F. Ghasim-akbari, A. M. Hadian, A. M. Aminazad

Abstract:

Fluid transmission pipes made of aluminum are widely use in petrochemical industries. For many applications they have to be brazed to each other. The brazed joints, in many cases, are encountered with corrosive medias. This paper reports a part of a work to investigate the corrosion behavior of brazed Al6061 using Al4047 as filler metal with and without the use of flux to discover the effect of different brazing atmospheres. The samples brazed under air, vacuum, argon, and hydrogen atmospheres. The interfacial area of the joints was examined to ensure being free of any defects. The sides of each test piece were covered with insulator and the surface of the joint was encountered to polarization test. The results revealed a significant difference of corrosion resistance. The samples that brazed under argon and hydrogen atmospheres had better corrosion resistance than other samples. Microstructure of the corroded joints revealed that the amount of the filler metal is a critical parameter on corrosion resistance of the joints.

Keywords: brazing, corrosion behavior, Al6061, polarization

Procedia PDF Downloads 386
1908 Lapped Gussets Joints in Compression

Authors: K. R. Tshunza, A. Elvin, A. Gabremmeskel

Abstract:

Final results of an extensive laboratory research program on “lapped gusset joints in compression” are presented. The investigation was carried out at the Heavy structures laboratory at the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg, South Africa. A proposed, relatively easy to use analytical equation was found to be reasonably adequate in determining the global compressive capacity of lapped gussets joints under compressive load. A wide range of lapped mild steel plates of varying slenderness, welded on 219*10 and 127*6 Mild steel circular hollow sections of 1m length were tested in compression and the formula was validated with experimental results. The investigation show that the connection’s capacity is controlled by flexure due to the eccentricity between the plates that are connected side to side.

Keywords: compression, eccentricity, lapped gussets joints, moment resistance

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
1907 Determination of Resistance to Freezing of Bonded Façade Joint

Authors: B. Nečasová, P. Liška, J. Šlanhof

Abstract:

Verification of vented wooden façade system with bonded joints is presented in this paper. The potential of bonded joints is studied and described in more detail. The paper presents the results of an experimental and theoretical research about the effects of freeze cycling on the bonded joint. For the purpose of tests spruce timber profiles were chosen for the load bearing substructure. Planks from wooden plastic composite and Siberian larch are representing facade cladding. Two types of industrial polyurethane adhesives intended for structural bonding were selected. The article is focused on the preparation as well as on the subsequent curing and conditioning of test samples. All test samples were subjected to 15 cycles that represents sudden temperature changes, i.e. immersion in a water bath at (293.15 ± 3) K for 6 hours and subsequent freezing to (253.15 ± 2) K for 18 hours. Furthermore, the retention of bond strength between substructure and cladding was tested and strength in shear was determined under tensile stress. Research data indicate that little, if any, damage to the bond results from freezing cycles. Additionally, the suitability of selected group of adhesives in combination with timber substructure was confirmed.

Keywords: adhesive system, bonded joints, wooden lightweight façade, timber substructure

Procedia PDF Downloads 146
1906 Adhesive Bonded Joints Characterization and Crack Propagation in Composite Materials under Cyclic Impact Fatigue and Constant Amplitude Fatigue Loadings

Authors: Andres Bautista, Alicia Porras, Juan P. Casas, Maribel Silva

Abstract:

The Colombian aeronautical industry has stimulated research in the mechanical behavior of materials under different loading conditions aircrafts are generally exposed during its operation. The Calima T-90 is the first military aircraft built in the country, used for primary flight training of Colombian Air Force Pilots, therefore, it may be exposed to adverse operating situations such as hard landings which cause impact loads on the aircraft that might produce the impact fatigue phenomenon. The Calima T-90 structure is mainly manufactured by composites materials generating assemblies and subassemblies of different components of it. The main method of bonding these components is by using adhesive joints. Each type of adhesive bond must be studied on its own since its performance depends on the conditions of the manufacturing process and operating characteristics. This study aims to characterize the typical adhesive joints of the aircraft under usual loads. To this purpose, the evaluation of the effect of adhesive thickness on the mechanical performance of the joint under quasi-static loading conditions, constant amplitude fatigue and cyclic impact fatigue using single lap-joint specimens will be performed. Additionally, using a double cantilever beam specimen, the influence of the thickness of the adhesive on the crack growth rate for mode I delamination failure, as a function of the critical energy release rate will be determined. Finally, an analysis of the fracture surface of the test specimens considering the mechanical interaction between the substrate (composite) and the adhesive, provide insights into the magnitude of the damage, the type of failure mechanism that occurs and its correlation with the way crack propagates under the proposed loading conditions.

Keywords: adhesive, composites, crack propagation, fatigue

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1905 Optimum Design of Hybrid (Metal-Composite) Mechanical Power Transmission System under Uncertainty by Convex Modelling

Authors: Sfiso Radebe

Abstract:

The design models dealing with flawless composite structures are in abundance, where the mechanical properties of composite structures are assumed to be known a priori. However, if the worst case scenario is assumed, where material defects combined with processing anomalies in composite structures are expected, a different solution is attained. Furthermore, if the system being designed combines in series hybrid elements, individually affected by material constant variations, it implies that a different approach needs to be taken. In the body of literature, there is a compendium of research that investigates different modes of failure affecting hybrid metal-composite structures. It covers areas pertaining to the failure of the hybrid joints, structural deformation, transverse displacement, the suppression of vibration and noise. In the present study a system employing a combination of two or more hybrid power transmitting elements will be explored for the least favourable dynamic loads as well as weight minimization, subject to uncertain material properties. Elastic constants are assumed to be uncertain-but-bounded quantities varying slightly around their nominal values where the solution is determined using convex models of uncertainty. Convex analysis of the problem leads to the computation of the least favourable solution and ultimately to a robust design. This approach contrasts with a deterministic analysis where the average values of elastic constants are employed in the calculations, neglecting the variations in the material properties.

Keywords: convex modelling, hybrid, metal-composite, robust design

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1904 Dynamic Thermomechanical Behavior of Adhesively Bonded Composite Joints

Authors: Sonia Sassi, Mostapha Tarfaoui, Hamza Benyahia

Abstract:

Composite materials are increasingly being used as a substitute for metallic materials in many technological applications like aeronautics, aerospace, marine and civil engineering applications. For composite materials, the thermomechanical response evolves with the strain rate. The energy balance equation for anisotropic, elastic materials includes heat source terms that govern the conversion of some of the kinetic work into heat. The remainder contributes to the stored energy creating the damage process in the composite material. In this paper, we investigate the bulk thermomechanical behavior of adhesively-bonded composite assemblies to quantitatively asses the temperature rise which accompanies adiabatic deformations. In particular, adhesively bonded joints in glass/vinylester composite material are subjected to in-plane dynamic loads under a range of strain rates. Dynamic thermomechanical behavior of this material is investigated using compression Split Hopkinson Pressure Bars (SHPB) coupled with a high speed infrared camera and a high speed camera to measure in real time the dynamic behavior, the damage kinetic and the temperature variation in the material. The interest of using high speed IR camera is in order to view in real time the evolution of heat dissipation in the material when damage occurs. But, this technique does not produce thermal values in correlation with the stress-strain curves of composite material because of its high time response in comparison with the dynamic test time. For this reason, the authors revisit the application of specific thermocouples placed on the surface of the material to ensure the real thermal measurements under dynamic loading using small thermocouples. Experiments with dynamically loaded material show that the thermocouples record temperatures values with a short typical rise time as a result of the conversion of kinetic work into heat during compression test. This results show that small thermocouples can be used to provide an important complement to other noncontact techniques such as the high speed infrared camera. Significant temperature rise was observed in in-plane compression tests especially under high strain rates. During the tests, it has been noticed that sudden temperature rise occur when macroscopic damage occur. This rise in temperature is linked to the rate of damage. The more serve the damage is, a higher localized temperature is detected. This shows the strong relationship between the occurrence of damage and induced heat dissipation. For the case of the in plane tests, the damage takes place more abruptly as the strain rate is increased. The difference observed in the obtained thermomechanical response in plane compression is explained only by the difference in the damage process being active during the compression tests. In this study, we highlighted the dependence of the thermomechanical response on the strain rate of bonded specimens. The effect of heat dissipation of this material cannot hence be ignored and should be taken into account when defining damage models during impact loading.

Keywords: adhesively-bonded composite joints, damage, dynamic compression tests, energy balance, heat dissipation, SHPB, thermomechanical behavior

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1903 Cold Metal Transfer Welding of Dissimilar Thickness 6061-T6 to 5182-O Aluminum Alloys

Authors: A. Elrefaei

Abstract:

The possibility of having sheets with different thicknesses and materials in one assembly facilitates the optimal material distribution within the final product and reduces the weight of the structure. Ability of joining process to assembly these different material combinations is always a challenge to the designer. In this study, 0.6 mm thick 6061-T6 and 2 mm thick 5182-O were robot CMT welded using ER5356 and ER4043 filler metals. The thermal effect of welding resulted in a loss of hardness in the 6061 HAZ. Joints welded by ER5356 filler metal were much higher in fracture load than joints welded by ER4043 and the elongation of joints welded by ER5356 was almost double its corresponding joints welded by ER4043 filler. Owing to the big difference in formability and thickness of base metals, the fracture in forming test occurred in the softened 6061 HAZ out from the weld centerline.

Keywords: aluminum, CMT, mechanical, welding

Procedia PDF Downloads 119