Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 23

Search results for: Pejman Hosseiniun

23 Graphene Based Electronic Device

Authors: Ali Safari, Pejman Hosseiniun, Iman Rahbari, MohamadReza Kalhor

Abstract:

The semiconductor industry is placing an increased emphasis on emerging materials and devices that may provide improved performance, or provide novel functionality for devices. Recently, graphene, as a true two-dimensional carbon material, has shown fascinating applications in electronics. In this paper detailed discussions are introduced for possible applications of grapheme Transistor in RF and digital devices.

Keywords: graphene, GFET, RF, digital

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22 Optimal Energy Consumption with Semiconductor Lamps

Authors: Pejman Hosseiniun, Rose Shayeghi, Alireza Farzaneh, Abolghasem Ghasempour

Abstract:

Using LED lamps as lighting resources with new technology in designing lighting systems has been studied in this article. In this respect a history of LED emergence, its different manufacturing methods and technologies were revised, then their structure, light production line, its application and benefits in lighting industry has been evaluated. Finally, there is a comparison between these lamps and ordinary lamps to assess light parameters as well as energy consumption using DIALux software. Considering the results of analogies LED lamps have lower consumption and more lighting yield, therefore they are more economically feasible. Color variety, longer usage lap (circa 10 years) and compatibility with DC voltages are other LED lamps perquisites.

Keywords: LED, lighting efficiency, lighting intensity, luminance

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21 Low Power CNFET SRAM Design

Authors: Pejman Hosseiniun, Rose Shayeghi, Iman Rahbari, Mohamad Reza Kalhor

Abstract:

CNFET has emerged as an alternative material to silicon for high performance, high stability and low power SRAM design in recent years. SRAM functions as cache memory in computers and many portable devices. In this paper, a new SRAM cell design based on CNFET technology is proposed. The proposed SRAM cell design for CNFET is compared with SRAM cell designs implemented with the conventional CMOS and FinFET in terms of speed, power consumption, stability, and leakage current. The HSPICE simulation and analysis show that the dynamic power consumption of the proposed 8T CNFET SRAM cell’s is reduced about 48% and the SNM is widened up to 56% compared to the conventional CMOS SRAM structure at the expense of 2% leakage power and 3% write delay increase.

Keywords: SRAM cell, CNFET, low power, HSPICE

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20 Iranian EFL Learners' Attitudes towards Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL)

Authors: Rose Shayeghi, Pejman Hosseiniun, Ghasem Ghorbanirostam

Abstract:

The present study was conducted to investigate the Iranian EFL learners’ attitudes toward the use of computer technology in language classes as a method of improving English learning. To this end, 120 male and female Iranian learners participated in the study. Instrumentation included a 20-item questionnaire. The analysis of the data revealed that the majority of learners had a positive attitude towards the application of CALL in language classes. Moreover, independent samples t-tests indicated that male participants had a significantly more positive attitude compared with that of the female participants. Finally, the results obtained through ANOVA revealed that the youngest age group had a significantly more positive attitude toward the use of technology in language classes compared to the other age groups.

Keywords: EFL learners, Iranian learners, CALL, language learning

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19 Hierarchical Control Structure to Control the Power Distribution System Components in Building Systems

Authors: Hamed Sarbazy, Zohre Gholipour Haftkhani, Ali Safari, Pejman Hosseiniun

Abstract:

Scientific and industrial progress in the past two decades has resulted in energy distribution systems based on power electronics, as an enabling technology in various industries and building management systems can be considered. Grading and standardization module power electronics systems and its use in a distributed control system, a strategy for overcoming the limitations of using this system. The purpose of this paper is to investigate strategies for scheduling and control structure of standard modules is a power electronic systems. This paper introduces the classical control methods and disadvantages of these methods will be discussed, The hierarchical control as a mechanism for distributed control structure of the classification module explains. The different levels of control and communication between these levels are fully introduced. Also continue to standardize software distribution system control structure is discussed. Finally, as an example, the control structure will be presented in a DC distribution system.

Keywords: application management, hardware management, power electronics, building blocks

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18 Graphene Transistors Based Microwave Amplifiers

Authors: Pejman Hosseinioun, Ali Safari, Hamed Sarbazi

Abstract:

Graphene is a one-atom-thick sheet of carbon with numerous impressive properties. It is a promising material for future high-speed nanoelectronics due to its intrinsic superior carrier mobility and very high saturation velocity. These exceptional carrier transport properties suggest that graphene field effect transistors (G-FETs) can potentially outperform other FET technologies. In this paper, detailed discussions are introduced for Graphene Transistors Based Microwave Amplifiers.

Keywords: graphene, microwave FETs, microwave amplifiers, transistors

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17 The Effect of Tip Parameters on Vibration Modes of Atomic Force Microscope Cantilever

Authors: Mehdi Shekarzadeh, Pejman Taghipour Birgani

Abstract:

In this paper, the effect of mass and height of tip on the flexural vibration modes of an atomic force microscope (AFM) rectangular cantilever is analyzed. A closed-form expression for the sensitivity of vibration modes is derived using the relationship between the resonant frequency and contact stiffness of cantilever and sample. Each mode has a different sensitivity to variations in surface stiffness. This sensitivity directly controls the image resolution. It is obtained an AFM cantilever is more sensitive when the mass of tip is lower and the first mode is the most sensitive mode. Also, the effect of changes of tip height on the flexural sensitivity is negligible.

Keywords: atomic force microscope, AFM, vibration analysis, flexural vibration, cantilever

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16 Vibration Characteristics of Functionally Graded Thick Hollow Cylinders Using Galerkin Method

Authors: Pejman Daryabor, Kamal Mohammadi

Abstract:

In the present work, the study of vibration characteristics of a functionally graded thick hollow cylinder is investigated. The cylinder natural frequencies are obtained using Galerkin finite element method. The functionally graded cylinder is assumed to be made from many subcylinders. Each subcylinder is considered as an isotropic layer. Material’s properties in each layer are constant and functionally graded properties result by exponential function of layer radius in multilayer cylinder. To validate the FE results code, plane strain model of functionally graded cylinder are also modeled in ABAQUS. Analytical results are validated for both models. Also, a good agreement is found between the present results and those reported in the literature.

Keywords: natural frequency, functionally graded material, finite element method, thick cylinder

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15 Exploring Academic English Language Needs of Iranian Students of Geology: A Triangulated Approach

Authors: Rose Shayeghi, Pejman Hosseinioun

Abstract:

During the academic year of 2014-2015, a needs analysis was conducted in four major universities of Iran to assess the present and target situation academic language needs of undergraduate students of geology. Participants included undergraduate students (N = 102), graduate students (N = 47), subject-specific teachers (N = 12), and ESAP teachers (N = 20). Instrumentation included four needs analysis questionnaires, self-assessment and semi-structured interviews. The results indicated that, despite some inconsistencies in participants’ perceptions, ‘reading subject specific texts’, ‘knowledge of general vocabulary’, ‘using bilingual technical dictionaries’, and ‘writing e-mails to teachers and field experts’ were perceived as either ‘important’ or ‘very important’ to students’ success by all the participants. Moreover, the findings revealed that undergraduate students’ General English Proficiency (GEP) level was generally lower than what is required in the EAP courses. The findings of the study can have implications for improving and renewing EAP courses under study.

Keywords: ESP, EAP, needs analysis, triangulation, geology

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14 Preparation of n-type Bi2Te3 Films by Electrophoretic Deposition

Authors: Tahereh Talebi, Reza Ghomashchi, Pejman Talemi, Sima Aminorroaya

Abstract:

A high quality crack-free film of Bi2Te3 material has been deposited for the first time using electrophoretic deposition (EPD) and microstructures of various films have been investigated. One of the most important thermoelectric (TE) applications is Bi2Te3 to manufacture TE generators (TEG) which can convert waste heat into electricity targeting the global warming issue. However, the high cost of the manufacturing process of TEGs keeps them expensive and out of reach for commercialization. Therefore, utilizing EPD as a simple and cost-effective method will open new opportunities for TEG’s commercialization. This method has been recently used for advanced materials such as microelectronics and has attracted a lot of attention from both scientists and industry. In this study, the effect of media of suspensions has been investigated on the quality of the deposited films as well as their microstructure. In summary, finding an appropriate suspension is a critical step for a successful EPD process and has an important effect on both the film’s quality and its future properties.

Keywords: Bi2Te3, electrical conductivity, electrophoretic deposition, thermoelectric materials, thick films

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13 The Relationship between Iranian EFL Learners' Multiple Intelligences and Their Performance on Grammar Tests

Authors: Rose Shayeghi, Pejman Hosseinioun

Abstract:

The Multiple Intelligences theory characterizes human intelligence as a multifaceted entity that exists in all human beings with varying degrees. The most important contribution of this theory to the field of English Language Teaching (ELT) is its role in identifying individual differences and designing more learner-centered programs. The present study aims at investigating the relationship between different elements of multiple intelligence and grammar scores. To this end, 63 female Iranian EFL learner selected from among intermediate students participated in the study. The instruments employed were a Nelson English language test, Michigan Grammar Test, and Teele Inventory for Multiple Intelligences (TIMI). The results of Pearson Product-Moment Correlation revealed a significant positive correlation between grammatical accuracy and linguistic as well as interpersonal intelligence. The results of Stepwise Multiple Regression indicated that linguistic intelligence contributed to the prediction of grammatical accuracy.

Keywords: multiple intelligence, grammar, ELT, EFL, TIMI

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12 Total Knee Arthroplasty in a Haemophilia: A Patient with High Titre of Inhibitor Using Recombinant Factor VIIa

Authors: Mohammad J. Mortazavi, Arvin Najafi, Pejman Mansouri

Abstract:

Hemophilia A is simply described as deficiency of factor VIII(FVIII) and patients with this disorder have bleeding complications in different organs. By using the recombinant factor VIII in these patients, elective orthopedic surgeries have been done approximately in 40 last years. About 10-30 % of these patients have bleeding complications in their surgeries even by using recombinant factor VIII because of their inhibitor against FVIII molecule. Preoperative haemostatic management in these patients is challenging. We treated a 28-year-old male patient with hemophilia A with FVIII inhibitor which had been detected when he was14 years old (with the titer 54 Bethesda unit(BU)) scheduled for total knee arthroplasty (TKA). We use 90 µg/kg rFVIIa just before the surgery and every 2 hours during surgery. The patient did not have any significant hemorrhage during the surgery and after that. For the 2 days after surgery, the rFVIIa repeated every 2 hours as the same as preoperative dosage(90 µg/kg) and for another 2 days of postoperative admission it continued every 4 hours. After 4th day, the rFVIIa continued every 6 hours with the same dosage until the sixth day from the surgery, and finally the patient were discharged about two weeks after surgery. Seven days after the discharge, he came back for the follow up visit. On the follow up examination, the site of the surgery had neither infection hemarthroses signs.

Keywords: hemophilia, factor VIII inhibitor, total knee replacement, rFVIIa

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11 A Method for Harvesting Atmospheric Lightning-Energy and Utilization of Extra Generated Power of Nuclear Power Plants during the Low Energy Demand Periods

Authors: Akbar Rahmani Nejad, Pejman Rahmani Nejad, Ahmad Rahmani Nejad

Abstract:

we proposed the arresting of atmospheric lightning and passing the electrical current of lightning-bolts through underground water tanks to produce Hydrogen and restoring Hydrogen in reservoirs to be used later as clean and sustainable energy. It is proposed to implement this method for storage of extra electrical power (instead of lightning energy) during low energy demand periods to produce hydrogen as a clean energy source to store in big reservoirs and later generate electricity by burning the stored hydrogen at an appropriate time. This method prevents the complicated process of changing the output power of nuclear power plants. It is possible to pass an electric current through sodium chloride solution to produce chlorine and sodium or human waste to produce Methane, etc. however atmospheric lightning is an accidental phenomenon, but using this free energy just by connecting the output of lightning arresters to the output of power plant during low energy demand period which there is no significant change in the design of power plant or have no cost, can be considered completely an economical design

Keywords: hydrogen gas, lightning energy, power plant, resistive element

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10 Future of Nanotechnology in Digital MacDraw

Authors: Pejman Hosseinioun, Abolghasem Ghasempour, Elham Gholami, Hamed Sarbazi

Abstract:

Considering the development in global semiconductor technology, it is anticipated that gadgets such as diodes and resonant transistor tunnels (RTD/RTT), Single electron transistors (SET) and quantum cellular automata (QCA) will substitute CMOS (Complementary Metallic Oxide Semiconductor) gadgets in many applications. Unfortunately, these new technologies cannot disembark the common Boolean logic efficiently and are only appropriate for liminal logic. Therefor there is no doubt that with the development of these new gadgets it is necessary to find new MacDraw technologies which are compatible with them. Resonant transistor tunnels (RTD/RTT) and circuit MacDraw with enhanced computing abilities are candida for accumulating Nano criterion in the future. Quantum cellular automata (QCA) are also advent Nano technological gadgets for electrical circuits. Advantages of these gadgets such as higher speed, smaller dimensions, and lower consumption loss are of great consideration. QCA are basic gadgets in manufacturing gates, fuses and memories. Regarding the complex Nano criterion physical entity, circuit designers can focus on logical and constructional design to decrease complication in MacDraw. Moreover Single electron technology (SET) is another noteworthy gadget considered in Nano technology. This article is a survey in future of Nano technology in digital MacDraw.

Keywords: nano technology, resonant transistor tunnels, quantum cellular automata, semiconductor

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9 Knowledge-Driven Decision Support System Based on Knowledge Warehouse and Data Mining by Improving Apriori Algorithm with Fuzzy Logic

Authors: Pejman Hosseinioun, Hasan Shakeri, Ghasem Ghorbanirostam

Abstract:

In recent years, we have seen an increasing importance of research and study on knowledge source, decision support systems, data mining and procedure of knowledge discovery in data bases and it is considered that each of these aspects affects the others. In this article, we have merged information source and knowledge source to suggest a knowledge based system within limits of management based on storing and restoring of knowledge to manage information and improve decision making and resources. In this article, we have used method of data mining and Apriori algorithm in procedure of knowledge discovery one of the problems of Apriori algorithm is that, a user should specify the minimum threshold for supporting the regularity. Imagine that a user wants to apply Apriori algorithm for a database with millions of transactions. Definitely, the user does not have necessary knowledge of all existing transactions in that database, and therefore cannot specify a suitable threshold. Our purpose in this article is to improve Apriori algorithm. To achieve our goal, we tried using fuzzy logic to put data in different clusters before applying the Apriori algorithm for existing data in the database and we also try to suggest the most suitable threshold to the user automatically.

Keywords: decision support system, data mining, knowledge discovery, data discovery, fuzzy logic

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8 Clinical Outcomes and Surgical Complications in Patients with Cervical Disk Degeneration

Authors: Mirzashahi Babak, Mansouri Pejman, Najafi Arvin, Farzan Mahmoud

Abstract:

Introduction: There are several surgical treatment choices for cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). The aim of this study is to evaluate clinical outcomes and surgical complications in patients with cervical disk degeneration (CDD) undergoing either anterior cervical discectomy with or without fusion or cervical laminectomy and fusion. Methods: This prospective case series study included 45 consecutive patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy between January 2010 and November 2014. There were 28 males and 17 females, with a mean age of 47 (range 37-68) years. The mean clinical follow-up was 14 months (range 3-24 months). The Neck Disability Index (NDI), visual analog scale (VAS) neck and arm pain, Short Form-36 (SF-36) were used as the functional outcome measurements. All of the complications in our patients were recorded. Results: In our study group, 26 patients underwent only one or two level anterior cervical discectomy. Ten patients underwent anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) and nine cases underwent posterior laminectomy and fusion. We have found a statistically significant improvement between mean preoperative (29, range 19-43) and postoperative (7, range 0-12) NDI scores following surgery (P < 0.05). Also, there was a statistically significant difference between pre and post-operative VAS and SF-36 score (p < 0.05). There was a 7% overall complication rate (n = 3). The only complication in our patients was surgical site cellulitis which has been managed with oral antibiotic therapy. Conclusion: Both anterior cervical discectomy with or without fusion or posterior laminectomy and fusion are safe and efficacious treatment options for the management of CSM. The clinical outcomes seem to be fairly reproducible.

Keywords: cervical, myelopathy, discectomy, fusion, laminectomy

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7 Simulation and Controller Tunning in a Photo-Bioreactor Applying by Taguchi Method

Authors: Hosein Ghahremani, MohammadReza Khoshchehre, Pejman Hakemi

Abstract:

This study involves numerical simulations of a vertical plate-type photo-bioreactor to investigate the performance of Microalgae Spirulina and Control and optimization of parameters for the digital controller by Taguchi method that MATLAB software and Qualitek-4 has been made. Since the addition of parameters such as temperature, dissolved carbon dioxide, biomass, and ... Some new physical parameters such as light intensity and physiological conditions like photosynthetic efficiency and light inhibitors are involved in biological processes, control is facing many challenges. Not only facilitate the commercial production photo-bioreactor Microalgae as feed for aquaculture and food supplements are efficient systems but also as a possible platform for the production of active molecules such as antibiotics or innovative anti-tumor agents, carbon dioxide removal and removal of heavy metals from wastewater is used. Digital controller is designed for controlling the light bioreactor until Microalgae growth rate and carbon dioxide concentration inside the bioreactor is investigated. The optimal values of the controller parameters of the S/N and ANOVA analysis software Qualitek-4 obtained With Reaction curve, Cohen-Con and Ziegler-Nichols method were compared. The sum of the squared error obtained for each of the control methods mentioned, the Taguchi method as the best method for controlling the light intensity was selected photo-bioreactor. This method compared to control methods listed the higher stability and a shorter interval to be answered.

Keywords: photo-bioreactor, control and optimization, Light intensity, Taguchi method

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6 Effect of Different Muscle Contraction Mode on the Expression of Myostatin, IGF-1, and PGC-1 Alpha Family Members in Human Vastus Lateralis Muscle

Authors: Pejman Taghibeikzadehbadr

Abstract:

Muscle contraction stimulates a transient change of myogenic factors, partly related to the mode of contractions. Here, we assessed the response of Insulin-like growth factor 1Ea (IGF-1Ea), Insulin-like growth factor 1Eb (IGF-1Eb), Insulin-like growth factor 1Ec (IGF-1Ec), Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC1α-1), Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 4-alpha (PGC1α-4), and myostatin to the eccentric Vs the concentric contraction in human skeletal muscle. Ten healthy males were performed an acute eccentric and concentric exercise bout (n = 5 per group). For each contraction type, participants performed 12 sets of 10 repetitions knee extension by the dominant leg. Baseline and post-exercise muscle biopsy were taken 4 weeks before and immediately after experimental sessions from Vastus Lateralis muscle. Genes expression was measured by real-time PCR technique. There was a significant increase in PGC1α-1, PGC1α-4, IGF-1Ea and, IGF-1Eb mRNA after concentric contraction (p ≤ 0.05), while the PGC1α-4 and IGF-1Ec significantly increased after eccentric contraction (p ≤ 0.05). It is intriguing to highlight that; no significant differences between groups were evident for changes in any variables following exercise bouts (p ≥ 0.05). Our results found that concentric and eccentric contractions presented different responses in PGC1α-1, IGF-1Ea, IGF-1Eb, and IGF-1Ec mRNA. However, a similar significant increase in mRNA content was observed in PGC1α-4. Further, no apparent differences could be found between the response of genes to eccentric and concentric contraction.

Keywords: eccentric contraction, concentric contraction, gene expression, PGC-1 alpha, IGF-1 Myostatin

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5 Electrophoretic Deposition of p-Type Bi2Te3 for Thermoelectric Applications

Authors: Tahereh Talebi, Reza Ghomashchi, Pejman Talemi, Sima Aminorroaya

Abstract:

Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) of p-type Bi2Te3 material has been accomplished, and a high quality crack-free thick film has been achieved for thermoelectric (TE) applications. TE generators (TEG) can convert waste heat into electricity, which can potentially solve global warming problems. However, TEG is expensive due to the high cost of materials, as well as the complex and expensive manufacturing process. EPD is a simple and cost-effective method which has been used recently for advanced applications. In EPD, when a DC electric field is applied to the charged powder particles suspended in a suspension, they are attracted and deposited on the substrate with the opposite charge. In this study, it has been shown that it is possible to prepare a TE film using the EPD method and potentially achieve high TE properties at low cost. The relationship between the deposition weight and the EPD-related process parameters, such as applied voltage and time, has been investigated and a linear dependence has been observed, which is in good agreement with the theoretical principles of EPD. A stable EPD suspension of p-type Bi2Te3 was prepared in a mixture of acetone-ethanol with triethanolamine as a stabilizer. To achieve a high quality homogenous film on a copper substrate, the optimum voltage and time of the EPD process was investigated. The morphology and microstructures of the green deposited films have been investigated using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The green Bi2Te3 films have shown good adhesion to the substrate. In summary, this study has shown that not only EPD of p-type Bi2Te3 material is possible, but its thick film is of high quality for TE applications.

Keywords: electrical conductivity, electrophoretic deposition, mechanical property, p-type Bi2Te3, Seebeck coefficient, thermoelectric materials, thick films

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4 A Modified Open Posterior Approach for the Fixation of Posterior Cruciate Ligament Tibial Avulsion Fractures

Authors: Babak Mirzashahi, Arvin Najafi, Pejman Mansouri, Mahmoud Farzan

Abstract:

Background: The most effective treatment of posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) tears and the consequence of untreated PCL injuries remain controversial. Objectives: The aim of this study is to assess outcomes of fixation of tibial posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) avulsion fractures via a modified technique. Patients and Methods: From January, 2009 to March, 2012, there were 45 cases of PCL tibial avulsion fractures that were referred to our hospital and were managed through a modified open posterior approach. Fixation of Tibial PCL avulsion fractures were fixed by means of a lag screw and washer placed through our modified open posterior approach. Range of motion was begun on the first postoperative day. Clinical stability, range of motion, gastrocnemius muscle strength, radiographic investigation, and patient’s overall quality of life was analyzed at final follow up visit. Results: The average of overall musculoskeletal functional evaluation scores was 15 (range 3–35). All patients achieved union of their fracture and had clinically stable knees at the latest follow-up. The mean preoperative Lysholm score for 15 knees was 62 ± 8 (range, 50-75); the mean postoperative Lysholm score was 92± 7 (range, 75-101). A significant difference in Lysholm scores between preoperative and final follow-up evaluations was found (P < .05). At first-year follow-up, 42 (93%) patients revealed a difference of less than 10 mm in thigh circumference between their injured and healthy knees. Conclusions: The management of displaced large PCL avulsion fractures with placement of a cancellous lag screw with washer by means of the modified open posterior approach leads to satisfactory clinical, radiographic, and functional results and reduces the operation time and less blood loss. Level of evidence: IV.

Keywords: posterior cruciate ligament, tibial fracture, lysholm knee score, patient outcome assessment

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3 The Effect of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles on Performance Traits, Carcass Quality, Gut Morphology and Haematological Parameters of Broilers Fed Wet Diet

Authors: Farhad Ahmadi, Vafa Pahlavani, Pejman Bidar

Abstract:

This study was conducted to investigate the effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles (Nano-ZnO) on carcass quality, blood parameters, and gut morphology in broiler chickens feeding wet diets. This research was conducted by total of 300 one-day-old broiler chicks (Ross-308) were distributed into a completely randomized design inclusion of 5 treatments in 4 replicated and 15 birds in each from 1 to 42 d. The experimental diets contain: 1) diet-based on corn-soybean dry (without Nano-ZnO), 2) dry diet whit 25 mg Nano-ZnO, 3) wet diet whit 25 mg Nano-ZnO, 4) dry diet whit 50 mg Nano-ZnO, 5) wet diet whit 50 mg Nano-ZnO to wet diet. The results indicated that trail diets had no significant effect on carcass and fraction cuts in 21 age (P > 0.05). Wet feeding increased (P < 0.05) live, carcass, pancreas, gizzard, proventriculus, breast, wing and SI weight index so that the birds fed wet diet contain 50mg/kg of Nano-ZnO had the highest (P < 0.05) live, carcass, pancreas, proventriculus, gizzard, breast, wing, and gut weights at 42d compared other treatments. The birds fed diet contain 25mg/kg Nano-ZnO had the higher (P < 0.05) leg weight and lowest gizzard and gut weight than others treatment. Wet diet inclusion of 50mg Nano-ZnO increased (P < 0.05) liver weight on d 42. Experimental treatments had no significant effect on blood hematology on 21 and 42. The lymphocyte count had increased (P < 0.05) in dry than wet diet, however, monocyte Percent had significantly (P < 0.05) decreased in dry and increased in wet diets. The birds of height and height: crypts villi ratio had significantly (P < 0.05) increased on d 42, so that the highest and lowest villus height observed in 50 mg Nano-ZnO to form dry and control, respectively. In conclusion, the results of indicated that used of Nano-ZnO and wet feeding had no effect on performance parameters. Wet diet caused increased monocyte percent and 50 mg level Nano-ZnO to form dry caused increased height of villi.

Keywords: broiler, blood, gut, performance, nanoparticles

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2 Blunt Abdominal Trauma Management in Adult Patients: An Investigation on Safety of Discharging Patients with Normal Initial Findings

Authors: Rahimi-Movaghar Vafa, Mansouri Pejman, Chardoli Mojtaba, Rezvani Samina

Abstract:

Introduction: Blunt abdominal trauma is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in all age groups, but diagnosis of serious intra-abdominal pathology is difficult and most of the damages are obscure in the initial investigation. There is still controversy about which patients should undergo abdomen/pelvis CT, which patients needs more observation and which patients can be discharged safely The aim of this study was to determine that is it safe to discharge patients with blunt abdominal trauma with normal initial findings. Methods: This non-randomized cross-sectional study was conducted from September 2013 to September 2014 at two levels I trauma centers, Sina hospital and Rasoul-e-Akram hospital (Tehran, Iran). Our inclusion criteria were all patients were admitted for suspicious BAT and our exclusion criteria were patients that have serious head and neck, chest, spine and limb injuries which need surgical intervention, those who have unstable vital signs, pregnant women with a gestational age over 3 months and homeless or without exact home address. 390 patients with blunt trauma abdomen examined and the necessary data, including demographic data, the abdominal examination, FAST result, patients’ lab test results (hematocrit, base deficit, urine analysis) on admission and at 6 and 12 hours after admission were recorded. Patients with normal physical examination, laboratory tests and FAST were discharged from the ED during 12 hours with the explanation of the alarm signs and were followed up after 24 hours and 1 week by a telephone call. Patients with abnormal findings in physical examination, laboratory tests, and FAST underwent abdomino-pelvic CT scan. Results: The study included 390 patients with blunt abdominal trauma between 12 and 80 years of age (mean age, 37.0 ± 13.7 years) and the mean duration of hospitalization in patients was 7.4 ± 4.1 hours. 88.6% of the patients were discharged from hospital before 12 hours. Odds ratio (OR) for having any symptoms for discharge after 6 hours was 0.160 and after 12 hours was 0.117 hours, which is statistically significant. Among the variables age, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate, hematocrit and base deficit at admission, 6 hours and 12 hours after admission showed no significant statistical relationship with discharge time. From our 390 patients, 190 patients have normal initial physical examination, lab data and FAST findings that didn’t show any signs or symptoms in their next assessment and in their follow up by the phone call. Conclusion: It is recommended that patients with no symptoms at admission (completely normal physical examination, ultrasound, normal hematocrit and normal base deficit and lack of microscopic hematuria) and good family and social status can be safely discharged from the emergency department.

Keywords: blunt abdominal trauma, patient discharge, emergency department, FAST

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1 Industrial Waste to Energy Technology: Engineering Biowaste as High Potential Anode Electrode for Application in Lithium-Ion Batteries

Authors: Pejman Salimi, Sebastiano Tieuli, Somayeh Taghavi, Michela Signoretto, Remo Proietti Zaccaria

Abstract:

Increasing the growth of Industrial waste due to the large quantities of production leads to numerous environmental and economic challenges such as climate change, soil and water contamination, human disease, etc. Energy recovery of waste can be applied to produce heat or electricity. This strategy allows reducing energy produced using coal or other fuels and directly reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Among different factories, leather manufacturing plays a very important role in the whole world from the socio-economic point of view. The leather industry plays a very important role in our society from a socio-economic point of view. There are approximately 10,000 tanneries in the world producing leather for more than 6.5 million tons per year. Even though the leather industry uses a by-product from the meat industry as raw material, it is considered as an activity demanding for integrated prevention and control of pollution. Along the entire process, from raw skins/hides to finished leather, a huge amount of solid and water waste is generated. The solid wastes include fleshings, raw trimmings, shavings, buffing dust, etc. One of the most abundant solid wastes (ca. 25% in weight of leather) generated throughout the leather tanning is the shaving waste. Leather shaving is a mechanical process that aims at reducing the tanned skin to a specific thickness before tanning and finishing. This product consists mainly of collagen and tanning agent. At present, over 85 % of the world's leather processing is chrome-tanned based. Consequently, large amounts of chromium-containing shaving wastes need to be treated. The major concern about the management of this kind of solid waste is ascribed to chrome content, which makes the conventional disposal methods, such as landfilling and incineration, not practicable. Therefore, many efforts have been developed in recent decades for promoting eco-friendly/alternative leather production and more effective waste management. Herein, shaving waste resulting from metal-free tanning technology is proposed as low-cost precursors for the preparation of carbon material as anodes for Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). In line with the philosophy of a reduced environmental impact, for preparing fully sustainable and environmentally friendly LIBs anodes, deionized water and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) have been used as alternatives to toxic/teratogen N-methyl-2- pyrrolidone (NMP) and to biologically hazardous Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), respectively. Furthermore, going towards the reduced cost, we had employed water solvent and Fluoride-free bio-derived CMC binder (as an alternative to NMP and PVdF, respectively) together with LiFePO4 (LFP) when a full cell was considered. These actions make closer to the 2030 goal of having green LIBs at 100 $ kW h-1. Besides, preparation of the water-based electrodes does not need a controlled environment and, due to the higher vapor pressure of water in comparison with NMP, the water-based electrode drying is much faster. This aspect determines an important consequence, namely a reduced energy consumption for the electrode preparation. The electrode derived from leather waste demonstrated the discharge capacity of 735 mAh g-1 after 1000 charge and discharge cycles at 0.5 A g-1. This promising performance is ascribed to the synergistic effect of defects, interlayer spacing, heteroatoms-doped (N, O, and S), high specific surface area and hierarchical micro/mesopore structure of the biochar. Interestingly, these features of activated biochars derived from the leather industry open the way for possible applications in other EESDs as well.

Keywords: biowaste, lithium-ion batteries, physical activation, waste management, leather industry

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