Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14560

Search results for: stand-alone PV system

14560 Micro-Hydrokinetic for Remote Rural Electrification

Authors: S. P. Koko, K. Kusakana, H. J. Vermaak


Standalone micro-hydrokinetic river (MHR) system is one of the promising technologies to be used for remote rural electrification. It simply requires the flow of water instead of elevation or head, leading to expensive civil works. This paper demonstrates an economic benefit offered by a standalone MHR system when compared to the commonly used standalone systems such as solar, wind and diesel generator (DG) at the selected study site in Kwazulu Natal. Wind speed and solar radiation data of the selected rural site have been taken from national aeronautics and space administration (NASA) surface meteorology database. The hybrid optimization model for electric renewable (HOMER) software was used to determine the most feasible solution when using MHR, solar, wind or DG system to supply 5 rural houses. MHR system proved to be the best cost-effective option to consider at the study site due to its low cost of energy (COE) and low net present cost (NPC).

Keywords: economic analysis, micro-hydrokinetic, rural-electrification, cost of energy (COE), net present cost (NPC)

Procedia PDF Downloads 358
14559 A User-Friendly Approach for Design and Economic Analysis of Standalone PV System for the Electrification of Rural Area of Eritrea

Authors: Tedros Asefaw Gebremeskel, Xaoyi Yang


The potential of solar energy in Eritrea is relatively high, based on this truth, there are a number of isolated and remote villages situated far away from the electrical national grid which don’t get access to electricity. The core objective of this work is to design a most favorable and cost-effective power by means of standalone PV system for the electrification of a single housing in the inaccessible area of Eritrea. The sizing of the recommended PV system is achieved, such as radiation data and electrical load for the typical household of the selected site is also well thought-out in the design steps. Finally, the life cycle cost (LCC) analysis is conducted to evaluate the economic viability of the system. The outcome of the study promote the use of PV system for a residential building and show that PV system is a reasonable option to provide electricity for household applications in the rural area of Eritrea.

Keywords: electrification, inaccessible area, life cycle cost, residential building, stand-alone PV system

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
14558 Transient Analysis and Mitigation of Capacitor Bank Switching on a Standalone Wind Farm

Authors: Ajibola O. Akinrinde, Andrew Swanson, Remy Tiako


There exist significant losses on transmission lines due to distance, as power generating stations could be located far from some isolated settlements. Standalone wind farms could be a good choice of alternative power generation for such settlements that are far from the grid due to factors of long distance or socio-economic problems. However, uncompensated wind farms consume reactive power since wind turbines are induction generators. Therefore, capacitor banks are used to compensate reactive power, which in turn improves the voltage profile of the network. Although capacitor banks help improving voltage profile, they also undergo switching actions due to its compensating response to the variation of various types of load at the consumer’s end. These switching activities could cause transient overvoltage on the network, jeopardizing the end-life of other equipment on the system. In this paper, the overvoltage caused by these switching activities is investigated using the IEEE bus 14-network to represent a standalone wind farm, and the simulation is done using ATP/EMTP software. Scenarios involving the use of pre-insertion resistor and pre-insertion inductor, as well as controlled switching was also carried out in order to decide the best mitigation option to reduce the overvoltage.

Keywords: capacitor banks, IEEE bus 14-network, pre-insertion resistor, standalone wind farm

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14557 Optimization and Energy Management of Hybrid Standalone Energy System

Authors: T. M. Tawfik, M. A. Badr, E. Y. El-Kady, O. E. Abdellatif


Electric power shortage is a serious problem in remote rural communities in Egypt. Over the past few years, electrification of remote communities including efficient on-site energy resources utilization has achieved high progress. Remote communities usually fed from diesel generator (DG) networks because they need reliable energy and cheap fresh water. The main objective of this paper is to design an optimal economic power supply from hybrid standalone energy system (HSES) as alternative energy source. It covers energy requirements for reverse osmosis desalination unit (DU) located in National Research Centre farm in Noubarya, Egypt. The proposed system consists of PV panels, Wind Turbines (WT), Batteries, and DG as a backup for supplying DU load of 105.6 KWh/day rated power with 6.6 kW peak load operating 16 hours a day. Optimization of HSES objective is selecting the suitable size of each of the system components and control strategy that provide reliable, efficient, and cost-effective system using net present cost (NPC) as a criterion. The harmonization of different energy sources, energy storage, and load requirements are a difficult and challenging task. Thus, the performance of various available configurations is investigated economically and technically using iHOGA software that is based on genetic algorithm (GA). The achieved optimum configuration is further modified through optimizing the energy extracted from renewable sources. Effective minimization of energy charging the battery ensures that most of the generated energy directly supplies the demand, increasing the utilization of the generated energy.

Keywords: energy management, hybrid system, renewable energy, remote area, optimization

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14556 Tools for Analysis and Optimization of Standalone Green Microgrids

Authors: William Anderson, Kyle Kobold, Oleg Yakimenko


Green microgrids using mostly renewable energy (RE) for generation, are complex systems with inherent nonlinear dynamics. Among a variety of different optimization tools there are only a few ones that adequately consider this complexity. This paper evaluates applicability of two somewhat similar optimization tools tailored for standalone RE microgrids and also assesses a machine learning tool for performance prediction that can enhance the reliability of any chosen optimization tool. It shows that one of these microgrid optimization tools has certain advantages over another and presents a detailed routine of preparing input data to simulate RE microgrid behavior. The paper also shows how neural-network-based predictive modeling can be used to validate and forecast solar power generation based on weather time series data, which improves the overall quality of standalone RE microgrid analysis.

Keywords: microgrid, renewable energy, complex systems, optimization, predictive modeling, neural networks

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14555 A Wireless Feedback Control System as a Base of Bio-Inspired Structure System to Mitigate Vibration in Structures

Authors: Gwanghee Heo, Geonhyeok Bang, Chunggil Kim, Chinok Lee


This paper attempts to develop a wireless feedback control system as a primary step eventually toward a bio-inspired structure system where inanimate structure behaves like a life form autonomously. It is a standalone wireless control system which is supposed to measure externally caused structural responses, analyze structural state from acquired data, and take its own action on the basis of the analysis with an embedded logic. For an experimental examination of its effectiveness, we applied it on a model of two-span bridge and performed a wireless control test. Experimental tests have been conducted for comparison on both the wireless and the wired system under the conditions of Un-control, Passive-off, Passive-on, and Lyapunov control algorithm. By proving the congruence of the test result of the wireless feedback control system with the wired control system, its control performance was proven to be effective. Besides, it was found to be economical in energy consumption and also autonomous by means of a command algorithm embedded into it, which proves its basic capacity as a bio-inspired system.

Keywords: structural vibration control, wireless system, MR damper, feedback control, embedded system

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14554 A Variable Incremental Conductance MPPT Algorithm Applied to Photovoltaic Water Pumping System

Authors: Sarah Abdourraziq, Rachid Elbachtiri


The use of solar energy as a source for pumping water is one of the promising areas in the photovoltaic (PV) application. The energy of photovoltaic pumping systems (PVPS) can be widely improved by employing an MPPT algorithm. This will lead consequently to maximize the electrical motor speed of the system. This paper presents a modified incremental conductance (IncCond) MPPT algorithm with direct control method applied to a standalone PV pumping system. The influence of the algorithm parameters on system behavior is investigated and compared with the traditional (INC) method. The studied system consists of a PV panel, a DC-DC boost converter, and a PMDC motor-pump. The simulation of the system by MATLAB-SIMULINK is carried out. Simulation results found are satisfactory.

Keywords: photovoltaic pumping system (PVPS), incremental conductance (INC), MPPT algorithm, boost converter

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14553 An Exploration of the Technical and Economic Feasibility of a Stand Alone Solar PV Generated DC Distribution System over AC Distribution System for Use in the Modern as Well as Future Houses of Isolated Areas

Authors: Alpesh Desai, Indrajit Mukhopadhyay


Standalone Photovoltaic (PV) systems are designed and sized to supply certain AC and/or DC electrical loads. In computers, consumer electronics and many small appliances as well as LED lighting the actual power consumed is DC. The DC system, which requires only voltage control, has many advantages such as feasible connection of the distributed energy sources and reduction of the conversion losses for DC-based loads. Also by using the DC power directly the cost of the size of the Inverter and Solar panel reduced hence the overall cost of the system reduced. This paper explores the technical and economic feasibility of supplying electrical power to homes/houses using DC voltage mains within the house. Theoretical calculated results are presented to demonstrate the advantage of DC system over AC system with PV on sustainable rural/isolated development.

Keywords: distribution system, energy efficiency, off-grid, stand-alone PV system, sustainability, techno-socio-economic

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14552 Voltage Stabilization of Hybrid PV and Battery Systems by Considering Temperature and Irradiance Changes in Standalone Operation

Authors: S. Jalilzadeh, S. M. Mohseni Bonab


Solar and battery energy storage systems are very useful for consumers who live in deprived areas and do not have access to electricity distribution networks. Nowadays one of the problems that photo voltaic systems (PV) have changing of output power in temperature and irradiance variations, which directly affects the load that is connected to photo voltaic systems. In this paper, with considering the fact that the solar array varies with change in temperature and solar power radiation, a voltage stabilizer system of a load connected to photo voltaic array is designed to stabilize the load voltage and to transfer surplus power of the battery. Also, in proposed hybrid system, the needed load power amount is supplemented considering the voltage stabilization in standalone operation for supplying unbalanced AC load. Electrical energy storage system for voltage control and improvement of the performance of PV by a DC/DC converter is connected to the DC bus. The load is also feed by an AC/DC converter. In this paper, when the voltage increases in its reference limit, the battery gets charged by the photo voltaic array and when it decreases in its defined limit, the power gets injected to the DC bus by this battery. The constant of DC bus Voltage is the cause for the reduced harmonics generated by the inverter. In addition, a series of filters are provided in the inverter output in to reduced harmonics. The inverter control circuit is designed that the voltage and frequency of the load remain almost constant at different load conditions. This paper has focused on controlling strategies of converters to improve their performance.

Keywords: photovoltaic array (PV), DC/DC Boost converter, battery converter, inverters control

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14551 Design and Analysis of 1.4 MW Hybrid Saps System for Rural Electrification in Off-Grid Applications

Authors: Arpan Dwivedi, Yogesh Pahariya


In this paper, optimal design of hybrid standalone power supply system (SAPS) is done for off grid applications in remote areas where transmission of power is difficult. The hybrid SAPS system uses two primary energy sources, wind and solar, and in addition to these diesel generator is also connected to meet the load demand in case of failure of wind and solar system. This paper presents mathematical modeling of 1.4 MW hybrid SAPS system for rural electrification. This paper firstly focuses on mathematical modeling of PV module connected in a string, secondly focuses on modeling of permanent magnet wind turbine generator (PMWTG). The hybrid controller is also designed for selection of power from the source available as per the load demand. The power output of hybrid SAPS system is analyzed for meeting load demands at urban as well as for rural areas.

Keywords: SAPS, DG, PMWTG, rural area, off-grid, PV module

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14550 Simulation-Based Control Module for Offshore Single Point Mooring System

Authors: Daehyun Baek, Seungmin Lee, Minju Kim Jangik Park, Hyeong-Soon Moon


SPM (Single Point Mooring) is one of the mooring buoy facilities installed on a coast near oil and gas terminal which is not able to berth FPSO or large oil tankers under the condition of high draft due to geometrical limitation. Loading and unloading of crude oil and gas through a subsea pipeline can be carried out between the mooring buoy, ships and onshore facilities. SPM is an offshore-standalone system which has to withstand the harsh marine environment with harsh conditions such as high wind, current and so on. Therefore, SPM is required to have high stability, reliability and durability. Also, SPM is comprised to be integrated systems which consist of power management, high pressure valve control, sophisticated hardware/software and a long distance communication system. In order to secure required functions of SPM system, a simulation model for the integrated system of SPM using MATLAB Simulink and State flow tool has been developed. The developed model consists of configuration of hydraulic system for opening and closing of PLEM (Pipeline End Manifold) valves and control system logic. To verify functions of the model, an integrated simulation model for overall systems of SPM was also developed by considering handshaking variables between individual systems. In addition to the dynamic model, a self-diagnostic function to determine failure of the system was configured, which enables the SPM system itself to alert users about the failure once a failure signal comes to arise. Controlling and monitoring the SPM system is able to be done by a HMI system which is capable of managing the SPM system remotely, which was carried out by building a communication environment between the SPM system and the HMI system.

Keywords: HMI system, mooring buoy, simulink simulation model, single point mooring, stateflow

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14549 Coding Considerations for Standalone Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Atomistic Structures

Authors: R. O. Ocaya, J. J. Terblans


The laws of Newtonian mechanics allow ab-initio molecular dynamics to model and simulate particle trajectories in material science by defining a differentiable potential function. This paper discusses some considerations for the coding of ab-initio programs for simulation on a standalone computer and illustrates the approach by C language codes in the context of embedded metallic atoms in the face-centred cubic structure. The algorithms use velocity-time integration to determine particle parameter evolution for up to several thousands of particles in a thermodynamical ensemble. Such functions are reusable and can be placed in a redistributable header library file. While there are both commercial and free packages available, their heuristic nature prevents dissection. In addition, developing own codes has the obvious advantage of teaching techniques applicable to new problems.

Keywords: C language, molecular dynamics, simulation, embedded atom method

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14548 Hybrid Advanced Oxidative Pretreatment of Complex Industrial Effluent for Biodegradability Enhancement

Authors: K. Paradkar, S. N. Mudliar, A. Sharma, A. B. Pandit, R. A. Pandey


The study explores the hybrid combination of Hydrodynamic Cavitation (HC) and Subcritical Wet Air Oxidation-based pretreatment of complex industrial effluent to enhance the biodegradability selectively (without major COD destruction) to facilitate subsequent enhanced downstream processing via anaerobic or aerobic biological treatment. Advanced oxidation based techniques can be less efficient as standalone options and a hybrid approach by combining Hydrodynamic Cavitation (HC), and Wet Air Oxidation (WAO) can lead to a synergistic effect since both the options are based on common free radical mechanism. The HC can be used for initial turbulence and generation of hotspots which can begin the free radical attack and this agitating mixture then can be subjected to less intense WAO since initial heat (to raise the activation energy) can be taken care by HC alone. Lab-scale venturi-based hydrodynamic cavitation and wet air oxidation reactor with biomethanated distillery wastewater (BMDWW) as a model effluent was examined for establishing the proof-of-concept. The results indicated that for a desirable biodegradability index (BOD: COD - BI) enhancement (up to 0.4), the Cavitation (standalone) pretreatment condition was: 5 bar and 88 min reaction time with a COD reduction of 36 % and BI enhancement of up to 0.27 (initial BI - 0.17). The optimum WAO condition (standalone) was: 150oC, 6 bar and 30 minutes with 31% COD reduction and 0.33 BI. The hybrid pretreatment (combined Cavitation + WAO) worked out to be 23.18 min HC (at 5 bar) followed by 30 min WAO at 150oC, 6 bar, at which around 50% COD was retained yielding a BI of 0.55. FTIR & NMR analysis of pretreated effluent indicated dissociation and/or reorientation of complex organic compounds in untreated effluent to simpler organic compounds post-pretreatment.

Keywords: hybrid, hydrodynamic cavitation, wet air oxidation, biodegradability index

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14547 Hemoglobin Levels at a Standalone Dialysis Unit

Authors: Babu Shersad, Partha Banerjee


Reduction in haemoglobin levels has been implicated to be a cause for reduced exercise tolerance and cardiovascular complications of chronic renal diseases. Trends of hemoglobin levels in patients on haemodialysis could be an indicator of efficacy of hemodialysis and an indicator of quality of life in haemodialysis patients. In the UAE, the rate of growth (of patients on dialysis) is 10 to 15 per cent per year. The primary mode of haemodialysis in the region is based on in-patient hospital-based hemodialysis units. The increase in risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular morbidity as well as mortality in pre-dialysis Chronic Renal Disease has been reported. However, data on the health burden on haemodialysis in standalone dialysis facilities is very scarce. This is mainly due to the paucity of ambulatory centres for haemodialysis in the region. AMSA is the first center to offer standalone dialysis in the UAE and a study over a one year period was performed. Patient data was analyzed using a questionnaire for 45 patients with an average of 2.5 dialysis sessions per week. All patients were on chronic haemodialysis as outpatients. The trends of haemoglobin levels as an independent variable were evaluated. These trends were interpreted in comparison with other parameters of renal function (creatinine, uric acid, blood pressure and ferritin). Trends indicate an increase in hemoglobin levels with increased supplementation of iron and erythropoietin over time. The adequacy of hemodialysis shows improvement concomitantly. This, in turn, correlates with better patient outcomes and has a direct impact on morbidity and mortality. This study is a pilot study and further studies are indicated so that objective parameters can be studied and validated for hemodialysis in the region.

Keywords: haemodialysis, haemoglobin in haemodialysis, haemodialysis parameters, erythropoietic agents in haemodialysis

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14546 BLDC Motor Driven for Solar Photo Voltaic Powered Air Cooling System

Authors: D. Shobha Rani, M. Muralidhar


Solar photovoltaic (SPV) power systems can be employed as electrical power sources to meet the daily residential energy needs of rural areas that have no access to grid systems. In view of this, a standalone SPV powered air cooling system is proposed in this paper, which constitutes a dc-dc boost converter, two voltage source inverters (VSI) connected to two brushless dc (BLDC) motors which are coupled to a centrifugal water pump and a fan blower. A simple and efficient Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) technique based on Silver Mean Method (SMM) is utilized in this paper. The air cooling system is developed and simulated using the MATLAB / Simulink environment considering the dynamic and steady state variation in the solar irradiance.

Keywords: boost converter, solar photovoltaic array, voltage source inverter, brushless DC motor, solar irradiance, maximum power point tracking, silver mean method

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14545 A Double PWM Source Inverter Technique with Reduced Leakage Current for Application on Standalone Systems

Authors: Md.Noman Habib Khan, M. S. Tajul Islam, T. S. Gunawan, M. Hasanuzzaman


The photovoltaic (PV) panel with no galvanic isolation system is well-known technique in the world which is effective and deliver power with enhanced efficiency. The PV generation presented here is for stand-alone system installed in remote areas when as the resulting power gets connected to electronic load installation instead of being tied to the grid. Though very small, even then transformer-less topology is shown to be with leakage in pico-ampere range. By using PWM technique PWM, leakage current in different situations is shown. The results that are demonstrated in this paper show how the pico-ampere current is reduced to femto-ampere through use of inductors and capacitors of suitable values of inductor and capacitors with the load.

Keywords: photovoltaic (PV) panel, duty cycle, pulse duration modulation (PDM), leakage current

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14544 Management and Evaluation of Developing Medical Device Software in Compliance with Rules

Authors: Arash Sepehri bonab


One of the regions of critical development in medical devices has been the part of the software - as an indispensable component of a therapeutic device, as a standalone device, and more as of late, as applications on portable gadgets. The chance related to a breakdown of the standalone computer program utilized inside healthcare is in itself not a model for its capability or not as a medical device. It is, subsequently, fundamental to clarify a few criteria for the capability of a stand-alone computer program as a medical device. The number of computer program items and therapeutic apps is persistently expanding and so as well is used in wellbeing education (e. g., in clinics and doctors' surgeries) for determination and treatment. Within the last decade, the use of information innovation in healthcare has taken a developing part. In reality, the appropriation of an expanding number of computer devices has driven several benefits related to the method of quiet care and permitted simpler get to social and health care assets. At the same time, this drift gave rise to modern challenges related to the usage of these modern innovations. The program utilized in healthcare can be classified as therapeutic gadgets depending on the way they are utilized and on their useful characteristics. In the event that they are classified as therapeutic gadgets, they must fulfill particular directions. The point of this work is to show a computer program improvement system that can permit the generation of secure and tall, quality restorative gadget computer programs and to highlight the correspondence between each program advancement stage and the fitting standard and/or regulation.

Keywords: medical devices, regulation, software, development, healthcare

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14543 Status of Popularity of Ayurveda Products in Chandigarh, North India

Authors: Upasana Sharma, Jayanti Dutta, Amarjeet Singh


Background: Ayurveda is a comprehensive natural health care system. It is widely used in India as a system of primary health care, and interest in it is growing worldwide. Objectives: 1) To assess the extent and pattern of use of Ayurvedic medicines/ products by the people of Chandigarh. 2) To assess the perceived impact of use of Ayurvedic medicines/ products among the users. Methods: A cross-sectional community based study was conducted in a city of North India. Overall 371 households were covered from rural, urban and slum areas from December 2010 to April 2011. Respondents were interviewed regarding practices about Ayurveda products. Results: Around 160 (43%; 95% CI= 38.15, 47.85) of the respondents were using Ayurvedic products in one form or the other. Out of them, 91 (57%) had used Ayurvedic medicines in combination with some other system of medicine rather than as a standalone therapy. Most of them (81%) preferred Ayurveda products for chronic digestive system related problems. Conclusion: The present study revealed that respondents had keen interest in Ayurveda. A section of population was taking Ayurvedic treatment for their health ailments. There was a great level of satisfaction among the users but high cost bothered them at times.

Keywords: ayurveda, alternative medicine, chronic diseases, complimentary medicine

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14542 GIS-Based Identification of Overloaded Distribution Transformers and Calculation of Technical Electric Power Losses

Authors: Awais Ahmed, Javed Iqbal


Pakistan has been for many years facing extreme challenges in energy deficit due to the shortage of power generation compared to increasing demand. A part of this energy deficit is also contributed by the power lost in transmission and distribution network. Unfortunately, distribution companies are not equipped with modern technologies and methods to identify and eliminate these losses. According to estimate, total energy lost in early 2000 was between 20 to 26 percent. To address this issue the present research study was designed with the objectives of developing a standalone GIS application for distribution companies having the capability of loss calculation as well as identification of overloaded transformers. For this purpose, Hilal Road feeder in Faisalabad Electric Supply Company (FESCO) was selected as study area. An extensive GPS survey was conducted to identify each consumer, linking it to the secondary pole of the transformer, geo-referencing equipment and documenting conductor sizes. To identify overloaded transformer, accumulative kWH reading of consumer on transformer was compared with threshold kWH. Technical losses of 11kV and 220V lines were calculated using the data from substation and resistance of the network calculated from the geo-database. To automate the process a standalone GIS application was developed using ArcObjects with engineering analysis capabilities. The application uses GIS database developed for 11kV and 220V lines to display and query spatial data and present results in the form of graphs. The result shows that about 14% of the technical loss on both high tension (HT) and low tension (LT) network while about 4 out of 15 general duty transformers were found overloaded. The study shows that GIS can be a very effective tool for distribution companies in management and planning of their distribution network.

Keywords: geographical information system, GIS, power distribution, distribution transformers, technical losses, GPS, SDSS, spatial decision support system

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14541 The Integration of Patient Health Record Generated from Wearable and Internet of Things Devices into Health Information Exchanges

Authors: Dalvin D. Hill, Hector M. Castro Garcia


A growing number of individuals utilize wearable devices on a daily basis. The usage and functionality of these wearable devices vary from user to user. One popular usage of said devices is to track health-related activities that are typically stored on a device’s memory or uploaded to an account in the cloud; based on the current trend, the data accumulated from the wearable device are stored in a standalone location. In many of these cases, this health related datum is not a factor when considering the holistic view of a user’s health lifestyle or record. This health-related data generated from wearable and Internet of Things (IoT) devices can serve as empirical information to a medical provider, as the standalone data can add value to the holistic health record of a patient. This paper proposes a solution to incorporate the data gathered from these wearable and IoT devices, with that a patient’s Personal Health Record (PHR) stored within the confines of a Health Information Exchange (HIE).

Keywords: electronic health record, health information exchanges, internet of things, personal health records, wearable devices, wearables

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14540 Emulation of a Wind Turbine Using Induction Motor Driven by Field Oriented Control

Authors: L. Benaaouinate, M. Khafallah, A. Martinez, A. Mesbahi, T. Bouragba


This paper concerns with the modeling, simulation, and emulation of a wind turbine emulator for standalone wind energy conversion systems. By using emulation system, we aim to reproduce the dynamic behavior of the wind turbine torque on the generator shaft: it provides the testing facilities to optimize generator control strategies in a controlled environment, without reliance on natural resources. The aerodynamic, mechanical, electrical models have been detailed as well as the control of pitch angle using Fuzzy Logic for horizontal axis wind turbines. The wind turbine emulator consists mainly of an induction motor with AC power drive with torque control. The control of the induction motor and the mathematical models of the wind turbine are designed with MATLAB/Simulink environment. The simulation results confirm the effectiveness of the induction motor control system and the functionality of the wind turbine emulator for providing all necessary parameters of the wind turbine system such as wind speed, output torque, power coefficient and tip speed ratio. The findings are of direct practical relevance.

Keywords: electrical generator, induction motor drive, modeling, pitch angle control, real time control, renewable energy, wind turbine, wind turbine emulator

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14539 Digital Forensics Compute Cluster: A High Speed Distributed Computing Capability for Digital Forensics

Authors: Daniel Gonzales, Zev Winkelman, Trung Tran, Ricardo Sanchez, Dulani Woods, John Hollywood


We have developed a distributed computing capability, Digital Forensics Compute Cluster (DFORC2) to speed up the ingestion and processing of digital evidence that is resident on computer hard drives. DFORC2 parallelizes evidence ingestion and file processing steps. It can be run on a standalone computer cluster or in the Amazon Web Services (AWS) cloud. When running in a virtualized computing environment, its cluster resources can be dynamically scaled up or down using Kubernetes. DFORC2 is an open source project that uses Autopsy, Apache Spark and Kafka, and other open source software packages. It extends the proven open source digital forensics capabilities of Autopsy to compute clusters and cloud architectures, so digital forensics tasks can be accomplished efficiently by a scalable array of cluster compute nodes. In this paper, we describe DFORC2 and compare it with a standalone version of Autopsy when both are used to process evidence from hard drives of different sizes.

Keywords: digital forensics, cloud computing, cyber security, spark, Kubernetes, Kafka

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14538 Optimal Design of a PV/Diesel Hybrid System for Decentralized Areas through Economic Criteria

Authors: David B. Tsuanyo, Didier Aussel, Yao Azoumah, Pierre Neveu


An innovative concept called “Flexy-Energy”is developing at 2iE. This concept aims to produce electricity at lower cost by smartly mix different available energies sources in accordance to the load profile of the region. With a higher solar irradiation and due to the fact that Diesel generator are massively used in sub-Saharan rural areas, PV/Diesel hybrid systems could be a good application of this concept and a good solution to electrify this region, provided they are reliable, cost effective and economically attractive to investors. Presentation of the developed approach is the aims of this paper. The PV/Diesel hybrid system designed consists to produce electricity and/or heat from a coupling between Diesel gensets and PV panels without batteries storage, while ensuring the substitution of gasoil by bio-fuels available in the area where the system will be installed. The optimal design of this system is based on his technical performances; the Life Cycle Cost (LCC) and Levelized Cost of Energy are developed and use as economic criteria. The Net Present Value (NPV), the internal rate of return (IRR) and the discounted payback (DPB) are also evaluated according to dual electricity pricing (in sunny and unsunny hours). The PV/Diesel hybrid system obtained is compared to the standalone Diesel gensets. The approach carried out in this paper has been applied to Siby village in Mali (Latitude 12 ° 23'N 8 ° 20'W) with 295 kWh as daily demand. This approach provides optimal physical characteristics (size of the components, number of component) and dynamical characteristics in real time (number of Diesel generator on, their load rate, fuel specific consumptions, and PV penetration rate) of the system. The system obtained is slightly cost effective; but could be improved with optimized tariffing strategies.

Keywords: investments criteria, optimization, PV hybrid, sizing, rural electrification

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14537 Modeling and Simulation of Standalone Photovoltaic Charging Stations for Electric Vehicles

Authors: R. Mkahl, A. Nait-Sidi-Moh, M. Wack


Batteries of electric vehicles (BEV) are becoming more attractive with the advancement of new battery technologies and promotion of electric vehicles. BEV batteries are recharged on board vehicles using either the grid (G2V for Grid to Vehicle) or renewable energies in a stand-alone application (H2V for Home to Vehicle). This paper deals with the modeling, sizing and control of a photo voltaic stand-alone application that can charge the BEV at home. The modeling approach and developed mathematical models describing the system components are detailed. Simulation and experimental results are presented and commented.

Keywords: electric vehicles, photovoltaic energy, lead-acid batteries, charging process, modeling, simulation, experimental tests

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14536 Investigation of User Position Accuracy for Stand-Alone and Hybrid Modes of the Indian Navigation with Indian Constellation Satellite System

Authors: Naveen Kumar Perumalla, Devadas Kuna, Mohammed Akhter Ali


Satellite Navigation System such as the United States Global Positioning System (GPS) plays a significant role in determining the user position. Similar to that of GPS, Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS) is a Satellite Navigation System indigenously developed by Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO), India, to meet the country’s navigation applications. This system is also known as Navigation with Indian Constellation (NavIC). The NavIC system’s main objective, is to offer Positioning, Navigation and Timing (PNT) services to users in its two service areas i.e., covering the Indian landmass and the Indian Ocean. Six NavIC satellites are already deployed in the space and their receivers are in the performance evaluation stage. Four NavIC dual frequency receivers are installed in the ‘Advanced GNSS Research Laboratory’ (AGRL) in the Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, University College of Engineering, Osmania University, India. The NavIC receivers can be operated in two positioning modes: Stand-alone IRNSS and Hybrid (IRNSS+GPS) modes. In this paper, analysis of various parameters such as Dilution of Precision (DoP), three Dimension (3D) Root Mean Square (RMS) Position Error and Horizontal Position Error with respect to Visibility of Satellites is being carried out using the real-time IRNSS data, obtained by operating the receiver in both positioning modes. Two typical days (6th July 2017 and 7th July 2017) are considered for Hyderabad (Latitude-17°24'28.07’N, Longitude-78°31'4.26’E) station are analyzed. It is found that with respect to the considered parameters, the Hybrid mode operation of NavIC receiver is giving better results than that of the standalone positioning mode. This work finds application in development of NavIC receivers for civilian navigation applications.

Keywords: DoP, GPS, IRNSS, GNSS, position error, satellite visibility

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14535 Application of Supervised Deep Learning-based Machine Learning to Manage Smart Homes

Authors: Ahmed Al-Adaileh


Renewable energy sources, domestic storage systems, controllable loads and machine learning technologies will be key components of future smart homes management systems. An energy management scheme that uses a Deep Learning (DL) approach to support the smart home management systems, which consist of a standalone photovoltaic system, storage unit, heating ventilation air-conditioning system and a set of conventional and smart appliances, is presented. The objective of the proposed scheme is to apply DL-based machine learning to predict various running parameters within a smart home's environment to achieve maximum comfort levels for occupants, reduced electricity bills, and less dependency on the public grid. The problem is using Reinforcement learning, where decisions are taken based on applying the Continuous-time Markov Decision Process. The main contribution of this research is the proposed framework that applies DL to enhance the system's supervised dataset to offer unlimited chances to effectively support smart home systems. A case study involving a set of conventional and smart appliances with dedicated processing units in an inhabited building can demonstrate the validity of the proposed framework. A visualization graph can show "before" and "after" results.

Keywords: smart homes systems, machine learning, deep learning, Markov Decision Process

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14534 Standalone Docking Station with Combined Charging Methods for Agricultural Mobile Robots

Authors: Leonor Varandas, Pedro D. Gaspar, Martim L. Aguiar


One of the biggest concerns in the field of agriculture is around the energy efficiency of robots that will perform agriculture’s activity and their charging methods. In this paper, two different charging methods for agricultural standalone docking stations are shown that will take into account various variants as field size and its irregularities, work’s nature to which the robot will perform, deadlines that have to be respected, among others. Its features also are dependent on the orchard, season, battery type and its technical specifications and cost. First charging base method focuses on wireless charging, presenting more benefits for small field. The second charging base method relies on battery replacement being more suitable for large fields, thus avoiding the robot stop for recharge. Existing many methods to charge a battery, the CC CV was considered the most appropriate for either simplicity or effectiveness. The choice of the battery for agricultural purposes is if most importance. While the most common battery used is Li-ion battery, this study also discusses the use of graphene-based new type of batteries with 45% over capacity to the Li-ion one. A Battery Management Systems (BMS) is applied for battery balancing. All these approaches combined showed to be a promising method to improve a lot of technical agricultural work, not just in terms of plantation and harvesting but also about every technique to prevent harmful events like plagues and weeds or even to reduce crop time and cost.

Keywords: agricultural mobile robot, charging methods, battery replacement method, wireless charging method

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14533 Application Potential of Forward Osmosis-Nanofiltration Hybrid Process for the Treatment of Mining Waste Water

Authors: Ketan Mahawer, Abeer Mutto, S. K. Gupta


The mining wastewater contains inorganic metal salts, which makes it saline and additionally contributes to contaminating the surface and underground freshwater reserves that exist nearby mineral processing industries. Therefore, treatment of wastewater and water recovery is obligatory by any available technology before disposing it into the environment. Currently, reverse osmosis (RO) is the commercially acceptable conventional membrane process for saline wastewater treatment, but consumes an enormous amount of energy and makes the process expensive. To solve this industrial problem with minimum energy consumption, we tested the feasibility of forward osmosis-nanofiltration (FO-NF) hybrid process for the mining wastewater treatment. The FO-NF process experimental results for 0.029M concentration of saline wastewater treated by 0.42 M sodium-sulfate based draw solution shows that specific energy consumption of the FO-NF process compared with standalone NF was slightly above (between 0.5-1 kWh/m3) from conventional process. However, average freshwater recovery was 30% more from standalone NF with same feed and operating conditions. Hence, FO-NF process in place of RO/NF offers a huge possibility for treating mining industry wastewater and concentrates the metals as the by-products without consuming an excessive/large amount of energy and in addition, mitigates the fouling in long periods of treatment, which also decreases the maintenance and replacement cost of the separation process.

Keywords: forward osmosis, nanofiltration, mining, draw solution, divalent solute

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14532 Optimal MPPT Charging Battery System for Photovoltaic Standalone Applications

Authors: Kelaiaia Mounia Samira, Labar Hocine, Mesbah Tarek, Kelaiaia samia


The photovoltaic panel produces green power, and because of its availability across the globe, it can supply isolated loads (site away of the electrical network or difficult of access). Unfortunately this energy remains very expensive. The most application of these types of power needs storage devices, the Lithium batteries are commonly used because of its powerful storage capability. Using a solar panel or an array of panels without a controller that can perform MPPT will often result in wasted power, which results in the need to install more panels for the same power requirement. For devices that have the battery connected directly to the panel, this will also result in premature battery failure or capacity loss. In this paper it is proposed a modified P&O algorithm for the MPPT which takes in account the battery’s internal resistance vs temperature and stage of charging. Of course the temperature variation and irradiation of the PV panel are also introduced.

Keywords: modeling, battery, MPPT, charging, PV Panel

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14531 Solar System with Plate Heat Exchanger

Authors: Christer Frennfelt


Solar heating is the most environmentally friendly way to heat water. Brazed Plate Heat Exchangers (BPHEs) are a key component in many solar heating applications for harvesting solar energy into accumulator tanks, producing hot tap water, and heating pools. The combination of high capacity in a compact format, efficient heat transfer, and fast response makes the BPHE the ideal heat exchanger for solar thermal systems. Solar heating is common as a standalone heat source, and as an add-on heat source for boilers, heat pumps, or district heating systems. An accumulator provides the possibility to store heat, which enables combination of different heat sources to a larger extent. In turn this works as protection to reduced access to energy or increased energy prices. For example heat from solar panels is preferably stored during the day for use at night.

Keywords: district heating and cooling, thermal storage, brazed plate heat exchanger, solar domestic hot water and combisystems

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