Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 418

Search results for: distress sale

418 Modelling Distress Sale in Agriculture: Evidence from Maharashtra, India

Authors: Disha Bhanot, Vinish Kathuria

Abstract:

This study focusses on the issue of distress sale in horticulture sector in India, which faces unique challenges, given the perishable nature of horticulture crops, seasonal production and paucity of post-harvest produce management links. Distress sale, from a farmer’s perspective may be defined as urgent sale of normal or distressed goods, at deeply discounted prices (way below the cost of production) and it is usually characterized by unfavorable conditions for the seller (farmer). The small and marginal farmers, often involved in subsistence farming, stand to lose substantially if they receive lower prices than expected prices (typically framed in relation to cost of production). Distress sale maximizes price uncertainty of produce leading to substantial income loss; and with increase in input costs of farming, the high variability in harvest price severely affects profit margin of farmers, thereby affecting their survival. The objective of this study is to model the occurrence of distress sale by tomato cultivators in the Indian state of Maharashtra, against the background of differential access to set of factors such as - capital, irrigation facilities, warehousing, storage and processing facilities, and institutional arrangements for procurement etc. Data is being collected using primary survey of over 200 farmers in key tomato growing areas of Maharashtra, asking information on the above factors in addition to seeking information on cost of cultivation, selling price, time gap between harvesting and selling, role of middleman in selling, besides other socio-economic variables. Farmers selling their produce far below the cost of production would indicate an occurrence of distress sale. Occurrence of distress sale would then be modelled as a function of farm, household and institutional characteristics. Heckman-two-stage model would be applied to find the probability/likelihood of a famer falling into distress sale as well as to ascertain how the extent of distress sale varies in presence/absence of various factors. Findings of the study would recommend suitable interventions and promotion of strategies that would help farmers better manage price uncertainties, avoid distress sale and increase profit margins, having direct implications on poverty.

Keywords: distress sale, horticulture, income loss, India, price uncertainity

Procedia PDF Downloads 120
417 Self-Esteem, Self-Efficacy and Psychological Distress among the High School Teachers in Afghanistan

Authors: Mustafa Jahanara

Abstract:

The purpose of the research was to study the relationship between self-esteem, self-Efficacy with psychological distress in the high school teachers. A total of 245 teachers (92 male and 153 female) in the high school of Kabul and Mazar-e-Sharif from Afghanistan completed inventories General Self-Efficacy, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and General Health Questionnaire-12 and that assessed their Self-Efficacy, self-esteem with psychological distress. Correlational analysis showed that self-efficacy and self-esteem were significantly and positively correlated with each other. The results of the study indicated that psychological distress is negatively related to self-esteem, and self-efficacy. However, the findings suggest that self-esteem, and self-efficacy could influence on mental health.

Keywords: high school teachers, self-esteem, self-efficacy, psychological distress

Procedia PDF Downloads 270
416 Monitoring the Fiscal Health of Taiwan’s Local Government: Application of the 10-Point Scale of Fiscal Distress

Authors: Yuan-Hong Ho, Chiung-Ju Huang

Abstract:

This article presents a monitoring indicators system that predicts whether a local government in Taiwan is heading for fiscal distress and identifies a suitable fiscal policy that would allow the local government to achieve fiscal balance in the long run. This system is relevant to stockholders’ interest, simple for national audit bodies to use, and provides an early warning of fiscal distress that allows preventative action to be taken.

Keywords: fiscal health, fiscal distress, monitoring signals, 10-point scale

Procedia PDF Downloads 373
415 A-Score, Distress Prediction Model with Earning Response during the Financial Crisis: Evidence from Emerging Market

Authors: Sumaira Ashraf, Elisabete G.S. Félix, Zélia Serrasqueiro

Abstract:

Traditional financial distress prediction models performed well to predict bankrupt and insolvent firms of the developed markets. Previous studies particularly focused on the predictability of financial distress, financial failure, and bankruptcy of firms. This paper contributes to the literature by extending the definition of financial distress with the inclusion of early warning signs related to quotation of face value, dividend/bonus declaration, annual general meeting, and listing fee. The study used five well-known distress prediction models to see if they have the ability to predict early warning signs of financial distress. Results showed that the predictive ability of the models varies over time and decreases specifically for the sample with early warning signs of financial distress. Furthermore, the study checked the differences in the predictive ability of the models with respect to the financial crisis. The results conclude that the predictive ability of the traditional financial distress prediction models decreases for the firms with early warning signs of financial distress and during the time of financial crisis. The study developed a new model comprising significant variables from the five models and one new variable earning response. This new model outperforms the old distress prediction models before, during and after the financial crisis. Thus, it can be used by researchers, organizations and all other concerned parties to indicate early warning signs for the emerging markets.

Keywords: financial distress, emerging market, prediction models, Z-Score, logit analysis, probit model

Procedia PDF Downloads 152
414 The Role of Brooding and Reflective as Subtypes of Rumination toward Psychological Distress in University of Indonesia First-Year Undergraduate Students

Authors: Hepinda Fajari Nuharini, Sugiarti A. Musabiq

Abstract:

Background: Various and continuous pressures that exceed individual resources can cause first-year undergraduate college students to experience psychological distress. Psychological distress can occur when individuals use rumination as cognitive coping strategies. Rumination is one of the cognitive coping strategies that can be used by individuals to respond to psychological distress that causes individuals to think about the causes and consequences of events that have occurred. Rumination had two subtypes, such as brooding and reflective. Therefore, the purpose of this study was determining the role of brooding and reflective as subtypes of rumination toward psychological distress in University of Indonesia first-year undergraduate students. Methods: Participants of this study were 403 University of Indonesia first-year undergraduate students aged between 18 and 21 years old. Psychological distress measured using self reporting questionnaire (SRQ-20) and brooding and reflective as subtypes of rumination measured using Ruminative Response Scale - Short Version (RRS - Short Version). Results: Binary logistic regression analyses showed that 22.8% of the variation in psychological distress could be explained by the brooding and reflective as subtypes of rumination, while 77.2% of the variation in psychological distress could be explained by other factors (Nagelkerke R² = 0,228). The results of the binary logistic regression analysis also showed rumination subtype brooding is a significant predictor of psychological distress (b = 0,306; p < 0.05), whereas rumination subtype reflective is not a significant predictor of psychological distress (b = 0,073; p > 0.05). Conclusion: The findings of this study showed a positive relationship between brooding and psychological distress indicates that a higher level of brooding will predict higher psychological distress. Meanwhile, a negative relationship between reflective and psychological distress indicates a higher level of reflective will predict lower psychological distress in University of Indonesia first-year undergraduate students. Added Values: The psychological distress among first-year undergraduate students would then have an impact on student academic performance. Therefore, the results of this study can be used as a reference for making preventive action to reduce the percentage and impact of psychological distress among first-year undergraduate students.

Keywords: brooding as subtypes of rumination, first-year undergraduate students, psychological distress, reflective as subtypes of rumination

Procedia PDF Downloads 42
413 Optimism, Hope and Mental Health: Optimism, Hope, Psychological Well-Being and Psychological Distress among Students, University of Pune, India

Authors: Mustafa Jahanara

Abstract:

The purpose of the current study is to examine the relationships between hope, optimism and mental health (psychological well-being and psychological distress) among students. A total of 222 students (132 males and 90 females) at the University of Pune from India completed inventories Revision of the Life Orientation Test (LOT-R), the Trait Hope Scale (THS) and the Mental Health Inventory (MHI) that assessed their optimism, hope and psychological well-being and psychological distress. The results of the study showed that optimism and hope were significantly correlated with each other. Optimism is positively related to psychological well-being and optimism is negatively related to psychological distress. Also, hope was positively related to psychological well-being. However, the findings suggest that optimism and hope could influence on mental health.

Keywords: Hope, optimism, psychological distress, psychological well-being

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
412 The Relationship between Top Management Replacement and Risk, Sale and Cash Volatilities with Respect to Unqualified Audit Opinion

Authors: Mehdi Dasineh, Yadollah Tariverdi, Marzieh H. Takhti

Abstract:

This paper investigated the relationship between top management turnover with risk volatility, sale volatility and fluctuations in the company's cash depending on the unqualified audit report in Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE). In this study, we examined 104 firms over the period 2009-2014 which were selected from (TSE). There was 624 observed year-company data in this research. Hypotheses of this research have been evaluated by using regression tests for example F-statistical and Durbin-Watson. Based on our sample we found significant relationship between top management replacement and risk volatility, sale Volatility and cash volatility with tendency unqualified audit opinion.

Keywords: top management replacement, risk volatility, sale volatility, cash volatility, unqualified audit opinion

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
411 Definition, Barriers to and Facilitators of Moral Distress as Perceived by Neonatal Intensive Care Physicians

Authors: M. Deligianni, P. Voultsos, E. Tsamadou

Abstract:

Background/Introduction: Moral distress is a common occurrence for health professionals working in neonatal critical care. Despite a growing number of critically ill neonatal and pediatric patients, only a few articles related to moral distress as experienced by neonatal physicians have been published over the last years. Objectives/Aims: The aim of this study was to define and identify barriers to and facilitators of moral distress based on the perceptions and experiences of neonatal physicians working in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). This pilot study is a part of a larger nationwide project. Methods: A multicenter qualitative descriptive study using focus group methodology was conducted. In-depth interviews lasting 45 to 60 minutes were audio-recorded. Once data were transcribed, conventional content analysis was used to develop the definition and categories, as well as to identify the barriers to and facilitators of moral distress. Results: Participants defined moral distress broadly in the context of neonatal critical care. A wide variation of definitions was displayed. The physicians' responses to moral distress included different feelings and other situations. The overarching categories that emerged from the data were patient-related, family-related, and physician-related factors. Moreover, organizational factors may constitute major facilitators of moral distress among neonatal physicians in NICUs. Note, however, that moral distress may be regarded as an essential component to caring for neonates in critical care. The present study provides further insight into the moral distress experienced by physicians working in Greek NICUs. Discussion/Conclusions: Understanding how neonatal and pediatric critical care nurses define moral distress and what contributes to its development is foundational to developing targeted strategies for mitigating the prevalence of moral distress among neonate physicians in the context of NICUs.

Keywords: critical care, moral distress, neonatal physician, neonatal intensive care unit, NICU

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
410 The Relationship of Emotional Intelligence, Perceived Stress, Religious Coping with Psychological Distress among Afghan Students

Authors: Mustafa Jahanara

Abstract:

The aim of present research was to study of the relationship between emotional intelligence, perceived stress, positive religious coping with psychological distress to in a sample of undergraduate students in Polytechnic University in Kabul. One hundred and fifty-tow students (102 male, 50 female) were included in this study. All participants completed the Emotional Intelligence Scale (EIS), General Health Questionnaire (GHQ 12), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10), and the Brief RCOPE. The results revealed that EI was negatively associated with perceived stress and psychological distress. Also emotional intelligence was positively correlated with positive religious coping. Perceived stress was positive related with psychological distress and negatively correlated with positive religious coping. Eventually positive religious coping was significantly and negatively correlated with psychological distress. However, emotional intelligence and positive religious coping could influence on mental health.

Keywords: emotional intelligence, perceived stress, positive religious coping, psychological distress

Procedia PDF Downloads 414
409 The Exploration of Persuasive Skills and Participants Characteristics in Pyramid-Sale: A Qualitative Study

Authors: Xing Yan Fan, Xing Lin Xu, Man Yuan Chen, Pei Tzu Lee, Yu Ting Wang, Yi Xiao Cao, Rui Yao

Abstract:

Pyramid sales have been a widespread issue in China. Victims who are defrauded not only lose money but damage interpersonal relationship. A deeper understanding of pyramid-sale models can be beneficial to prevent potential victims from fraud and improve the property security. The goals of this study were to detect psychological characteristics of pyramid-sale sellers, and analyse persuasive skills in pyramid organizations. A qualitative study was conducted in this study. Participants (n=6) recruited by 'snowball' sampling from present pyramid-sale sellers (n=3) and imprisoned pyramid-sale sellers (n=3). All participants accepted semi-structured interview for collecting data. Content analysis was adopted for data coding and analysis. The results indicate that pyramid organizations are used to utilize their appearance packaging and celebrity effect to strengthen the positions in participants’ mind. The status gap between pyramid-sale sellers in same organization, as well as rewards to increase reputation, are used to motivate participants in pyramid. The most significant common characteristics among all participants are that they tend to possess a high sense of belongingness within the firm. Moreover, the expression of pyramid-sale sellers on gambling mentality is expected to growth as constantly losing money. Findings suggest that the psychological characteristics of pyramid-sale sellers in accordance with Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, persuasive skills of pyramid organization confront to 'attitude-behaviour change model'. These findings have implication on 'immune education' that providing guidance for victims out of stuck and protecting ordinary people from the jeopardizing of pyramid sales.

Keywords: pyramid sales, characteristics, persuasive skills, qualitative study

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
408 The Link between Childhood Maltreatment and Psychological Distress: The Mediation and Moderation Roles of Cognitive Distortion, Alexithymia, and Eudemonic Well-Being

Authors: Siqi Fang, Man Cheung Chung

Abstract:

This study examined the inter-relationship between childhood maltreatment, cognitive distortion, alexithymia, eudemonic well-being, and psychological distress. One hundred and eighty-two university students participated in the study and completed an online survey comprising the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, Cognitive Distortion Scale, Toronto Alexithymia Scale, Psychological Well-Being Scale, and General Health Questionnaire-28. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed that child maltreatment, perceptions of hopelessness and helplessness, preoccupation with danger, personal growth, and purpose in life predicted psychological distress. However, alexithymia was not a significant predictor. Further analysis using the regression models with bootstrapping procedure showed that feeling hopeless, helpless and preoccupation with danger mediated the path between child maltreatment and psychological distress. Meanwhile, coping with beliefs in personal growth and life purpose moderated the mediation effects of distorted cognition on psychological distress. To conclude, childhood maltreatment is associated with psychological distress. This relationship is influenced by people’s perceptions of life being hopeless, helpless or dangerous. At the same time, the effect of hopelessness, helplessness, and feelings of danger also depends on the degree of using coping strategies of positive psychological functioning.

Keywords: alexithymia, childhood maltreatment, cognitive distortion, eudemonic well-being, psychological distress

Procedia PDF Downloads 243
407 The Role of Psychosis Proneness in the Association of Metacognition with Psychological Distress in Non-Clinical Population

Authors: Usha Barahmand, Ruhollah Heydari Sheikh Ahmad

Abstract:

Distress refers to an unpleasant metal state or emotional suffering marked by negative affect such as depression (e.g., lost interest; sadness; hopelessness), anxiety (e.g., restlessness; feeling tense). These negative affect have been mostly suggested to be concomitant of metal disorders such as positive psychosis symptoms and also of proneness to psychotic features in non-clinical population. Psychotic features proneness including hallucination, delusion and schizotypal traits, have been found to be associated with metacognitive beliefs. Metacognition has been conceptualized as ‘thinking about thoughts, monitoring and controlling of cognitive processes’. The aim of the current study was to investigate the role of psychosis proneness in the association of metacognitions and distress. We predicted psychosis proneness would mediate the association of metacognitive beliefs and the distress. A sample of 420 university students was randomly recruited to endorse questionnaires of the study that consisted of DASS-21questionnaire for assessing levels of distress, Cartwright–Hatton & Wells, Meta-cognitions Questionnaire (MCQ-30) for assessing metacognitive beliefs, Launay-Slade Hallucination Scale-revised (LSHS-R), Peters et al. Delusions Inventory, Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief. Conducting a bootstrapping approach in order to investigate our hypothesis, the result showed that there was no a direct association between metacognitive dimensions and psychological distress and psychosis proneness significantly mediated the association. Finding suggested that individuals with dysfunctional metacognitive beliefs experience high levels of distress if they are prone to psychosis symptoms. In other words, psychosis proneness is a path through which individuals with dysfunctional metacognitions experience high levels of psychological distress.

Keywords: metacognition, non-clinical population, psychological distress, psychosis proneness

Procedia PDF Downloads 268
406 Assets and Health: Examining the Asset-Building Theoretical Framework and Psychological Distress

Authors: Einav Srulovici, Michal Grinstein-Weiss, George Knafl, Linda Beeber, Shawn Kneipp, Barbara Mark

Abstract:

Background: The asset-building theoretical framework (ABTF) is acknowledged as the most complete framework thus far for depicting the relationships between asset accumulation (the stock of a household’s saved resources available for future investment) and health outcomes. Although the ABTF takes into consideration the reciprocal relationship between asset accumulation and health, no ABTF based study has yet examined this relationship. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to test the ABTF and psychological distress, focusing on the reciprocal relationship between assets accumulation and psychological distress. Methods: The study employed longitudinal data from 6,295 families from the 2001 and 2007 Panel Study of Income Dynamics data sets. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test the reciprocal relationship between asset accumulation and psychological distress. Results: In general, the data displayed a good fit to the model. The longitudinal SEM found that asset accumulation significantly increased with a decreased in psychological distress over time, while psychological distress significantly increased with an increase in asset accumulation over time, confirming the existence of the hypothesized reciprocal relationship. Conclusions: Individuals who are less psychological distressed might have more energy to engage in activities, such as furthering their education or obtaining better jobs that are in turn associated with greater asset accumulation, while those who have greater assets may invest those assets in riskier investments, resulting in increased psychological distress. The confirmation of this reciprocal relationship highlights the importance of conducting longitudinal studies and testing the reciprocal relationship between asset accumulation and other health outcomes.

Keywords: asset-building theoretical framework, psychological distress, structural equation modeling, reciprocal relationship

Procedia PDF Downloads 287
405 Links between Moral Distress of Registered Nurses and Factors Related to Patient Care at the End of Their Life: A Cross Sectional Survey

Authors: L. Laurs, A. Blazeviciene, D. Milonas

Abstract:

Introduction: Nursing as a profession is grounded in moral obligation. Nursing practice is grounded in ethical standards: to not harm, to promote justice, to be accountable, and to provide safe and competent care. The nature of the nurse-patient therapeutic relationship requires acting on the patient's behalf. Moral distress consists of negative stress symptoms that occur in situations that involve ethical situations that the nurse perceives as discordant with their professional values. Aim of the Study: The purpose of this study was to assess links between moral distress of registered nurses and factors related to patient care at the end of their life. Methods and Sample: A descriptive, cross-sectional, correlational design was applied in this study. Registered nurses were recruited from seven municipal multi-profile hospitals providing both general and specialized healthcare services in Lithuania (N=1055). Research instruments included two questionnaires: Obstacles and Facilitating at the End of Life Care and Moral Distress Scale (revised). Results: Spearman’s correlation analysis was performed to assess the relationship between nurses' attitudes towards patient care at the end of life and the experienced moral distress. A statistically significant correlation between moral distress and the following factors related to patient end-of-life care has been identified: conversations with physicians on patient end-of-life problems have a positive impact on job satisfaction; some patients may be excluded from decisions about their treatment and nursing because they are questioned about their ability to assess the situation. These situations increased moral distress. Patient consciousness should not be permanently suppressed by calming medications, and the patient should be provided with all nursing care services and moral distress. Conclusions: The moral distress of nurses is significantly related to the end-of-life care of patients and their determinants: moral distress increased due to lack of discussion with doctors about problem-solving and exclusion of patients from decision-making. And it diminished by refusing calming medications to permanently suppress a patient's consciousness and providing good care for patients.

Keywords: moral distress, registered nurses, end of life, care

Procedia PDF Downloads 41
404 Early Warning System of Financial Distress Based On Credit Cycle Index

Authors: Bi-Huei Tsai

Abstract:

Previous studies on financial distress prediction choose the conventional failing and non-failing dichotomy; however, the distressed extent differs substantially among different financial distress events. To solve the problem, “non-distressed”, “slightly-distressed” and “reorganization and bankruptcy” are used in our article to approximate the continuum of corporate financial health. This paper explains different financial distress events using the two-stage method. First, this investigation adopts firm-specific financial ratios, corporate governance and market factors to measure the probability of various financial distress events based on multinomial logit models. Specifically, the bootstrapping simulation is performed to examine the difference of estimated misclassifying cost (EMC). Second, this work further applies macroeconomic factors to establish the credit cycle index and determines the distressed cut-off indicator of the two-stage models using such index. Two different models, one-stage and two-stage prediction models, are developed to forecast financial distress, and the results acquired from different models are compared with each other, and with the collected data. The findings show that the two-stage model incorporating financial ratios, corporate governance and market factors has the lowest misclassification error rate. The two-stage model is more accurate than the one-stage model as its distressed cut-off indicators are adjusted according to the macroeconomic-based credit cycle index.

Keywords: Multinomial logit model, corporate governance, company failure, reorganization, bankruptcy

Procedia PDF Downloads 296
403 Geotechnical Distress Evaluation of a Damaged Structure

Authors: Zulfiqar Ali, Umar Saleem, Muhammad Junaid, Rizwan Tahir

Abstract:

Gulzar Mahal is a heritage site located in the city of Bahawalpur, Pakistan. The site is under a process of degradation, as cracks are appearing on the walls, roofs, and floor around the building due to differential settlement. To preserve the integrity of the structure, a geotechnical distress evaluation was carried out to evaluate the causal factors and recommend remediation measures. The research involved the characterization of the problematic soil and analysis of the observed distress with respect to the geotechnical properties. Both conventional lab and field tests were used in conjunction with the unconventional techniques like; Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) and FEA. The temporal, geophysical and geotechnical evaluations have concluded that the foundation soil over the past was subjected to variations in the land use, poor drainage patterns, overloading and fluctuations in groundwater table all contributing to the differential settlements manifesting in the form of the visible shear crack across the length and breadth of the building.

Keywords: differential settlement, distress evaluation, finite element analysis, Gulzar Mahal

Procedia PDF Downloads 41
402 The Relationship Between Quality of Life, Psychological Distress and Coping Strategies of Persons Living with HIV/AIDS in Cairo, Egypt

Authors: Sumaia Jawad, Shalaweh Salem, Walid Kamal, Nicolette Roman

Abstract:

Background: HIV patients have many social problems like depression, which adversely affects their quality of life. HIV infection is linked to psychological distress such as anxiety. In terms of coping styles, avoidant emotion-focused strategies such as fatalism, wishful thinking and self-blame are associated with higher levels of psychological distress in persons with HIV. In Cairo, Egypt current services are not adapted to provide advice and psychological support to people living with HIV to help them develop problem-solving skills to cope with the stress of living with HIV. Yet, no studies have examined the relationship between quality of life, psychological distress and coping strategies of persons living with HIV/AIDS in Egypt. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between quality of life, psychological distress and coping strategies of persons living with HIV/AIDS in Cairo, Egypt. Methods: This study used a quantitative methodology with a cross-sectional correlational design. The data was collected using: Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire (Q-LES-Q), Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) and Cope Inventory. The sample consisted of 202 participants who accessed the National AIDS Program (NAP). The data was analysed using the Statistical Program for Social Science V23 (SPSS). Results: The results show that psychological distress and certain coping styles such as substance abuse and behavioural disengagement negatively predict the quality of life of patients with HIV/AIDS. Positive predictors included coping styles such as active coping, self-distraction, venting, positive reframing, humor, acceptance, and religion. Conclusions: It would probably be best to reduce psychological distress and increase coping styles in order to improve the quality of life of patients with HIV/AIDS.

Keywords: HIV/AIDS, quality of life, psychological distress, coping strategies

Procedia PDF Downloads 291
401 Personality-Focused Intervention for Adolescents: Impact on Bullying and Distress

Authors: Erin V. Kelly, Nicola C. Newton, Lexine A. Stapinski, Maree Teesson

Abstract:

Introduction: There is a lack of targeted prevention programs for reducing bullying and distress among adolescents involved in bullying. The current study aimed to examine the impact of a personality-targeted intervention (Preventure) on bullying (victimization and perpetration) and distress among adolescent victims/bullies with high-risk personality types. Method: A cluster randomized trial (RCT) was conducted in 26 secondary schools (2190 students) in NSW and Victoria, Australia, as part of the Climate Schools and Preventure trial. The schools were randomly allocated to Preventure (13 schools received Preventure, 13 did not). Students were followed up at 4 time points (6, 12, 24 and 36 months post-baseline). Preventure involves two group sessions, based on cognitive behavioral therapy, and tailored to four personality types shown to increase risk of substance misuse and other emotional and behavioural problems, including impulsivity, sensation-seeking, anxiety sensitivity and hopelessness. Students were allocated to the personality-targeted groups based on their scores on the Substance Use Risk Profile Scale. Bullying was measured using an amended version of the Revised Olweus Bully/Victim Scale. Psychological distress was measured using the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale. Results: Among high-risk students classified as victims at baseline, those in Preventure schools reported significantly less victimization and distress over time than those in control schools. Among high-risk students classified as bullies at baseline, those in Preventure schools reported significantly less distress over time than those in control schools (no difference for perpetration). Conclusion: Preventure is a promising intervention for reducing bullying victimization and psychological distress among adolescents involved in bullying.

Keywords: adolescents, bullying, personality, prevention

Procedia PDF Downloads 155
400 Challenge Appraisal Job, Hindrance Appraisal Job, and Negative Work-Life Interaction with the Mediating Role of Distress: A Survey on Sabah Public Secondary School Teachers

Authors: Pan Lee Ching, Chua Bee Seok

Abstract:

The experience of negative work-life interaction often confronted with work related stress includes workload. The appraisal of challenge and hindrance jobs depend on the type of workload to stimulate stress response. Nevertheless, the effects of challenge and hindrance jobs on distress and negative work-life interaction are scarcely explored. Thus, research objective was to examine the relationship among challenge appraisal job (qualitative workload), hindrance appraisal job (quantitative workload), and negative work-life interaction with the mediating role of distress. A survey with random sampling method was performed on current serving public secondary school teachers in Sabah. Collected data showed 447 respondents completed three questionnaires, namely Challenge-hindrance Appraisal Scale, Stress Professional Positive and Negative Questionnaire, and Survey Work-home Interaction-Nijmegan. Partial Least Square-Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) was used to analyse mediation effect. Results showed distress fully mediates the relationship between challenge appraisal job (qualitative workload) and negative work-life interaction. The indirect effect was significant and negative. While distress partially mediates the relationship between hindrance appraisal job (quantitative workload) and negative work-life interaction. The indirect effect was significant and positive. The study implied that challenge appraisal job could be a positive resource for teacher to facilitate work and life, whereas hindrance appraisal job could disengage the facilitation. Hence, strengthen challenge appraisal job and control hindrance appraisal job could curb distress at work and underpin life interaction among the teachers.

Keywords: challenge-hindrance job, distress, work-life, workload

Procedia PDF Downloads 105
399 Predicting Financial Distress in South Africa

Authors: Nikki Berrange, Gizelle Willows

Abstract:

Business rescue has become increasingly popular since its inclusion in the Companies Act of South Africa in May 2011. The Alternate Exchange (AltX) of the Johannesburg Stock Exchange has experienced a marked increase in the number of companies entering business rescue. This study sampled twenty companies listed on the AltX to determine whether Altman’s Z-score model for emerging markets (ZEM) or Taffler’s Z-score model is a more accurate model in predicting financial distress for small to medium size companies in South Africa. The study was performed over three different time horizons; one, two and three years prior to the event of financial distress, in order to determine how many companies each model predicted would be unlikely to succeed as well as the predictive ability and accuracy of the respective models. The study found that Taffler’s Z-score model had a greater ability at predicting financial distress from all three-time horizons.

Keywords: Altman’s ZEM-score, Altman’s Z-score, AltX, business rescue, Taffler’s Z-score

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
398 Causes of Deteriorations of Flexible Pavement, Its Condition Rating and Maintenance

Authors: Pooja Kherudkar, Namdeo Hedaoo

Abstract:

There are various causes for asphalt pavement distresses which can develop prematurely or with aging in services. These causes are not limited to aging of bitumen binder but include poor quality materials and construction, inadequate mix design, inadequate pavement structure design considering the traffic and lack of preventive maintenance. There is physical evidence available for each type of pavement distress. Distress in asphalt pavements can be categorized in different distress modes like fracture (cracking and spalling), distortion (permanent deformation and slippage), and disintegration (raveling and potholes). This study shows the importance of severity determination of distresses for the selection of appropriate preventive maintenance treatment. Distress analysis of the deteriorated roads was carried out. Four roads of urban flexible pavements from Pune city was selected as a case study. The roads were surveyed to detect the types, to measure the severity and extent of the distresses. Causes of distresses were investigated. The pavement condition rating values of the roads were calculated. These ranges of ratings were as follows; 1 for poor condition road, 1.1 to 2 for fair condition road and 2.1 to 3 for good condition road. Out of the four roads, two roads were found to be in fair condition and the other two were found in good condition. From the various preventive maintenance treatments like crack seal, fog seal, slurry seal, microsurfacing, surface dressing and thin hot mix/cold mix bituminous overlays, the effective maintenance treatments with respect to the surface condition and severity levels of the existing pavement were recommended.

Keywords: distress analysis, pavement condition rating, preventive maintenance treatments, surface distress measurement

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
397 Food Insecurity and Mental Health among Adolescents in Southwest Ethiopia: Structural Equation Modeling Analysis

Authors: Mulusew G. Jebena, David Lindstrom, Tefera Belachew, Craig Hadley, Carl Lachat, Patrick Kolsteren

Abstract:

Background: The biological and psychosocial consequence of food insecurity on physical health and nutritional status has been reported. But, its effect on mental health during adolescence remains unexplored. Thus, the main aim of this analysis is to examine the mechanism by which food insecurity is linked to mental health among adolescents living in Jimma, Southwest Ethiopia. Methods: We used data from third round observation of Jimma Longitudinal Family and Youth Survey (JLFSY). A total of 1,521 adolescents included for the main analysis. Food insecurity was measured using 5-items scale and The Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20) was used to measure mental distress. Structural equation modeling analysis was done using maximum likelihood estimation method. Model diagnostics test was reported. All p values were two tailed and P value ≤ 0.05 was used to determine statistical significance. Results: The prevalence of mental distress was 20.8%, 95% CI: (18.8, 22.9). After adjusted for covariates, the final model depicts food insecurity was associated with adolescent mental distress (β=.324). This analysis showed 94.1% of the effect of food insecurity on mental distress is direct. By contrast, 5.9% of the food insecurity effect is mediated by physical health. In addition, Self-rated health (β=.356), socioeconomic status (β=-.078) parental educational (β= .170), living in urban (β= .193) and female headed household (β=.205) were associated with adolescent mental distress. Conclusions: This finding highlights the direct effect of food insecurity on adolescent mental distress. Therefore, any intervention aimed to improve mental distress of adolescents should consider strategies to improve access to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food. Beside this, prevention of underlying factors such as psychosomatic health illness and improving socio economic status is also very critical. Furthermore longitudinal relationship of the long term effect of food insecurity on mental health should be investigated.

Keywords: adolescent, Ethiopia, food insecurity, mental health

Procedia PDF Downloads 497
396 The Comparison of the Effect of Mindfulness-Based Relaxation Training and Trans Cranial Electrical Stimulation and Their Combination on Decreasing Physiological Distress in Patients with Type-2 Diabetes

Authors: Gholam Hossein Javanmard, Roghayeh Mohammadi Garegozlo

Abstract:

The present study was a randomized three-group double-blind clinical trial with repeated measures designs which aimed to determine the pure effect and combined effect of mindfulness based-relaxation (MBR) technique and Transcranial Electrical Simulation (tCES) on psychological distress decreasing of patients with type-2 diabetes. The sample of the study consisted of 30 patients with type-2 diabetes who were selected from the Diabetes Association of Bonab city in Iran. The participants were matched and then randomly assigned to the three groups of 10 subjects (MBR, CES, MBR+CES). The subjects received interventions related to their group in 10 individual sessions. Pre-test, post-test, and one-month follow-up were conducted using DASS-42. Analysis of variance with repeated measures showed a significant change in psychological distress. Multivariate covariance analysis and the paired interpersonal comparative test of Ben Foruni indicated that both interventions of MBR and CES have a similar effect on psychological distress decreasing in the post-test and follow-up phase. But, the combined therapy of MBR+CES was more efficient, and it had a more stable effect. However, all three interventions, especially combined intervention of MBR+CES, as efficient and stable treatment, are suggested for improving the psychological status of diabetic patients.

Keywords: mindfulness based-relaxation, transcranial electrical simulation, type 2 diabetes, psychological distress

Procedia PDF Downloads 48
395 Perceived Stigma, Perception of Burden and Psychological Distress among Parents of Intellectually Disable Children: Role of Perceived Social Support

Authors: Saima Shafiq, Najma Iqbal Malik

Abstract:

This study was aimed to explore the relationship of perceived stigma, perception of burden and psychological distress among parents of intellectually disabled children. The study also aimed to explore the moderating role of perceived social support on all the variables of the study. The sample of the study comprised of (N = 250) parents of intellectually disabled children. The present study utilized the co-relational research design. It consists of two phases. Phase-I consisted of two steps which contained the translation of two scales that were used in the present study and tried out on the sample of parents (N = 70). The Affiliated Stigma Scale and Care Giver Burden Inventory were translated into Urdu for the present study. Phase-1 revealed that translated scaled entailed satisfactory psychometric properties. Phase -II of the study was carried out in order to test the hypothesis. Correlation, linear regression analysis, and t-test were computed for hypothesis testing. Hierarchical regression analysis was applied to study the moderating effect of perceived social support. Findings revealed that there was a positive relationship between perceived stigma and psychological distress, perception of burden and psychological distress. Linear regression analysis showed that perceived stigma and perception of burden were positive predictors of psychological distress. The study did not show the moderating role of perceived social support among variables of the present study. The major limitation of the study is the sample size and the major implication is awareness regarding problems of parents of intellectually disabled children.

Keywords: perceived stigma, perception of burden, psychological distress, perceived social support

Procedia PDF Downloads 116
394 A Descriptive Study on Psychiatric Morbidity among Nurses Working in Selected Hospitals of Udupi and Mangalore Districts Karnataka, India

Authors: Tessy Treesa Jose, Sripathy M. Bhat

Abstract:

Nursing is recognized as a stressful occupation and has indicated a probable high prevalence of distress. It is a helping profession requiring a high degree of commitment and involvement. If stress is intense, continuous and repeated, it becomes a negative phenomenon or "distress," which can lead to physical illness and psychological disorders. The frequency of common psychosomatic symptoms including sleeping problems, tension headache, chronic fatigue, palpitation etc. may be an indicator of nurses’ work-related stress level. Objectives of the study were to determine psychiatric morbidity among nurses and to find its association with selected variables. The study population consisted of 1040 registered nurses working in selected medical college hospitals and government hospitals of Udupi and Mangalore districts. Descriptive survey design was used to conduct the study. Subjects were selected by using purposive sampling. Data were gathered by administering background proforma and General Health questionnaire. Severe distress was experienced by 0.9% of nurses and 5.6% had some evidence of distress. Subjects who did not have any distress were 93.5%. No significant association between psychiatric morbidity in nurses and demographic variables was observed. With regard to work variables significant association is observed between psychiatric morbidity and total years of experience (z=10.67, p=0.03) and experience in current area of work (z=9.43, p=0.02).

Keywords: psychiatric morbidity, nurse, selected hospitals, working

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
393 Development of Pediatric Medical Trauma Stress (PMTS) Among Children at Risk

Authors: Amichai Ben ari, Daniella Margalit

Abstract:

Medical procedures, such as surgery, may have traumatic significance for some children. This study examines the relationship between maltreatment in children and the development Pediatric Medical Traumatic Stress (PMTS). To this end, differences in the level of distress of children after surgery were examined between two groups: children who were maltreated ("children at risk") and children from the control group ("children who are not at risk"). The study involved 230 parents of children who came to the hospital to undergo surgery. Parents filled out demographic questionnaires to measure socioeconomic variables and psychological questionnaires to measure the distress of the child and parent before surgery. After 6 months from the time of surgery, the parents again filled in the questionnaire measuring the child's distress. The results of the study showed that the level of distress experienced by children at risk after surgery was significantly higher relative to children who are not at risk. It was also found that the level of distress experienced by parents of children at risk in relation to their child’s surgery is significantly higher compared to parents of children who are not at risk. Finally, it was found that the variables: (1) pre-morbid psychological functioning of the child. (2) Parental and family functioning in daily life. (3) Exposure of the child to traumatic events. (4) Support factors for the family. Are variables that predict the development of PMTS in children after surgery, but only for children at risk and not for children who are not at risk. The significance of the findings in relation to the need to identify at-risk populations in the hospitals and the policies derived from them were discussed, and several directions were raised for further research.

Keywords: children at risk, pediatric medical traumatic stress (PMTS), PTSD, medical procedures

Procedia PDF Downloads 20
392 Designing Inventory System with Constrained by Reducing Ordering Cost, Lead Time and Lost Sale Rate and Considering Random Disturbance in Ordering Quantity

Authors: Arezoo Heidary, Abolfazl Mirzazadeh, Aref Gholami-Qadikolaei

Abstract:

In the business environment it is very common that a lot received may not be equal to quantity ordered. in this work, a random disturbance in a received quantity is considered. It is assumed a maximum allowable limit for storage space and inventory investment.The impact of lead time and ordering cost reductions once they act dependently is also investigated. Further, considering a mixture of back order and lost sales for allowable shortage system, the effect of investment on reducing lost sale rate is analyzed. For the proposed control system, a Lagrangian method is applied in order to solve the problem and an algorithmic procedure is utilized to achieve optimal solution with the global minimum expected cost. Finally, proves on concavity and convexity of the model in the decision variables are shown.

Keywords: stochastic inventory system, lead time, ordering cost, lost sale rate, inventory constraints, random disturbance

Procedia PDF Downloads 332
391 Structural Rehabilitation, Retrofitting and Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete Structures

Authors: Manish Kumar

Abstract:

Reinforced cement concrete is getting extensively used for construction of different type of structures for the last one century. During this period, we have constructed many structures like buildings, bridges, industrial structures, pavement, water tanks etc. using this construction material. These structures have been created with huge investment of resources. It is essential to maintain those structures in functional condition. Since deterioration in RCC Structures is a common and natural phenomenon it is required to have a detailed plan, methodology for structural repair and rehabilitation shall be in place for dealing such issues. It is important to know exact reason of distress, type of distress and correct method of repair concrete structures. The different methods of repair are described in paper according to distress category which can be refereed for repair. Major finding of the study is that to protect our structure we need to have maintenance frequency and correct material to be chosen for repair. Also workmanship during repair needs to be taken utmost care for quality repair.

Keywords: deterioration, functional condition, reinforced cement concrete, resources

Procedia PDF Downloads 153
390 The Effect of Second Victim-Related Distress on Work-Related Outcomes in Tertiary Care, Kelantan, Malaysia

Authors: Ahmad Zulfahmi Mohd Kamaruzaman, Mohd Ismail Ibrahim, Ariffin Marzuki Mokhtar, Maizun Mohd Zain, Saiful Nazri Satiman, Mohd Najib Majdi Yaacob

Abstract:

Background: Aftermath any patient safety incidents, the involved healthcare providers possibly sustained second victim-related distress (second victim distress and reduced their professional efficacy), with subsequent negative work-related outcomes or vice versa cultivating resilience. This study aimed to investigate the factors affecting negative work-related outcomes and resilience, with the triad of support; colleague, supervisor, and institutional support as the hypothetical mediators. Methods: This was a cross sectional study recruiting a total of 733 healthcare providers from three tertiary care in Kelantan, Malaysia. Three steps of hierarchical linear regression were developed for each outcome; negative work-related outcomes and resilience. Then, four multiple mediator models of support triad were analyzed. Results: Second victim distress, professional efficacy, and the support triad contributed significantly for each regression model. In the pathway of professional efficacy on each negative work-related outcomes and resilience, colleague support partially mediated the relationship. As for second victim distress on negative work related outcomes, colleague and supervisor support were the partial mediator, and on resilience; all support triad also produced a similar effect. Conclusion: Second victim distress, professional efficacy, and the support triad influenced the relationship with the negative work-related outcomes and resilience. Support triad as the mediators ameliorated the effect in between and explained the urgency of having good support for recovery post encountering patient safety incidents.

Keywords: second victims, patient safety incidents, hierarchical linear regression, mediation, support

Procedia PDF Downloads 10
389 Women's Sexual Experience in Pakistan: Associations of Patriarchy and Psychological Distress

Authors: Sana Tahir, Haya Fatimah

Abstract:

Sexuality is a social construct which is considered as the most confidential affair among individuals where women tend to refrain themselves more from sexually explicit behavior than men. Patriarchy has an elevated influence on the expression of female sexuality. While women’s sexual experiences are suppressed men are entitled to pleasure themselves according to their desire. The purpose of this study is to explore how the internalization of patriarchy affects women’s sexuality. Similarly, it was investigated how women sexuality is associated with psychological distress. The sample consisted of 100(age 20-40) married women. Participants were selected through a combination of convenient and snowball sampling. Women were asked to provide data regarding patriarchal beliefs, sexual awareness and DAS (depression, anxiety, and stress). Pearson Product Moment Correlation Analyze was conducted to examine the nature of the relationship between patriarchal beliefs, sexual awareness and psychological distress in married women. There is a significant negative relation between sexual awareness and patriarchal beliefs (r=-.391, p<.001). There also lies a significant negative relation between sexual awareness and depression, anxiety, stress (r=-.359, p<.001) (r=.301, p=.002) (r=-.221, p=.027). The results reveal that women with strong patriarchal beliefs have less sexual awareness in terms of sexual consciousness, sexual monitoring, sexual assertiveness and sexual appeal consciousness. Similarly, women with strong patriarchal beliefs and less sexual awareness have high levels of depression, anxiety, and stress.

Keywords: female sexuality, patriarchy, psychological distress, sexual awareness

Procedia PDF Downloads 196