Search results for: dismantling
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 32

Search results for: dismantling

32 A Control Model for the Dismantling of Industrial Plants

Authors: Florian Mach, Eric Hund, Malte Stonis


The dismantling of disused industrial facilities such as nuclear power plants or refineries is an enormous challenge for the planning and control of the logistic processes. Existing control models do not meet the requirements for a proper dismantling of industrial plants. Therefore, the paper presents an approach for the control of dismantling and post-processing processes (e.g. decontamination) in plant decommissioning. In contrast to existing approaches, the dismantling sequence and depth are selected depending on the capacity utilization of required post-processing processes by also considering individual characteristics of respective dismantling tasks (e.g. decontamination success rate, uncertainties regarding the process times). The results can be used in the dismantling of industrial plants (e.g. nuclear power plants) to reduce dismantling time and costs by avoiding bottlenecks such as capacity constraints.

Keywords: dismantling management, logistics planning and control models, nuclear power plant dismantling, reverse logistics

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31 Storage Method for Parts from End of Life Vehicles' Dismantling Process According to Sustainable Development Requirements: Polish Case Study

Authors: M. Kosacka, I. Kudelska


Vehicle is one of the most influential and complex product worldwide, which affects people’s life, state of the environment and condition of the economy (all aspects of sustainable development concept) during each stage of lifecycle. With the increase of vehicles’ number, there is growing potential for management of End of Life Vehicle (ELV), which is hazardous waste. From one point of view, the ELV should be managed to ensure risk elimination, but from another point, it should be treated as a source of valuable materials and spare parts. In order to obtain materials and spare parts, there are established recycling networks, which are an example of sustainable policy realization at the national level. The basic object in the polish recycling network is dismantling facility. The output material streams in dismantling stations include waste, which very often generate costs and spare parts, that have the biggest potential for revenues creation. Both outputs are stored into warehouses, according to the law. In accordance to the revenue creation and sustainability potential, it has been placed a strong emphasis on storage process. We present the concept of storage method, which takes into account the specific of the dismantling facility in order to support decision-making process with regard to the principles of sustainable development. The method was developed on the basis of case study of one of the greatest dismantling facility in Poland.

Keywords: dismantling, end of life vehicles, sustainability, storage

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30 Remanufacturing and Integrity Assessment of a 27-Year-Old 25kV Gas Insulated Switchgear: A Comprehensive Study on Dismantling, Inspection, and Testing

Authors: Yechan Kim, Bonhyuk Ku, Minkyung Jung, Hyoungku Kang


This study presents the remanufacturing of a 25kV gas insulated switchgear (GIS) that operated indoors for 27 years before being decommissioned due to aging. The research involved a detailed process of dismantling, visual inspection, component-wise examination, and various testing methodologies to assess the equipment's condition. The focus was on evaluating the GIS's integrity and feasibility for remanufacturing. The results highlight the potential of remanufacturing in extending the life of electrical power equipment, offering insights into the best practices, challenges, and technical considerations of such an undertaking. This contributes to a sustainable approach in the power industry, emphasizing the reuse and restoration of aging equipment.

Keywords: remanufacturing, dismantling, gas insulated switchgear, sustainability, life extension

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29 Environmental Impact of Gas Field Decommissioning

Authors: Muhammad Ahsan


The effective decommissioning of oil and gas fields and related assets is one of the most important challenges facing the oil and gas industry today and in the future. Decommissioning decisions can no longer be avoided by the operators and the industry as a whole. Decommissioning yields no return on investment and carries significant regulatory liabilities. The main objective of this paper is to provide an approach and mechanism for the estimation of emissions associated with decommissioning of Oil and Gas fields. The model uses gate to gate approach and considers field life from development phase up to asset end life. The model incorporates decommissioning processes which includes; well plugging, plant dismantling, wellhead, and pipeline dismantling, cutting and temporary fabrication, new manufacturing from raw material and recycling of metals. The results of the GHG emissions during decommissioning phase are 2.31x10-2 Kg CO2 Eq. per Mcf of the produced natural gas. Well plug and abandonment evolved to be the most GHG emitting activity with 84.7% of total field decommissioning operational emissions.

Keywords: LCA (life cycle analysis), gas field, decommissioning, emissions

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28 End-of-Life Vehicle Framework in Bumper Development Process

Authors: Majid Davoodi Makinejad, Reza Ghaeli


Developing sustainable and environment-friendly products has become a major concern in the car manufacturing industry. New legislation ‘End of Life Vehicle’ increased design complexities of bumper system parameters e.g. design for disassembly, design for remanufacturing and recycling. ELV processing employs dismantling, shredding and landfill. The bumper is designed to prevent physical damage, reduce aerodynamic drag force as well as being aesthetically pleasing to the consumer. Design for dismantling is the first step in ELVs approach in the bumper system. This study focused on the analysis of ELV value in redesign solutions of the bumper system in comparison with the conventional concept. It provided a guideline to address the critical consideration in material, manufacturing and joining methods of bumper components to take advantages in easy dismounting, separation and recycling.

Keywords: sustainable development, environmental friendly, bumper system, end of life vehicle

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27 Integrated Management System Applied in Dismantling and Waste Management of the Primary Cooling System from the VVR-S Nuclear Reactor Magurele, Bucharest

Authors: Radu Deju, Carmen Mustata


The VVR-S nuclear research reactor owned by Horia Hubulei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering (IFIN-HH) was designed for research and radioisotope production, being permanently shut-down in 2002, after 40 years of operation. All amount of the nuclear spent fuel S-36 and EK-10 type was returned to Russian Federation (first in 2009 and last in 2012), and the radioactive waste resulted from the reprocessing of it will remain permanently in the Russian Federation. The decommissioning strategy chosen is immediate dismantling. At this moment, the radionuclides with half-life shorter than 1 year have a minor contribution to the contamination of materials and equipment used in reactor department. The decommissioning of the reactor has started in 2010 and is planned to be finalized in 2020, being the first nuclear research reactor that has started the decommissioning project from the South-East of Europe. The management system applied in the decommissioning of the VVR-S research reactor integrates all common elements of management: nuclear safety, occupational health and safety, environment, quality- compliance with the requirements for decommissioning activities, physical protection and economic elements. This paper presents the application of integrated management system in decommissioning of systems, structures, equipment and components (SSEC) from pumps room, including the management of the resulted radioactive waste. The primary cooling system of this type of reactor includes circulation pumps, heat exchangers, degasser, filter ion exchangers, piping connection, drainage system and radioactive leaks. All the decommissioning activities of primary circuit were performed in stage 2 (year 2014), and they were developed and recorded according to the applicable documents, within the requirements of the Regulatory Body Licenses. In the presentation there will be emphasized how the integrated management system provisions are applied in the dismantling of the primary cooling system, for elaboration, approval, application of necessary documentation, records keeping before, during and after the dismantling activities. Radiation protection and economics are the key factors for the selection of the proper technology. Dedicated and advanced technologies were chosen to perform specific tasks. Safety aspects have been taken into consideration. Resource constraints have also been an important issue considered in defining the decommissioning strategy. Important aspects like radiological monitoring of the personnel and areas, decontamination, waste management and final characterization of the released site are demonstrated and documented.

Keywords: decommissioning, integrated management system, nuclear reactor, waste management

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26 Recovery of Metals from Electronic Waste by Physical and Chemical Recycling Processes

Authors: Muammer Kaya


The main purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of various physical and chemical processes for electronic waste (e-waste) recycling, their advantages and shortfalls towards achieving a cleaner process of waste utilization, with especial attention towards extraction of metallic values. Current status and future perspectives of waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) recycling are described. E-waste characterization, dismantling/ disassembly methods, liberation and classification processes, composition determination techniques are covered. Manual selective dismantling and metal-nonmetal liberation at – 150 µm at two step crushing are found to be the best. After size reduction, mainly physical separation/concentration processes employing gravity, electrostatic, magnetic separators, froth floatation etc., which are commonly used in mineral processing, have been critically reviewed here for separation of metals and non-metals, along with useful utilizations of the non-metallic materials. The recovery of metals from e-waste material after physical separation through pyrometallurgical, hydrometallurgical or biohydrometallurgical routes is also discussed along with purification and refining and some suitable flowsheets are also given. It seems that hydrometallurgical route will be a key player in the base and precious metals recoveries from e-waste. E-waste recycling will be a very important sector in the near future from economic and environmental perspectives.

Keywords: e-waste, WEEE, recycling, metal recovery, hydrometallurgy, pirometallurgy, biometallurgy

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25 Preliminary Evaluation of Decommissioning Wastes for the First Commercial Nuclear Power Reactor in South Korea

Authors: Kyomin Lee, Joohee Kim, Sangho Kang


The commercial nuclear power reactor in South Korea, Kori Unit 1, which was a 587 MWe pressurized water reactor that started operation since 1978, was permanently shut down in June 2017 without an additional operating license extension. The Kori 1 Unit is scheduled to become the nuclear power unit to enter the decommissioning phase. In this study, the preliminary evaluation of the decommissioning wastes for the Kori Unit 1 was performed based on the following series of process: firstly, the plant inventory is investigated based on various documents (i.e., equipment/ component list, construction records, general arrangement drawings). Secondly, the radiological conditions of systems, structures and components (SSCs) are established to estimate the amount of radioactive waste by waste classification. Third, the waste management strategies for Kori Unit 1 including waste packaging are established. Forth, selection of the proper decontamination and dismantling (D&D) technologies is made considering the various factors. Finally, the amount of decommissioning waste by classification for Kori 1 is estimated using the DeCAT program, which was developed by KEPCO-E&C for a decommissioning cost estimation. The preliminary evaluation results have shown that the expected amounts of decommissioning wastes were less than about 2% and 8% of the total wastes generated (i.e., sum of clean wastes and radwastes) before/after waste processing, respectively, and it was found that the majority of contaminated material was carbon or alloy steel and stainless steel. In addition, within the range of availability of information, the results of the evaluation were compared with the results from the various decommissioning experiences data or international/national decommissioning study. The comparison results have shown that the radioactive waste amount from Kori Unit 1 decommissioning were much less than those from the plants decommissioned in U.S. and were comparable to those from the plants in Europe. This result comes from the difference of disposal cost and clearance criteria (i.e., free release level) between U.S. and non-U.S. The preliminary evaluation performed using the methodology established in this study will be useful as a important information in establishing the decommissioning planning for the decommissioning schedule and waste management strategy establishment including the transportation, packaging, handling, and disposal of radioactive wastes.

Keywords: characterization, classification, decommissioning, decontamination and dismantling, Kori 1, radioactive waste

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24 The Dismantling of the Santa Ana Riverbed Homeless Encampment: A Case Study

Authors: Shasta Bula


This research provides the first case study of the Santa Ana riverbed homeless encampment. It contributes valuable information about the little-studied factors contributing to the formation and dismantling of transient homeless encampments. According to the author’s best knowledge, this is the discussion of three reoccurring characteristics of homeless camps: camps form a self-governing system, camps are viewed by the community as unsavory places, and the campers are viewed as being unable or unwilling to participate in normal society. Three theories are proposed as explanations for these characteristics: the social capital theory as a reason for homeless campers to develop a system of self-government, the aesthetics theory as rationale for camps being viewed as unsavory places, and the theory of vulnerable and inevitable inequality as a reason why campers are seen as being unable or unwilling to participate in normal society. Three hypotheses are introduced to assess these theories: The encampment was created because it provided inhabitants a sense of safety and autonomy. It was dismantled due to its highly visible location and lack of adherence to the Orange County consumption and leisure aesthetic. Most homeless people from this encampment relocated approximately thirty miles east to Riverside County to avoid harassment by police. An extensive review of interviews with camp inhabitants revealed that fifty-one percent resided in the camp because it gave them a sense of safety and autonomy. An examination of Anaheim city council meeting meetings showed that thirty-eight percent of complaints were related to aesthetic concerns. Analysis of population reports from the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development indicated that there was a notable increase in homelessness in Orange County the year after the camp was dismantled. These results reflect that the social capital theory is an applicable explanation for the homeless being drawn to set up camp as a collective. The aesthetics theory can be used to explain why a third of residents complained about the encampment. Camp residents did not move East to Riverside after the camp was dismantled. Further investigation into the enforcement of anti-camping ordinances needs to be conducted to evaluate if policing contributed to the vulnerability of the homeless.

Keywords: poverty, social relations, transformation of urban settlements, urban anthropology

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23 Dismantling the School-to-Prison Pipeline through Technology: A Literature Review

Authors: Yusra A. Ibrahim


Educational efforts to address the school-to-prison pipeline (STPP) and retain students in school require equipping teachers with evidence-based approaches to handle social-emotional behavior (SEB) needs. One aspect of these efforts involves training teachers to utilize effective and current technologies, thereby reducing SEB challenges faced by students with disabilities in their classrooms. This literature review examines eight studies conducted within the past 10 years (from 2013 to 2023) that focus on enhancing SEB needs of students with disabilities using technology. The review reveals that autism spectrum disorder (ASD), emotional behavioral disorder (EBD), and attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are the predominant disabilities studied through technology interventions. Additionally, it highlights that these studies focused on examining the effectiveness of technologies in reducing disruptive behaviors, increasing on-task behaviors, reducing anxiety, and promoting social skills.

Keywords: school-to-prison pipeline, technology, evidence-based practices, EBD

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22 In-Situ Redevelopment in Urban India: Two Case Studies from Delhi and Mumbai

Authors: Ashok Kumar, Anjali Sharma


As cities grow and expand spatially, redevelopment in urban India is beginning to emerge as a new mode of urban expansion sweeping low-income informal settlements. This paper examines the extent and nature of expanding urban frontier before examining implications for the families living in these settlements. Displacement of these families may appear to be an obvious consequence. However, we have conducted ethnographic studies over the past several months in a Delhi slum named Kathputli Colony, Delhi. In depth analysis of the study for this slum appears to present a variegated set of consequences for the residents of informal settlements including loss of livelihoods, dismantling of family ties, and general anxiety arising out of uncertainty about resettlement. Apart from Delhi case study, we also compare and contrast another redevelopment case from Mumbai located at Bhendi Bazar. These examples from the two mega cities of Mumbai and Delhi are analysed to understand and explore expanding urban frontiers and their consequences for informing future public policy.

Keywords: informal settlements, policy, redevelopment, urban

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21 Using Bamboo Structures for Protecting Mangrove Ecosystems: A Nature-Based Approach

Authors: Sourabh Harihar, Henk Jan Verhagen


The nurturing of a mangrove ecosystem requires a protected coastal environment with adequate drainage of the soil substratum. In a conceptual design undertaken for a mangrove rejuvenation project along the eastern coast of Mumbai (India), various engineering alternatives have been thought of as a protective coastal structure and drainage system. One such design uses bamboo-pile walls in creating shielded compartments in the form of various layouts, coupled with bamboo drains. The bamboo-based design is found to be environmentally and economically advantageous over other designs like sand-dikes which are multiple times more expensive. Moreover, employing a natural material such as bamboo helps the structure naturally blend with the developing mangrove habitat, allaying concerns about dismantling the structure post mangrove growth. A cost-minimising and eco-friendly bamboo structure, therefore, promises to pave the way for large rehabilitation projects in future. As mangrove ecosystems in many parts of the world increasingly face the threat of destruction due to urban development and climate change, protective nature-based designs that can be built in a short duration are the need of the hour.

Keywords: bamboo, environment, mangrove, rehabilitation

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20 Spatial Assessment of Soil Contamination from Informal E-Waste Recycling Site in Agbogbloshie, Ghana

Authors: Kyere Vincent Nartey, Klaus Greve, Atiemo Sampson


E-waste is discarded electrical electronic equipment inclusive of all components, sub-assemblies and consumables which are part of the product at the time of discarding and known to contain both hazardous and valuable fractions. E-waste is recycled within the proposed ecological restoration of the Agbogbloshie enclave using crude and rudimental recycling procedures such as open burning and manual dismantling which result in pollution and contamination of soil, water and air. Using GIS, this study was conducted to examine the spatial distribution and extent of soil contamination by heavy metals from the e-waste recycling site in Agbogbloshie. From the month of August to November 2013, 146 soil samples were collected in addition to their coordinates using GPS. Elemental analysis performed on the collected soil samples using X-Ray fluorescence revealed over 30 elements including, Ni, Cr, Zn, Cu, Pb and Mn. Using geostatistical techniques in ArcGIS 10.1 spatial assessment and distribution maps were generated. Mathematical models or equations were used to estimate the degree of contamination and pollution index. Results from soil analysis from the Agbogbloshie enclave showed that levels of measured or observed elements were significantly higher than the Canadian EPA and Dutch environmental standards.

Keywords: e-waste, geostatistics, soil contamination, spatial distribution

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19 Environmental Life Cycle Assessment of Two Technologic Scenario of Wind Turbine Blades Composition for an Optimized Wind Turbine Design Using the Impact 2002+ Method and Using 15 Environmental Impact Indicators

Authors: A. Jarrou, A. Iranzo, C. Nana


The rapid development of the onshore/offshore wind industry and the continuous, strong, and long-term support from governments have made it possible to create factories specializing in the manufacture of the different parts of wind turbines, but in the literature, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) analyzes consider the wind turbine as a whole and do not allow the allocation of impacts to the different components of the wind turbine. Here we propose to treat each part of the wind turbine as a system in its own right. This is more in line with the current production system. Environmental Life Cycle Assessment of two technological scenarios of wind turbine blades composition for an optimized wind turbine design using the impact 2002+ method and using 15 environmental impact indicators. This article aims to assess the environmental impacts associated with 1 kg of wind turbine blades. In order to carry out a realistic and precise study, the different stages of the life cycle of a wind turbine installation are included in the study (manufacture, installation, use, maintenance, dismantling, and waste treatment). The Impact 2002+ method used makes it possible to assess 15 impact indicators (human toxicity, terrestrial and aquatic ecotoxicity, climate change, land use, etc.). Finally, a sensitivity study is carried out to analyze the different types of uncertainties in the data collected.

Keywords: life cycle assessment, wind turbine, turbine blade, environmental impact

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18 The European Research and Development Project Improved Nuclear Site Characterization for Waste Minimization in Decommissioning under Constrained Environment: Focus on Performance Analysis and Overall Uncertainty

Authors: M. Crozet, D. Roudil, T. Branger, S. Boden, P. Peerani, B. Russell, M. Herranz, L. Aldave de la Heras


The EURATOM work program project INSIDER (Improved Nuclear Site Characterization for Waste minimization in Decommissioning under Constrained Environment) was launched in June 2017. This 4-year project has 18 partners and aims at improving the management of contaminated materials arising from decommissioning and dismantling (D&D) operations by proposing an integrated methodology of characterization. This methodology is based on advanced statistical processing and modelling, coupled with adapted and innovative analytical and measurement methods, with respect to sustainability and economic objectives. In order to achieve these objectives, the approaches will be then applied to common case studies in the form of Inter-laboratory comparisons on matrix representative reference samples and benchmarking. Work Package 6 (WP6) ‘Performance analysis and overall uncertainty’ is in charge of the analysis of the benchmarking on real samples, the organisation of inter-laboratory comparison on synthetic certified reference materials and the establishment of overall uncertainty budget. Assessment of the outcome will be used for providing recommendations and guidance resulting in pre-standardization tests.

Keywords: decommissioning, sampling strategy, research and development, characterization, European project

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17 Performance Effects of Demergers in India

Authors: Pavak Vyas, Hiral Vyas


Spin-offs commonly known as demergers in India, represents dismantling of conglomerates which is a common phenomenon in financial markets across the world. Demergers are carried out with different motives. A demerger generally refers to a corporate restructuring where, a large company divests its stake in in its subsidiary and distributes the shares of the subsidiary - demerged entity to the existing shareholders without any consideration. Demergers in Indian companies are over a decade old phenomena, with many companies opting for the same. This study examines the demerger regulations in Indian capital markets and the announcement period price reaction of demergers during year 2010-2015. We study total 97 demerger announcements by companies listed in India and try to establish that demergers results into abnormal returns for the shareholders of the parent company. Using event study methodology we have analyzed the security price performance of the announcement day effect 10 days prior to announcement to 10 days post demerger announcement. We find significant out-performance of the security over the benchmark index post demerger announcements. The cumulative average abnormal returns range from 3.71% on the day of announcement of a private demerger to 2.08% following 10 days surrounding the announcement, and cumulative average abnormal returns range from 5.67% on the day of announcement of a public demerger to 4.15% following10 days surrounding the announcement.

Keywords: demergers, event study, spin offs, stock returns

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16 Rediscovery of Important Elements Contributing to Cultural Interchange Values Made during Restoration of Khanpur Gate

Authors: Poonam A. Trambadia, Ashish V. Trambadia


The architecture of sultanate period of Ahmedabad had evolved just before the establishment of Mughal rule in North India. After shifting the capital of the kingdom from Patan to Ahmedabad, when the buildings and structures were being built, an interesting cultural blend happened in architecture. Many sultanate buildings in Ahmedabad historic city have resemblance with Patan including the names. Outer fortification walls and Gates were built during the rule of the third ruler in the late 15th century. All the gates had sandstone slabs supported by three arched entrance in sandstone with wooden shutter. A restoration project of Khanpur Gate was initiated in 2016. The paper identifies some evidences and some hidden layers of structures as important elements of cultural interchange while some were just forgotten in the process. The recycling of pre-existing elements of structures are examined and compared. There were layers uncovered that were hidden behind later repairs using traditional brick arch, which was taken out in the process. As the gate had partially collapsed, the restoration included piece by piece dismantling and restoring in the same sequence wherever required. The recycled materials found in the process were recorded and provided the basis for this study. The gate after this discovery sets a new example of fortification Gate built in Sultanate era. The comparison excludes Maratha and British Period Gates to avoid further confusion and focuses on 15th – 16th century sultanate architecture of Ahmedabad.

Keywords: Ahmedabad World Heritage, fortification, Indo-Islamic style, Sultanate architecture, cultural interchange

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15 “Waving High the Delicate Mistress”: on Feminist Geography and American Identity in the Valley of the Moon

Authors: Yangyang Zhang


In The Valley of the Moon, Jack London implicitly presents the connection between the city and the male, the country and the female, constructing a gender space where the city and the countryside are opposed. But meanwhile, London is constantly dismantling the gender space through the reversed travel map so as to highlight the fluidity and productivity of female space. Under such circumstance, the original gender space has to be reorganized. Through the construction of gendered urban and rural spaces, Jack London presents the national crisis in the process of urbanization of the American West in the late 19th century, while the female-led reversed travel map reproduces the original contribution of the American West to the construction of nationality. In the end, the reorganized neutral space “valley of the moon” reflects the “garden” motif in American national imagination and plays an important role in rebuilding national identity. This research studies the feminist geography and cartography in Jack London's novel The Valley of the Moon and analyzes the gender-politics attribution in the literary geography writing in London's novel on this basis. The research returns to the American historical context at the end of the 19th century, focusing on how London’s feminist geography embodies his sense of nationality and investigating how female-dominated literary cartography reconstructs American identity. This paper takes Literary Cartography, and feminist geography as the ideological guide combines with the discourse of gender politics. comprehensively uses various literary criticism methods such as deconstructionist literary criticism, and new historicism literary criticism, etc., Through the study of Jack London's work, the paper aims to analyse how London constructs a national image by literary geography.

Keywords: American identity, American west, feminist geography, garden motif, the valley of the moon

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14 Critique of the City-Machine: Dismantling the Scientific Socialist Utopia of Soviet Territorialization

Authors: Rachel P. Vasconcellos


The Russian constructivism is usually enshrined in history as another ''modernist ism'', that is, as an artistic phenomenon related to the early twentieth century‘s zeitgeist. What we aim in this essay is to analyze the constructivist movement not over the Art History field neither through the aesthetic debate, but through a geographical critical theory, taking the main idea of construction in the concrete sense of production of space. Seen from the perspective of the critique of space, the constructivist production is presented as a plan of totality, designed as socialist society‘s spatiality, contemplating and articulating all its scalar levels: the objects of everyday life, the building, the city and the territory. The constructivist avant-garde manifests a geographical ideology, launching the foundation‘s basis of modern planning ideology. Taken in its political sense, the artistic avant-garde of the Russian Revolution intended to anticipate the forms of a social future already put in progress: their plastic research pointed to new formal expressions to revolutionary contents. With the foundation of new institutions under a new State, it was given to the specialized labor of artists, architects, and planners the task of designing the socialist society, based on the thesis of scientific socialism. Their projects were developed under the politico-economics imperatives to the Soviet modernization – that is: the structural needs of industrialization and inclusion of all people in the productive work universe. This context shapes the creative atmosphere of the constructivist avant-garde, which uses the methods of engineering to the transform everyday life. Architecture, urban planning, and state planning integrated must then operate as spatial arrangement morphologically able to produce socialist life. But due to the intrinsic contradictions of the process, the rational and geometric aesthetic of the City-Machine appears, finally, as an image of a scientific socialist utopia.

Keywords: city-machine, critique of space, production of space, soviet territorialization

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13 Ecological Risk Assessment of Informal E-Waste Processing in Alaba International Market, Lagos, Nigeria

Authors: A. A. Adebayo, O. Osibanjo


Informal electronic waste (e-waste) processing is a crude method of recycling, which is on the increase in Nigeria. The release of hazardous substances such as heavy metals (HMs) into the environment during informal e-waste processing has been a major concern. However, there is insufficient information on environmental contamination from e-waste recycling, associated ecological risk in Alaba International Market, a major electronic market in Lagos, Nigeria. The aims of this study were to determine the levels of HMs in soil, resulting from the e-waste recycling; and also assess associated ecological risks in Alaba international market. Samples of soils (334) were randomly collected seasonally for three years from fourteen selected e-waste activity points and two control sites. The samples were digested using standard methods and HMs analysed by inductive coupled plasma optical emission. Ecological risk was estimated using Ecological Risk index (ER), Potential Ecological Risk index (RI), Index of geoaccumulation (Igeo), Contamination factor (Cf) and degree of contamination factor (Cdeg). The concentrations range of HMs (mg/kg) in soil were: 16.7-11200.0 (Pb); 14.3-22600.0 (Cu); 1.90-6280.0 (Ni), 39.5-4570.0 (Zn); 0.79-12300.0 (Sn); 0.02-138.0 (Cd); 12.7-1710.0 (Ba); 0.18-131.0 (Cr); 0.07-28.0 (V), while As was below detection limit. Concentrations range in control soils were 1.36-9.70 (Pb), 2.06-7.60 (Cu), 1.25-5.11 (Ni), 3.62-15.9 (Zn), BDL-0.56 (Sn), BDL-0.01 (Cd), 14.6-47.6 (Ba), 0.21–12.2 (Cr) and 0.22-22.2 (V). The trend in ecological risk index was in the order Cu > Pb > Ni > Zn > Cr > Cd > Ba > V. The potential ecological risk index with respect to informal e-waste activities were: burning > dismantling > disposal > stockpiling. The index of geo accumulation indices revealed that soils were extremely polluted with Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn and Ni. The contamination factor indicated that 93% of the studied areas have very high contamination status for Pb, Cu, Ba, Sn and Co while Cr and Cd were in the moderately contaminated status. The degree of contamination decreased in the order of Sn > Cu > Pb >> Zn > Ba > Co > Ni > V > Cr > Cd. Heavy metal contamination of Alaba international market environment resulting from informal e-waste processing was established. Proper management of e-waste and remediation of the market environment are recommended to minimize the ecological risks.

Keywords: Alaba international market, ecological risk, electronic waste, heavy metal contamination

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12 Approaches to Reduce the Complexity of Mathematical Models for the Operational Optimization of Large-Scale Virtual Power Plants in Public Energy Supply

Authors: Thomas Weber, Nina Strobel, Thomas Kohne, Eberhard Abele


In context of the energy transition in Germany, the importance of so-called virtual power plants in the energy supply continues to increase. The progressive dismantling of the large power plants and the ongoing construction of many new decentralized plants result in great potential for optimization through synergies between the individual plants. These potentials can be exploited by mathematical optimization algorithms to calculate the optimal application planning of decentralized power and heat generators and storage systems. This also includes linear or linear mixed integer optimization. In this paper, procedures for reducing the number of decision variables to be calculated are explained and validated. On the one hand, this includes combining n similar installation types into one aggregated unit. This aggregated unit is described by the same constraints and target function terms as a single plant. This reduces the number of decision variables per time step and the complexity of the problem to be solved by a factor of n. The exact operating mode of the individual plants can then be calculated in a second optimization in such a way that the output of the individual plants corresponds to the calculated output of the aggregated unit. Another way to reduce the number of decision variables in an optimization problem is to reduce the number of time steps to be calculated. This is useful if a high temporal resolution is not necessary for all time steps. For example, the volatility or the forecast quality of environmental parameters may justify a high or low temporal resolution of the optimization. Both approaches are examined for the resulting calculation time as well as for optimality. Several optimization models for virtual power plants (combined heat and power plants, heat storage, power storage, gas turbine) with different numbers of plants are used as a reference for the investigation of both processes with regard to calculation duration and optimality.

Keywords: CHP, Energy 4.0, energy storage, MILP, optimization, virtual power plant

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11 Decommissioning of Nuclear Power Plants: The Current Position and Requirements

Authors: A. Stifi, S. Gentes


Undoubtedly from construction's perspective, the use of explosives will remove a large facility such as a 40-storey building , that took almost 3 to 4 years for construction, in few minutes. Usually, the reconstruction or decommissioning, the last phase of life cycle of any facility, is considered to be the shortest. However, this is proved to be wrong in the case of nuclear power plant. Statistics says that in the last 30 years, the construction of a nuclear power plant took an average time of 6 years whereas it is estimated that decommissioning of such plants may take even a decade or more. This paper is all about the decommissioning phase of a nuclear power plant which needs to be given more attention and encouragement from the research institutes as well as the nuclear industry. Currently, there are 437 nuclear power reactors in operation and 70 reactors in construction. With around 139 nuclear facilities already been shut down and are in different decommissioning stages and approximately 347 nuclear reactors will be in decommissioning phase in the next 20 years (assuming the operation time of a reactor as 40 years), This fact raises the following two questions (1) How far is the nuclear and construction Industry ready to face the challenges of decommissioning project? (2) What is required for a safety and reliable decommissioning project delivery? The decommissioning of nuclear facilities across the global have severe time and budget overruns. Largely the decommissioning processes are being executed by the force of manual labour where the change in regulations is respectively observed. In term of research and development, some research projects and activities are being carried out in this area, but the requirement seems to be much more. The near future of decommissioning shall be better through a sustainable development strategy where all stakeholders agree to implement innovative technologies especially for dismantling and decontamination processes and to deliever a reliable and safety decommissioning. The scope of technology transfer from other industries shall be explored. For example, remotery operated robotic technologies used in automobile and production industry to reduce time and improve effecincy and saftey shall be tried here. However, the innovative technologies are highly requested but they are alone not enough, the implementation of creative and innovative management methodologies should be also investigated and applied. Lean Management with it main concept "elimination of waste within process", is a suitable example here. Thus, the cooperation between international organisations and related industries and the knowledge-sharing may serve as a key factor for the successful decommissioning projects.

Keywords: decommissioning of nuclear facilities, innovative technology, innovative management, sustainable development

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10 Application of Heritage Clay Roof Tiles in Malaysia’s Government Buildings: Conservation Challenges

Authors: Mohd Sabere Sulaiman, Masyitah Abd Aziz, Norsiah Hassan, Jamilah Halina Abdul Halim, Mohd Saipul Asrafi Haron


The use of clay roof tiles was spread out through Asia and Europe, including Malaysia, since the early 17th Century. Most of the common type of clay roof tiles are used in a flat and rectangular shape, measurement, styles, and characteristics through each tradition and interest, including responsive to the climate. Various types of heritage clay roof tiles were used in Malaysia’s Government Buildings dated 1865, 1919, 1936, and so forth, which mostly were imported from India, France, and Italy. Until now, these heritage clay roof tiles are still found throughout Malaysia, including the ‘Interlocking’ clay roof tile type. This study is to investigate and overview the existence of heritage clay roof tiles used in Malaysia; the ‘interlocking’ type with ‘lip’ and ‘hooks’, through literature reviews as desktop study besides carried out a preliminary observation on various sites and interviews. From the literatures, the last production and used of the local heritage clay roof tiles in Malaysia dated in mid 1900s in Batu Arang, Selangor. The brick factory was abandoned since early 2000s. Although the modern ‘Interlocking’ type were produced to duplicate its form, pattern, and size of the original one, they still facing the problem to blend and merged, which end up dismantling the original version, or replacing one to one condition and even replaced overall with the modern materials. This is quite contradicting with the basic principles of building conservation and had become a challenge. Initial findings from the preliminary observation on site in various state in Malaysia shows some evidence that the heritage clay roof tiles are still intact and been used. Some of them might change to modern roof materials such as metal deck, probably due to easy maintenance and cheaper. Also, some are still struggling to maintain and retain its looks and authenticity of the roof while facing the increasing of material cost. Those improper alteration and changes made is due to lack of knowledge among the owner and end user. Various aspect needs to be considered in order to sustain its usage and its original looks by looking at the proper maintenance aspects of the heritage clay roof tiles to prolong the building life for future generation preferences.

Keywords: challenges, clay, interlocking, maintenance

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9 The Risk of Occupational Health in the Shipbuilding Industry in Bangladesh

Authors: Md. Rashel Sheikh


The shipbuilding industry in Bangladesh had become a fast-growing industry in recent years when it began to export newly built ships. The various activities of shipbuilding industries in their limited, confined spaces added occupational worker exposures to chemicals, dusts, and metal fumes. The aim of this literature search is to identify the potential sources of occupational health hazards in shipyards and to promote the regulation of appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) for the workers. In shipyards, occupational workers are involved in various activities, such as the manufacture, repair, maintenance, dismantling of boats and ships, building small ocean-going vessels and ferries. The occupational workers in the shipbuilding industry suffer from a number of hazardous issues, such as asthma, dermatitis, hearing deficits, and musculoskeletal disorders. The use of modern technologies, such as underwater plasma welding, electron beam welding, and friction stir welding and laser cutting and welding, and appropriate PPE (i.e., long-sleeved shirt and long pants, shoes plus socks, safety masks, chemical resistant gloves, eyewear, face shield, and respirators) can help reduce the occupational exposure to environmental hazards created by different activities in the shipyards. However, most shipyards in Bangladesh use traditional methods, e.g., flame cutting and arc, that add hazardous waste and pollutants to the environment in and around the shipyard. The safety and security of occupational workers in the shipyard workplace are very important. It is the primary responsibility of employers to ensure the safety and security of occupational workers in the shipyards. Employers must use advanced technologies and supply adequate and appropriate PPE for the workers. There are a number of accidents and illnesses that happen daily in the shipyard industries in Bangladesh due to the negligence and lack of adequate technologies and appropriate PPE. In addition, there are no specific regulations and implementations available to use the PPE. It is essential to have PPE regulations and strict enforcement for the adoption of PPE in the shipbuilding industries in Bangladesh. Along with the adoption of PPE with regular health examinations, health education to the workers regarding occupational hazards and lifestyle diseases are also important and require reinforcement. Monitoring health and safety hazards in shipyards are essential to enhance worker protection, and ensure worker safety, and mitigate workplace injuries and illnesses.

Keywords: shipbuilding Industries, health education, occupational health hazards, personal protective equipment, shipyard workers, occupational workers, shipyards

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8 Logistical Optimization of Nuclear Waste Flows during Decommissioning

Authors: G. Dottavio, M. F. Andrade, F. Renard, V. Cheutet, A.-L. Ladier, S. Vercraene, P. Hoang, S. Briet, R. Dachicourt, Y. Baizet


An important number of technological equipment and high-skilled workers over long periods of time have to be mobilized during nuclear decommissioning processes. The related operations generate complex flows of waste and high inventory levels, associated to information flows of heterogeneous types. Taking into account that more than 10 decommissioning operations are on-going in France and about 50 are expected toward 2025: A big challenge is addressed today. The management of decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear installations represents an important part of the nuclear-based energy lifecycle, since it has an environmental impact as well as an important influence on the electricity cost and therefore the price for end-users. Bringing new technologies and new solutions into decommissioning methodologies is thus mandatory to improve the quality, cost and delay efficiency of these operations. The purpose of our project is to improve decommissioning management efficiency by developing a decision-support framework dedicated to plan nuclear facility decommissioning operations and to optimize waste evacuation by means of a logistic approach. The target is to create an easy-to-handle tool capable of i) predicting waste flows and proposing the best decommissioning logistics scenario and ii) managing information during all the steps of the process and following the progress: planning, resources, delays, authorizations, saturation zones, waste volume, etc. In this article we present our results from waste nuclear flows simulation during decommissioning process, including discrete-event simulation supported by FLEXSIM 3-D software. This approach was successfully tested and our works confirms its ability to improve this type of industrial process by identifying the critical points of the chain and optimizing it by identifying improvement actions. This type of simulation, executed before the start of the process operations on the basis of a first conception, allow ‘what-if’ process evaluation and help to ensure quality of the process in an uncertain context. The simulation of nuclear waste flows before evacuation from the site will help reducing the cost and duration of the decommissioning process by optimizing the planning and the use of resources, transitional storage and expensive radioactive waste containers. Additional benefits are expected for the governance system of the waste evacuation since it will enable a shared responsibility of the waste flows.

Keywords: nuclear decommissioning, logistical optimization, decision-support framework, waste management

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7 Transgressing Gender Norms in Addiction Treatment

Authors: Sara Matsuzaka


At the center of emerging policy debates on the rights of transgender individuals in public accommodations is the collision of gender binary views with transgender perspectives that challenge conventional gender norms. The results of such socio-political debates could have significant ramifications for the policies and infrastructures of public and private institutions nationwide, including within the addiction treatment field. Despite having disproportionately high rates of substance use disorder compared to the general population, transgender individuals experience significant barriers to engaging in addiction treatment programs. Inpatient addiction treatment centers were originally designed to treat heterosexual cisgender populations and, as such, feature gender segregated housing, bathrooms, and counseling sessions. Such heteronormative structural barriers, combined with exposures to stigmatic al attitudes, may dissuade transgender populations from benefiting from the addiction treatment they so direly need. A literature review is performed to explore the mechanisms by which gender segregation alienates transgender populations within inpatient addiction treatment. The constituent parts of the current debate on the rights of transgender individuals in public accommodations are situated the context of inpatient addiction treatment facilities. Minority Stress Theory is used as a theoretical framework for understanding substance abuse issues among transgender populations as a maladaptive behavioral response for coping with chronic stressors related to gender minority status and intersecting identities. The findings include that despite having disproportionately high rates of substance use disorder compared to the general population, transgender individuals experience significant barriers to engaging in and benefiting from addiction treatment. These barriers are present in the form of anticipated or real interpersonal stigma and discrimination by service providers and structural stigma in the form of policy and programmatic components in addiction treatment that marginalize transgender populations. Transphobic manifestations within addiction treatment may dissuade transgender individuals from seeking help, if not reinforce a lifetime of stigmatic experience, potentially exacerbating their substance use issues. Conclusive recommendations for social workers and addiction treatment professionals include: (1) dismantling institutional policies around gender segregation that alienate transgender individuals, (2) developing policies that provide full protections for transgender clients against discrimination based on their gender identity, and (3) implementing trans-affirmative cultural competency training requirements for all staff. Directions for future research are provided.

Keywords: addiction treatment, gender segregation, stigma, transgender

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6 Method for Requirements Analysis and Decision Making for Restructuring Projects in Factories

Authors: Rene Hellmuth


The requirements for the factory planning and the building concerned have changed in the last years. Factory planning has the task of designing products, plants, processes, organization, areas, and the building of a factory. Regular restructuring gains more importance in order to maintain the competitiveness of a factory. Restrictions regarding new areas, shorter life cycles of product and production technology as well as a VUCA (volatility, uncertainty, complexity and ambiguity) world cause more frequently occurring rebuilding measures within a factory. Restructuring of factories is the most common planning case today. Restructuring is more common than new construction, revitalization and dismantling of factories. The increasing importance of restructuring processes shows that the ability to change was and is a promising concept for the reaction of companies to permanently changing conditions. The factory building is the basis for most changes within a factory. If an adaptation of a construction project (factory) is necessary, the inventory documents must be checked and often time-consuming planning of the adaptation must take place to define the relevant components to be adapted, in order to be able to finally evaluate them. The different requirements of the planning participants from the disciplines of factory planning (production planner, logistics planner, automation planner) and industrial construction planning (architect, civil engineer) come together during reconstruction and must be structured. This raises the research question: Which requirements do the disciplines involved in the reconstruction planning place on a digital factory model? A subordinate research question is: How can model-based decision support be provided for a more efficient design of the conversion within a factory? Because of the high adaptation rate of factories and its building described above, a methodology for rescheduling factories based on the requirements engineering method from software development is conceived and designed for practical application in factory restructuring projects. The explorative research procedure according to Kubicek is applied. Explorative research is suitable if the practical usability of the research results has priority. Furthermore, it will be shown how to best use a digital factory model in practice. The focus will be on mobile applications to meet the needs of factory planners on site. An augmented reality (AR) application will be designed and created to provide decision support for planning variants. The aim is to contribute to a shortening of the planning process and model-based decision support for more efficient change management. This requires the application of a methodology that reduces the deficits of the existing approaches. The time and cost expenditure are represented in the AR tablet solution based on a building information model (BIM). Overall, the requirements of those involved in the planning process for a digital factory model in the case of restructuring within a factory are thus first determined in a structured manner. The results are then applied and transferred to a construction site solution based on augmented reality.

Keywords: augmented reality, digital factory model, factory planning, restructuring

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5 Navigating the Digital Landscape: An Ethnographic Content Analysis of Black Youth's Encounters with Racially Traumatic Content on Social Media

Authors: Tiera Tanksley, Amanda M. McLeroy


The advent of technology and social media has ushered in a new era of communication, providing platforms for news dissemination and cause advocacy. However, this digital landscape has also exposed a distressing phenomenon termed "Black death," or trauma porn. This paper delves into the profound effects of repeated exposure to traumatic content on Black youth via social media, exploring the psychological impacts and potential reinforcing of stereotypes. Employing Critical Race Technology Theory (CRTT), the study sheds light on algorithmic anti-blackness and its influence on Black youth's lives and educational experiences. Through ethnographic content analysis, the research investigates common manifestations of Black death encountered online by Black adolescents. Findings unveil distressing viral videos, traumatic images, racial slurs, and hate speech, perpetuating stereotypes. However, amidst the distress, the study identifies narratives of activism and social justice on social media platforms, empowering Black youth to engage in positive change. Coping mechanisms and community support emerge as significant factors in navigating the digital landscape. The study underscores the need for comprehensive interventions and policies informed by evidence-based research. By addressing algorithmic anti-blackness and promoting digital resilience, the paper advocates for a more empathetic and inclusive online environment. Understanding coping mechanisms and community support becomes imperative for fostering mental well-being among Black adolescents navigating social media. In education, the implications are substantial. Acknowledging the impact of Black death content, educators play a pivotal role in promoting media literacy and digital resilience. Creating inclusive and safe online spaces, educators can mitigate negative effects and encourage open discussions about traumatic content. The application of CRTT in educational technology emphasizes dismantling systemic biases and promoting equity. In conclusion, this study calls for educators to be cognizant of the impact of Black death content on social media. By prioritizing media literacy, fostering digital resilience, and advocating for unbiased technologies, educators contribute to an inclusive and just educational environment for all students, irrespective of their race or background. Addressing challenges related to Black death content proactively ensures the well-being and mental health of Black adolescents, fostering an empathetic and inclusive digital space.

Keywords: algorithmic anti-Blackness, digital resilience, media literacy, traumatic content

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4 The History and Pattern of Migration from Punjab to West: Colonial to Global Punjab

Authors: Malkit Singh


This paper presents an in-depth analysis of the problem of migration from Punjab to the West while analyzing the history and patterns of generations of migration of Punjabis to the West. A special emphasis is given to link the present socio-economic and political crisis with the historical pattern of Punjabis’ migration to the West from colonial India to Independent Bharat, along with the stories of the success and failures of Western aspirants’ youth from Punjab. The roots of the migration from Punjab to the West have been traced from the invasion of the British in Punjab, resulting in the socio-economic and political dismantling of the Punjabi society, which resulted in the migration of the Punjabis to the other colonies of the British Empire. The grim position at home despite of all the efforts and hard work by the majority of the Punjabis, particularly from the farmer community and the shining lifestyle of some families of the village or vicinity who have some relatives in the West have encouraged the large number of Punjabis to change their fortune by working in West. However, the Visa and Work Permit regime has closed the doors of the West for those who are unskilled, semi-skilled and not qualified for the visa and work permit norms, but their inspiration to change their fortune by working abroad at any cost has resulted into the development of big business fraud of immigration agent and firms in Punjab that resulted into the loss of the thousands lives, imprisonment in the foreign and selling of the properties of the Punjabis. The greed for the greener pastures in the West and, the plight of the deserted wives of NRIs and the illegal routes adopted by the Punjabi youth due to the non-availability of visas and work permits are dealt in a comprehensive method. The rise and fall of Punjab as a land of the breadbasket of Bharat and the marginalization of the farmers with middle and small holdings due to the capital-intensive techniques are linked with the forced migration of the Punjabis. The failure of the government to address and respond to the rampant corruption, agriculture failure and the resulting problems of law and order before and after the troubled period of militancy in Punjab and the resulting migration to the West are comprehensively covered. The new trend of the Student Visa and Study abroad, particularly in Canada, Australia, and New Zealand, despite of the availability of quality education at very low cost in India. The early success of some students in getting study visas from Australia, Canada, New Zealand etc. and getting permanent immigration to these countries have encouraged the majority of Punjabi youth to leave their motherland for better opportunities in the prosperous lands, that is, again, failed as these countries are flooded with the Punjabi students. Moreover, the total failure of the political leadership of Punjab to address the basic needs of society, like law and order and stop the drug menace issues in the post-militancy Punjab is also done to understand the problem.

Keywords: Punjab, migration, West, agriculture

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3 A Reusable Foundation Solution for Onshore Windmills

Authors: Wael Mohamed, Per-Erik Austrell, Ola Dahlblom


Wind farms repowering is a significant topic nowadays. Wind farms repowering means the complete dismantling of the existing turbine, tower and foundation at an existing site and replacing these units with taller and larger units. Modern wind turbines are designed to withstand approximately for 20~25 years. However, a very long design life of 100 years or more can be expected for high-quality concrete foundations. Based on that there are significant economic and environmental benefits of replacing the out-of-date wind turbine with a new turbine of better power generation capacity and reuse the foundation. The big difference in lifetime shows a potential for new foundation solution to allow wind farms to be updated with taller and larger units in order to increase the energy production. This also means a significant change in the design loads on the foundations. Therefore, the new foundation solution should be able to handle the additional overturning loads. A raft surrounded by an active stabilisation system is proposed in this study. The concept of an active stabilisation system is a novel idea using a movable load to stabilise against the overturning moment. The active stabilisation system consists of a water tank being divided into eight compartments. The system uses the water as a movable load by pumping it into two compartments to stabilise against the overturning moment. The position of the water will rely on the wind direction and a water movement system depending on a number of electric motors and pipes with electric valves is used. One of the advantages of this active foundation solution is that some cost-efficient adjustment could be done to make this foundation able to support larger and taller units. After the end of the first turbine lifetime, an option is presented here to reuse this foundation and make it able to support taller and larger units. This option is considered using extra water volume to fill four compartments instead of two compartments. This extra water volume will increase the stability moment by 41% compared to using water in two compartments. The geotechnical performance of the new foundation solution is investigated using two existing weak soil profiles in Egypt and Sweden. A comparative study of the new solution and a piled raft with long friction piles is performed using finite element simulations. The results show that using a raft surrounded by an active stabilisation system decreases the tilting compared to a piled raft with friction piles. Moreover, it is found that using a raft surrounded by an active stabilisation system decreases the foundation costs compared to a piled raft with friction piles. In term of the environmental impact, it is found that the new foundation has a beneficial impact on the CO2 emissions. It saves roughly from 296.1 tonnes-CO2 to 518.21 tonnes-CO2 from the manufacture of concrete if the new foundation solution is used for another turbine-lifetime.

Keywords: active stabilisation system, CO2 emissions, FE analysis, reusable, weak soils

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