Search results for: life extension
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7980

Search results for: life extension

7980 Perception of Agricultural Extension Agents of Private Sector Participation in Extension Services in Ogun State, Nigeria

Authors: E. O. Fakoya, B. G. Abiona, J. O. Soetan

Abstract:

The study determined Perception of Agricultural Extension Agents of Private Sector Participation in Extension Services in Ogun State, Nigeria. Data were collected from 80 respondents with a well-structured questionnaire. The result of the findings showed that there is need for private sector participation in extension services (=4.313), private extension services has facilities than public extension services (=4.97). Private sector participated in extension services by: giving of loans and credits to farmers (=4.50). Major constraints identified by the respondents were: Transportation problem (=2.88) and lack of fund (=2.77) A significant relationship (P<0.05) exists between factors affecting public extension services(r = 0.641, p = 0.00) and private sector participation in extension services. It was concluded from the study that there is need for private sector to participate in extension service in order to improve productivity of the farmers.

Keywords: agricultural extension, extension agent, private sector, perception

Procedia PDF Downloads 564
7979 Capacity Building of Extension Agents for Sustainable Dissemination of Agricultural Information and Technologies in Developing Countries

Authors: Michael T. Ajayi, Oluwakemi E. Fapojuwo

Abstract:

Farmers are in need of regular and relevant information relating to new technologies. Production of extension materials has been found to be useful in facilitating the process. Extension materials help to provide information to reach large numbers of farmers quickly and economically. However, as good as extension materials are, previous materials produced are not used by farmers. The reasons for this include lack of involvement of farmers in the production of the extension materials, most of the extension materials are not relevant to the farmers’ environments, the agricultural extension agents lack capacity to prepare the materials, and many extension agents lack commitment. These problems led to this innovative capacity building of extension agents. This innovative approach involves five stages. The first stage is the diagnostic survey of farmers’ environment to collect useful information. The second stage is the development and production of draft extension materials. The third stage is the field testing and evaluation of draft materials by the same farmers that were involved at the diagnostic stage. The fourth stage is the revision of the draft extension materials by incorporating suggestions from farmers. The fifth stage is the action plans. This process improves the capacity of agricultural extension agents in the preparation of extension materials and also promotes engagement of farmers and beneficiaries in the process. The process also makes farmers assume some level of ownership of the exercise and the extension materials.

Keywords: capacity building, extension agents, dissemination, information/technologies

Procedia PDF Downloads 346
7978 The Faithful Extension of Constant Height and Constant Width Between Finite Posets

Authors: Walied Hazim Sharif

Abstract:

The problem of faithful extension with the condition of keeping constant height h and constant width w, i.e. for h w -inextensibility, seems more interesting than the brute extension of finite poset (partially ordered set). We shall investigate some theorems of hw-inextensive and hw-exrensive posets that can be used to formulate the faithful extension problem. A theorem in its general form of hw-inextensive posets is given to implement the presented theorems.

Keywords: faithful extension, poset, extension, inextension, height, width, hw-extensive, hw-inextensive

Procedia PDF Downloads 374
7977 Faithful Extension of Constant Height and Constant Width between Finite Posets

Authors: Walied Hazim Sharif

Abstract:

The problem of faithful extension with the condition of keeping constant height h and constant width w, i.e. for hw-inextensibility, seems more interesting than the brute extension of finite poset (partially ordered set). We shall investigate some theorems of hw-inextensive and hw-extensive posets that can be used to formulate the faithful extension problem. A theorem in its general form of hw-inextensive posets are given to implement the presented theorems.

Keywords: faithful extension, poset, extension, inextension, height, width, hw-extensive, hw-inextensive

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
7976 Extension of D Blast Furnace Campaign Life at Tata Steel Ltd

Authors: Biswajit Seal, Dushyant Kumar, Shambhu Nath, A. B. Raju

Abstract:

Extension of blast furnace campaign life is highly desired for blast furnace operators mainly because of reduction of operating cost and to avoid capital expenditure cost. Tata Steel Ltd, Jamshedpur plant operates seven blast furnaces with combination of old and new technologies. The focus of Tata Steel Ltd is to push for increasing productivity with good quality product and increasing campaign life. This has been challenging for older furnaces because older furnaces are generally equipped with less automation, old design and old equipment. Good operational practices, appropriate remedial measures, and regular planned maintenance helps to achieve long campaign life of old furnaces. Good operating practices like stable and consistent productivity, control of burden distribution, remedial measures like stack gunning and shotcreting for protection of stack wall, enhanced cooling system, and intermediate stack repair helps to achieve long campaign life of old blast furnaces. This paper describes experiences with the current old equipment and design of Tata Steel’s D Blast Furnace for campaign life extension.

Keywords: blast furnace, burden distribution, campaign life, productivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
7975 Farmers’ Perceptions of Extension Personnel’s Technical Capabilities: Evidence from India

Authors: Ankit Nagar, Dinesh Kumar Nauriyal, S. P. Singh

Abstract:

This paper examines farmers' perceptions of the efficacy of extension services in equipping them with the necessary information and skills required to maximise agricultural productivity. It is based on primary data collected through an interview schedule in India's Western Uttar Pradesh region. It uses descriptive statistics, factor analysis, and MANOVA to determine the typical farmer's view of an extension worker's technical prowess and behavioural traits, as well as the key factors associated with farmers' perception and the demographic characteristics that affect farmer's perception variations. The vast majority of farmers appear to consider extension personnel's efficiency and accessibility unfavourably. Farmers feel that extension personnel are well-trained notwithstanding their disagreements on the viability of their technical advice. Small and marginal farmers view the effectiveness, objectivity, and cooperativeness of extension agents less favourably than large farmers. This study proposes strategies such as routine follow-ups, practical demonstrations, and regular extension professional training camps as part of a holistic plan to increase farmer trust in the agricultural extension system. In addition, it proposes ensuring their accountability.

Keywords: agriculture extension, farmers’ perception, extension agents, factor analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 93
7974 Extension Services' Needs of Small Farmers in Biliran Province, Philippines

Authors: Mario C. Nierras

Abstract:

This study aimed to determine the extension services’ needs of small farmers in Biliran province, Philippines. It also sought to find out other issues/concerns of the small farmers. Extension services’ needs of small farmers were gathered through personal interviewing and observational analysis of randomly-selected small farmers in Biliran, Philippines. Biliran small farmers extension services’ needs include: raising fruits, raising legumes, raising vegetables, raising swine, raising cattle, and raising chicken (as priority broad skills). For the specific skills, diagnosing symptoms on fertilizer deficiencies, controlling plant pests and diseases, diagnosing signs on specific pest and disease damage, controlling animal pests and diseases, and doing artificial insemination were the priority skills. They considered an on-farm trial of new technology as most needed to be coupled with industry and quality-orientedness, as positive behaviors needed in farming success. The farmers still adhere to the so-called wait-and-see attitude, thus they are more convinced to follow a particular technology if they see a concrete result of the introduced changes. Technical needs prioritization of Biliran small farmers showed that they have a real need for crop and animal production skills to include the other issues/concerns. Extension service program planning for small farmers should be patterned after their technical needs giving due attention to some issues/concerns so that extension work could deliver the right skills for the right needs of the farmers.

Keywords: extension, extension service, extension service needs, extension service program, farmers, small farmers, marginal farmers

Procedia PDF Downloads 422
7973 Bridgeless Boost Power Factor Correction Rectifier with Hold-Up Time Extension Circuit

Authors: Chih-Chiang Hua, Yi-Hsiung Fang, Yuan-Jhen Siao

Abstract:

A bridgeless boost (BLB) power factor correction (PFC) rectifier with hold-up time extension circuit is proposed in this paper. A full bridge rectifier is widely used in the front end of the ac/dc converter. Since the shortcomings of the full bridge rectifier, the bridgeless rectifier is developed. A BLB rectifier topology is utilized with the hold-up time extension circuit. Unlike the traditional hold-up time extension circuit, the proposed extension scheme uses fewer active switches to achieve a longer hold-up time. Simulation results are presented to verify the converter performance.

Keywords: bridgeless boost (BLB), boost converter, power factor correction (PFC), hold-up time

Procedia PDF Downloads 396
7972 Some Issues with Extension of an HPC Cluster

Authors: Pil Seong Park

Abstract:

Homemade HPC clusters are widely used in many small labs, because they are easy to build and cost-effective. Even though incremental growth is an advantage of clusters, it results in heterogeneous systems anyhow. Instead of adding new nodes to the cluster, we can extend clusters to include some other Internet servers working independently on the same LAN, so that we can make use of their idle times, especially during the night. However extension across a firewall raises some security problems with NFS. In this paper, we propose a method to solve such a problem using SSH tunneling, and suggest a modified structure of the cluster that implements it.

Keywords: extension of HPC clusters, security, NFS, SSH tunneling

Procedia PDF Downloads 407
7971 Farmers’ Access to Agricultural Extension Services Delivery Systems: Evidence from a Field Study in India

Authors: Ankit Nagar, Dinesh Kumar Nauriyal, Sukhpal Singh

Abstract:

This paper examines the key determinants of farmers’ access to agricultural extension services, sources of agricultural extension services preferred and accessed by the farmers. An ordered logistic regression model was used to analyse the data of the 360 sample households based on a primary survey conducted in western Uttar Pradesh, India. The study finds that farmers' decision to engage in the agricultural extension programme is significantly influenced by factors such as education level, gender, farming experience, social group, group membership, farm size, credit access, awareness about the extension scheme, farmers' perception, and distance from extension sources. The most intriguing finding of this study is that the progressive farmers, which have long been regarded as a major source of knowledge diffusion, are the most distrusted sources of information as they are suspected of withholding vital information from potential beneficiaries. The positive relationship between farm size and ‘Access’ underlines that the extension services should revisit their strategies for targeting more marginal and small farmers constituting over 85 percent of the agricultural households by incorporating their priorities in their outreach programs. The study suggests that marginal and small farmers' productive potential could still be greatly augmented by the appropriate technology, advisory services, guidance, and improved market access. Also, the perception of poor quality of the public extension services can be corrected by initiatives aimed at building up extension workers' capacity.

Keywords: agriculture, access, extension services, ordered logistic regression

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
7970 Analysis of Farmer's Involvement in Public and Private Extension Services in Southwestern Nigeria

Authors: S. O. Ayansina, R. A. Oyeyinka, K. K. Bolarinwa

Abstract:

There is an increasing demand for a functional extension delivery services in Nigeria with a view to meet up with the food and fiber needs of the ever growing population of human and animal respectively. This study was designed to examine farmers’ involvement in public and private extension services in southwestern Nigeria, specifically to explore the farmers’ participation in the two types of organizations involved. It also evaluates the performances of personnel in the organizations. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used to select 30 respondents from each of the three selected organizations in Ogun, Osun and Oyo states in Southwestern Nigeria. Data was collected with interview schedule and analyzed both at descriptive and inferential levels. Kruskal Wallis one-way Analysis of variance was used to test the differences between the participation of beneficiaries who are farmers under the public and private extension services and the level of benefit accrued to them from the various extension organizations involved in the study. Results revealed that private extension organizations were performing better and were more preferred by the beneficiaries. Results of the tested hypotheses as shown by Kruskal Wallis test of difference (x2 = 0.709) S no significant difference between farmers’ participation in the extension services of public and private organizations but however showed significant difference (X2 =12.074) in the benefits achieved by respondents in the two organizations. These include: increased quantity of crop produced, farm income, skill acquisition, and improved education in private extension organizations. Based on this result, it could be inferred that beneficiaries generally preferred private extension organizations because of their effectiveness and vibrancy in programme administration. Public extension is therefore recommended for general overhauling and possibly privatization in order to cater for teeming population of farmers demanding for efficient and functional extension services to better their lots in production, processing and marketing of agricultural produce.

Keywords: public and private involvement, extension services, farmers' participation

Procedia PDF Downloads 385
7969 Extension of Positive Linear Operator

Authors: Manal Azzidani

Abstract:

This research consideres the extension of special functions called Positive Linear Operators. the bounded linear operator which defined from normed space to Banach space will extend to the closure of the its domain, And extend identified linear functional on a vector subspace by Hana-Banach theorem which could be generalized to the positive linear operators.

Keywords: extension, positive operator, Riesz space, sublinear function

Procedia PDF Downloads 507
7968 Brand Extension and Customer WOM: Evidence from the Sports Industry

Authors: Jim Shih-Chiao Chin, Yu Ting Yeh, Shui Lien Chen, Yi-Fen Tsai

Abstract:

his study is taking Adidas Company as the object, explored the brand awareness directly or indirectly affects brand affect and word of mouth. First, explored the brand awareness on category fit and image fit, and examined the influence of category fit and image fit on extension attitude. This study then designates the effect of extension attitude on brand affect and word-of-mouth. The relationship of brand awareness on brand affect and word-of-mouth was also explored. The study participants are people who have purchased Adidas extension products. A total of 700 valid questionnaires were collected and statistical software AMOS 20.0 was used to examine the research hypotheses by using structural equation modeling (SEM). Finally, theoretical implications and research directions are provided for future studies.

Keywords: brand extension, brand awareness, product category fit, brand image fit, brand affect, word-of-mouth (WOM)

Procedia PDF Downloads 313
7967 Experiences of Extension Officers on the Provision of Agricultural Facilities to Rural Farmers towards Improving Agricultural Practice in South Africa

Authors: Mfaniseni Wiseman Mbatha

Abstract:

The extension officers are regarded as the key role players in the provision of agricultural facilities to farmers across the world. The government of South Africa has shown a commitment to provide extensive support to farmers by the means of disseminating information and other agricultural facilities. This qualitative study on the experiences of extension officers on the provision of agricultural facilities to rural farmers towards improving agricultural practice was conducted in Msinga Local Municipality. The data was collected through the use of semi-structured interviews with extension officers who were sampled using the purposive sampling method. The qualitative data was analysed through the use of content analysis. The critical part of the findings reveals that the availability of arable land for agricultural practice, availability of agricultural schemes and availability of proper functioning community gardens were indicators of the high level of agricultural practice in the Msinga area. Therefore, the extension officers from the municipality department have shown to provide the agricultural budget to support rural farmers. Whereas, the department of agriculture provides well knowledgeable staff to train farmers about the process of farming and how they can address issues of livestock and crop diseases and also adapting to issues of climate change. The rural farmers, however, find it very difficult to learn and put into practice things that were thought by extension officers during training. There is, therefore, a need for recruitment of more extension staff and the involvement of Non-Government Organizations to increase access to extension facilities to the farmers.

Keywords: agricultural facilities, agricultural practice, extension officers, rural farmers

Procedia PDF Downloads 124
7966 Comparative Analysis of Yield before and after Access to Extension Services among Crop Farmers in Bauchi Local Government Area of Bauchi State, Nigeria

Authors: U. S. Babuga, A. H. Danwanka, A. Garba

Abstract:

The research was carried out to compare the yield of respondents before and after access to extension services on crop production technologies in the study area. Data were collected from the study area through questionnaires administered to seventy-five randomly selected respondents. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-test and regression models. The result disclosed that majority (97%) of the respondent attended one form of school or the other. The majority (78.67%) of the respondents had farm size ranging between 1-3 hectares. The majority of the respondent adopt improved variety of crops, plant spacing, herbicide, fertilizer application, land preparation, crop protection, crop processing and storage of farm produce. The result of the t-test between the yield of respondents before and after access to extension services shows that there was a significant (p<0.001) difference in yield before and after access to extension. It also indicated that farm size was significant (p<0.001) while household size, years of farming experience and extension contact were significant at (p<0.005). The major constraint to adoption of crop production technologies were shortage of extension agents, high cost of technology and lack of access to credit facility. The major pre-requisite for the improvement of extension service are employment of more extension agents or workers and adequate training. Adequate agricultural credit to farmers at low interest rates will enhance their adoption of crop production technologies.

Keywords: comparative, analysis, yield, access, extension

Procedia PDF Downloads 340
7965 Agricultural Extension Workers’ Education in Indonesia - Roles of Distance Education

Authors: Adhi Susilo

Abstract:

This paper addresses the roles of distance education in the agricultural extension workers’ education. Agriculture plays an important role in both poverty reduction and economic growth. The technology of agriculture in the developing world should change continuously to keep pace with rising populations and rapidly changing social, economic, and environmental conditions. Therefore, agricultural extension workers should have several competencies in order to carry out their duties properly. One of the essential competencies that they must possess is the professional competency that is directly related to their duties in carrying out extension activities. Such competency can be acquired through studying at Universitas Terbuka (UT). With its distance learning system, agricultural extension workers can study at UT without leaving their duties. This paper presenting sociological analysis and lessons learnt from the specific context of Indonesia. Diversities in geographic, demographic, social cultural and economic conditions of the country provide specific challenges for its distance education practice and the process of social transformation to which distance education can contribute. Extension officers used distance education for personal benefits and increased professional productivity. An increase in awareness is important for the further adoption of distance learning for extension purposes. Organizations in both the public and private sector must work to increase knowledge of ICTs for the benefit of stakeholders. The use of ICTs can increase productivity for extensions officers and expand educational opportunities for learners. The use of distance education by extension to disseminate educational materials around the world is widespread. Increasing awareness and use of distance learning can lead to more productive relationships between extension officers and agricultural stakeholders.

Keywords: agricultural extension, demographic and geographic condition, distance education, ICTs

Procedia PDF Downloads 501
7964 Extension Services Impact On Stingless Bee Production And Profitability In Malaysia

Authors: Ibrahim Aliyu Isaha, Mohd Mansor Ismailb , Salim Hassanc, Norsida Bint Man

Abstract:

The Global and National income derive from a stingless beekeeping project is a new source of wealth to Malaysia. A common stingless bee species, Trigona itama, potential production through effective utilization of highly competent agents of extension services will lead to higher output that guaranteed maximum income. The study covers a sample beekeepers in ten states and it was designed to examine various impacts of extension services as variables in enhancing sustainable stingless beekeeping production. In addition, the study also determined the profitability of stingless beekeeping production through technology transfer and human resource development. Correlation and Regression analyses were used on a sample size of 87 stingless beekeepers representing 72% of filled questionnaires. The cost-benefit analysis showed participants received lucrative monthly income of more than rm3500. The results indicated positive outcome from extension services that increased production, and hence, generated better additional income to participants. In summary, it is possible for the extension services to increase output of stingless beekeeping through technology transfer

Keywords: extension services, malaysia, profitability, stingless bee, trigona itama production

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
7963 Cryptography Over Sextic Extension with Cubic Subfield

Authors: A. Chillali, M. Sahmoudi

Abstract:

In this paper we will give a method for encoding the elements of the ring of integers of sextic extension, namely L = Q(a,b) which is a rational quadratic over cubic field K =Q(a ) where a^{2} is a rational square free integer and b is a root of irreducible polynomiale of degree 3.

Keywords: coding, integral bases, sextic, quadratic

Procedia PDF Downloads 278
7962 Comparison of Isokinetic Powers (Flexion and Knee Extension) of Basketball and Football Players (Age 17–20)

Authors: Ugur Senturk, Ibrahım Erdemır, Faruk Guven, Cuma Ece

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to compare flexion and extension movements in knee-joint group by measuring isokinetic knee power of amateur basketball and football players. For this purpose, total 21 players were included, which consist of football players (n=12) and basketball players (n=9), within the age range of 17–20. After receiving the age, length, body weight, vertical jump, and BMI measurements of all subjects, the measurement of lower extremity knee-joint movement (Flexion-Extension) was made with isokinetic dynamometer (isomed 2000) at 60 o/sec. and 240 o/sec. angular velocity. After arrangement and grouping of collected information forms and knee flexion and extension parameters, all data were analyzed with SPSS for Windows. Descriptive analyses of the parameters were made. Non-parametric t test and Mann-Whitney U test were used to compare the parameters of football players and basketball players and to find the inter-group differences. The comparisons and relations in the range p<0.05 and p<0.01 between the groups were surveyed. As a conclusion, no statistical differences were found between isokinetic knee flexion and extension parameters of football and basketball players. However, it was found that the football players were older than the basketball players. In addition to this, the average values of the basketball players in the highest torque and the highest torque average curve were found higher than football players in comparisons of left knee extension. However, it was found that fat levels of the basketball players were found to be higher than the football players.

Keywords: isokinetic contraction, isokinetic dynamometer, peak torque, flexion, extension, football, basketball

Procedia PDF Downloads 516
7961 Stem Covers of Leibniz n-Algebras

Authors: Natália Maria Rego

Abstract:

ALeibnizn-algebraGis aK-vector space endowed whit a n-linearbracket operation [-,…-] : GG … G→ Gsatisfying the fundamental identity, which can be expressed saying that the right multiplication map Ry2, …, ᵧₙ: Gn→ G, Rᵧ₂, …, ᵧₙn(ˣ¹, …, ₓₙ) = [[ˣ¹, …, ₓₙ], ᵧ₂, …, ᵧₙ], is a derivation. This structure, together with its skew-symmetric version, named as Lie n-algebra or Filippov algebra, arose in the setting of Nambumechanics, an n-ary generalization of the Hamiltonian mechanics. Thefirst goal of this work is to provide a characterization of various classes of central extensions of Leibniz n-algebras in terms of homological properties. Namely, Commutator extension, Quasi-commutator extension, Stem extension, and Stem cover. These kind of central extensions are characterized by means of the character of the map *(E): nHL1(G) → M provided by the five-term exact sequence in homology with trivial coefficients of Leibniz n-algebras associated to an extension E : 0 → M → K → G → 0. For a free presentation 0 →R→ F →G→ 0of a Leibniz n-algebra G,the term M(G) = (R[F,…n.., F])/[R, F,..n-1..,F] is called the Schur multiplier of G, which is a Baer invariant, i.e., it does not depend on the chosen free presentation, and it is isomorphic to the first Leibniz n-algebras homology with trivial coefficients of G. A central extension of Leibniz n-algebras is a short exact sequenceE : 0 →M→K→G→ 0such that [M, K,.. ⁿ⁻¹.., K]=0. It is said to be a stem extension if M⊆[G, .. n.., G]. Additionally, if the induced map M(K) → M(G) is the zero map, then the stem extension Eis said to be a stem cover. The second aim of this work is to analyze the interplay between stem covers of Leibniz n-algebras and the Schur multiplier. Concretely, in the case of finite-dimensional Leibniz n-algebras, we show the existence of coverings, and we prove that all stem covers with finite-dimensional Schur multiplier are isoclinic. Additionally, we characterize stem covers of perfect Leibniz n-algebras.

Keywords: leibniz n-algebras, central extensions, Schur multiplier, stem cover

Procedia PDF Downloads 146
7960 Public and Private Involvement in Agricultural Extension Services: Factors of Farmers’ Preference in Southwestern Nigeria

Authors: S. O. Ayansina, O. A. Adekunle

Abstract:

There is an increasing demand for a functional extension delivery services in Nigeria with a view to meet up with the food and fiber needs of the ever growing population of human and animal respectively. The study was therefore designed to examine the farmers’ preference for public and private extension services in Southwestern Nigeria, specifically to determine the farmers’ level of participation in the two types of organizations involved and also to evaluate the Performance level of personnel in the two organizations in order to ascertain the beneficiaries’ satisfaction. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used to samples 30 respondents from each of the three selected organizations in each of the three states sampled in Southwestern Nigeria. Hence, 270 respondents were sampled for the study. Data collected were analyzed with Kruskal Wallis one-way Analysis of variance to test the difference between the participation of beneficiaries in the public and private extension services and the level of benefit accrued from the two organizations involved in the study. Results generally revealed that private organizations were performing better and were more preferred by the beneficiaries. Results of the tested hypotheses as shown by Kruskal Wallis test of difference (x2=0.709) indicates no significant difference between farmers’ participation in the extension services of public and private organizations but however shows significant difference (X2=12.074) in the benefits achieved by respondents in the two organizations, such benefits include: increased quantity of Crop produced, farm income, skill acquisition, and improved Education in private extension organizations. Based on this result, it could be inferred that beneficiaries generally preferred private extension organizations because of their effectiveness and vibrancy in programme administration. Public extension is therefore recommended for general overhauling and possibly “merging” of public and private sectors in order to cater for teeming population of farmers demanding for efficient and functional extension services to better their lots both in production and processing.

Keywords: public and private involvement, extension services, farmers’ preferences, Kruskal Wallis Test

Procedia PDF Downloads 313
7959 Imperatives for Teacher Empowerment in Devising Extension Education as Part of the Holistic Curriculum for Hospitality and Tourism Domains: A Conceptual Study in Indian Context

Authors: Rajiv Mishra, Mantun Kumar Singh

Abstract:

The role of educator or teacher in the Indian context is circumscribed by the objective of social transformation as articulated in the Indian National Movement and later enshrined in the Preamble to the Indian Constitution, in the Fundamental Rights and in the Directive Principles of State Policy. Extension, which is the additional dimension of professional practice among teachers at higher education can be used as a revolutionary tool to modify the existing slogan of ‘education for all’ to ‘education for all and for-ever’, thereby making the ‘life-long education’, a reality. This conceptual paper addresses the twin needs of preparing the students for individual growth as also to facilitate them to contribute to social development. It focuses on the inclusion of the measures required to be taken for providing social consciousness and sensitivity, as this happens to be a neglected part of the curriculum. The extra effort so needed to build community based activities presupposes the requirement for professional training to be given to the hospitality and tourism educators as a continuing education initiative.

Keywords: continuing education, extension activities, holistic curriculum, hospitality and tourism educators

Procedia PDF Downloads 303
7958 Leveraging on Youth Agricultural Extension Outreach: Revisiting Young Farmer’s Club in Schools in Edo State, Nigeria

Authors: Christopher A. Igene, Jonathan O. Ighodalo

Abstract:

Youths play a critical role in the agricultural transformation of any developing nation such as Nigeria. Hence, the preparation of any nation for productive life depends on the policies and programmes designed for its youths. Studies have shown that children and youths contribute significantly in agricultural activities. Youths have vigour and prone to physical work, they constitute a great percentage of labour force in the country. It is of necessity that every policy on national development must of necessity take cognizance of the youths. Hence, the focus on youths in agricultural extension outreaches most especially, the young farmers club. It is an out-of-school education in agriculture and home economics for rural youth through learning by doing. Young farmers club in schools enables the young to learn and acquire those attributes that will enable them grown into useful and mature adult. There appears to be numerous constrains in the use of youths in extension, they are inadequate personnel, poor funding of agricultural sector, poor marketing channels, lack of good roads, others are poor input and lack of information. However, there is a need for Agricultural Development Programme (ADP) to organize workshop for secondary students and agricultural science teachers, schools to organize seminars and workshops for secondary schools who are members of Young Farmers Club (YFC). ADP should also organize agricultural show to encourage students to be members of Young Farmers Club (YFC).

Keywords: agricultural extension, agricultural role, students, youths, young farmers club (YFC)

Procedia PDF Downloads 137
7957 DGA Data Interpretation Using Extension Theory for Power Transformer Diagnostics

Authors: O. P. Rahi, Manoj Kumar

Abstract:

Power transformers are essential and expensive equipments in electrical power system. Dissolved gas analysis (DGA) is one of the most useful techniques to detect incipient faults in power transformers. However, the identification of the faulted location by conventional method is not always an easy task due to variability of gas data and operational variables. In this paper, an extension theory based power transformer fault diagnosis method is presented. Extension theory tries to solve contradictions and incompatibility problems. This paper first briefly introduces the basic concept of matter element theory, establishes the matter element models for three-ratio method, and then briefly discusses extension set theory. Detailed analysis is carried out on the extended relation function (ERF) adopted in this paper for transformer fault diagnosis. The detailed diagnosing steps are offered. Simulation proves that the proposed method can overcome the drawbacks of the conventional three-ratio method, such as no matching and failure to diagnose multi-fault. It enhances diagnosing accuracy.

Keywords: DGA, extension theory, ERF, fault diagnosis power transformers, fault diagnosis, fuzzy logic

Procedia PDF Downloads 392
7956 A Systematic Mapping of the Use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT)-Based Remote Agricultural Extension for Women Smallholders

Authors: Busiswa Madikazi

Abstract:

This systematic mapping study explores the underrepresentation of women's contributions to farming in the Global South within the development of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT)-based extension methods. Despite women farmers constituting 70% of the agricultural labour force, their productivity is hindered by various constraints, including illiteracy, household commitments, and limited access to credit and markets. A systematic mapping approach was employed with the aim of identifying evidence gaps in existing ICT extension for women farmers. The data collection protocol follows a structured approach, incorporating key criteria for inclusion, exclusion, search strategy, and coding and the PICO strategy (Population, Intervention, Comparator, and Outcome). The results yielded 119 articles that qualified for inclusion. The findings highlight that mobile phone apps (WhatsApp) and radio/television programming are the primary extension methods employed while integrating ICT with training, field visits, and demonstrations are underutilized. Notably, the study emphasizes the inadequate attention to critical issues such as food security, gender equality, and attracting youth to farming within ICT extension efforts. These findings indicate a significant policy and practice gap, neglecting community-driven approaches that cater to women's specific needs and enhance their agricultural production. Map highlights the importance of refocusing ICT extension efforts to address women farmers’ unique challenges, thereby contributing to their empowerment and improving agricultural practices.

Keywords: agricultural extension, ICT, women farmers, smallholders

Procedia PDF Downloads 48
7955 The Use of Fertilizers in the Context of Agricultural Extension

Authors: Ahmed Altalb

Abstract:

Fertilizers are natural materials, or industrial contain nutrients, which help to improve soil fertility and is considered (nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium) is important elements for the growth of crops properly. Fertilization is necessary in order to improve the quality of agricultural products and the recovery in agricultural activities. The use of organic fertilizers and chemical lead to reduce the loss of nutrients in agricultural soils, and this leads to an increase in the production of agricultural crops. Fertilizers are one of the key factors in the increase of agricultural production as well as other factors such as irrigation and improved seeds and Prevention and others; the fertilizers will continue to be a cornerstone of the agriculture in order to produce the food to feed of world population. The use of fertilizers has become commonplace today, especially the chemical fertilizers for the development of agricultural production, due to the provision of nutrients for plants and in high concentrations and easily dissolves in water and ease of use. The choose the right type of fertilizer depends on the soil type and the type of crop. In this subject, find the relationship between the agricultural extension and the optimal use of fertilizers. The extension plays the important role in the advise and educate of farmers in how they optimal use the fertilizers in a scientific way. This article aims to identify the concept the fertilizers. Identify the role of fertilizers in increasing the agricultural production, identify the role of agricultural extension in the optimal use of fertilizers and rural development.

Keywords: agricultural, extension, fertilizers, production

Procedia PDF Downloads 419
7954 Combined Effects of Thymol, Carvacrol and Packaging on the Shelf-Life of Marinated Chicken

Authors: Layal Karam, Rayan Roustom, Mohamad G. Abiad, Tahra El-Obeid, Ioannis N. Savvaidis

Abstract:

The demand for marinated chicken worldwide, is continuously growing. To date, limited data on addition of active components of Essential Oils (EOs) to marinades for chicken preservation are available. The antimicrobial effect of carvacrol and thymol, added at 0.4 and 0.8% v/w to marinated fresh chicken, stored in air and under vacuum packaging (VP), for 21 days at 4°C, was examined. The samples were monitored for microbiological (total viable count (TVC), lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Brochothrix thermosphacta, Pseudomonas spp., total coliforms, Escherichia coli, yeasts and molds) and sensory attributes (odor characteristics). Our data supports that among the tested microorganisms, Pseudomonas spp., LAB and B. thermosphacta were the most dominant microbiota in the marinated chicken samples. Additionally, the use of active EOs components, especially the higher concentration (0.8% v/w) in combination with VP, retarded the growth of spoilage microbiota and resulted in a significant reduction of about 2.9-3.1 log cfu/g and a microbiological shelf-life extension of marinated chicken by > 6 days, as judged by TVC data. Interestingly, the combination of active components of EOs at the lower concentration (0.4% v/w) and packaging (air or vacuum) resulted in a significant sensorial shelf-life extension of 15 and >21 days, as compared to the controls’ shelf-life of 9 days. The results of our study demonstrated the potential of the active components, carvacrol and thymol, as natural effective antimicrobial hurdles to control the growth of spoilage microorganisms in marinated chicken meat.

Keywords: chicken, essential oils compounds, marination, meat spoilage, preservation

Procedia PDF Downloads 164
7953 House Extension Strategy in High-Density Informal Settlement: A Case Study in Kampung Cikini, Jakarta, Indonesia

Authors: Meidesta Pitria, Akiko Okabe

Abstract:

In high-density informal settlement, extension area at the outside of the houses could primarily happen as a spatial modification response. House extension in high-density informal settlement is not only becoming a physical spatial modification that makes a blur zone between private and public but also supporting the growth and existence of informal economy and other daily activities in both individuals and communities. This research took a case study in an informal settlement named Kampung Cikini, a densely populated area in Central Jakarta. The aim of this study is to identify and clarify house extension as a strategy in dealing with urbanization in an informal settlement. By using the perspective and information from housewives, the analysis is based on the assumption that land ownership transformation and the activities in house extension area influence the different kinds of house extension’s spatial modification and local planning policy in relation with the implementation of house extension strategy. The data collection was done in four sites, two sites are located in outer-wide alley and another two sites are located in inner-narrow alley. In this research, data of 104 housewives in 86 houses were collected through representatives of housewives and local leader of each sites. The research was started from participatory mapping process, deep interview with local leader, and initiated collaboration with housewives community in having a celebration as communal event to cultivate together the issue. This study shows that land ownership, activities, and alley are indispensable in the decision of extension space making. The more permanency status of land ownership the more permanent and various extension could be implemented. However, in some blocks, the existence of origin house or first land owner also has a significant role in coordination and agreement in using and modifying extension space. In outer-wide alley, the existence of more various activities in front area of the houses is significantly related with the chance given by having wider alley, particularly for informal income generating activities. In the inner-narrow alley, limited space in front of the houses affects more negotiations in the community for having more shared spaces, even inside their private space.

Keywords: house extension, housewives, informal settlement, kampung, high density

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
7952 Adoption of Inorganic Insecticides and Resistant Varieties among Cowpea Producers in Mubi Zone, Nigeria

Authors: Sabo Elizabeth

Abstract:

Cowpea production is presently mainly done with inorganic insecticides, but the growing environmental problems linked with their use and the rising costs of the chemicals are stimulating all categories of stakeholders towards the adoption of less impacting practices. 611 respondents were interviewed between 2008 and 2009. Respondents are young adults and are fairly educated. Awareness is high about insecticide use, but is low for bio-pesticides and resistant varieties. Adoption of inorganic insecticides is related to age, educational level, and contacts with dealers. Low adoption rate for resistant varieties is associated with inadequate information and poor extension service. To adopt IPM techniques with limited health hazards and compatible with the environment, a properly designed extension program is consequently needed.

Keywords: Vigna unguiculata, IPM, bio-pesticides, resistant varieties, extension

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7951 Effect of Agricultural Extension Services on Technical Efficiency of Smallholder Cassava Farmers in Ghana: A Stochastic Meta-Frontier Analysis

Authors: Arnold Missiame

Abstract:

In Ghana, rural dwellers who depend primarily on agriculture for their livelihood constitute about 60% of the country’s population. This shows the critical role and potentials of the agricultural sector in helping to achieve Ghana’s vision 2030. With the current threat of climate change and advancements in technology, agricultural extension is not just about technology transfer and improvements in productivity, but it is also about improving the managerial and technical skills of farmers. In Ghana, the government of Ghana as well as other players in the sector like; non-governmental organizations, NGOs, local and international funding agencies, for decades now, have made capacity-building-investments in smallholder farmers by way of extension services delivery. This study sought to compare the technical efficiency of farmers who have access to agricultural extension and farmers who do not in Ghana. The study employed the stochastic meta-frontier model to analyze household survey data comprising 300 smallholder cassava farmers from the Fanteakwa district of Ghana. The farmers were selected through a two-stage sampling technique where 5 communities were purposively selected in the first stage and then 60 smallholder cassava farmers were randomly selected from each of the 5 communities. Semi-structured questionnaires were used to collect data on farmers’ socioeconomic and farm-level characteristics. The results showed that farmers who have access to agricultural extensions services have higher technical efficiencies (TE) and produce much closer to their meta-production frontiers (higher technology gap ratios (TGR) than farmers who do not have access to such extension services. Furthermore, experience in cassava cultivation and formal education significantly improves the technical efficiencies of farmers. The study recommends that the mode and scope of agricultural extension service delivery in the country should be enhanced to ensure that smallholder farmers have easy access to extension agents.

Keywords: agricultural extension, Ghana, smallholder farmers, stochastic meta-frontier model, technical efficiency

Procedia PDF Downloads 92