Search results for: remanufacturing
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 17

Search results for: remanufacturing

17 Remanufacturing and Integrity Assessment of a 27-Year-Old 25kV Gas Insulated Switchgear: A Comprehensive Study on Dismantling, Inspection, and Testing

Authors: Yechan Kim, Bonhyuk Ku, Minkyung Jung, Hyoungku Kang


This study presents the remanufacturing of a 25kV gas insulated switchgear (GIS) that operated indoors for 27 years before being decommissioned due to aging. The research involved a detailed process of dismantling, visual inspection, component-wise examination, and various testing methodologies to assess the equipment's condition. The focus was on evaluating the GIS's integrity and feasibility for remanufacturing. The results highlight the potential of remanufacturing in extending the life of electrical power equipment, offering insights into the best practices, challenges, and technical considerations of such an undertaking. This contributes to a sustainable approach in the power industry, emphasizing the reuse and restoration of aging equipment.

Keywords: remanufacturing, dismantling, gas insulated switchgear, sustainability, life extension

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16 Towards Automated Remanufacturing of Marine and Offshore Engineering Components

Authors: Aprilia, Wei Liang Keith Nguyen, Shu Beng Tor, Gerald Gim Lee Seet, Chee Kai Chua


Automated remanufacturing process is of great interest in today’s marine and offshore industry. Most of the current remanufacturing processes are carried out manually and hence they are error prone, labour-intensive and costly. In this paper, a conceptual framework for automated remanufacturing is presented. This framework involves the integration of 3D non-contact digitization, adaptive surface reconstruction, additive manufacturing and machining operation. Each operation is operated and interconnected automatically as one system. The feasibility of adaptive surface reconstruction on marine and offshore engineering components is also discussed. Several engineering components were evaluated and the results showed that this proposed system is feasible. Conclusions are drawn and further research work is discussed.

Keywords: adaptive surface reconstruction, automated remanufacturing, automatic repair, reverse engineering

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15 Dynamic Cellular Remanufacturing System (DCRS) Design

Authors: Tariq Aljuneidi, Akif Asil Bulgak


Remanufacturing may be defined as the process of bringing used products to “like-new” functional state with warranty to match, and it is one of the most popular product end-of-life scenarios. An efficient remanufacturing network lead to an efficient design of sustainable manufacturing enterprise. In remanufacturing network, products are collected from the customer zone, disassembled and remanufactured at a suitable remanufacturing facility. In this respect, another issue to consider is how the returned product to be remanufactured, in other words, what is the best layout for such facility. In order to achieve a sustainable manufacturing system, Cellular Manufacturing System (CMS) designs are highly recommended, CMSs combine high throughput rates of line layouts with the flexibility offered by functional layouts (job shop). Introducing the CMS while designing a remanufacturing network will benefit the utilization of such a network. This paper presents and analyzes a comprehensive mathematical model for the design of Dynamic Cellular Remanufacturing Systems (DCRSs). In this paper, the proposed model is the first one to date that consider CMS and remanufacturing system simultaneously. The proposed DCRS model considers several manufacturing attributes such as multi-period production planning, dynamic system reconfiguration, duplicate machines, machine capacity, available time for workers, worker assignments, and machine procurement, where the demand is totally satisfied from a returned product. A numerical example is presented to illustrate the proposed model.

Keywords: cellular manufacturing system, remanufacturing, mathematical programming, sustainability

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14 Admission Control Policy for Remanufacturing Activities with Quality Variation of Returns

Authors: Sajjad Farahani, Wilkistar Otieno, Xiaohang Yue


This paper develops a model for the optimal disposition decision for product returns in a remanufacturing system with limited recoverable inventory capacity. In this model, a constant demand is satisfied by remanufacturing returned products which are up to the minimum required quality grade. The quality grade of returned products is uncertain and remanufacturing cost increases as the quality level decreases, and remanufacturer wishes to determine which returned product to accept to be remanufactured for reselling, and any unaccepted returns may be salvaged at a value that increases with their quality level. Accepted returns can be stocked for remanufacturing upon demand requests, but incur a holding cost. A Markov decision problem is formulated in order to evaluate various performance measures for this system and obtain the optimal remanufacturing policy. A detailed numerical study reveals that our approach to the disposition problem outperforms the current industrial practice ignoring quality grade of returned products. In addition, we identify conditions under which this improvement is the highest.

Keywords: green supply chain management, matrix geometric method, production recovery, reverse supply chains

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13 Evaluation of a Remanufacturing for Lithium Ion Batteries from Electric Cars

Authors: Achim Kampker, Heiner H. Heimes, Mathias Ordung, Christoph Lienemann, Ansgar Hollah, Nemanja Sarovic


Electric cars with their fast innovation cycles and their disruptive character offer a high degree of freedom regarding innovative design for remanufacturing. Remanufacturing increases not only the resource but also the economic efficiency by a prolonged product life time. The reduced power train wear of electric cars combined with high manufacturing costs for batteries allow new business models and even second life applications. Modular and intermountable designed battery packs enable the replacement of defective or outdated battery cells, allow additional cost savings and a prolongation of life time. This paper discusses opportunities for future remanufacturing value chains of electric cars and their battery components and how to address their potentials with elaborate designs. Based on a brief overview of implemented remanufacturing structures in different industries, opportunities of transferability are evaluated. In addition to an analysis of current and upcoming challenges, promising perspectives for a sustainable electric car circular economy enabled by design for remanufacturing are deduced. Two mathematical models describe the feasibility of pursuing a circular economy of lithium ion batteries and evaluate remanufacturing in terms of sustainability and economic efficiency. Taking into consideration not only labor and material cost but also capital costs for equipment and factory facilities to support the remanufacturing process, cost benefit analysis prognosticate that a remanufacturing battery can be produced more cost-efficiently. The ecological benefits were calculated on a broad database from different research projects which focus on the recycling, the second use and the assembly of lithium ion batteries. The results of this calculations show a significant improvement by remanufacturing in all relevant factors especially in the consumption of resources and greenhouse warming potential. Exemplarily suitable design guidelines for future remanufacturing lithium ion batteries, which consider modularity, interfaces and disassembly, are used to illustrate the findings. For one guideline, potential cost improvements were calculated and upcoming challenges are pointed out.

Keywords: circular economy, electric mobility, lithium ion batteries, remanufacturing

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12 Model for Remanufacture of Medical Equipment in Cross Border Collaboration

Authors: Kingsley Oturu, Winifred Ijomah, Wale Coker, Chibueze Achi


With the impact of BREXIT and the need for cross-border collaboration, this international research investigated the use of a conceptual model for remanufacturing medical equipment (with a focus on anesthetic machines and baby incubators). Early findings of the research suggest that contextual factors need to be taken into consideration, as well as an emphasis on cleaning (e.g., sterilization) during the process of remanufacturing medical equipment. For example, copper tubings may be more important in the remanufacturing of anesthetic equipment in tropical climates than in cold climates.

Keywords: medical equipment remanufacture, sustainability, circular business models, remanufacture process model

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11 Spare Part Carbon Footprint Reduction with Reman Applications

Authors: Enes Huylu, Sude Erkin, Nur A. Özdemir, Hatice K. Güney, Cemre S. Atılgan, Hüseyin Y. Altıntaş, Aysemin Top, Muammer Yılman, Özak Durmuş


Remanufacturing (reman) applications allow manufacturers to contribute to the circular economy and help to introduce products with almost the same quality, environment-friendly, and lower cost. The objective of this study is to present that the carbon footprint of automotive spare parts used in vehicles could be reduced by reman applications based on Life Cycle Analysis which was framed with ISO 14040 principles. In that case, it was aimed to investigate reman applications for 21 parts in total. So far, research and calculations have been completed for the alternator, turbocharger, starter motor, compressor, manual transmission, auto transmission, and DPF (diesel particulate filter) parts, respectively. Since the aim of Ford Motor Company and Ford OTOSAN is to achieve net zero based on Science-Based Targets (SBT) and the Green Deal that the European Union sets out to make it climate neutral by 2050, the effects of reman applications are researched. In this case, firstly, remanufacturing articles available in the literature were searched based on the yearly high volume of spare parts sold. Paper review results related to their material composition and emissions released during incoming production and remanufacturing phases, the base part has been selected to take it as a reference. Then, the data of the selected base part from the research are used to make an approximate estimation of the carbon footprint reduction of the relevant part used in Ford OTOSAN. The estimation model is based on the weight, and material composition of the referenced paper reman activity. As a result of this study, it was seen that remanufacturing applications are feasible to apply technically and environmentally since it has significant effects on reducing the emissions released during the production phase of the vehicle components. For this reason, the research and calculations of the total number of targeted products in yearly volume have been completed to a large extent. Thus, based on the targeted parts whose research has been completed, in line with the net zero targets of Ford Motor Company and Ford OTOSAN by 2050, if remanufacturing applications are preferred instead of recent production methods, it is possible to reduce a significant amount of the associated greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of spare parts used in vehicles. Besides, it is observed that remanufacturing helps to reduce the waste stream and causes less pollution than making products from raw materials by reusing the automotive components.

Keywords: greenhouse gas emissions, net zero targets, remanufacturing, spare parts, sustainability

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10 Multi-Criteria Decision Making Network Optimization for Green Supply Chains

Authors: Bandar A. Alkhayyal


Modern supply chains are typically linear, transforming virgin raw materials into products for end consumers, who then discard them after use to landfills or incinerators. Nowadays, there are major efforts underway to create a circular economy to reduce non-renewable resource use and waste. One important aspect of these efforts is the development of Green Supply Chain (GSC) systems which enables a reverse flow of used products from consumers back to manufacturers, where they can be refurbished or remanufactured, to both economic and environmental benefit. This paper develops novel multi-objective optimization models to inform GSC system design at multiple levels: (1) strategic planning of facility location and transportation logistics; (2) tactical planning of optimal pricing; and (3) policy planning to account for potential valuation of GSC emissions. First, physical linear programming was applied to evaluate GSC facility placement by determining the quantities of end-of-life products for transport from candidate collection centers to remanufacturing facilities while satisfying cost and capacity criteria. Second, disassembly and remanufacturing processes have received little attention in industrial engineering and process cost modeling literature. The increasing scale of remanufacturing operations, worth nearly $50 billion annually in the United States alone, have made GSC pricing an important subject of research. A non-linear physical programming model for optimization of pricing policy for remanufactured products that maximizes total profit and minimizes product recovery costs were examined and solved. Finally, a deterministic equilibrium model was used to determine the effects of internalizing a cost of GSC greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions into optimization models. Changes in optimal facility use, transportation logistics, and pricing/profit margins were all investigated against a variable cost of carbon, using case study system created based on actual data from sites in the Boston area. As carbon costs increase, the optimal GSC system undergoes several distinct shifts in topology as it seeks new cost-minimal configurations. A comprehensive study of quantitative evaluation and performance of the model has been done using orthogonal arrays. Results were compared to top-down estimates from economic input-output life cycle assessment (EIO-LCA) models, to contrast remanufacturing GHG emission quantities with those from original equipment manufacturing operations. Introducing a carbon cost of $40/t CO2e increases modeled remanufacturing costs by 2.7% but also increases original equipment costs by 2.3%. The assembled work advances the theoretical modeling of optimal GSC systems and presents a rare case study of remanufactured appliances.

Keywords: circular economy, extended producer responsibility, greenhouse gas emissions, industrial ecology, low carbon logistics, green supply chains

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9 Planning Quality and Maintenance Activities in a Closed-Loop Serial Multi-Stage Manufacturing System under Constant Degradation

Authors: Amauri Josafat Gomez Aguilar, Jean Pierre Kenné


This research presents the development of a self-sustainable manufacturing system from a circular economy perspective, structured by a multi-stage serial production system consisting of a series of machines under deterioration in charge of producing a single product and a reverse remanufacturing system constituted by the same productive systems of the first scheme and different tooling, fed by-products collected at the end of their life cycle, and non-conforming elements of the first productive scheme. Since the advanced production manufacturing system is unable to satisfy the customer's quality expectations completely, we propose the development of a mixed integer linear mathematical model focused on the optimal search and assignment of quality stations and preventive maintenance operation to the machines over a time horizon, intending to segregate the correct number of non-conforming parts for reuse in the remanufacturing system and thereby minimizing production, quality, maintenance, and customer non-conformance penalties. Numerical experiments are performed to analyze the solutions found by the model under different scenarios. The results showed that the correct implementation of a closed manufacturing system and allocation of quality inspection and preventive maintenance operations generate better levels of customer satisfaction and an efficient manufacturing system.

Keywords: closed loop, mixed integer linear programming, preventive maintenance, quality inspection

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8 Product Architecture and Production Process of Battery Modules from Prismatic Lithium-Ion-Battery Cells

Authors: Achim Kampker, Heiner Hans Heimes, Nemanja Sarovic, Jan-Philip Ganser, Saskia Wessel, Christoph Lienemann


The electrification of the power train is a fundamental technical transition in the automotive industry and poses a major challenge for established car companies. Providing the traction energy, requiring an ever greater amount of space within the car and having a high share of value-add the lithium-ion battery is a central component of the electric power train and a completely new component to car manufacturers at the same time. Being relatively new to the automotive industry, the current design of the product architecture and production process (including manufacturing and assembling processes) of lithium-ion battery modules do not allow for an easy and cost-efficient disassembly or product design change. Yet these two requirements will increase in importance with rising sales volumes of electric cars in the near future and need to be addressed for the electric car to be competitive with conventional power train systems. This paper focuses on the current product architecture and production process of common automotive battery modules from prismatic lithium-ion battery cells to derive impacts for a remanufacturing concept. The information necessary for this purpose were gathered by literature research, patent inquiries, industry expert interviews and first-hand experiences of the authors. On the basis of these results, the underlying causes for the design´s lack of remanufacturability and flexibility with regards to product design changes are examined. In all, this paper gives an extensive and detailed overview of the state of the art of the product architecture and production process of lithium-ion battery modules from prismatic battery cells, identifies its deficiencies and derives improvement measures.

Keywords: battery module, prismatic lithium-ion battery cell, product architecture, production process, remanufacturing, flexibility

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7 A Review on the Outlook of the Circular Economy in the Automotive Industry

Authors: A. Buruzs, A. Torma


The relationship of the automotive industry with raw material supply is a major challenge and presents obstacles. Automobiles are ones of the most complex products using a large variety of materials. Safety, eco-friendliness and comfort requirements, physical, chemical and economic limitations set the framework in which this industry continuously optimizes the efficient and responsible use of resources. The concept of circular economy covers the issues of waste generation, resource scarcity and economic advantages. However, circularity is already known for the automobile industry – several efforts are done to foster material reuse, product remanufacturing and recycling. The aim of this study is to give an overview on how the producers comply with the growing demands on one hand, and gain efficiency and increase profitability on the other hand from circular economy.

Keywords: automotive industry, circular economy, international requirements, natural resources

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6 End-of-Life Vehicle Framework in Bumper Development Process

Authors: Majid Davoodi Makinejad, Reza Ghaeli


Developing sustainable and environment-friendly products has become a major concern in the car manufacturing industry. New legislation ‘End of Life Vehicle’ increased design complexities of bumper system parameters e.g. design for disassembly, design for remanufacturing and recycling. ELV processing employs dismantling, shredding and landfill. The bumper is designed to prevent physical damage, reduce aerodynamic drag force as well as being aesthetically pleasing to the consumer. Design for dismantling is the first step in ELVs approach in the bumper system. This study focused on the analysis of ELV value in redesign solutions of the bumper system in comparison with the conventional concept. It provided a guideline to address the critical consideration in material, manufacturing and joining methods of bumper components to take advantages in easy dismounting, separation and recycling.

Keywords: sustainable development, environmental friendly, bumper system, end of life vehicle

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5 Multi-Robotic Partial Disassembly Line Balancing with Robotic Efficiency Difference via HNSGA-II

Authors: Tao Yin, Zeqiang Zhang, Wei Liang, Yanqing Zeng, Yu Zhang


To accelerate the remanufacturing process of electronic waste products, this study designs a partial disassembly line with the multi-robotic station to effectively dispose of excessive wastes. The multi-robotic partial disassembly line is a technical upgrade to the existing manual disassembly line. Balancing optimization can make the disassembly line smoother and more efficient. For partial disassembly line balancing with the multi-robotic station (PDLBMRS), a mixed-integer programming model (MIPM) considering the robotic efficiency differences is established to minimize cycle time, energy consumption and hazard index and to calculate their optimal global values. Besides, an enhanced NSGA-II algorithm (HNSGA-II) is proposed to optimize PDLBMRS efficiently. Finally, MIPM and HNSGA-II are applied to an actual mixed disassembly case of two types of computers, the comparison of the results solved by GUROBI and HNSGA-II verifies the correctness of the model and excellent performance of the algorithm, and the obtained Pareto solution set provides multiple options for decision-makers.

Keywords: waste disposal, disassembly line balancing, multi-robot station, robotic efficiency difference, HNSGA-II

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4 Closed-Loop Supply Chain: A Study of Bullwhip Effect Using Simulation

Authors: Siddhartha Paul, Debabrata Das


Closed-loop supply chain (CLSC) management focuses on integrating forward and reverse flow of material as well as information to maximize value creation over the entire life-cycle of a product. Bullwhip effect in supply chain management refers to the phenomenon where a small variation in customers’ demand results in larger variation of orders at the upstream levels of supply chain. Since the quality and quantity of products returned to the collection centers (as a part of reverse logistics process) are uncertain, bullwhip effect is inevitable in CLSC. Therefore, in the present study, first, through an extensive literature survey, we identify all the important factors related to forward as well as reverse supply chain which causes bullwhip effect in CLSC. Second, we develop a system dynamics model to study the interrelationship among the factors and their effect on the performance of overall CLSC. Finally, the results of the simulation study suggest that demand forecasting, lead times, information sharing, inventory and work in progress adjustment rate, supply shortages, batch ordering, price variations, erratic human behavior, parameter correcting, delivery time delays, return rate of used products, manufacturing and remanufacturing capacity constraints are the important factors which have a significant influence on system’s performance, specifically on bullwhip effect in a CLSC.

Keywords: bullwhip effect, closed-loop supply chain, system dynamics, variance ratio

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3 A Sustainable Design Model by Integrated Evaluation of Closed-loop Design and Supply Chain Using a Mathematical Model

Authors: Yuan-Jye Tseng, Yi-Shiuan Chen


The paper presented a sustainable design model for integrated evaluation of the design and supply chain of a product for the sustainable objectives. To design a product, there can be alternative ways to assign the detailed specifications to fulfill the same design objectives. In the design alternative cases, different material and manufacturing processes with various supply chain activities may be required for the production. Therefore, it is required to evaluate the different design cases based on the sustainable objectives. In this research, a closed-loop design model is developed by integrating the forward design model and reverse design model. From the supply chain point of view, the decisions in the forward design model are connected with the forward supply chain. The decisions in the reverse design model are connected with the reverse supply chain considering the sustainable objectives. The purpose of this research is to develop a mathematical model for analyzing the design cases by integrated evaluating the criteria in the closed-loop design and the closed-loop supply chain. The decision variables are built to represent the design cases of the forward design and reverse design. The cost parameters in a forward design include the costs of material and manufacturing processes. The cost parameters in a reverse design include the costs of recycling, disassembly, reusing, remanufacturing, and disposing. The mathematical model is formulated to minimize the total cost under the design constraints. In practical applications, the decisions of the mathematical model can be used for selecting a design case for the purpose of sustainable design of a product. An example product is demonstrated in the paper. The test result shows that the sustainable design model is useful for integrated evaluation of the design and the supply chain to achieve the sustainable objectives.

Keywords: closed-loop design, closed-loop supply chain, design evaluation, supply chain management, sustainable design model

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2 A Multi-Criteria Decision Making Approach for Disassembly-To-Order Systems under Uncertainty

Authors: Ammar Y. Alqahtani


In order to minimize the negative impact on the environment, it is essential to manage the waste that generated from the premature disposal of end-of-life (EOL) products properly. Consequently, government and international organizations introduced new policies and regulations to minimize the amount of waste being sent to landfills. Moreover, the consumers’ awareness regards environment has forced original equipment manufacturers to consider being more environmentally conscious. Therefore, manufacturers have thought of different ways to deal with waste generated from EOL products viz., remanufacturing, reusing, recycling, or disposing of EOL products. The rate of depletion of virgin natural resources and their dependency on the natural resources can be reduced by manufacturers when EOL products are treated as remanufactured, reused, or recycled, as well as this will cut on the amount of harmful waste sent to landfills. However, disposal of EOL products contributes to the problem and therefore is used as a last option. Number of EOL need to be estimated in order to fulfill the components demand. Then, disassembly process needs to be performed to extract individual components and subassemblies. Smart products, built with sensors embedded and network connectivity to enable the collection and exchange of data, utilize sensors that are implanted into products during production. These sensors are used for remanufacturers to predict an optimal warranty policy and time period that should be offered to customers who purchase remanufactured components and products. Sensor-provided data can help to evaluate the overall condition of a product, as well as the remaining lives of product components, prior to perform a disassembly process. In this paper, a multi-period disassembly-to-order (DTO) model is developed that takes into consideration the different system uncertainties. The DTO model is solved using Nonlinear Programming (NLP) in multiple periods. A DTO system is considered where a variety of EOL products are purchased for disassembly. The model’s main objective is to determine the best combination of EOL products to be purchased from every supplier in each period which maximized the total profit of the system while satisfying the demand. This paper also addressed the impact of sensor embedded products on the cost of warranties. Lastly, this paper presented and analyzed a case study involving various simulation conditions to illustrate the applicability of the model.

Keywords: closed-loop supply chains, environmentally conscious manufacturing, product recovery, reverse logistics

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1 Industry Symbiosis and Waste Glass Upgrading: A Feasibility Study in Liverpool Towards Circular Economy

Authors: Han-Mei Chen, Rongxin Zhou, Taige Wang


Glass is widely used in everyday life, from glass bottles for beverages to architectural glass for various forms of glazing. Although the mainstream of used glass is recycled in the UK, the single-use and then recycling procedure results in a lot of waste as it incorporates intact glass with smashing, re-melting, and remanufacturing. These processes bring massive energy consumption with a huge loss of high embodied energy and economic value, compared to re-use, which’s towards a ‘zero carbon’ target. As a tourism city, Liverpool has more glass bottle consumption than most less leisure-focused cities. It’s therefore vital for Liverpool to find an upgrading approach for the single-use glass bottles with low carbon output. This project aims to assess the feasibility of industrial symbiosis and upgrading the framework of glass and to investigate the ways of achieving them. It is significant to Liverpool’s future industrial strategy since it provides an opportunity to target economic recovery for post-COVID by industry symbiosis and up-grading waste management in Liverpool to respond to the climate emergency. In addition, it will influence the local government policy for glass bottle reuse and recycling in North West England and as a good practice to be further recommended to other areas of the UK. First, a critical literature review of glass waste strategies has been conducted in the UK and worldwide industrial symbiosis practices. Second, mapping, data collection, and analysis have shown the current life cycle chain and the strong links of glass reuse and upgrading potentials via site visits to 16 local waste recycling centres. The results of this research have demonstrated the understanding of the influence of key factors on the development of a circular industrial symbiosis business model for beverage glass bottles. The current waste management procedures of the glass bottle industry, its business model, supply chain, and material flow have been reviewed. The various potential opportunities for glass bottle up-valuing have been investigated towards an industrial symbiosis in Liverpool. Finally, an up-valuing business model has been developed for an industrial symbiosis framework of glass in Liverpool. For glass bottles, there are two possibilities 1) focus on upgrading processes towards re-use rather than single-use and recycling and 2) focus on ‘smart’ re-use and recycling, leading to optimised values in other sectors to create a wider industry symbiosis for a multi-level and circular economy.

Keywords: glass bottles, industry symbiosis, smart re-use, waste upgrading

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