Search results for: gas insulated switchgear
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 88

Search results for: gas insulated switchgear

88 Remanufacturing and Integrity Assessment of a 27-Year-Old 25kV Gas Insulated Switchgear: A Comprehensive Study on Dismantling, Inspection, and Testing

Authors: Yechan Kim, Bonhyuk Ku, Minkyung Jung, Hyoungku Kang


This study presents the remanufacturing of a 25kV gas insulated switchgear (GIS) that operated indoors for 27 years before being decommissioned due to aging. The research involved a detailed process of dismantling, visual inspection, component-wise examination, and various testing methodologies to assess the equipment's condition. The focus was on evaluating the GIS's integrity and feasibility for remanufacturing. The results highlight the potential of remanufacturing in extending the life of electrical power equipment, offering insights into the best practices, challenges, and technical considerations of such an undertaking. This contributes to a sustainable approach in the power industry, emphasizing the reuse and restoration of aging equipment.

Keywords: remanufacturing, dismantling, gas insulated switchgear, sustainability, life extension

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
87 Recent Developments in the Internal Arc Test Standard IEC 62271-200 for Switchgear Assemblies

Authors: Rajaramamohanarao Chennu, S. Sudhakara Reddy, Gurudev T, Maroti


With the invent of recent available technology and cost optimization, the switchgear assemblies are becoming more compact and designed to operate at critical levels of thermal and dielectric stress. At the same time, the switchgear assemblies shall be designed for protection of persons, met in the event of internal arc for specified installation conditions, according to the latest available national/international standards. These standards are revising regularly for better product design and personal safety. The switchgear assemblies design shall be modified in accordance with the change in requirements in the latest edition of the standards. This paper presents the signifying changes brought in the latest edition of 62271-200:2021 and effect of these changes and the necessitated design improvements for meeting internal arc test requirements is presented by carrying out the internal arc testing experiments on the switchgear assemblies at High Power Laboratory, Central Power Research Institute, Bangalore, India.

Keywords: internal arc, switchgear assembly, high speed videography, IEC 62271-200

Procedia PDF Downloads 174
86 PD Test in Gas Insulated Substation Using UHF Method

Authors: T. Prabakaran


Gas Insulated Substations (GIS) are widely used as important switchgear equipment because of its high reliability, low space requirement, low risk factor and easy maintenance, yet some failures have been reported. Some of the failures are due to presence of metallic particles inside the GIS compartment. The defect can be generated in GIS during production, maintenance, installation and can be due to ageing of the component. The Ultra-High Frequency (UHF) method is used to diagnose the insulation condition of GIS by detecting the PD signals in GIS. This paper identifies PD patterns for free moving particle defect and particle fixed on cone using UHF method. As insulation failure usually starts with PD activity, this paper investigates the differences in PD characteristics in SF6 gas with different types of defects. Experimental results show that correct identification of defects can be achieved based on considered PD characteristics. The method can be applied to prove the quality of assembly work at commissioning, also on a regular basis after many years in service to detect aged and conducting particles as a part of the condition based maintenance.

Keywords: gas insulated substation, partial discharge, free moving particle defect, particle fixed on cone defect, ultra high frequency method

Procedia PDF Downloads 229
85 Defect Identification in Partial Discharge Patterns of Gas Insulated Switchgear and Straight Cable Joint

Authors: Chien-Kuo Chang, Yu-Hsiang Lin, Yi-Yun Tang, Min-Chiu Wu


With the trend of technological advancement, the harm caused by power outages is substantial, mostly due to problems in the power grid. This highlights the necessity for further improvement in the reliability of the power system. In the power system, gas-insulated switches (GIS) and power cables play a crucial role. Long-term operation under high voltage can cause insulation materials in the equipment to crack, potentially leading to partial discharges. If these partial discharges (PD) can be analyzed, preventative maintenance and replacement of equipment can be carried out, there by improving the reliability of the power grid. This research will diagnose defects by identifying three different defects in GIS and three different defects in straight cable joints, for a total of six types of defects. The partial discharge data measured will be converted through phase analysis diagrams and pulse sequence analysis. Discharge features will be extracted using convolutional image processing, and three different deep learning models, CNN, ResNet18, and MobileNet, will be used for training and evaluation. Class Activation Mapping will be utilized to interpret the black-box problem of deep learning models, with each model achieving an accuracy rate of over 95%. Lastly, the overall model performance will be enhanced through an ensemble learning voting method.

Keywords: partial discharge, gas-insulated switches, straight cable joint, defect identification, deep learning, ensemble learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
84 Electrical Power Distribution Reliability Improvement by Retrofitting 4.16 kV Vacuum Contactor in Badak LNG Plant

Authors: David Hasurungan


This paper objective is to assess the power distribution reliability improvement by retrofitting obsolete vacuum contactor. The case study in Badak Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) plant is presented in this paper. To support plant operational, Badak LNG is equipped with 4.16 kV switchgear for supplying the storage and loading facilities, utilities facilities, and train facilities. However, there is a problem in two switch gears of sixteen switch gears. The problem is the obsolescence issue in its vacuum contactor. Not only that, but the same switchgear also has suffered from electrical fault due to contact fingering misalignment. In order to improve the reliability in switchgear, the vacuum contactor retrofit project is done. The retrofit will introduce new vacuum contactor design. The comparison between existing design and the new design is presented in this paper. Meanwhile, The reliability assessment and calculation are performed using software Reliasoft 7.

Keywords: reliability, obsolescence, retrofit, vacuum contactor

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83 Permanent Reduction of Arc Flash Energy to Safe Limit on Line Side of 480 Volt Switchgear Incomer Breaker

Authors: Abid Khan


A recognized engineering challenge is related to personnel protection from fatal arc flash incident energy in the line side of the 480-volt switchgear incomer breakers during maintenance activities. The incident energy is typically high due to slow fault clearance, and it can be higher than the available personnel protective equipment (PPE) ratings. A fault in this section of the switchgear is cleared by breakers or fuses in the upstream higher voltage system (4160 Volt or higher). The current reflection in the higher voltage upstream system for a fault in the 480-volt switchgear is low, the clearance time is slower, and the inversely proportional incident energy is hence higher. The installation of overcurrent protection at a 480-volt system upstream of the incomer breaker will operate fast enough and trips the upstream higher voltage breaker when a fault develops at the incomer breaker. Therefore, fault current reduction as reflected in the upstream higher voltage system is eliminated. Since the fast overcurrent protection is permanently installed, it is always functional, does not require human interventions, and eliminates exposure to human errors. It is installed at the maintenance activities location, and its operations can be locally monitored by craftsmen during maintenance activities.

Keywords: arc flash, mitigation, maintenance switch, energy level

Procedia PDF Downloads 182
82 Performance Investigation of Thermal Insulation Materials for Walls: A Case Study in Nicosia (Turkish Republic of North Cyprus)

Authors: L. Vafaei, McDominic Eze


The performance of thermal energy in homes and buildings is a significant factor in terms of energy efficiency of a building. In a large sense, the performance of thermal energy is dependent on many factors of which the amount of thermal insulation is at one end a considerable factor, as likewise the essence of mass and the wall thickness and also the thermal resistance of wall material. This study is aimed at illustrating the different wall system in Turkish Republic of North Cyprus (TRNC), acknowledge the problem and suggest a solution through comparing the effect of thermal radiation two model rooms- L1 (Ytong wall) and L2 (heat insulated wall using stone wool) set up for experimentation. The model room has four face walls. The study consists of two stage, the first test is to access the effect of solar radiation for south facing wall and the second stage is to test the thermal performance of Ytong and heat insulated wall, the effects of climatic condition during winter. The heat insulated wall contains material hollow brick, stone wool, and gypsum while the Ytong wall contains cement concrete, for the outer surface and the inner surface and Ytong stone. The total heat of the wall was determined, 7T-Type thermocouple was used with a data logger system to record the data, temperature change recorded at an interval of 10 minutes. The result obtained was that Ytong wall save more energy than the heat insulated wall at night while heat insulated wall saves energy during the day when intensity is at maximum.

Keywords: heat insulation, hollow bricks, south facing, Ytong bricks wall

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81 Structural Insulated Panels

Authors: R. Padmini, G. V. Manoj Kumar


Structural insulated panels (SIPs) are a high-performance building system for residential and light commercial construction. The panels consist of an insulating foam core sandwiched between two structural facings, typically oriented strand board (OSB). SIPs are manufactured under factory controlled conditions and can be fabricated to fit nearly any building design. The result is a building system that is extremely strong, energy efficient and cost effective. Building with SIPs will save you time, money and labor. Building with SIPs generally costs about the same as building with wood frame construction when you factor in the labor savings resulting from shorter construction time and less job-site waste. Other savings are realized because smaller heating and cooling systems are required with SIP construction. Structural insulated panels (SIPs) are one of the most airtight and well-insulated building systems available, making them an inherently green product. An airtight SIP building will use less energy to heat and cool, allow for better control over indoor environmental conditions, and reduce construction waste. Green buildings use less energy, reducing carbon dioxide emissions and playing an important role in combating global climate change. Buildings also use a tremendous amount of natural resources to construct and operate. Constructing green buildings that use these resources more efficiently, while minimizing pollution that can harm renewable natural resources, is crucial to a sustainable future.

Keywords: high performance, under factory controlled, wood frame, carbon dioxide emissions, natural resources

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80 Experımental Study of Structural Insulated Panel under Lateral Load

Authors: H. Abbasi, K. Sennah


A Structural Insulated Panel (SIP) is a structural element contains of foam insulation core sandwiched between two oriented-strand boards (OSB), plywood boards, steel sheets or fibre cement boards. Superior insulation, exceptional strength and fast insulation are the specifications of a SIP-based structure. There are also many other benefits such as less total construction costs, speed of construction, less expensive HVAC equipment required, favourable energy-efficient mortgages comparing to wood-framed houses. This paper presents the experimental analysis on selected foam-timber SIPs to study their structural behaviour when used as walls in residential construction under lateral loading. The experimental program has also taken several stud panels in order to compare the performance of SIP with conventional wood-frame system. The results of lateral tests performed in this study established a database that can be used further to develop design tables of SIP wall subjected to lateral loading caused by wind or earthquake. A design table for walls subjected to lateral loading was developed. Experimental results proved that the tested SIPs are ‘as good as’ the conventional wood-frame system.

Keywords: structural insulated panel, experimental study, lateral load, design tables

Procedia PDF Downloads 303
79 Effect of Copper Particle on the PD Characteristics in a Coaxial Duct with Mixture of SF6 (10%) and N2 (90%) Gases

Authors: B. Rajesh Kamath, J. Sundara Rajan, M. K. Veeraiah, M. Z. Kurian


Insulation performance of a gas insulated system is severely affected by particle contaminants. These metallic particles adversely affect the characteristics of insulating system. These particles can produce surface charges due to partial discharge activities. These particles which are free to move enhance the local electric fields. This paper deals with the influence of conducting particle placed in a co-axial duct on the discharge characteristics of gas mixtures. Co-axial duct placed in a high pressure chamber is used for the purpose. A gas pressure of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 MPa have been considered with a 10:90 SF6 and N2 gas mixtures. The 2D and 3D histograms of clean duct and duct with copper particle are discussed in this paper.

Keywords: coaxial duct, gas insulated system, gas mixtures, metallic particle, partial discharges, histograms

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78 Adopting Precast Insulated Concrete Panels for Building Envelope in Hot Climate Zones

Authors: Mohammed Sherzad


The absorbedness of solar radiation within the concrete building is higher than other buildings type, especially in hot climate zones. However, one of the primary issues of architects and the owners in hot climate zones is the building’s exterior plastered and painted finishing which is commonly used are fading and peeling adding a high cost on maintenance. Case studies of different exterior finishing’ treatments used in vernacular and contemporary dwellings in the United Arab Emirates were surveyed. The traditional plastered façade treatment was more sustainable than new buildings. In addition, using precast concrete insulated sandwich panels with the exposed colored aggregate surface in contemporary designed dwellings sustained the extensive heat reducing the overall cost of maintenance and contributed aesthetically to the buildings’ envelope in addition to its thermal insulation property.

Keywords: precast concrete panels, façade treatment, hot climate

Procedia PDF Downloads 118
77 Modification of Electrical and Switching Characteristics of a Non Punch-Through Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor by Gamma Irradiation

Authors: Hani Baek, Gwang Min Sun, Chansun Shin, Sung Ho Ahn


Fast neutron irradiation using nuclear reactors is an effective method to improve switching loss and short circuit durability of power semiconductor (insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBT) and insulated gate transistors (IGT), etc.). However, not only fast neutrons but also thermal neutrons, epithermal neutrons and gamma exist in the nuclear reactor. And the electrical properties of the IGBT may be deteriorated by the irradiation of gamma. Gamma irradiation damages are known to be caused by Total Ionizing Dose (TID) effect and Single Event Effect (SEE), Displacement Damage. Especially, the TID effect deteriorated the electrical properties such as leakage current and threshold voltage of a power semiconductor. This work can confirm the effect of the gamma irradiation on the electrical properties of 600 V NPT-IGBT. Irradiation of gamma forms lattice defects in the gate oxide and Si-SiO2 interface of the IGBT. It was confirmed that this lattice defect acts on the center of the trap and affects the threshold voltage, thereby negatively shifted the threshold voltage according to TID. In addition to the change in the carrier mobility, the conductivity modulation decreases in the n-drift region, indicating a negative influence that the forward voltage drop decreases. The turn-off delay time of the device before irradiation was 212 ns. Those of 2.5, 10, 30, 70 and 100 kRad(Si) were 225, 258, 311, 328, and 350 ns, respectively. The gamma irradiation increased the turn-off delay time of the IGBT by approximately 65%, and the switching characteristics deteriorated.

Keywords: NPT-IGBT, gamma irradiation, switching, turn-off delay time, recombination, trap center

Procedia PDF Downloads 141
76 Design and Thermal Analysis of a Concrete House in Libya Using BEopt

Authors: Gamal Alamri, Tariq Iqbal


This paper presents an optimum designs and thermal analysis of concrete house in the hot climate of Libya. For this goal we have used BEopt software (building energy optimization) that provides capabilities for estimating residential building design and thermal analysis. The most area of the house that is exposed to the sunlight’s is the roof leading to heat gain. Therefore, house cooling consumes high energy. The cooling energy consumption is three times the heating energy consumption. In order to maintain comfortable indoor conditions in a low-energy house, the entire building envelope needs to be perfectly insulated and prevented from air leakages. Insulated roof is selected to reduce cooling demand, and the paper presents details and BEopt simulation results. Designed house needs 12.02mmbtus/year. Furthermore, the modeling indicates that the designed house is close to achieving the Passive standard.

Keywords: concrete house design, thermal analysis, hot climate, BEopt software

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75 Fast High Voltage Solid State Switch Using Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor for Discharge-Pumped Lasers

Authors: Nur Syarafina Binti Othman, Tsubasa Jindo, Makato Yamada, Miho Tsuyama, Hitoshi Nakano


A novel method to produce a fast high voltage solid states switch using Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBTs) is presented for discharge-pumped gas lasers. The IGBTs are connected in series to achieve a high voltage rating. An avalanche transistor is used as the gate driver. The fast pulse generated by the avalanche transistor quickly charges the large input capacitance of the IGBT, resulting in a switch out of a fast high-voltage pulse. The switching characteristic of fast-high voltage solid state switch has been estimated in the multi-stage series-connected IGBT with the applied voltage of several tens of kV. Electrical circuit diagram and the mythology of fast-high voltage solid state switch as well as experimental results obtained are presented.

Keywords: high voltage, IGBT, solid state switch, bipolar transistor

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74 Performance and Damage Detection of Composite Structural Insulated Panels Subjected to Shock Wave Loading

Authors: Anupoju Rajeev, Joanne Mathew, Amit Shelke


In the current study, a new type of Composite Structural Insulated Panels (CSIPs) is developed and investigated its performance against shock loading which can replace the conventional wooden structural materials. The CSIPs is made of Fibre Cement Board (FCB)/aluminum as the facesheet and the expanded polystyrene foam as the core material. As tornadoes are very often in the western countries, it is suggestable to monitor the health of the CSIPs during its lifetime. So, the composite structure is installed with three smart sensors located randomly at definite locations. Each smart sensor is fabricated with an embedded half stainless phononic crystal sensor attached to both ends of the nylon shaft that can resist the shock and impact on facesheet as well as polystyrene foam core and safeguards the system. In addition to the granular crystal sensors, the accelerometers are used in the horizontal spanning and vertical spanning with a definite offset distance. To estimate the health and damage of the CSIP panel using granular crystal sensor, shock wave loading experiments are conducted. During the experiments, the time of flight response from the granular sensors is measured. The main objective of conducting shock wave loading experiments on the CSIP panels is to study the effect and the sustaining capacity of the CSIP panels in the extreme hazardous situations like tornados and hurricanes which are very common in western countries. The effects have been replicated using a shock tube, an instrument that can be used to create the same wind and pressure intensity of tornado for the experimental study. Numerous experiments have been conducted to investigate the flexural strength of the CSIP. Furthermore, the study includes the damage detection using three smart sensors embedded in the CSIPs during the shock wave loading.

Keywords: composite structural insulated panels, damage detection, flexural strength, sandwich structures, shock wave loading

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73 The Use of PD and Tanδ Characteristics as Diagnostic Technique for the Insulation Integrity of XLPE Insulated Cable Joints

Authors: Mazen Al-Bulaihed, Nissar Wani, Abdulrahman Al-Arainy, Yasin Khan


Partial Discharge (PD) measurements are widely used for diagnostic purposes in electrical equipment used in power systems. The main cause of these measurements is to prevent large power failures as cables are prone to aging, which usually results in embrittlement, cracking and eventual failure of the insulating and sheathing materials, exposing the conductor and risking a potential short circuit, a likely cause of the electrical fire. Many distribution networks rely heavily on medium voltage (MV) power cables. The presence of joints in these networks is a vital part of serving the consumer demand for electricity continuously. Such measurements become even more important when the extent of dependence increases. Moreover, it is known that the partial discharge in joints and termination are difficult to track and are the most crucial point of failures in large power systems. This paper discusses the diagnostic techniques of four samples of XLPE insulated cable joints, each included with a different type of defect. Experiments were carried out by measuring PD and tanδ at very low frequency applied high voltage. The results show the importance of combining PD and tanδ for effective cable assessment.

Keywords: partial discharge, tan delta, very low frequency, XLPE cable

Procedia PDF Downloads 144
72 Integrating Insulated Concrete Form (ICF) with Solar-Driven Reverse Osmosis Desalination for Building Integrated Energy Storage in Cold Climates

Authors: Amirhossein Eisapour, Mohammad Emamjome Kashan, Alan S. Fung


This research addresses the pressing global challenges of clean energy and water supplies, emphasizing the need for sustainable solutions for the building sector. The research centers on integrating Reverse Osmosis (RO) systems with building energy systems, incorporating Solar Thermal Collectors (STC)/Photovoltaic Thermal (PVT), water-to-water heat pumps, and an Insulated Concrete Form (ICF) based building foundation wall thermal energy storage. The study explores an innovative configuration’s effectiveness in addressing water and heating demands through clean energy sources while addressing ICF-based thermal storage challenges, which could overheat in the cooling season. Analyzing four configurations—STC-ICF, STC-ICF-RO, PVT-ICF, and PVT-ICF-RO, the study conducts a sensitivity analysis on collector area (25% and 50% increase) and weather data (evaluating five Canadian cities, Winnipeg, Toronto, Edmonton, Halifax and Vancouver). Key outcomes highlight the benefits of integrated RO scenarios, showcasing reduced ICF wall temperature, diminished unwanted heat in the cooling season, reduced RO pump consumption and enhanced solar energy production. The STC-ICF-RO and PVT-ICF-RO systems achieved energy savings of 653 kWh and 131 kWh, respectively, in comparison to their non-integrated RO counterparts. Additionally, both systems successfully contributed to lowering the CO2 production level of the energy system. The calculated payback period of STC-ICF-RO (2 years) affirms the proposed systems’ economic viability. Compared to the base system, which does not benefit from the ICF and RO integration with the building energy system, the STC-ICF-RO and PVT-ICF-RO demonstrate a dramatic energy consumption reduction of 20% and 32%, respectively. The sensitivity analysis suggests potential system improvements under specific conditions, especially when implementing the introduced energy system in communities of buildings.

Keywords: insulated concrete form, thermal energy storage, reverse osmosis, building energy systems, solar thermal collector, photovoltaic thermal, heat pump

Procedia PDF Downloads 33
71 Arc Flash Analysis: Technique to Mitigate Fire Incidents in Substations

Authors: M. H. Saeed, M. Rasool, M. A. Jawed


Arc Flash Analysis has been a subject of great interest since the electrical fire incidents have been reduced to a great extent after the implementation of arc flash study at different sites. An Arc flash in substations is caused by short circuits over the air or other melted conductors and small shrapnel. Arc flash incidents result in the majority of deaths in substations worldwide. Engro Fertilizers Limited (EFERT) site having a mix of vintage non-internal arc rated and modern arc rated switchgears, carried out an arc flash study of the whole site in accordance with NFPA70E standard. The results not only included optimizing site protection coordination settings but also included marking of Shock and Arc flash protection boundaries in all switchgear rooms. Work permit procedures upgradation is also done in accordance with this study to ensure proper arc rated PPEs and arc flash boundaries protocols are fully observed and followed. With the new safety, protocols working on electrical equipment will be much safer than ever before.

Keywords: Arc flash, non-internal arc rated, protection coordination, shock boundary

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70 Holistic Approach to Assess the Potential of Using Traditional and Advance Insulation Materials for Energy Retrofit of Office Buildings

Authors: Marco Picco, Mahmood Alam


Improving the energy performance of existing buildings can be challenging, particularly when facades cannot be modified, and the only available option is internal insulation. In such cases, the choice of the most suitable material becomes increasingly complex, as in addition to thermal transmittance and capital cost, the designer needs to account for the impact of the intervention on the internal spaces, and in particular the loss of usable space due to the additional layers of materials installed. This paper explores this issue by analysing a case study of an average office building needing to go through a refurbishment in order to reach the limits imposed by current regulations to achieve energy efficiency in buildings. The building is simulated through dynamic performance simulation under three different climate conditions in order to evaluate its energy needs. The use of Vacuum Insulated Panels as an option for energy refurbishment is compared to traditional insulation materials (XPS, Mineral Wool). For each scenario, energy consumptions are calculated and, in combination with their expected capital costs, used to perform a financial feasibility analysis. A holistic approach is proposed, taking into account the impact of the intervention on internal space by quantifying the value of the lost usable space and used in the financial feasibility analysis. The proposed approach highlights how taking into account different drivers will lead to the choice of different insulation materials, showing how accounting for the economic value of space can make VIPs an attractive solution for energy retrofitting under various climate conditions.

Keywords: vacuum insulated panels, building performance simulation, payback period, building energy retrofit

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69 Transient Simulation Using SPACE for ATLAS Facility to Investigate the Effect of Heat Loss on Major Parameters

Authors: Suhib A. Abu-Seini, Kyung-Doo Kim


A heat loss model for ATLAS facility was introduced using SPACE code predefined correlations and various dialing factors. As all previous simulations were carried out using a heat loss free input; the facility was considered to be completely insulated and the core power was reduced by the experimentally measured values of heat loss to compensate to the account for the loss of heat, this study will consider heat loss throughout the simulation. The new heat loss model will be affecting SPACE code simulation as heat being leaked out of the system throughout a transient will alter many parameters corresponding to temperature and temperature difference. For that, a Station Blackout followed by a multiple Steam Generator Tube Rupture accident will be simulated using both the insulated system approach and the newly introduced heat loss input of the steady state. Major parameters such as system temperatures, pressure values, and flow rates to be put into comparison and various analysis will be suggested upon it as the experimental values will not be the reference to validate the expected outcome. This study will not only show the significance of heat loss consideration in the processes of prevention and mitigation of various incidents, design basis and beyond accidents as it will give a detailed behavior of ATLAS facility during both processes of steady state and major transient, but will also present a verification of how credible the data acquired of ATLAS are; since heat loss values for steady state were already mismatched between SPACE simulation results and ATLAS data acquiring system. Acknowledgement- This work was supported by the Korean institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) and the Ministry of Trade, Industry & Energy (MOTIE) of the Republic of Korea.

Keywords: ATLAS, heat loss, simulation, SPACE, station blackout, steam generator tube rupture, verification

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68 Smart Lean Manufacturing in the Context of Industry 4.0: A Case Study

Authors: M. Ramadan, B. Salah


This paper introduces a framework to digitalize lean manufacturing tools to enhance smart lean-based manufacturing environments or Lean 4.0 manufacturing systems. The paper discusses the integration between lean tools and the powerful features of recent real-time data capturing systems with the help of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) to develop an intelligent real-time monitoring and controlling system of production operations concerning lean targets. This integration is represented in the Lean 4.0 system called Dynamic Value Stream Mapping (DVSM). Moreover, the paper introduces the practice of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) and ICT to smartly support lean tools and practices during daily production runs to keep the lean system alive and effective. This work introduces a practical description of how the lean method tools 5S, standardized work, and poka-yoke can be digitalized and smartly monitored and controlled through DVSM. A framework of the three tools has been discussed and put into practice in a German switchgear manufacturer.

Keywords: lean manufacturing, Industry 4.0, radio frequency identification, value stream mapping

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67 Numerical Modeling of Turbulent Natural Convection in a Square Cavity

Authors: Mohammadreza Sedighi, Mohammad Said Saidi, Hesamoddin Salarian


A numerical study has been performed to investigate the effect of using different turbulent models on natural convection flow field and temperature distributions in partially heated square cavity compare to benchmark. The temperature of the right vertical wall is lower than that of heater while other walls are insulated. The commercial CFD codes are used to model. Standard k-w model provided good agreement with the experimental data.

Keywords: Buoyancy, Cavity, CFD, Heat Transfer, Natural Convection, Turbulence

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66 A Hygrothermal Analysis and Structural Performance of Wood-Frame Wall Systems with Low-Permeance Exterior Insulation

Authors: Marko Spasojevic, Ying Hei Chui, Yuxiang Chen


Increasing the level of exterior insulation in residential buildings is a popular way for improving the thermal characteristic of building enclosure and reducing heat loss. However, the layout and properties of materials composing the wall have a great effect on moisture accumulation within the wall cavity, long-term durability of a wall as well as the structural performance. A one-dimensional hygrothermal modeling has been performed to investigate moisture condensation risks and the drying capacity of standard 2×4 and 2×6 light wood-frame wall assemblies including exterior low-permeance extruded polystyrene (XPS) insulation. The analysis considered two different wall configurations whereby the rigid insulation board was placed either between Oriented Strand Board (OSB) sheathing and the stud or outboard to the structural sheathing. The thickness of the insulation varied between 0 mm and 50 mm and the analysis has been conducted for eight different locations in Canada, covering climate zone 4 through zone 8. Results show that the wall configuration with low-permeance insulation inserted between the stud and OSB sheathing accumulates more moisture within the stud cavity, compared to the assembly with the same insulation placed exterior to the sheathing. On the other hand, OSB moisture contents of the latter configuration were markedly higher. Consequently, the analysis of hygrothermal performance investigated and compared moisture accumulation in both the OSB and stud cavity. To investigate the structural performance of the wall and the effect of soft insulation layer inserted between the sheathing and framing, forty nail connection specimens were tested. Results have shown that both the connection strength and stiffness experience a significant reduction as the insulation thickness increases. These results will be compared with results from a full-scale shear wall tests in order to investigate if the capacity of shear walls with insulated sheathing would experience a similar reduction in structural capacities.

Keywords: hygrothermal analysis, insulated sheathing, moisture performance, nail joints, wood shear wall

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65 Transient Heat Transfer of a Spiral Fin

Authors: Sen-Yung Lee, Li-Kuo Chou, Chao-Kuang Chen


In this study, the problem of temperature transient response of a spiral fin, with its end insulated, is analyzed with base end subjected to a variation of fluid temperature. The hybrid method of Laplace transforms/Adomian decomposed method-Padé, is applied to the temperature transient response of the fin, the result of the temperature distribution and the heat flux at the base of the spiral fin are obtained, show a good agreement in the physical phenomenon.

Keywords: Laplace transforms, Adomian decomposed method- Padé, transient response, heat transfer

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64 Partial Discharge Characteristics of Free- Moving Particles in HVDC-GIS

Authors: Philipp Wenger, Michael Beltle, Stefan Tenbohlen, Uwe Riechert


The integration of renewable energy introduces new challenges to the transmission grid, as the power generation is located far from load centers. The associated necessary long-range power transmission increases the demand for high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission lines and DC distribution grids. HVDC gas-insulated switchgears (GIS) are considered being a key technology, due to the combination of the DC technology and the long operation experiences of AC-GIS. To ensure long-term reliability of such systems, insulation defects must be detected in an early stage. Operational experience with AC systems has proven evidence, that most failures, which can be attributed to breakdowns of the insulation system, can be detected and identified via partial discharge (PD) measurements beforehand. In AC systems the identification of defects relies on the phase resolved partial discharge pattern (PRPD). Since there is no phase information within DC systems this method cannot be transferred to DC PD diagnostic. Furthermore, the behaviour of e.g. free-moving particles differs significantly at DC: Under the influence of a constant direct electric field, charge carriers can accumulate on particles’ surfaces. As a result, a particle can lift-off, oscillate between the inner conductor and the enclosure or rapidly bounces at just one electrode, which is known as firefly motion. Depending on the motion and the relative position of the particle to the electrodes, broadband electromagnetic PD pulses are emitted, which can be recorded by ultra-high frequency (UHF) measuring methods. PDs are often accompanied by light emissions at the particle’s tip which enables optical detection. This contribution investigates PD characteristics of free moving metallic particles in a commercially available 300 kV SF6-insulated HVDC-GIS. The influences of various defect parameters on the particle motion and the PD characteristic are evaluated experimentally. Several particle geometries, such as cylinder, lamella, spiral and sphere with different length, diameter and weight are determined. The applied DC voltage is increased stepwise from inception voltage up to UDC = ± 400 kV. Different physical detection methods are used simultaneously in a time-synchronized setup. Firstly, the electromagnetic waves emitted by the particle are recorded by an UHF measuring system. Secondly, a photomultiplier tube (PMT) detects light emission with a wavelength in the range of λ = 185…870 nm. Thirdly, a high-speed camera (HSC) tracks the particle’s motion trajectory with high accuracy. Furthermore, an electrically insulated electrode is attached to the grounded enclosure and connected to a current shunt in order to detect low frequency ion currents: The shunt measuring system’s sensitivity is in the range of 10 nA at a measuring bandwidth of bw = DC…1 MHz. Currents of charge carriers, which are generated at the particle’s tip migrate through the gas gap to the electrode and can be recorded by the current shunt. All recorded PD signals are analyzed in order to identify characteristic properties of different particles. This includes e.g. repetition rates and amplitudes of successive pulses, characteristic frequency ranges and detected signal energy of single PD pulses. Concluding, an advanced understanding of underlying physical phenomena particle motion in direct electric field can be derived.

Keywords: current shunt, free moving particles, high-speed imaging, HVDC-GIS, UHF

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63 Polygeneration Solar Thermal System

Authors: S. K. Deb, B. C. Sarma


The concentrating solar thermal devices using low cost thin metallic reflector sheet of moderate reflectance can generate heat both at higher temperature for the receiver at it’s focus and at moderate temperature through direct solar irradiative heat absorption by the reflector sheet itself. Investigation on well insulated rear surface of the concentrator with glass covers at it’s aperture plane for waste heat recovery against the conventional radiative, convective & conductive heat losses for a bench model with a thermal analysis is the prime motivation of this study along with an effort to popularize a compact solar thermal polygeneration system.

Keywords: concentrator, polygeneration, aperture, renewable energy, exergy, solar energy

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62 Generation of Numerical Data for the Facilitation of the Personalized Hyperthermic Treatment of Cancer with An Interstital Antenna Array Using the Method of Symmetrical Components

Authors: Prodromos E. Atlamazoglou


The method of moments combined with the method of symmetrical components is used for the analysis of interstitial hyperthermia applicators. The basis and testing functions are both piecewise sinusoids, qualifying our technique as a Galerkin one. The dielectric coatings are modeled by equivalent volume polarization currents, which are simply related to the conduction current distribution, avoiding in that way the introduction of additional unknowns or numerical integrations. The results of our method for a four dipole circular array, are in agreement with those already published in literature for a same hyperthermia configuration. Apart from being accurate, our approach is more general, more computationally efficient and takes into account the coupling between the antennas.

Keywords: hyperthermia, integral equations, insulated antennas, method of symmetrical components

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61 Numerical Study of a Nanofluid in a Truncated Cone

Authors: B. Mahfoud, A. Bendjaghlouli


Natural convection is simulated in a truncated cone filled with nanofluid. Inclined and top walls have constant temperature where the heat source is located on the bottom wall of the conical container which is thermally insulated. A finite volume approach is used to solve the governing equations using the SIMPLE algorithm for different parameters such as Rayleigh number, inclination angle of inclined walls of the enclosure and heat source length. The results showed an enhancement in cooling system by using a nanofluid, when conduction regime is assisted. The inclination angle of inclined sidewall and heat source length affect the heat transfer rate and the maximum temperature.

Keywords: heat source, truncated cone, nanofluid, natural convection

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60 Natural Convection of a Nanofluid in a Conical Container

Authors: Brahim Mahfoud, Ali Bendjaghlouli


Natural convection is simulated in a truncated cone filled with nanofluid. Inclined and top walls have constant temperature where the heat source is located on the bottom wall of the conical container which is thermally insulated. A finite volume approach is used to solve the governing equations using the SIMPLE algorithm for different parameters such as Rayleigh number, inclination angle of inclined walls of the enclosure and heat source length. The results showed an enhancement in cooling system by using a nanofluid, when conduction regime is assisted. The inclination angle of inclined sidewall and heat source length affect the heat transfer rate and the maximum temperature.

Keywords: heat source, truncated cone, nanofluid, natural convection

Procedia PDF Downloads 353
59 Effect of Inductance Ratio on Operating Frequencies of a Hybrid Resonant Inverter

Authors: Mojtaba Ghodsi, Hamidreza Ziaifar, Morteza Mohammadzaheri, Payam Soltani


In this paper, the performance of a medium power (25 kW/25 kHz) hybrid inverter with a reactive transformer is investigated. To analyze the sensitivity of the inverster, the RSM technique is employed to manifest the effective factors in the inverter to minimize current passing through the Insulated Bipolar Gate Transistors (IGBTs) (current stress). It is revealed that the ratio of the axillary inductor to the effective inductance of resonant inverter (N), is the most effective parameter to minimize the current stress in this type of inverter. In practice, proper selection of N mitigates the current stress over IGBTs by five times. This reduction is very helpful to keep the IGBTs at normal temperatures.

Keywords: analytical analysis, hybrid resonant inverter, reactive transformer, response surface method

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