Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 37

Search results for: discretionary accruals

37 Relationship between the Ability of Accruals and Non-Systematic Risk of Shares for Companies Listed in Stock Exchange: Case Study, Tehran

Authors: Lina Najafian, Hamidreza Vakilifard

Abstract:

The present study focused on the relationship between the quality of accruals and non-systematic risk. The independent study variables included the ability of accruals, the information content of accruals, and amount of discretionary accruals considered as accruals quality measures. The dependent variable was non-systematic risk based on the Fama and French Three Factor model (FFTFM) and the capital asset pricing model (CAPM). The control variables were firm size, financial leverage, stock return, cash flow fluctuations, and book-to-market ratio. The data collection method was based on library research and document mining including financial statements. Multiple regression analysis was used to analyze the data. The study results showed that there is a significant direct relationship between financial leverage and discretionary accruals and non-systematic risk based on FFTFM and CAPM. There is also a significant direct relationship between the ability of accruals, information content of accruals, firm size, and stock return and non-systematic based on both models. It was also found that there is no relationship between book-to-market ratio and cash flow fluctuations and non-systematic risk.

Keywords: accruals quality, non-systematic risk, CAPM, FFTFM

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36 Earnings Management and Firm’s Creditworthiness

Authors: Maria A. Murtiati, Ancella A. Hermawan

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The objective of this study is to examine whether the firm’s eligibility to get a bank loan is influenced by earnings management. The earnings management is distinguished between accruals and real earnings management. Hypothesis testing is carried out with logistic regression model using sample of 285 companies listed at Indonesian Stock Exchange in 2010. The result provides evidence that a greater magnitude in accruals earnings management increases the firm’s probability to be eligible to get bank loan. In contrast, real earnings management through abnormal cash flow and abnormal discretionary expenses decrease firm’s probability to be eligible to get bank loan, while real management through abnormal production cost increases such probability. The result of this study suggests that if the earnings management is assumed to be opportunistic purpose, the accruals based earnings management can distort the banks credit analysis using financial statements. Real earnings management has more impact on the cash flows, and banks are very concerned on the firm’s cash flow ability. Therefore, this study indicates that banks are more able to detect real earnings management, except abnormal production cost in real earning management.

Keywords: discretionary accruals, real earning management, bank loan, credit worthiness

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35 Improved Accuracy of Ratio Multiple Valuation

Authors: Julianto Agung Saputro, Jogiyanto Hartono

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Multiple valuation is widely used by investors and practitioners but its accuracy is questionable. Multiple valuation inaccuracies are due to the unreliability of information used in valuation, inaccuracies comparison group selection, and use of individual multiple values. This study investigated the accuracy of valuation to examine factors that can increase the accuracy of the valuation of multiple ratios, that are discretionary accruals, the comparison group, and the composite of multiple valuation. These results indicate that multiple value adjustment method with discretionary accruals provides better accuracy, the industry comparator group method combined with the size and growth of companies also provide better accuracy. Composite of individual multiple valuation gives the best accuracy. If all of these factors combined, the accuracy of valuation of multiple ratios will give the best results.

Keywords: multiple, valuation, composite, accuracy

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34 International Financial Reporting Standards and the Quality of Banks Financial Statement Information: Evidence from an Emerging Market-Nigeria

Authors: Ugbede Onalo, Mohd Lizam, Ahmad Kaseri, Otache Innocent

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Giving the paucity of studies on IFRS adoption and quality of banks accounting quality, particularly in emerging economies, this study is motivated to investigate whether the Nigeria decision to adopt IFRS beginning from 1 January 2012 is associated with high quality accounting measures. Consistent with prior literatures, this study measure quality of financial statement information using earnings measurement, timeliness of loss recognition and value relevance. A total of twenty Nigeria banks covering a period of six years (2008-2013) divided equally into three years each (2008, 2009, 2010) pre adoption period and (2011, 2012, 2013) post adoption period were investigated. Following prior studies eight models were in all employed to investigate earnings management, timeliness of loss recognition and value relevance of Nigeria bank accounting quality for the different reporting regimes. Results suggest that IFRS adoption is associated with minimal earnings management, timely recognition of losses and high value relevance of accounting information. Summarily, IFRS adoption engenders higher quality of banks financial statement information compared to local GAAP. Hence, this study recommends the global adoption of IFRS and that Nigeria banks should embrace good corporate governance practices.

Keywords: IFRS, SAS, quality of accounting information, earnings measurement, discretionary accruals, non-discretionary accruals, total accruals, Jones model, timeliness of loss recognition, value relevance

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33 The Impact of Corporate Governance Mechanisms on Earnings Management Practices: Evidence from Jordan

Authors: Lara Al-Haddad, Mark Whittington

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This paper aims to examine the impact of two influential internal corporate governance mechanisms, namely board characteristics and ownership structure on the use of real activities-based and accrual-based earnings management by Jordanian public firms. Using panel data from Jordanian public firms after the introduction of the Jordanian Corporate Governance Code (JCGC) in 2009, the study finds both institutional ownership and managerial ownership constrain the use of real and accrual earnings manipulations. On the other side, both independent directors and largest shareholders are found to exaggerate the incidence of using real and accrual earnings management. The study also examines the trade-off between real and accrual earnings management and found that Jordanian firms use a combination of real and accrual-based earnings management to obtain the greatest effect on earnings reporting strategies. For the purpose of this study, three types of real earnings management are considered: sales manipulation, overproduction, and the abnormal reduction of discretionary expenditures. The abnormal discretionary accrual is considered for accruals management. While for the internal corporate governance mechanisms; board characteristics are examined by using board independence, board size, and CEO-duality; and ownership structure is examined by using managerial ownership, institutional ownership, foreign ownership and largest shareholder ownership. To the best knowledge of the researchers, this study is the first to examine the relationship between board characteristics and real earnings management in Jordan. Further, it is the first to examine the relationship between corporate governance mechanisms and discretionary accruals after the introduction of the Jordanian Corporate Governance Code in 2009. Thus, the findings of this study have important policy implications for policymakers, regulators, standard setters, audit professional, and investors in their attempts to constrain the practice of earnings management, whether real or accrual, and to improve the financial reporting quality in Jordan.

Keywords: board characteristics, Jordan, ownership structure, real earnings management

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32 Corporate Codes of Ethics and Earnings Discretion: International Evidence

Authors: Chu Chen, Giorgio Gotti, Tony Kang, Michael Wolfe

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This study examines the role of codes of ethics in reducing the extent to which managers’ act opportunistically in reporting earnings. Corporate codes of ethics, by clarifying the boundaries of ethical corporate behaviors and making relevant social norms more salient, have the potential to deter managers from engaging in opportunistic financial reporting practices. In a sample of international companies, we find that the quality of corporate codes of ethics is associated with higher earnings quality, i.e., lower discretionary accruals. Our results are confirmed for a subsample of firms more likely to be engaging in opportunistic reporting behavior, i.e., firms that just meet or beat analysts’ forecasts. Further, codes of ethics play a greater role in reducing earnings management for firms in countries with weaker investor protection mechanisms. Our results suggest that corporate codes of ethics can be a viable alternative to country-level investor protection mechanisms in curbing aggressive reporting behaviors.

Keywords: corporate ethics policy, code of ethics, business ethics, earnings discretion, accruals

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31 Sovereign Characters of Police in Turkey: Discretionary Use of Force on Criminalized Political Opponents

Authors: Emrah Denizhan

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Policing studies have drawn attention to the changing role of law enforcement in favour of harsh policing strategies throughout the world. Turkey has become part of this global transition process by restructuring its policing through a series of allegedly democratic amendments to Turkish law. Nevertheless, severe violations of human rights continue to be widely experienced phenomena. This paper suggests problematizing the changing judicial framework of policing together with the persistent aggressive policing in Turkey, by considering Agamben's concept of police as a sovereign entity – sovereign police. In so doing, the paper analytically dissects sovereign police into three premises: the criminalization of the (perceived) enemy, the militarization of the police, and finally, the discretionary use of force. This examination of the state’s early ethno-racial policies and the history of the Turkish police force, and of the changing judicial framework of police-related laws in the 2000s, demonstrates that certain ‘internal enemies’ have been criminalized by increasingly militarized police using escalating discretionary use of force.

Keywords: criminalization, discretionary use of force, policing, sovereignty

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30 Creative Accounting as a Financial Numbers Game

Authors: Feddaoui Amina

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Through this study we will try to shed light on the theoretical framework proposed for understanding creative accounting as a financial numbers game and one of the most important techniques of accounts manipulation, its main actors and its practices. We will discover the role of the modified Jones model (1995) in detecting creative accounting practices using discretionary accruals. Finally we will try to confirm the importance and the need to address this type of practices using corporate governance as a main control system and an important defense line to reduce these dangerous accounts manipulation.

Keywords: financial numbers game, creative accounting, modified Jones model, accounts manipulation

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29 Modeling the Relation between Discretionary Accrual Earnings Management, International Financial Reporting Standards and Corporate Governance

Authors: Ikechukwu Ndu

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This study examines the econometric modeling of the relation between discretionary accrual earnings management, International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), and certain corporate governance factors with regard to listed Nigerian non-financial firms. Although discretionary accrual earnings management is a well-known and global problem that has an adverse impact on users of the financial statements, its relationship with IFRS and corporate governance is neither adequately researched nor properly systematically investigated in Nigeria. The dearth of research in the relation between discretionary accrual earnings management, IFRS and corporate governance in Nigeria has made it difficult for academics, practitioners, government setting bodies, regulators and international bodies to achieve a clearer understanding of how discretionary accrual earnings management relates to IFRS and certain corporate governance characteristics. This is the first study to the author’s best knowledge to date that makes interesting research contributions that significantly add to the literature of discretionary accrual earnings management and its relation with corporate governance and IFRS pertaining to the Nigerian context. A comprehensive review is undertaken of the literature of discretionary total accrual earnings management, IFRS, and certain corporate governance characteristics as well as the data, models, methodologies, and different estimators used in the study. Secondary financial statement, IFRS, and corporate governance data are sourced from Bloomberg database and published financial statements of Nigerian non-financial firms for the period 2004 to 2016. The methodology uses both the total and working capital accrual basis. This study has a number of interesting preliminary findings. First, there is a negative relationship between the level of discretionary accrual earnings management and the adoption of IFRS. However, this relationship does not appear to be statistically significant. Second, there is a significant negative relationship between the size of the board of directors and discretionary accrual earnings management. Third, CEO Separation of roles does not constrain earnings management, indicating the need to preserve relationships, personal connections, and maintain bonded friendships between the CEO, Chairman, and executive directors. Fourth, there is a significant negative relationship between discretionary accrual earnings management and the use of a Big Four firm as an auditor. Fifth, including shareholders in the audit committee, leads to a reduction in discretionary accrual earnings management. Sixth, the debt and return on assets (ROA) variables are significant and positively related to discretionary accrual earnings management. Finally, the company size variable indicated by the log of assets is surprisingly not found to be statistically significant and indicates that all Nigerian companies irrespective of size engage in discretionary accrual management. In conclusion, this study provides key insights that enable a better understanding of the relationship between discretionary accrual earnings management, IFRS, and corporate governance in the Nigerian context. It is expected that the results of this study will be of interest to academics, practitioners, regulators, governments, international bodies and other parties involved in policy setting and economic development in areas of financial reporting, securities regulation, accounting harmonization, and corporate governance.

Keywords: discretionary accrual earnings management, earnings manipulation, IFRS, corporate governance

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28 Earnings Management and Tone Management: Evidence from the UK

Authors: Salah Kayed Kayed, Jessica Hong Yang

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This study investigates, whether earnings management in the audited financial statements is associated with tone management in the narrative sections of the annual report in the UK. Earnings management and narrative disclosure are communication strategies used from managers to communicate with investors or other users. Because earnings management and narrative disclosure stem from managers, they can exploit this by doing manipulation in their earnings, and simultaneously disclosing qualitative text (narrative information) in their reports as a tone of words, which will affect users’ perception, and hence users will be misinformed. The association between earnings and tone management can be explained by the self-serving, through cognitive reference points, theory. The sample period lasts from 2010 to 2015, and the sample comprises all non-financial firms that consider under FTSE 350 in any year during the sample period. A list of words from previous research is used to measure the tone in the narrative sections of the annual report. Because this study focuses on the managerial strategic choice and the subjective issues that come from management, it uses the abnormal tone to capture the managerial discretion on tone, and a number of different discretionary accruals proxies to measure earnings management, where accruals management is considered as a manipulation tool from managers to change the users' perception. This research is motivated to fulfil the literature gap by examining the association between earnings and tone management. Moreover, if firms that apply earnings management use tone management to mislead investors, it is beneficial for investors, policy makers, standard setters, or other users to know whether there is an association between earnings management and tone management. Clearly, we believe that this study is fundamental in the accounting context, where it evaluates the communication strategies that are used in firms' financial reports. Consistent with prior research, it is expected that tone management is positively associated with earnings management. This means that firms that use earnings management have incentives to manipulate in their narrative disclosure through tone of words, to reflect a good perception for users, which will conceal the earnings management techniques used in their reporting.

Keywords: earnings management, FTSE 350, narrative disclosure, tone management

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27 An Examination of Earnings Management by Publicly Listed Targets Ahead of Mergers and Acquisitions

Authors: T. Elrazaz

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This paper examines accrual and real earnings management by publicly listed targets around mergers and acquisitions. Prior literature shows that earnings management around mergers and acquisitions can have a significant economic impact because of the associated wealth transfers among stakeholders. More importantly, acting on behalf of their shareholders or pursuing their self-interests, managers of both targets and acquirers may be equally motivated to manipulate earnings prior to an acquisition to generate higher gains for their shareholders or themselves. Building on the grounds of information asymmetry, agency conflicts, stewardship theory, and the revelation principle, this study addresses the question of whether takeover targets employ accrual and real earnings management in the periods prior to the announcement of Mergers and Acquisitions (M&A). Additionally, this study examines whether acquirers are able to detect targets’ earnings management, and in response, adjust the acquisition premium paid in order not to face the risk of overpayment. This study uses an aggregate accruals approach in estimating accrual earnings management as proxied by estimated abnormal accruals. Additionally, real earnings management is proxied for by employing widely used models in accounting and finance literature. The results of this study indicate that takeover targets manipulate their earnings using accruals in the second year with an earnings release prior to the announcement of the M&A. Moreover, in partitioning the sample of targets according to the method of payment used in the deal, the results are restricted only to targets of stock-financed deals. These results are consistent with the argument that targets of cash-only or mixed-payment deals do not have the same strong motivations to manage their earnings as their stock-financed deals counterparts do additionally supporting the findings of prior studies that the method of payment in takeovers is value relevant. The findings of this study also indicate that takeover targets manipulate earnings upwards through cutting discretionary expenses the year prior to the acquisition while they do not do so by manipulating sales or production costs. Moreover, in partitioning the sample of targets according to the method of payment used in the deal, the results are restricted only to targets of stock-financed deals, providing further robustness to the results derived under the accrual-based models. Finally, this study finds evidence suggesting that acquirers are fully aware of the accrual-based techniques employed by takeover targets and can unveil such manipulation practices. These results are robust to alternative accrual and real earnings management proxies, as well as controlling for the method of payment in the deal.

Keywords: accrual earnings management, acquisition premium, real earnings management, takeover targets

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26 Earnings Management from Taiwan Gisa Firms

Authors: An-an Chiu, Shaio Yan Huang, Ling-Na Chen, Wei-Hua Lin

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Research has primarily focused on listed companies, less is done regarding small and medium-sized enterprises. Under the authorities' support, Taipei Exchange (TPEx) started Go Incubation Board for Startup and Acceleration Firms (GISA) in January 2014. This platform is designed to help small-sized innovative companies grow and to enter the capital market in the future. This research yield insight into earnings management activities around seasoned equity offerings (SEO) based on Taiwan’s GISA firms and the effectiveness of external corporate governance. Data for the study come from the GISA Market Observation Post System from January 2014 to December 2016. The result finds that GISA firms prone to upward accrual-based earnings management during SEO to avoid long-term negative consequences. Especially, firms with paid-in capital more than NT$ 30 million, higher fundraising amounts, or smaller-sized firms, tend to increase discretionary accruals. Finally, consistent with prior literature, CPA firms effectively serve as the role of external corporate governances on mitigating earnings management.

Keywords: GISA, earnings management, CPA, seasoned equity offerings

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25 Against the Idea of Public Power as Free Will

Authors: Donato Vese

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According to the common interpretation, in a legal system, public powers are established by law. Exceptions are admitted in an emergency or particular relationship with public power. However, we currently agree that law allows public administration a margin of decision, even in the case of non-discretionary acts. Hence, the administrative decision not exclusively established by law becomes the rule in the ordinary state of things, non-only in state of exception. This paper aims to analyze and discuss different ideas on discretionary power on the Rule of Law and Rechtsstaat. Observing the legal literature in Europe and Nord and South America, discretionary power can be described as follow: it could be considered a margin that law accords to the executive power for political decisions or a choice between different interpretations of vague legal previsions. In essence, this explanation admits for the executive a decision not established by law or anyhow not exclusively established by law. This means that the discretionary power of public administration integrates the law. However, integrating law does not mean to decide according to the law, but it means to integrate law with a decision involving public power. Consequently, discretionary power is essentially free will. In this perspective, also the Rule of Law and the Rechtsstaat are notions explained differently. Recently, we can observe how the European notion of Rechtsstaat is founded on the formal validity of the law; therefore, for this notion, public authority’s decisions not regulated by law represent a problem. Thus, different systems of law integration have been proposed in legal literature, such as values, democracy, reasonableness, and so on. This paper aims to verify how, looking at those integration clauses from a logical viewpoint, integration based on the recourse to the legal system itself does not resolve the problem. The aforementioned integration clauses are legal rules that require hard work to explain the correct meaning of the law; in particular, they introduce dangerous criteria in favor of the political majority. A different notion of public power can be proposed. This notion includes two main features: (a) sovereignty belongs to persons and not the state, and (b) fundamental rights are not grounded but recognized by Constitutions. Hence, public power is a system based on fundamental rights. According to this approach, it can also be defined as the notion of public interest as concrete maximization of fundamental rights enjoyments. Like this, integration of the law, vague or subject to several interpretations, must be done by referring to the system of fundamental individual rights. We can think, for instance, to fundamental rights that are right in an objective view but not legal because not established by law.

Keywords: administrative discretion, free will, fundamental rights, public power, sovereignty

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24 The Effect of Accounting Quality on Contribution-In-Kind Valuation

Authors: Catherine Heyjung Sonu

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This paper examines the effect of accounting quality on the process in which stock price is determined by focusing on contribution-in-kind valuations using Korean setting. In Korea, a number of chaebol firms have transformed into holding company system starting in 2003. With an attempt to gain as much voting right, management sold shares of subsidiaries to purchase shares of the holding company. In so doing, management of these firms received share issues for the contribution in kind that has been made to obtain additional shares of the holding company. The price of these share issues against contribution in kind is allowed to be discounted up to 30%. Using this interesting setting in Korea, this paper examines whether accounting quality affects the extent of the discount applied to the share issues. If the accounting quality of the firm for which the management is receiving share issues is poor, the extent of discount is likely to be high. The extent of discount is likely lower for firms with superior accounting quality. Using 24 cases, we find that, on average, the extent of discount is larger for share issues in which the accounting quality, proxied by the absolute value of discretionary accruals, is poor. This paper provides insight by examining the effect of accounting quality on the stock market. It sheds light on the intersection between finance and accounting research and should be of interest to researchers and practitioners.

Keywords: Accounting quality, Contribution-in-kind, discount, holding company

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23 The Effect of Critical Audit Matters on Financial Information Quality: The Role of Audit Committee Expertise

Authors: Khawla Hlel

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Purpose: This study aims to examine whether critical audit matters (CAM) affect financial information quality. We also investigate the moderating role of the audit committee on the association between CAM and financial information quality. Design/Methodology/Approach: The analysis is based on GLS and GMM regressions explaining the absolute value of discretionary accruals by using 52 Tunisian listed firms on the Tunisia Stock Exchange (TSE) for the period 2017-2020. Findings: We find evidence that managers react to the CAM by increasing the quality of financial disclosures. This study provides insights into how a change in the auditor’s report model might impact the quality of financial information. It suggests that external auditors and audit committees serve as a beneficial mechanism for enhancing financial information quality by reducing information asymmetry. In addition, our results indicate that CAM is an efficient monitoring mechanism that increases financial reporting quality and supervises managers. Originality: This study is important for potential investors who should assess CAM when evaluating firms. Furthermore, the authors expect the findings to be interesting to firms, as this study highlights the effectiveness of the auditor in reducing managerial opportunistic behavior and improving information quality. The results could encourage audit regulators to ameliorate the standards, as this research reinforces the role of the auditor in increasing the quality of financial disclosure by offering the required information for shareholders.

Keywords: critical audit matters, audit committee, information quality, Tunisian firms

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22 The Misuse of Free Cash and Earnings Management: An Analysis of the Extent to Which Board Tenure Mitigates Earnings Management

Authors: Michael McCann

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Managerial theories propose that, in joint stock companies, executives may be tempted to waste excess free cash on unprofitable projects to keep control of resources. In order to conceal their projects' poor performance, they may seek to engage in earnings management. On the one hand, managers may manipulate earnings upwards in order to post ‘good’ performances and safeguard their position. On the other, since managers pursuit of unrewarding investments are likely to lead to low long-term profitability, managers will use negative accruals to reduce current year’s earnings, smoothing earnings over time in order to conceal the negative effects. Agency models argue that boards of directors are delegated by shareholders to ensure that companies are governed properly. Part of that responsibility is ensuring the reliability of financial information. Analyses of the impact of board characteristics, particularly board independence on the misuse of free cash flow and earnings management finds conflicting evidence. However, existing characterizations of board independence do not account for such directors gaining firm-specific knowledge over time, influencing their monitoring ability. Further, there is little analysis of the influence of the relative experience of independent directors and executives on decisions surrounding the use of free cash. This paper contributes to this literature regarding the heterogeneous characteristics of boards by investigating the influence of independent director tenure on earnings management and the relative tenures of independent directors and Chief Executives. A balanced panel dataset comprising 51 companies across 11 annual periods from 2005 to 2015 is used for the analysis. In each annual period, firms were classified as conducting earnings management if they had discretionary accruals in the bottom quartile (downwards) and top quartile (upwards) of the distributed values for the sample. Logistical regressions were conducted to determine the marginal impact of independent board tenure and a number of control variables on the probability of conducting earnings management. The findings indicate that both absolute and relative measures of board independence and experience do not have a significant impact on the likelihood of earnings management. It is the level of free cash flow which is the major influence on the probability of earnings management. Higher free cash flow increases the probability of earnings management significantly. The research also investigates whether board monitoring of earnings management is contingent on the level of free cash flow. However, the results suggest that board monitoring is not amplified when free cash flow is higher. This suggests that the extent of earnings management in companies is determined by a range of company, industry and situation-specific factors.

Keywords: corporate governance, boards of directors, agency theory, earnings management

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21 Is Audit Quality Implied by Accruals Quality Associated with Audit Fees and Auditor Tenure? Evidence from China

Authors: Hassan Y. Kikhia, Jin P. Zhang, Khaldoon G. Albiatr

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The Enron and Arthur Andersen scandal has raised concerns internationally about auditor independence and audit quality. Furthermore, the debate continues about the relationship between audit fees, auditor tenure and audit quality in spite of extensive empirical evidence examining audit failures and earnings management. Therefore, the purpose of current research is to determine the effect of audit fee and audit tenure both partially and simultaneously on the audit quality. Using a sample of Chinese firms, an environment where we believe it provides us with an opportunity to test whether the development of market and legal institutions affects the impact of audit fees and auditor tenure on audit quality. We employ the standard deviation of residuals from regressions relating current accruals to cash flows as proxy for audit quality. The paper documents statistically significant negative association between audit fees and audit quality. These findings are consistent with economic bonding being a determinant of auditor behavior rather than auditor reputational concerns. Further, the current paper shows a positive association between auditor tenure and audit quality in the earlier years of audit tenure. These results support the proposition that when the Learning Effect dominates the Bonding Effect in the earlier years of tenure, then audit quality is likely to be higher. Taken audit fees and audit tenure together, the results suggest that there is positive association between audit fees and audit quality in the earlier years of auditor tenure. Interestingly, the findings of our study have important implications for auditors, policymakers, multinational firms, and users of financial reports. As the rapid growth of China's economy gains global recognition, the Chinese stock market is capturing the attention of international investors. To a lesser extent, our paper also differs from the prior studies in methodology and findings in the investigation of audit quality.

Keywords: audit quality, accruals quality, audit fees, auditor tenure

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20 Does Operating Cash Flow Really Matter in Value Relevance? A Recent Empirical Analysis on the Largest European Companies

Authors: Francesco Paolone

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This paper investigates the role of Operating Cash Flow (OCF) and accruals in firm valuation analyzing financial statement information from the largest European companies and evaluating their relation to firm market value. Using a dataset of 500 largest European companies in 2018, the study investigates the relative value-relevance of equity, net income and operating cash flow (OCF). Findings show that the cash flow measure has the same explanatory power and intensity as equity and earnings to explain the market value. This study contributes to the debate on the value relevance of OCF incremental to book value and earnings. It also extends the literature, showing that OCF has information content (value relevance) superior to earnings and book value in the main European markets (Bepari et al., 2013). Finally, the study provides a support that accounting method choice may confuse investors, who have reduced confidence in accounting earnings and book value; in other words, nowadays European investors rely more on cash flows instead of accruals numbers.

Keywords: Cash Flow Statement, Value Relevance, Accounting, Financial Statement Analysis

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19 The Effects of Changes in Accounting Standards on Loan Loss Provisions (LLP) as Earnings Management Device: Evidence from Malaysia and Nigeria Banks (Part I)

Authors: Ugbede Onalo, Mohd Lizam, Ahmad Kaseri

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In view of dearth of studies on changes in accounting standards and banks’ earnings management particularly in the context of emerging economies, and the recent Malaysia and Nigeria change from their respective local GAAP to IFRS, this study deemed it overwhelming to investigate the effects of the switch on banks’ earnings management focusing on LLP as the manipulative device. This study employed judgmental sampling to select twenty eight banks- eight Malaysia and twenty Nigeria banks as sample covering period 2008-2013. To provide an empirical research setting in pursuant of the objective of this study, the study period is further partitioned into pre (2008, 2009, 2010) and post (2011, 2012, 2013) IFRS adoption periods. This study consistent with previous studies models a LLP regression model to investigate specific discretionary accruals of banks. Findings suggest that Malaysia and Nigeria banks individually use LLP to manage reported earnings more prior to IFRS implementation. Comparative overall results evidenced that the pre IFRS adoption or domestic GAAP era for both Malaysia and Nigeria sample banks is associated with higher prevalent earnings management through LLP than the corresponding post IFRS adoption era in diverse magnitude but in favour of Malaysia banks for both periods. With results demonstrating that IFRS adoption is linked to lower earnings management via LLP, this study therefore recommends the global adoption of IFRS as reporting framework. This study also endorses that Nigeria banks embrace and borrow a leaf from Malaysia banks good corporate governance practices.

Keywords: accounting standards, IFRS, FRS, SAS, LLP, earnings management

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18 Agency Cost, Firm Performance, Corporate Governance: Evidence from Indonesia

Authors: Arnold Sanda Layuk

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Fraud in the disclosure of financial statements by management shows that agency conflict is an important issue in the company. The conflict has consequences for the agency costs that must be borne and has an impact on the firm's performance. The effect of agency costs on firm performance is investigated in this study, as well as whether several variables such as corporate governance mechanisms can positively moderate the agency cost and firm performance relationship. The agency cost is measured by the asset utilization ratio and discretionary expenditure ratio. The firm's performance is represented by the return on equity. Data was collected from the manufacturing companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange from 2015 to 2019, then regressed on the panel data using the panel corrected standard error model (PCSE). According to the findings, agency costs are negatively related to firm performance, which supports previous empirical research findings. It also found that the agency cost and firm performance relationship is significantly moderated by board size and ownership concentration as the representatives of corporate governance mechanisms. It suggests that corporate governance can become tools to reduce agency costs and increase firm performance as well. The empirical evidence adds to previous research on agency conflict, particularly in emerging markets. These findings are expected to supplement previous research and provide additional information to shareholders in order to control opportunistic management decisions that affect their investments and discretionary operational expenses.

Keywords: agency cost, corporate governance, asset utilization ratio, firm performance

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17 Proactive Business Approaches in Human Rights: The Implications of Corporate Social Responsibility

Authors: Fatemeh Jalalvand

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The critical human rights problems such as extreme poverty, hunger, inequalities and gender discrimination need to be addressed by powerful and influential actors in the world. In today’s globalization, corporations have become one of the potent agents in the society. They are capable of generating economic growth, reducing poverty, and increasing the well-being of individuals, thereby contributing to the betterment of a broad spectrum of human rights. However, the discussion on how business can contribute to human rights has primarily focused on not violating them (reactive approach) rather than improving the conditions and solving the problems of human rights (proactive approach). In particular, the role of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in bringing proactivity of business in human rights has gained less attention. This paper develops a conceptual framework to examine the role of different categories of CSR, including discretionary, ethical, legal, instrumental and political CSR in encouraging the proactive contribution of corporations to the betterment of human rights. The five propositions, related to the conceptual framework, outline the relationships between five categories of CSR and proactivity of corporations in human rights. The findings indicate that discretionary CSR with voluntary nature might not be able to motivate any contribution of business in human rights. Moreover, ethical CSR and legal CSR might lead to reactive strategies of business toward human rights. Meanwhile, the economic incentives behind the notion of instrumental CSR could result in partial proactive engagement of corporations in human rights. Finally, the internal motives as profit and power besides the external duties might lead to the highest level of proactivity of corporations in human rights under the context of political CSR. The model developed offers a map for business to adopt proactive human rights strategies more systematically maintaining key profit-drivers like power and profit. In sum, instrumental and political categories of CSR might lead corporations to improve the conditions of human rights proactively.

Keywords: CSR, human rights, proactive approach, reactive approach

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16 Sibling Relationship of Adults with Intellectual Disability in China

Authors: Luyin Liang

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Although sibling relationship has been viewed as one of the most important family relationships that significantly impacted on the quality of life of both adults with Intellectual Disability (AWID) and their brothers/sisters, very few research have been done to investigate this relationship in China. This study investigated Chinese siblings of AWID’s relational motivations in sibling relationship and their determining factors. Quantitative research method has been adopted and 284 samples were recruited in this study. Siblings of AWID’s two types of relational motivations, including obligatory motivations and discretionary motivations were examined. Their emotional closeness, senses of responsibility, experiences of ID stigma, and expectancy of self-reward in sibling relationship were measured by validated scales. Personal, and familial-social demographic characteristics were also investigated. Linear correlation test and standard multiple regression analysis were the major statistical methods that have been used to analyze the data. The findings of this study showed that all the measured factors, including siblings of AWID’s emotional closeness, their senses of responsibility, experiences of ID stigma, and self-reward expectations had significant relationships with their both types of motivations. However, when these factors were grouped together to measure each type of these motivations, the prediction results were varied. The order of factors that best predict siblings of AWID’s obligatory motivations was: their senses of responsibility, emotional closeness, experiences of ID stigma, and their expectancy of self-reward, whereas the order of these factors that best determine siblings of AWID’s discretionary motivations was: their self-reward expectations, experiences of ID stigma, senses of responsibility, and emotional closeness. Among different demographic characteristics, AWID’s disability condition, their siblings’ age, gender, marital status, number of children, both siblings’ living arrangements and family financial status were found to have significant impacts on siblings of AWID’s both types of motivations in sibling relationship. The results of this study could enhance social work practitioners’ understandings about the needs and challenges of siblings of AWID. Suggestions on advocacies for policy changes and services improvements for these siblings were discussed in this study.

Keywords: sibling relationship, intellectual disability, adults, China

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15 Effect of Long Term Orientation and Indulgence on Earnings Management: The Moderating Role of Legal Tradition

Authors: I. Martinez-Conesa, E. Garcia-Meca, M. Barradas-Quiroz

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The objective of this study is to assess the impact on earnings management of latest two Hofstede cultural dimensions: long-term orientation and indulgence. Long-term orientation represents the alignment of a society towards the future and indulgence expresses the extent to which a society exhibits willingness, or restrain, to realise their impulses. Additionally, this paper tests if there are relevant differences by testing the moderating role of the legal tradition, Continental versus Anglo-Saxon. Our sample comprises 15 countries: Belgium, Canada, Germany, Spain, France, Great Britain, Hong Kong, India, Japan, Korea, Netherlands, Philippines, Portugal, Sweden, and Thailand, with a total of 12,936 observations from 2003 to 2013. Our results show that managers in countries with high levels of long-term orientation reduce their levels of discretionary accruals. The findings do not confirm the effect of indulgence on earnings management. In addition, our results confirm previous literature regarding the effect of individualism, noting that firms in countries with high levels of collectivism might be more inclined to use earnings discretion to protect the welfare of the collective group of firm stakeholders. Uncertainty avoidance results in downwards earnings management as well as high disclosure, suggesting that less manipulation takes place when transparency is higher. Indulgence is the cultural dimension that confronts wellbeing versus survival; dimension is formulated including happiness, the perception of live control and the importance of leisure. Indulgence shows a weak negative correlation with power distance indicating a slight tendency for more hierarchical societies to be less indulgent. Anglo-Saxon countries are a positive effect of individualism and a negative effect of masculinity, uncertainty avoidance, and disclosure. With respect to continental countries, we can see a significant and positive effect of individualism and a significant and negative effect of masculinity, long-term orientation, and indulgence. Therefore, we observe the negative effect on earnings management provoked by higher disclosure and uncertainty avoidance only happens in Anglo-Saxon countries. Meanwhile, the improvement in reporting quality motivated by higher long-term orientation and higher indulgence is dominant in Continental countries. Our results confirm that there is a moderating effect of the legal system in the association between culture and earnings management. This effect is especially relevant in the dimensions related to uncertainty avoidance, long term orientation, indulgence, and disclosure. The negative effect of long-term orientation on earnings management only happens in those countries set in continental legal systems because of the Anglo-Saxon legal systems is supported by the decisions of the courts and the traditions, so it already has long-term orientation. That does not occur in continental systems, depending mainly of contend of the law. Sensitivity analysis used with Jones modified CP model, Jones Standard model and Jones Standard CP model confirm the robustness of these results. This paper collaborates towards a better understanding on how earnings management, culture and legal systems relate to each other, and contribute to previous literature by examining the influence of the two latest Hofstede’s dimensions not previously studied in papers.

Keywords: Hofstede, long-term-orientation, earnings management, indulgence

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14 Constitutional Courts as Positive Legislators: The Role of Indonesian Constitutional Court in Interpreting and Applying the Constitution

Authors: Masnur Marzuki

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As in other democratic countries, the constitutional court of Indonesia has the role of interpreting and applying the Constitution in order to preserve its supremacy testing the constitutionality of statutes. With its strong power to enforce and guard the Constitution, the court is now challenged to provide people an opportunity to understand their constitutional rights close up. At the same time, the court has built up an enviable reputation among constitutional courts in new democracies for the technical quality of its legitimacy in the legal sense. Since its establishment in 2003, the Constitutional Court of Indonesia has decided more than 190 statutes in judicial review case. It has been remarkably successful to make a credible start on its work of guarding the Constitution. Unsurprisingly, many argue that the Court has elevated Indonesia’s democracy to a whole new level. In accomplishing its roles judicial review, the basic principle that can be identified is that the Constitutional Court must always be subordinated to the Constitution. It is not being allowed to invade the field of the legislator. In doing so, the court does not have any discretionary political basis in order to create legal norms or provisions that could not be deducted from the Constitution itself. When interpreting a statute “in accordance with the constitution”, the court recognizes and reasserts that it is strictly forbidden to extend the scope of a legal provision in such a way that would create a general norm not established by the law-maker. This paper aims to identify and assess the latest role of Indonesian Constitutional Court in interpreting and applying the Constitution. In particular, it questions 1) the role of the Constitutional Court in judicial review; and 2) the role of the court to assist the legislators in the accomplishment of their functions in order to preserve its supremacy testing the constitutionality of statutes. Concerning positive legislator, jurisprudential and judicial review theories will be approached. The empirical part will include qualitative and comparative research. Main questions to be addressed: Can the Constitutional Court be functionalized as positive legislator? What are the criteria for conducting role of Constitutional Courts as Positive Legislators and how can it be accepted? Concerning the subordination of Constitutional Courts to the Constitution and judicial review, both qualitative and quantitative methods will be used, and differences between Indonesia and German Constitutional Court will be observed. Other questions to be addressed: Can Constitutional Courts have any discretionary political basis in order to create legal norms or provisions that could not be deducted from the Constitution itself. Should the Constitutional Court always act as a negative legislator? However, the Constitutional Court in Indonesia has played role as positive legislators which create dynamic of Indonesian legal development. In performing the task of reviewing the constitutionality of statutes, the Constitutional Court has created legal norms or provisions that could be deducted from the Constitution itself.

Keywords: constitution, court, law, rights

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13 The Standard of Reasonableness in Fundamental Rights Adjudication under the Indian Constitution

Authors: Nandita Narayan

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In most constitutional democracies, courts have been the gatekeepers of fundamental rights. The task of determining whether a violation is in fact justified, therefore, is judicial. Any state action, legislative or administrative, has to be tested by the application of two standards – first, the action must be within the scope of the authority conferred by law and, second, it must be reasonable. If any action, within the scope of the authority conferred by law is found to be unreasonable, it will be struck down as unconstitutional or ultra vires. This paper seeks to analyse the varying standards of reasonableness adopted by the Supreme Court of India where there is a violation of fundamental rights by state action. This is sought to be done by scrutinising case laws and classifying the legality of the violation under one of three levels of judicial scrutiny—strict, intermediate, or weak. The paper concludes by proving that there is an irregularity in the standards adopted, thus resulting in undue discretionary power of the judiciary which strikes at the very concept of reasonableness and ultimately becomes arbitrary in nature. This conclusion is reached by the comparison of reasonableness review of fundamental rights in other jurisdictions such as the USA and Canada.

Keywords: constitutional law, judicial review, fundamental rights, reasonableness, India

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12 The Political Economy of Fiscal and Monetary Interactions in Brazil

Authors: Marcos Centurion-Vicencio

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This study discusses the idea of ‘dominance’ in economic policy and its practical influence over monetary decisions. The discretionary use of repurchase agreements in Brazil over the period 2006-2016 and its effects on the overall price level are the specific issues we will be focusing on. The set of in-depth interviews carried out with public servants at the Brazilian central bank and national treasury, alongside data collected from the National Institution of Statistics (IBGE), suggest that monetary and fiscal dominance do not differ in nature once the assumption of depoliticized central bankers is relaxed. In both regimes, the pursuit of private gains via public institutions affects price stability. While short-sighted politicians in the latter are at the origin of poor monetary decisions, the action of short-sighted financial interest groups is likely to generate a similar outcome in the former. This study then contributes to rethinking monetary policy theory as well as the nature of public borrowing.

Keywords: fiscal and monetary interactions, interest groups, monetary capture, public borrowing

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11 The Relevance of the Generalist Judge’s Discretionary Limits in the Institutional Debate

Authors: Antonio Sepúlveda, Camila Marques, Carlos Bolonha, Igor De Lazari, Henrique Rangel

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The judicial practice faces a tension between normative discretion and institutional capacities. There are clarity graduations of the statutory text that might induce different specialization levels of the judges. A major problem stemming from that tension is a greater discretion without a proportional specialization. The normative clarity, although its absence can be overcome through specialization, avoids problems related to disproportionate discretion and judicial dissonance. When judicial interpretation deals with the lack of legal clarity, a significant juridical insecurity frame is verified. Decisional uniformity mechanisms are created in order to surpass these problems. Brazil brings great examples, such as the súmulas, the enunciados, and the súmulas vinculantes. Despite of the resistance presented to the latter, mainly based on judges’ independence, even countries of the Common Law tradition develop such mechanisms. The British Guidelines face the lack of legal clarity problem and promote a decisional consonance system.

Keywords: generalist judges, institutional capacities, normative clarity, normative discretion

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10 Indentifying Critical Factors Influencing Timeshare Purchases in India

Authors: Shivam Kushwaha, Veena Bansal

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Timeshare refers to real estate that is owned simultaneously by many, for a specified time in a year, for a specified numbers of years and is maintained and managed by an agency. Timeshare falls under the umbrella of tourism and is often used for vacation. Timeshare industry has attracted significantly less number of customers in India as compared to the US and Europe. In more than 40 years of existence of timeshare industry, it has not been able to grow its roots among Indian customers. The purpose of the study: To explore perception of Indian customers towards the adoption of timeshare segment of the hospitality industry and identify the factors. Source of data: Survey has been done on existing owners of holidays memberships, resorts or those who at least tourism experience in their past purchases. Methodology: Logistic Regression is used to predict binary responses of the customers based on identified critical factors which might influence timeshare purchases. Result: The study identified four factors: discretionary income, exchange options, ownership pride, risk, and measured their influence on intention to purchases in India. It is recognized that is all four variables are statistically significant while explaining in purchase intentions of customers in India.

Keywords: timeshare, holiday, tourism, customer perception, intent to use, Indian tourism

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9 Cognitive Approach at the Epicenter of Creative Accounting in Cameroonian Companies: The Relevance of the Psycho-Sociological Approach and the Theory of Cognitive Dissonance

Authors: Romuald Temomo Wamba, Robert Wanda

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The issue of creative accounting in the psychological and sociological framework has been a mixed subject for over 60 years. The objective of this article is to ensure the existence of creative accounting in Cameroonian entities on the one hand and to understand the strategies used by audit agents to detect errors, omissions, irregularities, or inadequacies in the financial state; optimization techniques used by account preparers to strategically bypass texts on the other hand. To achieve this, we conducted an exploratory study using a cognitive approach, and the data analysis was performed by the software 'decision explorer'. The results obtained challenge the authors' cognition (manifest latent and deceptive behavior). The tax inspectors stress that the entities in Cameroon do not derogate from the rules of piloting in the financial statements. Likewise, they claim a change in current income and net income through depreciation, provisions, inventories, and the spreading of charges over long periods. This suggests the suspicion or intention of manipulating the financial statements. As for the techniques, the account preparers manage the accruals at the end of the year as the basis of the practice of creative accounting. Likewise, management accounts are more favorable to results management.

Keywords: creative accounting, sociocognitive approach, psychological and sociological approach, cognitive dissonance theory, cognitive mapping

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8 American Criminal Justice Responses to Terrorism in the Post 9/11 Era

Authors: Summer Jackson

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September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks exposed weaknesses in federal law enforcement’s ability to proactively counter threats to American homeland security. Following the attacks, legislative reforms and policy changes cleared both bureaucratic and legal obstacles to anti-terrorism efforts. The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) transformed into a domestic intelligence agency responsible for preventing future terrorist attacks. Likewise, the passage of the 2001 USA Patriot Act gave federal agents new discretionary powers to more easily collect intelligence on those suspected of supporting terrorism. Despite these changes, there has been only limited scholarly attention paid to terrorism responses by the federal criminal justice system. This study sought to examine the investigative and prosecutorial changes made in the Post-9/11 era. The methodology employed bivariate and multivariate statistics using data from the American Terrorism Study (ATS). This analysis examined how policy changes are reflected in the nature of terrorism investigations, the handling of terrorist defendants by federal prosecutors, and the outcomes of terrorism cases since 2001. The findings indicate significant investigative and prosecutorial changes in the Post-9/11 era. Specifically, this study found terrorism cases involved younger defendants, fewer indictees per case, less use of human intelligence, less complicated attacks, less serious charges, and more plea bargains. Overall, this study highlights the important shifts in responses to terrorism following the 9/11 attacks.

Keywords: terrorism, law enforcement, post-9/11, federal policy

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