Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 103

Search results for: auditor tenure

103 Is Audit Quality Implied by Accruals Quality Associated with Audit Fees and Auditor Tenure? Evidence from China

Authors: Hassan Y. Kikhia, Jin P. Zhang, Khaldoon G. Albiatr

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The Enron and Arthur Andersen scandal has raised concerns internationally about auditor independence and audit quality. Furthermore, the debate continues about the relationship between audit fees, auditor tenure and audit quality in spite of extensive empirical evidence examining audit failures and earnings management. Therefore, the purpose of current research is to determine the effect of audit fee and audit tenure both partially and simultaneously on the audit quality. Using a sample of Chinese firms, an environment where we believe it provides us with an opportunity to test whether the development of market and legal institutions affects the impact of audit fees and auditor tenure on audit quality. We employ the standard deviation of residuals from regressions relating current accruals to cash flows as proxy for audit quality. The paper documents statistically significant negative association between audit fees and audit quality. These findings are consistent with economic bonding being a determinant of auditor behavior rather than auditor reputational concerns. Further, the current paper shows a positive association between auditor tenure and audit quality in the earlier years of audit tenure. These results support the proposition that when the Learning Effect dominates the Bonding Effect in the earlier years of tenure, then audit quality is likely to be higher. Taken audit fees and audit tenure together, the results suggest that there is positive association between audit fees and audit quality in the earlier years of auditor tenure. Interestingly, the findings of our study have important implications for auditors, policymakers, multinational firms, and users of financial reports. As the rapid growth of China's economy gains global recognition, the Chinese stock market is capturing the attention of international investors. To a lesser extent, our paper also differs from the prior studies in methodology and findings in the investigation of audit quality.

Keywords: audit quality, accruals quality, audit fees, auditor tenure

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102 The Effect of Role Conflict, Role Ambiguity and Job Satisfaction on Auditor Performance

Authors: Binti Shofiatul Jannah, Hans Wakhida Rakhmatullah

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This paper aims to examine the influence of role conflict, role ambiguity and job satisfaction on auditor performance. This study uses survey method using a questionnaire to collect the data. The questionnaires distributes were 104 respondents. The respondents are auditors who work for public accounting firms in East Java. Partial Least Square (PLS) with program SmartPLS version 2.0 were used to hypothesis testing. The result shows that: (1) there is no negative influence of role conflict on auditor performance; (2) there is negative influence of role ambiguity on auditor performance; (3) there is positive influence of job satisfaction on auditor performance.

Keywords: role conflict, role ambiguity, job satisfaction, performance

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101 Tenure Track System and Its Impact on Grading Leniency and Student Effort: A Quasi-Experimental Approach

Authors: Shao-Hsun Keng, Hwang-Ruey Song

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This paper examines the causal effect of the tenure track system on instructors’ grading practices and teaching effectiveness by taking advantage of a natural experiment in Taiwan. The results show that assistant professors subject to the tenure track policy are more likely to grade leniently and fail fewer students. The course grade is 5% higher in classes taught by assistant professors subject to the tenure system. However, the tendency to grade leniently is reversed after assistant professors subject to the tenure system are promoted to a higher rank. Our findings are consistent with the exchange theory. We also show that teaching and student efforts are adversely affected by the tenure policy, which could reduce student learning and the quality of the workforce in the long run.

Keywords: tenure track system, grading leniency, study time, grade inflation

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100 Influence of Leadership Tenure and Succession on Institutional Goal Attainment in the University of Ibadan, Nigeria (2006-2015)

Authors: Ismial A. Raji, Blessing Egbezieme Oladejo, Babatunde Kasim Oladele

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The study investigated the influence of leadership succession and tenure on goal attainment in the University of Ibadan. Leadership styles, tenure politics, organization succession, leadership succession, goal attainment in terms of research, teaching and public services were considered. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. The population of the study was 250 consisting 90 academic staff, 100 Senior Non-Teaching Staff and 60 Junior Non-Teaching Staff. Questionnaire was the instrument used to collect data. The instrument reliability coefficient was 0.88. Data collected were analysed with descriptive statistics. The result revealed that a significant relationship exist between leadership succession, tenure and goal attainment (r= .648, 0.466 and 0.479p< .0.5) Also, There was no statistical significant interaction between the effects of leadership tenure and leadership succession on goal attainment, F (38, 131) = 1.356, p = .104. The main influence of the independent variables on goal attainment were significant at F (24, 131) = 1.682, p=.034 and F (26, 131) = 2.182, p=.002. The study concluded that leadership succession and tenure are key factors for goal attainment in the University of Ibadan. The study recommended that an effective leadership succession and tenure processes should be maintained and sustained by higher institutions of learning.

Keywords: leadership tenure, style, succession, institutional goal

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99 Ways for the Development of the Audit Quality Control System through the Analysis of Ongoing Problems, Experience and Challenges: Example of the Republic of Georgia

Authors: Levan Sabauri

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Audit is an independent inspection of the financial statement of the audited person and expresses the opinion of an auditor on the reliability of this statement. The auditor’s activity (auditor’s service) is realized by auditing organizations, individual auditors in connection to conduction of an audit and rendering of audit accompanying services. The profession of auditor means a high level of responsibility for rendered service. Results of decisions made by information users depend on the quality of the auditor’s conclusion. Owners, investors, creditors, and society rely on the opinion of the auditor under the condition that inspection was conducted with good quality. Therefore, the existence of the well-functioning audit quality control system for the administering of the audit is an important issue. An efficient audit quality control system is a substantial challenge that many countries face worldwide, especially those states where these systems are being formed within the respective reform program. The presented article reflects on the best practices of the leading countries, the assumptions and recommendations for the financial accounting, reporting and audit; current reforms in Georgia are made based on this comparative analysis.

Keywords: audit quality control, audit program, financial statement, perspective analysis

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98 A Study on the Relation between Auditor Rotation and Audit Quality in Iranian Firms

Authors: Bita Mashayekhi, Marjan Fayyazi, Parisa Sefati

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Audit quality is a popular topic in accounting and auditing research because recent decades’ financial crises reduce the reliability of financial reports to public investors and cause significant doubt about the audit profession. Therefore, doing research to identify effective factors in improving audit quality is necessary for bringing back public investors’ trust to financial statements as well as audit reports. In this study, we explore the relationship between audit rotation and audit quality. For this purpose, we employ the Duff (2009) model of audit quality to measure audit quality and use a questionnaire survey of 27 audit service quality attributes. Our results show that there is a negative relationship between auditor’s rotation and audit quality as we consider the auditor’s reputation, capability, assurance, experience, and responsiveness as surrogates for audit quality. There is no evidence for verifying a same relationship when we use the auditor’s independence and expertise for measuring audit quality.

Keywords: audit quality, auditor’s rotation, reputation, capability, assurance, experience, responsiveness, independence, expertise

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97 Digitalization and High Audit Fees: An Empirical Study Applied to US Firms

Authors: Arpine Maghakyan

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The purpose of this paper is to study the relationship between the level of industry digitalization and audit fees, especially, the relationship between Big 4 auditor fees and industry digitalization level. On the one hand, automation of business processes decreases internal control weakness and manual mistakes; increases work effectiveness and integrations. On the other hand, it may cause serious misstatements, high business risks or even bankruptcy, typically in early stages of automation. Incomplete automation can bring high audit risk especially if the auditor does not fully understand client’s business automation model. Higher audit risk consequently will cause higher audit fees. Higher audit fees for clients with high automation level are more highlighted in Big 4 auditor’s behavior. Using data of US firms from 2005-2015, we found that industry level digitalization is an interaction for the auditor quality on audit fees. Moreover, the choice of Big4 or non-Big4 is correlated with client’s industry digitalization level. Big4 client, which has higher digitalization level, pays more than one with low digitalization level. In addition, a high-digitalized firm that has Big 4 auditor pays higher audit fee than non-Big 4 client. We use audit fees and firm-specific variables from Audit Analytics and Compustat databases. We analyze collected data by using fixed effects regression methods and Wald tests for sensitivity check. We use fixed effects regression models for firms for determination of the connections between technology use in business and audit fees. We control for firm size, complexity, inherent risk, profitability and auditor quality. We chose fixed effects model as it makes possible to control for variables that have not or cannot be measured.

Keywords: audit fees, auditor quality, digitalization, Big4

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96 Effect of Management Compensation and Auditor Reputation on Tax Management in the Listed Banking Companies in Indonesia

Authors: Fahreza, Yudhi Herliansyah, Harnovinsah

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This study aims to examine how management compensation and auditor reputation effect on corporate tax management in banking using a sample banking companies listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange. At first, this study examines how the influence of management compensation on the implementation of tax management that may be made by management in order to improve the performance of the company. Second, this study also examines the effect of auditor reputation conducting audit on the implementation of the tax management. The population used in this study is the banking companies listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange. The method used was purposive sampling because the samples of this study have certain criteria that are tailored to the purpose of the study. Based on purposive sampling method, the number of samples in this study is 28 samples. Hypothesis tested using multiple regression analysis. The results of this study indicate that on the 5 % significance level, management compensation significantly influenced tax management as measured using the proxy book tax gap. Other result is management compensation does not significantly affect the tax management that measured using a proxy GAAP effective tax rate. In addition the auditor's reputation does significantly influence tax management as measured using the proxy book tax gap and GAAP effective tax rate.

Keywords: tax management, management compensation, auditor reputation, corporate characteristic

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95 An Exploratory Study Regarding the Effects of Auditor Switch, Auditee’s Industry, and Auditee’s Location on Audit Fees in Australia

Authors: Ashkan Mirzay Fashami

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This study examines the effects of auditor switch, auditee’s industry, and auditee’s location on audit fees in Australia. It uses fee data of Australian Securities Exchange 500 companies, considering all industry classifications throughout the country from 2006 until 2016. Main findings show that auditor switch does not affect audit fees. However, auditee’s industry affects audit fees. This effect occurs in information technology, financials, energy, and materials sectors among the top 500 companies. Financials, energy, and materials sectors face a fee rise, whereas information technology has a fee cut. The extent of fee changes is different among various industries, wherein the financial sector has the highest increase. Further, auditee’s location affects audit fees. Top 500 companies in Hobart, Perth, and Brisbane face a fee reduction, wherein the highest cut is in Hobart. Further analysis suggests that the Australian audit market is being increasingly concentrated in the hands of the Big Four audit firms.

Keywords: audit, auditor switch, Australia, fee, low-balling

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94 Problems Occurring in the Process of Audit by Taking into Consideration their Theoretic Aspects against the Background of Reforms Conducted in a Country: The Example of Georgia

Authors: Levan Sabauri

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The purpose of this article is an examination of the meaning of theoretic aspects of audit in the context of solving of specific problems of the audit. The audit’s aim is the estimation of financial statements by the auditor, i.e. if they are prepared according to the basic requirements of current financial statements. By examination of concrete examples, we can clearly see problems created in an audit and in often cases, those contradictions which can be caused by incompliance of matters regulated by legislation and by reality. An important part of this work is the analysis of reform in the direction of business accounting, statements and audit in Georgia and its comparison with EU countries. In the article, attention is concentrated on the analysis of specific problems of auditing practice and ways of their solving by taking into consideration theoretical aspects of the audit are proposed.

Keywords: audit, auditor, auditors’ ethic code, auditor’s risk, financial statement, objectivity

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93 Legal Responsibility of the External Auditor Qualitative Case Study of Libyan Environment

Authors: Bubaker F. Shareia

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The aim of this paper is to determine a general frame of the auditor's legal responsibilities in Libya which were implied in professional codes and rules, these codes and rules were concerned with the auditor's rights and duties in conducting his professional duties. This will provide a background for the Libyan accounting profession, and the challenges in tailoring Auditors to meet third party's needs. Being informed of the kinds of legal responsibilities which the external auditors could face during conducting their duties. The study is based on a literature review and archival research, reinforced by a qualitative case study comprised of interviews, questionnaire and a study of internal documents. To reach such an understanding, the researcher designed two questionnaires for collecting the data. One questionnaire was distributed among the certified public accountant firms in Libya and the second was distributed among a group of randomly selected lawyers and judges in the same country. Most auditors agreed upon the determination of their responsibilities toward the state and they emphasized that their responsibilities toward their clients were limited to the accepted standards of auditing. Moreover, all auditors who were surveyed emphasized that there has never been any juridical claims against them, and as a consequence they have never paid any legal fines. This study focuses on one country, which does limit its generalisability. However, it also suggests fruitful research areas in considering the impact and challenge of the historic factors in the accounting profession in emerging economies.

Keywords: accounting, external auditor, legal responsibilities, libyan accounting profession

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92 Meta-Analysis of the Impact of Positive Psychological Capital on Employees Outcomes: The Moderating Role of Tenure

Authors: Hyeondal Jeong, Yoonjung Baek

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This research examines the effects of positive psychological capital (or PsyCap) on employee’s outcomes (satisfaction, commitment, organizational citizenship behavior, innovation behavior and individual creativity). This study conducted a meta-analysis of articles published in the Republic of Korea. As a result, positive psychological capital has a positive effect on the behavior of employees. Heterogeneity was identified among the studies included in the analysis and the context factors were analyzed; the study proposes contextual factors such as team tenure. The moderating effect of team tenure was not statistically significant. The implications were discussed based on the analysis results.

Keywords: positive psychological capital , satisfaction, commitment, OCB, creativity, meta-analysis

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91 Detecting Model Financial Statement Fraud by Auditor Industry Specialization with Fraud Triangle Analysis

Authors: Reskino Resky

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This research purposes to create a model to detecting financial statement fraud. This research examines the variable of fraud triangle and auditor industry specialization with financial statement fraud. This research used sample of company which is listed in Indonesian Stock Exchange that have sanctions and cases by Financial Services Authority in 2011-2013. The number of company that were became in this research were 30 fraud company and 30 non-fraud company. The method of determining the sample is by using purposive sampling method with judgement sampling, while the data processing methods used by researcher are mann-whitney u and discriminants analysis. This research have two from five variable that can be process with discriminant analysis. The result shows the financial targets can be detect financial statement fraud, while financial stability can’t be detect financial statement fraud.

Keywords: fraud triangle analysis, financial targets, financial stability, auditor industry specialization, financial statement fraud

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90 An Exploration of the Provision of Government-Subsidised Housing without Title Deeds: A Recipient’s Interpretation of Security of Tenure

Authors: Maléne Maria Magdalena Campbell, Jeremiah Mholo

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Low-income households earning less than 3,500 ZAR (about 175 GBP) per month can apply to the South African government, through the National Housing Subsidy, for fully subsidised houses. An objective of this subsidy is to enable low-income households’ participation in the formal housing market; however, the beneficiaries received houses without title deeds. As such, if the beneficiaries did not have a secured tenure at the time of their death then surviving family may face possible eviction. Therefore, an aim of this research was to determine how these beneficiaries interpret tenure security. The research focused on government subsidised housing in the Dithlake settlement of a rural hamlet named Koffiefontein, in the Letsemeng Local Municipality of South Africa. Quantitative data on the beneficiaries were collected from the local municipality, while qualitative data were collected from a sample of 45 beneficiaries.

Keywords: low-income families, subsidised housing, titling, housing market

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89 Linking Access to Land, Tenure Security with Food Sufficiency of Tenants/Landless or Small Holder Farmers of Parsa District

Authors: Subesh Panta

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The land is a one of the major boosting factors of production for the agricultural country like Nepal where access to land has been a major source of livelihood of tenants and small farmers. But there is an absence of secure land tenure arrangement which drastically affect the overall production of farmers leading towards food insecurity. Sharecropping is practiced in Nepal especially in tarai region from early period, but there is the gap in the academic study whether the sharecropping has benefitted tenant farmers and make them food sufficient or not. This study attempts to find out the food sufficiency among the tenant households. The research was carried in the three VDCs of Parsa district -Paterwa (Sugauli), Jitpur and Nirchuta. A total of 111 households were determined as the sample size from each of the three VDCs was randomly visited for interview in the study. The size of land rent-in was found to be very small and fragmented. At the same time, the land tenure security was not found to be secured among the tenants. Due to lack of land tenure security, on one hand tenants and small farmers were not found to be motivated to investment in agriculture as they need to share fifty percent of their production with the land owners, and on other hand land owners were also not interested in investing as they have other alternative sources of livelihood rather than agriculture. In conclusion, the study highpoint that the crop production and food sufficiency level of the tenants’ farmers of the Parsa district are decreasing. Many tenants’ farmers are seeking alternative opportunities for livelihood rather than sharecropping due to insecure land tenure, feudalistic practice, lack of storage for agriculture production, lack of proper agro-market. The situation is such that, if no action is taken timely, there may be a situation that we will have to depend on imports for all the food requirements. Thus, the study discloses that the sharecropping could act as catalyst for ensuring food sufficiency for all, if proper land tenure police are promoted to tenants/small farmers with legal titles to their land or promoted with sustainable agriculture methods.

Keywords: agriculture, food sufficiency, land, tenant farmes

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88 Auditor with the Javanese Characters: Revealing the Relationship towards Its Client

Authors: Krisna Damayanti

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Negative issue about the relationship between auditors and clients often heard. It arises in view of the rise of a variety of phenomena resulting from the audit practice of greed and do not appreciate the independence of the audit profession and professional code of ethics. It is a logical consequence of the practice of capitalism in accounting. The purpose of this paper would like to uncover the existing auditing practices in Indonesia, especially Java, which is associated with a strong influence of Javanese culture with reluctant/"shy", politely, "legowo", "ngemong" friendly, "not mentholo", "tepo seliro", "ngajeni", "acquiescent". The method used by interpretive approach that emphasizes the role of language, interpret and understand and see social reality as something other than a label, name or concept. Auditing practices in each country has a culture that will affect the standard set by those regulatory standards although there has been an adaptation of IAS. In Indonesia the majority of parties dominated by Javanesse racial regulators, so Java culture is embedded in every audit practices thus conditions in Java requires auditors to behave like that, sometimes interfere with standard Java code of conduct that must be executed by an auditor. Auditors who live in Java have the characters of Javanese culture that is hard to avoid in the audit practice. However, in practice, the auditor still are relevant in their profession.

Keywords: auditors, java, character, profession, code of ethics, client

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87 The Truism of the True and Fair View of Auditor’s Report

Authors: Ofuan James Ilaboya, Okhae J. Ibhadode

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The objective of this paper is to theoretically examine the truism of the “true and fair view” in the context of financial reporting. The paper examines the concepts such as true, fair, true and fair view, problems of true and fair view, the origin/history of true and fair view, review of attributes and key issues relating to true and fair view. The methodological approach adopted in this paper is library-based research, focusing on the review of relevant and related extant literature. The findings based on the review of relevant and related literature is suggestive of the fact that the true and fair concept in financial reporting environment is contentious. The study concludes that given the circumstances as chronicled on this paper, it is evident that the truism of the true and fair view of the auditor’s opinion is under serious threat. The way forward may be for the auditor to certify the accuracy and the correctness of the financial statement. While this position being canvassed here may help to substantially bridge the age-long expectation gap, it may as well require an upward review of the current audit fee structure in order to be able to operationalize the onerous task of certifying the accuracy and correctness of the financial statement. This position is contentious and will require a robust consideration which is not within the purview of the present review.

Keywords: fiduciary duty, financial statement, true and correct, true and fair

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86 The Communication of Audit Report: Key Audit Matters in United Kingdom

Authors: L. Sierra, N. Gambetta, M. A. Garcia-Benau, M. Orta

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Financial scandals and financial crisis have led to an international debate on the value of auditing. In recent years there have been significant legislative reforms aiming to increase markets’ confidence in audit services. In particular, there has been a significant debate on the need to improve the communication of auditors with audit reports users as a way to improve its informative value and thus, to improve audit quality. The International Auditing and Assurance Standards Board (IAASB) has proposed changes to the audit report standards. The International Standard on Auditing 701, Communicating Key Audit Matters (KAM) in the Independent Auditor's Report, has introduced new concepts that go beyond the auditor's opinion and requires to disclose the risks that, from the auditor's point of view, are more significant in the audited company information. Focusing on the companies included in the Financial Times Stock Exchange 100 index, this study aims to focus on the analysis of the determinants of the number of KAM disclosed by the auditor in the audit report and moreover, the analysis of the determinants of the different type of KAM reported during the period 2013-2015. To test the hypotheses in the empirical research, two different models have been used. The first one is a linear regression model to identify the client’s characteristics, industry sector and auditor’s characteristics that are related to the number of KAM disclosed in the audit report. Secondly, a logistic regression model is used to identify the determinants of the number of each KAM type disclosed in the audit report; in line with the risk-based approach to auditing financial statements, we categorized the KAM in 2 groups: Entity-level KAM and Accounting-level KAM. Regarding the auditor’s characteristics impact on the KAM disclosure, the results show that PwC tends to report a larger number of KAM while KPMG tends to report less KAM in the audit report. Further, PwC reports a larger number of entity-level risk KAM while KPMG reports less account-level risk KAM. The results also show that companies paying higher fees tend to have more entity-level risk KAM and less account-level risk KAM. The materiality level is positively related to the number of account-level risk KAM. Additionally, these study results show that the relationship between client’s characteristics and number of KAM is more evident in account-level risk KAM than in entity-level risk KAM. A highly leveraged company carries a great deal of risk, but due to this, they are usually subject to strong capital providers monitoring resulting in less account-level risk KAM. The results reveal that the number of account-level risk KAM is strongly related to the industry sector in which the company operates assets. This study helps to understand the UK audit market, provides information to auditors and finally, it opens new research avenues in the academia.

Keywords: FTSE 100, IAS 701, key audit matters, auditor’s characteristics, client’s characteristics

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85 Employment Mobility and the Effects of Wage Level and Tenure

Authors: Idit Kalisher, Israel Luski

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One result of the growing dynamicity of labor markets in recent decades is a wider scope of employment mobility – i.e., transitions between employers, either within or between careers. Employment mobility decisions are primarily affected by the current employment status of the worker, which is reflected in wage and tenure. Using 34,328 observations from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLS79), which were derived from the USA population between 1990 and 2012, this paper aims to investigate the effects of wage and tenure over employment mobility choices, and additionally to examine the effects of other personal characteristics, individual labor market characteristics and macroeconomic factors. The estimation strategy was designed to address two challenges that arise from the combination of the model and the data: (a) endogeneity of the wage and the tenure in the choice equation; and (b) unobserved heterogeneity, as the data of this research is longitudinal. To address (a), estimation was performed using two-stage limited dependent variable procedure (2SLDV); and to address (b), the second stage was estimated using femlogit – an implementation of the multinomial logit model with fixed effects. Among workers who have experienced at least one turnover, the wage was found to have a main effect on career turnover likelihood of all workers, whereas the wage effect on job turnover likelihood was found to be dependent on individual characteristics. The wage was found to negatively affect the turnover likelihood and the effect was found to vary across wage level: high-wage workers were more affected compared to low-wage workers. Tenure was found to have a main positive effect on both turnover types’ likelihoods, though the effect was moderated by the wage. The findings also reveal that as their wage increases, women are more likely to turnover than men, and academically educated workers are more likely to turnover within careers. Minorities were found to be as likely as Caucasians to turnover post wage-increase, but less likely to turnover with each additional tenure year. The wage and the tenure effects were found to vary also between careers. The difference in attitude towards money, labor market opportunities and risk aversion could explain these findings. Additionally, the likelihood of a turnover was found to be affected by previous unemployment spells, age, and other labor market and personal characteristics. The results of this research could assist policymakers as well as business owners and employers. The former may be able to encourage women and older workers’ employment by considering the effects of gender and age on the probability of a turnover, and the latter may be able to assess their employees’ likelihood of a turnover by considering the effects of their personal characteristics.

Keywords: employment mobility, endogeneity, femlogit, turnover

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84 Trends and Inequalities in Distance to and Use of Nearest Natural Space in the Context of the 20-Minute Neighbourhood: A 4-Wave National Repeat Crosssectional Study, 2013 to 2019

Authors: Jonathan R Olsen, Natalie Nicholls, Jenna Panter, Hannah Burnett, Michael Tornow, Richard Mitchell

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The 20-minute neighborhood is a policy priority for governments worldwide and a key feature of this policy is providing access to natural space within 800 meters of home. The study aims were to (1) examine the association between distance to nearest natural space and frequent use over time and (2) examine whether frequent use and changes in use were patterned by income and housing tenure over time. Bi-annual Scottish Household Survey data were obtained for 2013 to 2019 (n:42128 aged 16+). Adults were asked the walking distance to their nearest natural space, the frequency of visits to this space and their housing tenure, as well as age, sex and income. We examined the association between distance from home of nearest natural space, housing tenure, and the likelihood of frequent natural space use (visited once a week or more). Two-way interaction terms were further applied to explore variation in the association between tenure and frequent natural space use over time. We found that 87% of respondents lived within 10 minute walk of a natural space, meeting the policy specification for a 20-minute neighbourhood. Greater proximity to natural space was associated with increased use; individuals living a 6 to 10 minute walk and over 10 minute walk were respectively 53% and 78% less likely to report frequent natural space use than those living within a 5 minute walk. Housing tenure was an important predictor of frequent natural space use; private renters and homeowners were more likely to report frequent natural space use than social renters. Our findings provide evidence that proximity to natural space is a strong predictor of frequent use. Our study provides important evidence that time-based access measures alone do not consider deep-rooted socioeconomic variation in use of Natural space. Policy makers should ensure a nuanced lens is applied to operationalising and monitoring the 20-minute neighbourhood to safeguard against exacerbating existing inequalities.

Keywords: natural space, housing, inequalities, 20-minute neighbourhood, urban design

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83 The Effect of Critical Audit Matters on Financial Information Quality: The Role of Audit Committee Expertise

Authors: Khawla Hlel

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Purpose: This study aims to examine whether critical audit matters (CAM) affect financial information quality. We also investigate the moderating role of the audit committee on the association between CAM and financial information quality. Design/Methodology/Approach: The analysis is based on GLS and GMM regressions explaining the absolute value of discretionary accruals by using 52 Tunisian listed firms on the Tunisia Stock Exchange (TSE) for the period 2017-2020. Findings: We find evidence that managers react to the CAM by increasing the quality of financial disclosures. This study provides insights into how a change in the auditor’s report model might impact the quality of financial information. It suggests that external auditors and audit committees serve as a beneficial mechanism for enhancing financial information quality by reducing information asymmetry. In addition, our results indicate that CAM is an efficient monitoring mechanism that increases financial reporting quality and supervises managers. Originality: This study is important for potential investors who should assess CAM when evaluating firms. Furthermore, the authors expect the findings to be interesting to firms, as this study highlights the effectiveness of the auditor in reducing managerial opportunistic behavior and improving information quality. The results could encourage audit regulators to ameliorate the standards, as this research reinforces the role of the auditor in increasing the quality of financial disclosure by offering the required information for shareholders.

Keywords: critical audit matters, audit committee, information quality, Tunisian firms

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82 Effects of Audit Quality and Corporate Governance on Earnings Management of Quoted Deposit Money Banks in Nigeria

Authors: Joel S. Akintayo, Ramat T. Salman

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The stakeholders’ pressure on corporate managers to maintain firm’s profitability has created economic incentives for management to engage in earnings management practices. Therefore, this study examines the effects of audit quality and corporate governance on earnings management of quoted deposit money banks (DMBs) in Nigeria. This study specifically investigates the influence of audit tenure, audit fee, board independence, and board size on earnings management of DMBs. Explanatory research design was employed in carrying out the study while secondary data were sourced from the annual reports and accounts of all the 15 quoted DMBs in Nigerian Stock Exchange as at December 31, 2015 for a period of 10 years covering from 2006 to 2015. The data obtained for the study were analyzed using panel regression analysis approach. The findings reveal that board independence has a negative significant effect on earnings management at a 5% level of significance (p=0.002), while audit fee has a positive significant effect on earnings management at a 5% level of significance (p=0.013) and audit tenure has a negative significant effect on earnings management of DMBs at a 5% level of significance (p=0.003). Surprisingly, board size was statistically not significant at a 5% level of significance (p=0.086). The study concludes that high audit quality and sound corporate governance could improve the earnings quality of DMBs. Hence, the study recommends that the authorities saddled with the responsibility of banking supervision in Nigeria such the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) and CBN to advise the National Assembly in Nigeria to pass into law the three years professional requirement for audit tenure.

Keywords: audit quality, audit tenure, audit fee, board independence, corporate governance, earnings management

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81 Land, History and Housing: Colonial Legacies and Land Tenure in Kuala Lumpur

Authors: Nur Fareza Mustapha

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Solutions to policy problems need to be curated to the local context, taking into account the trajectory of the local development path to ensure its efficacy. For Kuala Lumpur, rapid urbanization and migration into the city for the past few decades have increased the demand for housing to accommodate a growing urban population. As a critical factor affecting housing affordability, land supply constraints have been attributed to intensifying market pressures, which grew in tandem with the demands of urban development, along with existing institutional constraints in the governance of land. While demand-side pressures are inevitable given the fixed supply of land, supply-side constraints in regulations distort markets and if addressed inappropriately, may lead to mistargeted policy interventions. Given Malaysia’s historical development, regulatory barriers for land may originate from the British colonial period, when many aspects of the current laws governing tenure were introduced and formalized, and henceforth, became engrained in the system. This research undertakes a postcolonial institutional analysis approach to uncover the causal mechanism driving the evolution of land tenure systems in post-colonial Kuala Lumpur. It seeks to determine the sources of these shifts, focusing on the incentives and bargaining positions of actors during periods of institutional flux/change. It aims to construct a conceptual framework to further this understanding and to elucidate how this historical trajectory affects current access to urban land markets for housing. Archival analysis is used to outline and analyse the evolution of land tenure systems in Kuala Lumpur while stakeholder interviews are used to analyse its impact on the current urban land market, with a particular focus on the provision of and access to affordable housing in the city. Preliminary findings indicate that many aspects of the laws governing tenure that were introduced and formalized during the British colonial period have endured until the present day. Customary rules of tenure were displaced by rules following a European tradition, which found legitimacy through a misguided interpretation of local laws regarding the ownership of land. Colonial notions of race and its binary view of native vs. non-natives have also persisted in the construction and implementation of current legislation regarding land tenure. More concrete findings from this study will generate a more nuanced understanding of the regulatory land supply constraints in Kuala Lumpur, taking into account both the long and short term spatial and temporal processes that affect how these rules are created, implemented and enforced.

Keywords: colonial discourse, historical institutionalism, housing, land policy, post-colonial city

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80 Directors’ Compensation: Analyzing the Multilevel Factors That Exert the Greatest Influence

Authors: Isabel Acero, Nuria Alcalde

Abstract:

The economic crisis and notorious corporate scandals have caused social indignation and sparked the debate concerning the underlying rationality of the compensation that directors receive. In this context, this study examines the determinants of the remuneration of directors in listed Spanish companies using individualized data. A multilevel methodology appropriate for this type of data has been used that allows us to differentiate between inter-company variations and intra-company variations. The results show that company size is the variable (at the company level) that exerts the greatest influence on the level of director´s compensation. One surprising finding is that the presence of independent directors on the board has a positive influence on remuneration. At the individual level, tenure and experience have a significant influence on the level of compensation, while the director´s level of education does not appear to have an effect on it.

Keywords: board of directors, compensation, experience, multilevel, tenure

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79 Impact of Organizational and Individual Antecedents on Employees Empowerment in Nigeria's Hospitality

Authors: Olubunmi Kolawole

Abstract:

This study explored how certain organizational antecedents like work environment, and individual antecedents (e.g. job level and tenure) could affect employees empowerment in the hospitality industry. A total of 200 valid responses from a survey conducted in 10 hotels in Lagos Nigeria were received. Data were analyzed using frequency distribution and percentage analysis. Findings suggest that leadership, work environment, as well as tenure and level in the organization are reliable predictors of employees empowerment in Nigeria's hotel sector. Empowerment is a major factor which determines how employees feel about themselves and their jobs. The study concluded that organizations need to learn that an empowered employee will put in superior performance which would positively impact on the organization.

Keywords: employee empowerment, hospitality industry, individual-level antecedents, leadership, organizational antecedents

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78 Tax Avoidance During The Financial Crisis: Role Of Independent Commissioners And External Auditors

Authors: Yasir Ramadhan

Abstract:

This study aims to investigate tax avoidance practices when a financial crisis occurs due to the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. This study also finds out how the influence of independent commissioners and external auditors on tax avoidance practices during the COVID-19 pandemic. Tax avoidance practices are measured by the current ETR. The role of the independent board of commissioners is measured by the proportion of independent commissioners in the composition of the board of commissioners, while the external auditor is measured by audit quality. In this study, there were 342 observations of companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange from 2019 to 2020. This study used the difference-in-differences (DiD) method in data analysis. The results of this study indicate that companies do tax avoidance during the COVID-19 pandemic. Meanwhile, independent commissioners and qualified audits are not proven to be able to negate tax avoidance practices during the COVID-19 Pandemic. These results also show that a higher proportion of independent commissioners and audit quality are not sufficient for countries with low levels of auditor litigation and investor protection and weak regulatory frameworks.

Keywords: audit, commissioner, tax avoidance, COVID-19 pandemic

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77 Legal Pluralism and Land Administration in West Sumatra: The Implementation of the Regulations of Both Local and Nagari Governments on Communal Land Tenure

Authors: Hilaire Tegnan

Abstract:

Land administration has always been a delicate issue in the history of nations, and Indonesia, a country where a significant number of the population lives a pastoral life is not exempt from this reality. This paper discusses land tenure issues in West Sumatra, an Indonesian province which is home to the Minangkabau people with their long existing village management system known as Nagari, established to settle disputes based on adat (custom) principles as well as to protect the rights of the community members. These rights include communal land (referred to as tanahulayat hereafter). Long before the Dutch occupation of Indonesian archipelago, the nagari government was vested with powers to regulate communal land in West Sumatra. However, this authority was constantly overlooked by the then Dutch colonial administration as well as the post-independence governments (both central and regional). To reinforce the Nagari government as the guardian of the customary law (hukumadat) and to specify its jurisdiction, the Regional Government of West Sumatra enacted two laws between 2000 and 2008: Law No. 9/2000 repealed by Law No. 2/2007 and Law No. 6/2008 on communal land tenure. Although these two laws provide legal grounds to address land issues across the region, land conflicts still prevail among West Sumatran populations due to unsynchronized and contradictory regulations. The protests against the army (Korem) in Nagari Kapalo Hilalang, against the oil palm company in Nagari Kinali, and against a cement factory in Nagari Lubuk Kilangan are cited in this paper as case references.

Keywords: local government, Nagari government, Tanah Ulayat, legal pluralism, land administration

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76 The Determinants of Enterprise Risk Management: Literature Review, and Future Research

Authors: Sylvester S. Horvey, Jones Mensah

Abstract:

The growing complexities and dynamics in the business environment have led to a new approach to risk management, known as enterprise risk management (ERM). ERM is a system and an approach to managing the risks of an organization in an integrated manner to achieve the corporate goals and strategic objectives. Regardless of the diversities in the business environment, ERM has become an essential factor in managing individual and business risks because ERM is believed to enhance shareholder value and firm growth. Despite the growing number of literature on ERM, the question about what factors drives ERM remains limited. This study provides a comprehensive literature review of the main factors that contribute to ERM implementation. Google Scholar was the leading search engine used to identify empirical literature, and the review spanned between 2000 and 2020. Articles published in Scimago journal ranking and Scopus were examined. Thirteen firm characteristics and sixteen articles were considered for the empirical review. Most empirical studies agreed that firm size, institutional ownership, industry type, auditor type, industrial diversification, earnings volatility, stock price volatility, and internal auditor had a positive relationship with ERM adoption, whereas firm size, institutional ownership, auditor type, and type of industry were mostly seen be statistically significant. Other factors such as financial leverage, profitability, asset opacity, international diversification, and firm complexity revealed an inconclusive result. The growing literature on ERM is not without limitations; hence, this study suggests that further research should examine ERM determinants within a new geographical context while considering a new and robust way of measuring ERM rather than relying on a simple proxy (dummy) for ERM measurement. Other firm characteristics such as organizational culture and context, corporate scandals and losses, and governance could be considered determinants of ERM adoption.

Keywords: enterprise risk management, determinants, ERM adoption, literature review

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75 CyberSecurity Malaysia: Towards Becoming a National Certification Body for Information Security Management Systems Internal Auditors

Authors: M. S. Razana, Z. W. Shafiuddin

Abstract:

Internal auditing is one of the most important activities for organizations that implement information security management systems (ISMS). The purpose of internal audits is to ensure the ISMS implementation is in accordance to the ISO/IEC 27001 standard and the organization’s own requirements for its ISMS. Competent internal auditors are the main element that contributes to the effectiveness of internal auditing activities. To realize this need, CyberSecurity Malaysia is now in the process of becoming a certification body that certifies ISMS internal auditors. The certification scheme will assess the competence of internal auditors in generic knowledge and skills in management systems, and also in ISMS-specific knowledge and skills. The certification assessment is based on the ISO/IEC 19011 Guidelines for auditing management systems, ISO/IEC 27007 Guidelines for information security management systems auditing and ISO/IEC 27001 Information security management systems requirements. The certification scheme complies with the ISO/IEC 17024 General requirements for bodies operating certification systems of persons. Candidates who pass the exam will be certified as an ISMS Internal Auditor, whose competency will be evaluated every three years.

Keywords: ISMS internal audit, ISMS internal auditor, ISO/IEC 17024, competence, certification

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74 Measuring Audit Quality Using Text Analysis: An Empirical Study of Indian Companies

Authors: Leesa Mohanty, Ashok Banerjee

Abstract:

Better audit quality signifies the financial statements of the auditee firm reflect true and fair view of their actual state of affairs, which reduces information asymmetry between management and shareholders, as a result, helps protect interests of shareholders. This study examines the impact of joint audit on audit quality. It is motivated by the ongoing debate where The Institute of Chartered Accountants of India (ICAI), the regulatory body governing auditors, has advocated the finance ministry and the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) for the mandatory use of joint audit in private banks to enhance the quality of audit. Earlier, the Government of India had rejected the plea by ICAI for mandatory joint audits in large companies stating it is not a viable option for promoting domestic firms. We introduce a new measure of audit quality. Drawing from the domain of text analytics, we use relevant phrases in audit reports to gauge audit quality and demonstrate that joint audit improves audit quality. We also, for robustness, use prevalent proxy for audit quality (Big N Auditor, ratio of audit fees to total fees) and find negative effect of joint audit on audit quality. We, therefore highlight that different proxy for audit quality show opposite effect of joint audit.

Keywords: audit fees, audit quality, Big N. Auditor, joint audit

Procedia PDF Downloads 221