Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 582

Search results for: audit committee

582 The Impact of Audit Committee Industry Expertise on Internal Audit Function

Authors: Abdulaziz Alzeban

Abstract:

This study examines whether internal audit function is indeed greater when audit committee members have industry expertise combined with auditing expertise. Data from a survey of 64 chief internal auditors from companies registered on the Saudi Stock Exchange TADAWL, provides results that suggest that when audit committee members possess both industry expertise and auditing expertise, the committee’s role in improving the quality of internal audit is enhanced. This outcome is concluded as one that can be generalized beyond the Saudi Arabian context.

Keywords: internal audit, audit committee, industry expertise, function

Procedia PDF Downloads 251
581 The Role and Effectiveness of Audit Committee in Corporate Governance of Credit Institutions

Authors: Tina Vuko, Marija Maretić, Marko Čular

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to analyze the role and effectiveness of internal mechanism (audit committee) of corporate governance on credit institutions performance in Croatia. Based on research objective, sample of 78 credit institutions listed on Zagreb Stock Exchange, from 2007 to 2012, has been collected and efficiency index of audit committee (EIAC) has been created. Based on the sample and created EIAC, conclusions are as follows: audit committees of credit institutions have medium efficiency, based on EIAC measurement; there is a significant difference in audit committee effectiveness, in observed period; there is no positive relationship between audit committee effectiveness and credit institution performance; there is a significant difference between level of audit committee effectiveness and audit firm type. Future research should contain increased number of elements in EIAC creation and increased sample, for all obligators who need to establish audit committee.

Keywords: corporate governance, audit committee, financial institutions, efficiency index of audit committee

Procedia PDF Downloads 202
580 Audit Committee Financial Expertise and Financial Reporting Timeliness in Emerging Market: The Role of Audit Committee Chair

Authors: Saeed Rabea Baatwah, Zalailah Salleh, Norsiah Ahmad

Abstract:

This study examines whether audit committee chair with financial expertise enhances the audit committee role in financial reporting quality in emerging market. We investigate this influence by employing the direct effect and moderating effect of audit committee chair with financial expertise on financial reporting timeliness. By using Omani data and the panel data method for two proxies for financial reporting timeliness, we find that audit committee chair with financial expertise enhances the timeliness of financial reporting through making the disclosure of annual reports timely. Further, we report evidence showing that both accounting and non-accounting financial expertise on the audit committee have a positive and significant influence on the timeliness of financial reporting. We also document that the association between financial expertise and the timeliness of financial reporting is more pronounced when the chair of the audit committee has financial expertise. This study is among the first to comprehensively prove that audit committee chair with financial expertise contributes to the quality of financial reporting in emerging market.

Keywords: audit committee, chair with financial expertise, timeliness of financial reporting, Oman

Procedia PDF Downloads 143
579 Impact of Audit Committee on Real Earnings Management: Cases of Netherlands

Authors: Sana Masmoudi Mardassi, Yosra Makni Fourati

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Regulators highlight the importance of the Audit Committee (AC) as a key internal corporate governance mechanism. One of the most important roles of this committee is to oversee the financial reporting process. The purpose of this paper is to examine the link between the characteristics of an audit committee and the financial reporting quality by investigating whether the characteristics of audit committees are associated with improved financial reporting quality, especially the Real Earnings Management. In the current study, a panel data from 80 nonfinancial companies listed on the Amsterdam Stock Exchange during the period between 2010 and 2017 were used. To measure audit committee characteristics, four proxies have been used, specifically, audit committee independence, financial expertise, gender diversity and AC meetings. For this research, a linear regression model was used to identify the influence of a set of board characteristics of the audit committee on real earnings management after controlling for firm audit committee size, leverage, size, loss, growth and board size. This research provides empirical evidence of the association between audit committee independence, financial expertise, gender diversity and meetings and Real Earnings Management (REM) as a proxy of financial reporting quality. The study finds that independence and AC Gender diversity are strongly related to financial reporting quality. In fact, these two characteristics constrain REM. The results also suggest that AC- financial expertise reduces to some extent, the likelihood of engaging in REM. These conclusions provide support then to the audit committee requirement under the Dutch Corporate Governance Code rules regarding gender diversity and AC meetings.

Keywords: audit committee, financial expertise, independence, real earnings management

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
578 The Impact of Audit Committee on Real Earnings Management: Evidence from Netherlands

Authors: Sana Masmoudi, Yosra Makni

Abstract:

Regulators highlight the importance of the Audit Committee (AC) as a key internal corporate governance mechanism. One of the most important roles of this committee is to oversee the financial reporting process. The purpose of this paper is to examine the link between the characteristics of an audit committee and the financial reporting quality by investigating whether the formation of audit committees and their characteristics are associated with improved financial reporting quality. This study provides empirical evidence of the association between audit committee independence, financial expertise, gender diversity, and meetings and Real Earnings Management (REM) as a proxy of financial reporting quality. Using data from, with a sample of 80 companies listed on the Amsterdam Stock Exchange during 2010-2017, the study finds that independence and AC Gender diversity are strongly related to financial reporting quality. In fact, these two characteristics constrain REM. The results also suggest that AC-financial expertise reduces to some extent, the likelihood of engaging in REM. These conclusions provide support then to the audit committee requirement under the Dutch Corporate Governance Code rules regarding gender diversity and AC meetings.

Keywords: audit committee, financial expertise, independence, real earnings management

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577 Audit Committee Characteristics and Earnings Quality of Listed Food and Beverages Firms in Nigeria

Authors: Hussaini Bala

Abstract:

There are different opinions in the literature on the relationship between Audit Committee characteristics and earnings management. The mix of opinions makes the direction of their relationship ambiguous. This study investigated the relationship between Audit Committee characteristics and earnings management of listed food and beverages Firms in Nigeria. The study covered the period of six years from 2007 to 2012. Data for the study were extracted from the Firms’ annual reports and accounts. After running the OLS regression, a robustness test was conducted for the validity of statistical inferences. The dependent variable was generated using two steps regression in order to determine the discretionary accrual of the sample Firms. Multiple regression was employed to run the data of the study using Random Model. The results from the analysis revealed a significant association between audit committee characteristics and earnings management of the Firms. While audit committee size and committees’ financial expertise showed an inverse relationship with earnings management, committee’s independence, and frequency of meetings are positively and significantly related to earnings management. In line with the findings, the study recommended among others that listed food and beverages Firms in Nigeria should strictly comply with the provision of Companies and Allied Matters Act (CAMA) and SEC Code of Corporate Governance on the issues regarding Audit Committees. Regulators such as SEC should increase the minimum number of Audit Committee members with financial expertise and also have a statutory position on the maximum number of Audit Committees meetings, which should not be greater than four meetings in a year as SEC code of corporate governance is silent on this.

Keywords: audit committee, earnings management, listed Food and beverages size, leverage, Nigeria

Procedia PDF Downloads 151
576 Corporate Governance and Audit Report Lag: The Case of Tunisian Listed Companies

Authors: Lajmi Azhaar, Yab Mdallelah

Abstract:

This study examines the Tunisian market in which recent events, notably financial scandals, provide an appropriate framework for studying the impact of corporate governance on the audit report lag. Moreover, very little research has been done to examine this relationship in this context. The objective of this work is, therefore, to understand the factors influencing audit report lag, drawing primarily on agency theory (Jensen and Meckling, 1976), which shows that the characteristics of the board of directors have an impact on the report lag (independence, diligence, and size). In addition, the characteristics of the committee also have an impact on the audit report lag (size, independence, diligence, and expertise). Therefore, our research provides empirical evidence on the impact of governance mechanisms attributes on audit report lag. Using a sample of forty-seven (47) Tunisian companies listed on the Tunis Stock Exchange (BVMT) during the period from 2014 to 2019, and basing on the GMM method of the dynamic panel, multivariate analysis shows that most corporate governance attributes have a significant effect on audit report lag. Specifically, the audit committee diligence and the audit committee expertise have a significant and positive effect on audit report lag. But the diligence of the board has a significant and negative effect on audit report lag. However, this study finds no evidence that the audit committee independence, the size, independence, and diligence of the director’s board are associated with the audit report lag. In addition, the results of this study also show that there is a significant effect of some control variables. Finally, we are contributing to this study by using the GMM method of the dynamic panel. We are also using an emerging context that is very poorly developed and exploited by previous studies.

Keywords: governance mechanisms, audit committee, board of directors, audit report lag

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575 Exploring Corporate Governance Structure in Gulf Cooperation Council Countries

Authors: Zahra A. Al Nasser, Domenico Campa

Abstract:

This paper investigates board of directors and firms’ ownership structure on non-financial companies listed in Gulf Cooperation council (GCC) countries using data from 2009 to 2013. The overall result of the study is that board size and board meeting have increased over years. Additionally, all combined committee variables have improved as well as audit committee size, audit committee meeting and audit committee experience have improved over the years. Furthermore, Oman is the only country that has not shown any statistically significant change in value of its associated variables.

Keywords: corporate governance, GCC countries, board of directors, ownership structure

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574 Impact of Audit Committee on Earning Quality of Listed Consumer Goods Companies in Nigeria

Authors: Usman Yakubu, Muktar Haruna

Abstract:

The paper examines the impact of the audit committee on the earning quality of the listed consumer goods sector in Nigeria. The study used data collected from annual reports and accounts of the 13 sampled companies for the periods 2007 to 2018. Data were analyzed by means of descriptive statistics to provide summary statistics for the variables; also, correlation analysis was carried out using the Pearson correlation technique for the correlation between the dependent and independent variables. Regression was employed using the Generalized Least Square technique since the data has both time series and cross sectional attributes (panel data). It was found out that the audit committee had a positive and significant influence on the earning quality in the listed consumer goods companies in Nigeria. Thus, the study recommends that competency and personal integrity should be the worthwhile attributes to be considered while constituting the committee; this could enhance the quality of accounting information. In addition to that majority of the committee members should be independent directors in order to allow a high level of independency to be exercised.

Keywords: earning quality, corporate governance, audit committee, financial reporting

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573 Board Characteristics, Audit Committee Characteristics, and the Level of Bahraini Corporate Compliance with Mandatory IFRS Disclosure Requirements

Authors: Omar Juhmani

Abstract:

This paper examines the relation between internal corporate governance and the level of corporate compliance with mandatory IFRS disclosure requirements. The internal corporate governance is measured by board and audit committee characteristics. Using data from Bahrain Stock Exchange, the results show that board independence is positively and significantly associated with level of compliance with IFRS disclosure requirements. This suggests that internal corporate governance mechanisms are effective in the financial reporting practices by increasing the level of compliance with IFRS disclosures. Also, the results of the regression analyses indicate that two of the control variables; company size and audit firm size are significantly positively associated with the level of corporate compliance with mandatory IFRS disclosure requirements in Bahrain.

Keywords: Bahrain, board and audit committee characteristics, compliance, disclosure, IFRS

Procedia PDF Downloads 317
572 Disclosure on Adherence of the King Code's Audit Committee Guidance: Cluster Analyses to Determine Strengths and Weaknesses

Authors: Philna Coetzee, Clara Msiza

Abstract:

In modern society, audit committees are seen as the custodians of accountability and the conscience of management and the board. But who holds the audit committee accountable for their actions or non-actions and how do we know what they are supposed to be doing and what they are doing? The purpose of this article is to provide greater insight into the latter part of this problem, namely, determine what best practises for audit committees and the disclosure of what is the realities are. In countries where governance is well established, the roles and responsibilities of the audit committee are mostly clearly guided by legislation and/or guidance documents, with countries increasingly providing guidance on this topic. With high cost involved to adhere to governance guidelines, the public (for public organisations) and shareholders (for private organisations) expect to see the value of their ‘investment’. For audit committees, the dividends on the investment should reflect in less fraudulent activities, less corruption, higher efficiency and effectiveness, improved social and environmental impact, and increased profits, to name a few. If this is not the case (which is reflected in the number of fraudulent activities in both the private and the public sector), stakeholders have the right to ask: where was the audit committee? Therefore, the objective of this article is to contribute to the body of knowledge by comparing the adherence of audit committee to best practices guidelines as stipulated in the King Report across public listed companies, national and provincial government departments, state-owned enterprises and local municipalities. After constructs were formed, based on the literature, factor analyses were conducted to reduce the number of variables in each construct. Thereafter, cluster analyses, which is an explorative analysis technique that classifies a set of objects in such a way that objects that are more similar are grouped into the same group, were conducted. The SPSS TwoStep Clustering Component was used, being capable of handling both continuous and categorical variables. In the first step, a pre-clustering procedure clusters the objects into small sub-clusters, after which it clusters these sub-clusters into the desired number of clusters. The cluster analyses were conducted for each construct and the measure, namely the audit opinion as listed in the external audit report, were included. Analysing 228 organisations' information, the results indicate that there is a clear distinction between the four spheres of business that has been included in the analyses, indicating certain strengths and certain weaknesses within each sphere. The results may provide the overseers of audit committees’ insight into where a specific sector’s strengths and weaknesses lie. Audit committee chairs will be able to improve the areas where their audit committee is lacking behind. The strengthening of audit committees should result in an improvement of the accountability of boards, leading to less fraud and corruption.

Keywords: audit committee disclosure, cluster analyses, governance best practices, strengths and weaknesses

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571 Corporate Governance Mechanisms, Whistle-Blowing Policy and Earnings Management Practices of Firms in Malaysia

Authors: Mujeeb Saif Mohsen Al-Absy, Ku Nor Izah Ku Ismail, Sitraselvi Chandren

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This study examines whether corporate governance (CG) mechanisms in firms that have a whistle-blowing policy (WHBLP) are more effective in constraining earnings management (EM), than those without. A sample of 288 Malaysian firms for the years 2013 to 2015, amounting to 864 firm-years were grouped into firms with and without WHBLP. Results show that for firms without WHBLP, the board chairman tenure would minimize EM activities. Meanwhile, for firms with WHBLP, board chairman independence, board chairman tenure, audit committee size, audit committee meeting and women in the audit committees are found to be associated with less EM activities. Further, it is found that ownership concentration and Big 4 auditing firms help to reduce EM activities in firms with WHBLP, while not in firms without WHBLP. Hence, functional and effective governance can be achieved by having a WHBLP, which is in line with agency and resource dependent theories. Therefore, this study suggests that firms should have a WHBLP in place, and policymakers should come up with enhanced criteria to strengthen the mechanisms of WHBLP.

Keywords: corporate governance, earnings management, whistle-blowing policy, audit committee, board of directors

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570 An Examination of Internal Control System, Executive Duality and Audit Alarm Committee of Listed Nigerian Companies

Authors: Mansur Lubabah Kwanbo

Abstract:

Existing literatures have demonstrated the importance of executive duality (ED) and audit committee (AC) in the financial growth of companies. To some extent this points to corporate governance mechanism aiming at addressing makers and implementers of company policies to be centered on promoting only company objectives. However, furthering organizational objectives needs an adequate structure of control to realize that. Recent development in the various industries in Nigeria have indicated the internal control system (ICS)has not been able to adequately address most of the activities that results in ills of sustaining growth for these industries. It is from this premise the study has as one of its objective to determine the extent to which ICS significantly relates to ED and AC in listed Nigerian corporation. Data were sourced from 308 financial statements and accounts of the corporations that made the sample of the study. Logistic regression aided the test of the hypothesis formulated for the study. Findings revealed a significant relationship between the study variables. The study concludes that the internal control system (ICS) is effective despite the bifurcation of executive duality (ED) and the presence of the Audit Committee (AC) to the extent of preventing ills that encourage lack of sustainability of company’s growth. Sustaining legitimate policies that translate into huge earnings, and create value to stake holders should be pursued.

Keywords: audit committee (AC), executive duality (ED), internal control system (ICS), Nigeria

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569 The Effect of Internal Auditing Function on the Quality of Financial Reporting: A Theoretical Framework

Authors: Hani Albogami

Abstract:

The internal audit function is considered as one of the internal corporate governance mechanisms that may have an impact on improving earnings quality by constraining earnings management. The internal audit function is also a unique corporate governance mechanism because internal auditors have more involvement with the day-to-day operations comparing to the audit committee, and also internal auditors audit their companies the whole year compared to the external auditor who audits only a certain time of the year. The relationships between internal audit function and earnings management can be understood by some theories. Therefore, this paper provides a theoretical background of the influence of the quality of internal audit function on earnings management. In particular, the agency theory, institutional theory, singling theory, and resource dependency theory are adapted by this paper to provide some understanding and analyses that can be a basis for future research to contribute to the corporate governance academic studies.

Keywords: internal audit, corporate governance, earnings management, accounting

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568 The Effects of the Corporate Governance on the Level of Internet Financial Reporting: Evidence from Turkish Companies

Authors: Raif Parlakkaya, Umran Kahraman, Huseyin Cetin

Abstract:

Internet financial reporting and corporate governance issues are in the focus of academic and professional studies due to their attributed importance by stakeholders of corporations. Major aim of this study is to reveal the relationship between internet financial reporting which is held as dependent variable and some indicators of corporate governance such as the ratio of managerial ownership, blockholder ownership, number of independent members in the board of directors, frequency of meetings by audit committee and education level of audit committee members which are held as independent variables. Main purpose is to reveal the effect of corporate governance on the voluntary efforts of Internet Financial reporting. The scope of the research is limited to the Turkish Corporations listed in Borsa Istanbul (Istanbul Stock Exchange) and findings which are generated by means of SPSS software are revealed in results section and interpreted in conclusions.

Keywords: audit committee, corporate governance, internet financial reporting, managerial ownership

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567 Financial Audit Planning: Its Importance in Kosovo Entrepreneurship

Authors: Shpetim Rezniqi

Abstract:

Over the years has increased, and increasingly has become necessary to make audit of financial statements. An auditor to perform an audit, should plan its audit in order to provide a high-quality audit and to be performed in an economic, efficient, effective and timely. This phase of the audit is also important stages of reach to the final goal of an audit to be professional and based in Kosovo and International Standards on Auditing. Always considering Kosovo as a new state and once out of war, where everything in its entrepreneurship started from the lowest stage of economic development and aim at development and regional and European integration, planning and performing audit becomes even more important.

Keywords: control, accounting, planning, analysis

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566 Operations Research Applications in Audit Planning and Scheduling

Authors: Abdel-Aziz M. Mohamed

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This paper presents a state-of-the-art survey of the operations research models developed for internal audit planning. Two alternative approaches have been followed in the literature for audit planning: (1) identifying the optimal audit frequency; and (2) determining the optimal audit resource allocation. The first approach identifies the elapsed time between two successive audits, which can be presented as the optimal number of audits in a given planning horizon, or the optimal number of transactions after which an audit should be performed. It also includes the optimal audit schedule. The second approach determines the optimal allocation of audit frequency among all auditable units in the firm. In our review, we discuss both the deterministic and probabilistic models developed for audit planning. In addition, game theory models are reviewed to find the optimal auditing strategy based on the interactions between the auditors and the clients.

Keywords: operations research applications, audit frequency, audit-staff scheduling, audit planning

Procedia PDF Downloads 486
565 Measuring Audit Quality Using Text Analysis: An Empirical Study of Indian Companies

Authors: Leesa Mohanty, Ashok Banerjee

Abstract:

Better audit quality signifies the financial statements of the auditee firm reflect true and fair view of their actual state of affairs, which reduces information asymmetry between management and shareholders, as a result, helps protect interests of shareholders. This study examines the impact of joint audit on audit quality. It is motivated by the ongoing debate where The Institute of Chartered Accountants of India (ICAI), the regulatory body governing auditors, has advocated the finance ministry and the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) for the mandatory use of joint audit in private banks to enhance the quality of audit. Earlier, the Government of India had rejected the plea by ICAI for mandatory joint audits in large companies stating it is not a viable option for promoting domestic firms. We introduce a new measure of audit quality. Drawing from the domain of text analytics, we use relevant phrases in audit reports to gauge audit quality and demonstrate that joint audit improves audit quality. We also, for robustness, use prevalent proxy for audit quality (Big N Auditor, ratio of audit fees to total fees) and find negative effect of joint audit on audit quality. We, therefore highlight that different proxy for audit quality show opposite effect of joint audit.

Keywords: audit fees, audit quality, Big N. Auditor, joint audit

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
564 Transparency of Audit Firms in Croatia

Authors: Marko Čular

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The aim of this paper is to raise general awareness of transparency importance for audit firms and for audit services’ users. This paper analyses transparency of audit firms that audited financial statements of listed companies, for year 2011 and 2012. We use this two years because in the meantime Code of Ethics for Professional Accountants has been adopted. This paper investigates whether transparency reports of audit firms are in accordance with the Croatian Audit Act and whether there is a difference on transparency in observed years. For this paper, quality index of transparency report and financial indicators of audit firms are used to get conclusion about condition of audit firms transparency reporting. Results of our study indicate that audit firms are not fully transparent, looking for both years. Transparency of audit firms in 2012 has improved significantly, compared with transparency in 2011.

Keywords: transparency report, index quality of transparency report, Croatian audit act, code of ethics for professional accountants

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563 Risk Based on Computer Auditing and Measures of ‎Prevention

Authors: Mohammad Hadi Khorashadi Zadeh, Amin Karkon, Seyd Mohammad Reza Mashhoori

Abstract:

The technology of computer audit played a major role in the progress and prospects of a proper application to improve the quality and efficiency of audit work. But due to the technical complexity and the specific risks of computer audit, it should be shown effective in audit and preventive action. Mainly through research in this paper, we propose the causes of audit risk in a computer environment and the risk of further proposals for measures to control, to some extent reduce the risk of computer audit and improve the audit quality.

Keywords: computer auditing, risk, measures to prevent, information management

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562 Risk-Based Computer Auditing and Measures of Prevention

Authors: Mohammad Hadi Khorashadi Zadeh, Amin Karkon, Seyd Mohammad Reza Mashhoori ‎

Abstract:

the technology of Computer audit played a major role in the progress and ‎prospects of a proper application to improve the quality and efficiency of audit ‎work. But due to the technical complexity and the specific risks of computer ‎audit, it should be shown effective in audit and preventive action. Mainly through ‎research in this paper, we proposes the causes of audit risk in a computer ‎environment and the risk of further proposals for measures to control, to some ‎extent reduce the risk of computer audit and improve the audit quality.‎

Keywords: computer auditing, risk, measures to prevent, information technology

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561 A Study on the Relation between Auditor Rotation and Audit Quality in Iranian Firms

Authors: Bita Mashayekhi, Marjan Fayyazi, Parisa Sefati

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Audit quality is a popular topic in accounting and auditing research because recent decades’ financial crises reduce the reliability of financial reports to public investors and cause significant doubt about the audit profession. Therefore, doing research to identify effective factors in improving audit quality is necessary for bringing back public investors’ trust to financial statements as well as audit reports. In this study, we explore the relationship between audit rotation and audit quality. For this purpose, we employ the Duff (2009) model of audit quality to measure audit quality and use a questionnaire survey of 27 audit service quality attributes. Our results show that there is a negative relationship between auditor’s rotation and audit quality as we consider the auditor’s reputation, capability, assurance, experience, and responsiveness as surrogates for audit quality. There is no evidence for verifying a same relationship when we use the auditor’s independence and expertise for measuring audit quality.

Keywords: audit quality, auditor’s rotation, reputation, capability, assurance, experience, responsiveness, independence, expertise

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560 Determinants of Corporate Social Responsibility in Indonesia

Authors: Bela Sulistyaguna, Yuli Chomsatu Samrotun, Endang Masitoh Wahyuningsih

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The purpose of this research was to analyze the influence of company size, liquidity, profitability, leverage, company age, industry type, board of director, board of commissioner, audit committee and public ownership on the corporate social responsibility disclosure. The grand theories of this research are agency theory, stakeholders theory, and legitimacy theory. Analysis of data using multiple linear regression method with SPSS 22.0 for mac. The sample consists of companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX) and disclosed the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) sustainability reports from 2013 to 2018. The final sample of this research was 19 companies that obtained by purposive sampling. The results of the research showed that, simultaneously, company size, liquidity, profitability, leverage, company age, industry type, board of director, board of commissioner, audit committee and public ownership has an influence on the corporate social responsibility disclosure. Partially, the results showed that liquidity and leverage has an influence on the corporate social responsibility disclosure. Meanwhile, company size, profitability, company age, industry type, board of director, board of commissioner, audit committee and public ownership has no influence on corporate social responsibility disclosure.

Keywords: corporate social responsibility, CSR disclosure, Indonesia

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559 Developing an Audit Quality Model for an Emerging Market

Authors: Bita Mashayekhi, Azadeh Maddahi, Arash Tahriri

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is developing a model for audit quality, with regard to the contextual and environmental attributes of the audit profession in Iran. For this purpose, using an exploratory approach, and because of the special attributes of the auditing profession in Iran in terms of the legal environment, regulatory and supervisory mechanisms, audit firms size, and etc., we used grounded theory approach as a qualitative research method. Therefore, we got the opinions of the experts in the auditing and capital market areas through unstructured interviews. As a result, the authors revealed the determinants of audit quality, and by using these determinants, developed an Integrated Audit Quality Model, including causal conditions, intervening conditions, context, as well as action strategies related to AQ and their consequences. In this research, audit quality is studied using a systemic approach. According to this approach, the quality of inputs, processes, and outputs of auditing determines the quality of auditing, therefore, the quality of all different parts of this system is considered.

Keywords: audit quality, integrated audit quality model, demand for audit service, supply of audit, grounded theory

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558 Contribution to the Success of the Energy Audit in the Industrial Environment: A Case Study about Audit of Interior Lighting for an Industrial Site in Morocco

Authors: Abdelkarim Ait Brik, Abdelaziz Khoukh, Mustapha Jammali, Hamid Chaikhy

Abstract:

The energy audit is the essential initial step to ensure a good definition of energy control actions. The in-depth study of the various energy-consuming equipments makes it possible to determine the actions and investments with best cost for the company. The analysis focuses on the energy consumption of production equipment and utilities (lighting, heating, air conditioning, ventilation, transport). Successful implementation of this approach requires, however, to take into account a number of prerequisites. This paper proposes a number of useful recommendations concerning the energy audit in order to achieve better results, and a case study concerning the lighting audit of a Moroccan company by showing the gains that can be made through this audit.

Keywords: energy audit, energy diagnosis, consumption, electricity, energy efficiency, lighting audit

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557 Do Clawback Provisions Increase the Demand for Audit Service?

Authors: Yu-Chun Lin

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This study examines whether the adoption of clawback provisions increases the demand for audit service. We use abnormal audit fees to proxy for the demand for audit service. Because firms’ voluntary adoption of the clawback provisions is endogenously determined, this study controls for this bias using the propensity-score matching technique. Based on 1,247 U.S. firms that voluntarily adopt clawback provisions during 2003-2013 and a matched sample, the empirical results show that clawback provisions adoption is associated with abnormal audit fees, especially by firms with higher likelihood of misstatements. When firm executives are overconfident, abnormal audit fees increase subsequent to clawback provisions adoption. Since regulators require listed firms to adopt recoupment policy after 2015 in U.S., the evidence about higher demand for audit service might provide political implications for mandatory clawback provisions.

Keywords: clawback provisions, audit service, audit fees, overconfidence

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556 Is Audit Quality Implied by Accruals Quality Associated with Audit Fees and Auditor Tenure? Evidence from China

Authors: Hassan Y. Kikhia, Jin P. Zhang, Khaldoon G. Albiatr

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The Enron and Arthur Andersen scandal has raised concerns internationally about auditor independence and audit quality. Furthermore, the debate continues about the relationship between audit fees, auditor tenure and audit quality in spite of extensive empirical evidence examining audit failures and earnings management. Therefore, the purpose of current research is to determine the effect of audit fee and audit tenure both partially and simultaneously on the audit quality. Using a sample of Chinese firms, an environment where we believe it provides us with an opportunity to test whether the development of market and legal institutions affects the impact of audit fees and auditor tenure on audit quality. We employ the standard deviation of residuals from regressions relating current accruals to cash flows as proxy for audit quality. The paper documents statistically significant negative association between audit fees and audit quality. These findings are consistent with economic bonding being a determinant of auditor behavior rather than auditor reputational concerns. Further, the current paper shows a positive association between auditor tenure and audit quality in the earlier years of audit tenure. These results support the proposition that when the Learning Effect dominates the Bonding Effect in the earlier years of tenure, then audit quality is likely to be higher. Taken audit fees and audit tenure together, the results suggest that there is positive association between audit fees and audit quality in the earlier years of auditor tenure. Interestingly, the findings of our study have important implications for auditors, policymakers, multinational firms, and users of financial reports. As the rapid growth of China's economy gains global recognition, the Chinese stock market is capturing the attention of international investors. To a lesser extent, our paper also differs from the prior studies in methodology and findings in the investigation of audit quality.

Keywords: audit quality, accruals quality, audit fees, auditor tenure

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555 Problems Occurring in the Process of Audit by Taking into Consideration their Theoretic Aspects against the Background of Reforms Conducted in a Country: The Example of Georgia

Authors: Levan Sabauri

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The purpose of this article is an examination of the meaning of theoretic aspects of audit in the context of solving of specific problems of the audit. The audit’s aim is the estimation of financial statements by the auditor, i.e. if they are prepared according to the basic requirements of current financial statements. By examination of concrete examples, we can clearly see problems created in an audit and in often cases, those contradictions which can be caused by incompliance of matters regulated by legislation and by reality. An important part of this work is the analysis of reform in the direction of business accounting, statements and audit in Georgia and its comparison with EU countries. In the article, attention is concentrated on the analysis of specific problems of auditing practice and ways of their solving by taking into consideration theoretical aspects of the audit are proposed.

Keywords: audit, auditor, auditors’ ethic code, auditor’s risk, financial statement, objectivity

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554 The Value of Audit in Managing Supplier’s Process Improvement

Authors: Mohammad E. Nikoofal, Mehmet Gumus

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Besides the many benefits of outsourcing, firms are still concerned about the lack of critical information regarding both the risk levels and actions of their suppliers that are just a few links away. In this paper, we study the effectiveness of audit for the manufacturer in managing her supplier’s process improvement effort when the supplier is privately informed about his disruption risk and actions. By comparing the agency costs associated with the optimal menu of contracts with and without audit, we completely characterize the value of audit for all the cases from the perspectives of both manufacturer, and supplier as well as total supply chain. First, the analysis of value of audit from the manufacturer’s perspective shows that she can strictly benefit from auditing her supplier’s actions. To the best of our knowledge, this result has not been documented before in the principal-agent literature under a standard setting where the agent is assumed to be risk-neutral and not protected by limited liability constraints. Second, we find that not only the manufacturer but also the supplier can strictly benefit from audit. Third, the audit enables the manufacturer to customize her contract offerings based on the reliability of the supplier. Finally, by analyzing the impact of problem parameters on the value of audit, we identify the conditions under which an audit would be beneficial for individual supply chain parties as well as total supply chain.

Keywords: supply disruption, adverse selection, moral hazard incentives, audit

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553 The Changes of the Relationship between Audit Quality and Earnings Management after Financial Crisis

Authors: Chengxuan Geng, Yizhou E

Abstract:

This paper mainly examines the changes in the relationship between earnings management and audit quality before and after financial crisis in the context of American firms from 2005 to 2010. Based on a sample of 3584 firm year observations, we find that there are changes concerning the relation between accrual-based earnings management and audit quality during the pre-crisis and post-crisis periods. However, the results do not provide enough evidence with regard to the variances in the association between real activities earnings management and audit quality during these two periods.

Keywords: audit quality, earnings management, financial crisis, relationship

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