Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1950

Search results for: discretely monitored barrier options

1950 Monte Carlo Pathwise Sensitivities for Barrier Options with Application to Coco-Bond Calibration

Authors: Thomas Gerstner, Bastian von Harrach, Daniel Roth

Abstract:

The Monte Carlo pathwise sensitivities approach is well established for smooth payoff functions. In this work, we present a new Monte Carlo algorithm that is able to calculate the pathwise sensitivities for discontinuous payoff functions. Our main tool is the one-step survival idea of Glasserman and Staum. Although this technique yields to new terms per observation, while differentiating, the algorithm is still efficient. As an application, we use the results for a two-dimensional calibration of a Coco-Bond, which we model with different types of discretely monitored barrier options.

Keywords: Monte Carlo, discretely monitored barrier options, pathwise sensitivities, Coco-Bond

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1949 Temperature-Dependent Barrier Characteristics of Inhomogeneous Pd/n-GaN Schottky Barrier Diodes Surface

Authors: K. Al-Heuseen, M. R. Hashim

Abstract:

The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of Pd/n-GaN Schottky barrier were studied at temperatures over room temperature (300-470K). The values of ideality factor (n), zero-bias barrier height (φB0), flat barrier height (φBF) and series resistance (Rs) obtained from I-V-T measurements were found to be strongly temperature dependent while (φBo) increase, (n), (φBF) and (Rs) decrease with increasing temperature. The apparent Richardson constant was found to be 2.1x10-9 Acm-2K-2 and mean barrier height of 0.19 eV. After barrier height inhomogeneities correction, by assuming a Gaussian distribution (GD) of the barrier heights, the Richardson constant and the mean barrier height were obtained as 23 Acm-2K-2 and 1.78eV, respectively. The corrected Richardson constant was very closer to theoretical value of 26 Acm-2K-2.

Keywords: electrical properties, Gaussian distribution, Pd-GaN Schottky diodes, thermionic emission

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1948 Various Modification of Electrochemical Barrier Layer Thinning of Anodic Aluminum Oxide

Authors: W. J. Stępniowski, W. Florkiewicz, M. Norek, M. Michalska-Domańska, E. Kościuczyk, T. Czujko

Abstract:

In this paper, two options of anodic alumina barrier layer thinning have been demonstrated. The approaches varied with the duration of the voltage step. It was found that too long step of the barrier layer thinning process leads to chemical etching of the nanopores on their top. At the bottoms pores are not fully opened what is disadvantageous for further applications in nanofabrication. On the other hand, while the duration of the voltage step is controlled by the current density (value of the current density cannot exceed 75% of the value recorded during previous voltage step) the pores are fully opened. However, pores at the bottom obtained with this procedure have smaller diameter, nevertheless this procedure provides electric contact between the bare aluminum (substrate) and electrolyte, what is suitable for template assisted electrodeposition, one of the most cost-efficient synthesis method in nanotechnology.

Keywords: anodic aluminum oxide, anodization, barrier layer thinning, nanopores

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1947 Options Trading and Crash Risk

Authors: Cameron Truong, Mikhail Bhatia, Yangyang Chen, Viet Nga Cao

Abstract:

Using a sample of U.S. firms between 1996 and 2011, this paper documents a positive association between options trading volume and future stock price crash risk. This relation is evidently more pronounced among firms with higher information asymmetry, business uncertainty, and short-sale constraints. In a dichotomous cross-sectional setting, we also document that firms with options trading have higher future crash risk than firms without options trading. We further show in a difference-in-difference analysis that firms experience an increase in crash risk immediately after the listing of options. The results suggest that options traders are able of identifying bad news hoarding by management and choose to trade in a liquid options market in anticipation of future crashes.

Keywords: bad news hoarding, cross-sectional setting, options trading, stock price crash

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1946 Overview on Sustainable Coastal Protection Structures

Authors: Suresh Reddi, Mathew Leslie, Vishnu S. Das

Abstract:

Sustainable design is a prominent concept across all sectors of engineering and its importance is widely recognized within the Arabian Gulf region. Despite that sustainable or soft engineering options are not widely deployed in coastal engineering projects and a preference for utilizing ‘hard engineering’ solutions remain. The concept of soft engineering lies in “working together” with the nature to manage the coastline. This approach allows hard engineering options, such as breakwaters or sea walls, to be minimized or even eliminated altogether. Hard structures provide a firm barrier to wave energy or flooding, but in doing so they often have a significant impact on the natural processes of the coastline. This may affect the area locally or impact on neighboring zones. In addition, they often have a negative environmental impact and may create a sense of disconnect between the marine environment and local users. Soft engineering options, seek to protect the coastline by working in harmony with the natural process of sediment transport/budget. They often consider new habitat creation and creating usable spaces that will increase the sense of connection with nature. Often soft engineering options, where appropriately deployed can provide a low-maintenance, aesthetically valued, natural line of coastal protection. This paper deals with an overview of the following: The widely accepted soft engineering practices across the world; How this approach has been considered by Ramboll in some recent projects in Middle East and Asia; Challenges and barriers to use in using soft engineering options in the region; Way forward towards more widespread adoption.

Keywords: coastline, hard engineering, low maintenance, soft engineering options

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1945 Predicting the Adsorptive Capacities of Biosolid as a Barrier in Soil to Remove Industrial Contaminants

Authors: H. Aguedal, H. Hentit, A. Aziz, D. R. Merouani, A. Iddou

Abstract:

The major environmental risk of soil pollution is the contamination of groundwater by infiltration of organic and inorganic pollutants that can cause a serious pollution. To protect the groundwater, in this study, we proceeded to test the reliability of a bio solid as barrier to prevent the migration of a very dangerous pollutant ‘Cadmium’ through the different soil layers. The follow-up the influence of several parameters, such as: turbidity, pluviometry, initial concentration of cadmium and the nature of soil, allow us to find the most effective manner to integrate this barrier in the soil. From the results obtained, we noted the effective intervention of the barrier. Indeed, the recorded passing quantities are lowest for the highest rainfall; we noted that the barrier has a better affinity towards higher concentrations; the most retained amounts of cadmium has been in the top layer of the two types of soil, while the lowest amounts of cadmium are recorded in the inner layers of soils.

Keywords: adsorption of cadmium, barrier, groundwater pollution, protection

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1944 Lactic Acid, Citric Acid, and Potassium Bitartrate Non-Hormonal Prescription Vaginal PH Modulator Gel for the Prevention of Pregnancy

Authors: Shanna Su, Kathleen Vincent

Abstract:

Introduction: A non-hormonal prescription vaginal pH modulator (VPM) gel (Phexxi®), with active ingredients lactic acid, citric acid, and potassium bitartrate, has recently been approved for the prevention of pregnancy in the United States. The objective of this review is to compile the evidence available from published preclinical and clinical trials to support its use. Areas covered: PubMed was searched for published literature on VPM gel. Two Phase III trials were found on the clinicaltrials.gov database. The results demonstrated that VPM gel is safe, with minimal side effects, and effective (cumulative 6-7 cycle pregnancy rate of 4.1-13.65%, (Pearl Index 27.5) as a contraceptive. Microbicidal effects suggest the potential for the prevention of sexually transmitted infections (STIs); currently, a Phase III clinical trial is being conducted to evaluate the prevention of chlamydia and gonorrhea. Expert opinion: Non-hormonal reversible contraceptive options have been limited to the highly effective copper-releasing intrauterine device that requires insertion by a trained clinician and less effective coitally-associated barrier and spermicide options which are typically available over-the-counter. Spermicides, which improve the efficacy of barrier devices, may increase the risk of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)/STIs. VPM gel provides a new safe, effective non-hormonal contraceptive option with the potential for prevention of STIs.

Keywords: citric acid, lactic acid, non-hormonal contraception, potassium bitartrate, topical vaginal contraceptive, vaginal pH modulator gel

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1943 Effect of Epoxy-ZrP Nanocomposite Top Coating on Inorganic Barrier Layer

Authors: Haesook Kim, Ha Na Ra, Mansu Kim, Hyun Gi Kim, Sung Soo Kim

Abstract:

Epoxy-ZrP (α-zirconium phosphate) nanocomposites were coated on inorganic barrier layer such as sputtering and atomic layer deposition (ALD) to improve the barrier properties and protect the layer. ZrP nanoplatelets were synthesized using a reflux method and exfoliated in the polymer matrix. The barrier properties of coating layer were characterized by measuring water vapor transmission rate (WVTR). The WVTR dramatically decreased after epoxy-ZrP nanocomposite coating, while maintaining the optical properties. It was also investigated the effect of epoxy-ZrP coating on inorganic layer after bending and reliability test. The optimal structure composed of inorganic and epoxy-ZrP nanocomposite layers was used in organic light emitting diodes (OLED) encapsulation.

Keywords: α-zirconium phosphate, barrier properties, epoxy nanocomposites, OLED encapsulation

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1942 Circadian Regulations in Epithelial Barrier Functions

Authors: Kanami Orihara, Agnia Vibriani, Jayshree Low Jit Sze, Manitahina Mizan, Yao Du

Abstract:

Peripheral clocks are suggested to influence many aspects of keeping our health. However, the circadian profile of epithelial barrier functions is yet to be elucidated. We investigated the circadian profile of gene expressions of epithelial barriers using quantitative PCR in vitro study with human cell lines. The study found that four tight junction molecule gene expressions (CLDN1, CLDN4, OCLN, ZO1), as well as DEFB1 in skin keratinocytes, demonstrated circadian variations. These results suggest that the peripheral clock is taking an important role in keeping the homeostasis of epithelial barrier functions.

Keywords: chronobiology, barrier function, innate immunity, homeostasis

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1941 Numerical Methods versus Bjerksund and Stensland Approximations for American Options Pricing

Authors: Marasovic Branka, Aljinovic Zdravka, Poklepovic Tea

Abstract:

Numerical methods like binomial and trinomial trees and finite difference methods can be used to price a wide range of options contracts for which there are no known analytical solutions. American options are the most famous of that kind of options. Besides numerical methods, American options can be valued with the approximation formulas, like Bjerksund-Stensland formulas from 1993 and 2002. When the value of American option is approximated by Bjerksund-Stensland formulas, the computer time spent to carry out that calculation is very short. The computer time spent using numerical methods can vary from less than one second to several minutes or even hours. However to be able to conduct a comparative analysis of numerical methods and Bjerksund-Stensland formulas, we will limit computer calculation time of numerical method to less than one second. Therefore, we ask the question: Which method will be most accurate at nearly the same computer calculation time?

Keywords: Bjerksund and Stensland approximations, computational analysis, finance, options pricing, numerical methods

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1940 Adopting the Two-Stage Nested Mixed Analysis of Variance Test to the Eco Indicator 99 to Evaluate Building Technologies under LCA Uncertainties

Authors: Svetlana Pushkar

Abstract:

Eco-indicator 99 (EI99) considers fundamental life cycle assessment (LCA) uncertainties via egalitarian/egalitarian (e/e), hierarchist/hierarchist (h/h), individualist/individualist (i/i), individualist/average (i/a), egalitarian/average (e/a), and hierarchist/average (h/a) methodological options. The objective of this study is to provide a reliable two-stage nested mixed balanced Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) test as a supplemental test to EI99 to address the problematic combination of similarly and not similarly produced materials usually found in building technologies. The robustness of the test was determined from both the “EI99 (all options)” stage (including e/e, i/i, h/h, e/a, i/a, and h/a - all methodological options) and the “EI99 (perspectives)” stage (including e/e, i/i, and h/h methodological options of EI99 - the methodological options with their particular weighting set or e/a, i/a, and h/a methodological options of EI99 - the methodological options with the average weighting set) of evaluating building technologies.

Keywords: building technologies, LCA uncertainty, Eco-indicator 99, two-stage nested mixed ANOVA test

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1939 Semiconductor Nanofilm Based Schottky-Barrier Solar Cells

Authors: Mariyappan Shanmugam, Bin Yu

Abstract:

Schottky-barrier solar cells are demonstrated employing 2D-layered MoS2 and WS2 semiconductor nanofilms as photo-active material candidates synthesized by chemical vapor deposition method. Large area MoS2 and WS2 nanofilms are stacked by layer transfer process to achieve thicker photo-active material studied by atomic force microscopy showing a thickness in the range of ~200 nm. Two major vibrational active modes associated with 2D-layered MoS2 and WS2 are studied by Raman spectroscopic technique to estimate the quality of the nanofilms. Schottky-barrier solar cells employed MoS2 and WS2 active materials exhibited photoconversion efficiency of 1.8 % and 1.7 % respectively. Fermi-level pinning at metal/semiconductor interface, electronic transport and possible recombination mechanisms are studied in the Schottky-barrier solar cells.

Keywords: two-dimensional nanosheet, graphene, hexagonal boron nitride, solar cell, Schottky barrier

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1938 Acoustics Barrier Design to Reduce Railway Noise by Using Maekawa's Method

Authors: Malinda Sabrina, Khoerul Anwar

Abstract:

Railway noise generated by pass-by train has been described as a form of environmental pollutants especially for the residential area near the railway. Many studies have shown, that environmental noise particularly transportation noise has negative effects on people which resulting in annoyance and specific health problems such as cardiovascular disease, cognitive impairment and sleep disturbance. Therefore, various attempts are made to reduce the noise. One method of reducing such noise to acceptable noise levels is to build acoustically barrier walls. The objective of this study was to review the method of reducing railway noise and obtain the preliminary design of the acoustics barrier on the edge of railway tracks close to the residential area. The design of this barrier is using the Maekawa's method. Measurements have been performed in residential areas around the railroads in the Karawang - Indonesia with the absence of an acoustical barrier. From the observation, it was found that the railway was passed by five trains within thirty minutes. With the limited distance between the railway tracks and the location of the residential area as well as the street of residents, then it was obtained that a reduction in sound pressure level is 25 dBA. Maximum sound pressure level obtained is 86.9 dBA then by setting the barrier as high as 4 m at a distance, 2.5 m from the railway, the noise level received by residents in the settlement around the railway line becomes 61.9 dBA.

Keywords: acoustics barrier, Maekawa's method, noise attenuation, railway noise

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1937 Cost Benefit Analysis of Adoption of Climate Change Adaptation Options among Rural Rice Farmers in Nepal

Authors: Niranjan Devkota , Ram Kumar Phuya, Durga Lal Shreshta

Abstract:

This paper estimates cost and benefit of adoption of climate change adaptation options available to the rural rice farmers of Nepal. Adoption of adaptation strategies, intensity of use of adaptation options, identification of labor and non-labor cost and finally per unit cost and benefit analysis of climate change adaptation were made. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to source respondents for the study and used structured questionnaire techniques to collect data from 773 households from seven districts; 3 from Terai and 4 from Hilly region of Nepal. The result revealed that there are 13 major adaptation options rice farmers practice in order to protect themselves from climatic risk. Among the given adaptation options, the first three popular adaptation options practiced by rice farmers are (i) increasing use of chemical fertilizer (60.93%) (ii) use of climate smart verities (49.29%) and (iii) change in nursery date (32.08%). Adaptation cost is obvious, based on that, the first three costly adaptation options are the alternative irrigation practice which incurred average cost of US $69.95 (US$ 1 = 102.84 Nepalese Rupees) followed by a denser plantation of local seeds ($ 20.69) and using climate smart varieties ($ 18.06). 88% farmers practiced more than one adaptation strategies on the same farm with the aim of reducing the effect of extreme climatic conditions. Total cost and revenue revealed that per unit total cost ranges from $28.34 to $32.79 whereas per unit total revenue ranges $33.4 to $49.02. Surprisingly, it is observed that farmers who do not adopt any adaptation options are able to receive highest income from per unit production. As Net Present Value (NPV) is positive and Benefit Cost Ration (BCR) is greater than one for every adaptation options that indicates the available adaptation options are profitable to the rice farmers.

Keywords: climate change, adaptation options, cost benefit analysis, rural rice farmers, Nepal

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1936 Assessment the Capacity of Retention of a Natural Material for the Protection of Ground Water

Authors: Hakim Aguedal, Abdelkader Iddou, Abdalla Aziz, Abdelhadi Bentouami, Ferhat Bensalah, Salah Bensadek

Abstract:

The major environmental risk of soil pollution is the contamination of groundwater by infiltration of organic and inorganic pollutants that can cause a serious pollution. To prevent the migration of this pollution through this structure, many studies propose the installation of layers, which play a role of a barrier that inhibiting the contamination of groundwater by limiting or slowing the flow of rainwater carrying pollution through the layers of soil. However, it is practically impossible to build a barrier layer that let through only water, but it is possible to design a structure with low permeability, which reduces the infiltration of dangerous pollutant. In an environmental context of groundwater protection, the main objective of this study was to investigate the environmental and appropriate suitability method to preserve groundwater, by establishment of a permeable reactive barrier (PRB) intermediate in soil. Followed the influence of several parameters allow us to find the most effective materials and the most appropriate way to incorporate this barrier in the soil.

Keywords: Ground water, protection, permeable reactive Barrier, soil pollution.

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1935 Random Walks and Option Pricing for European and American Options

Authors: Guillaume Leduc

Abstract:

In this paper, we describe a broad setting under which the error of the approximation can be quantified, controlled, and for which convergence occurs at a speed of n⁻¹ for European and American options. We describe how knowledge of the error allows for arbitrarily fast acceleration of the convergence.

Keywords: random walk approximation, European and American options, rate of convergence, option pricing

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1934 The Study of Elders’ Needs in Bangkok Metropolis for the Options of Health Tourism

Authors: Chantouch Wannathanom

Abstract:

Research The study of elders’ needs in Bangkok metropolis for the options of health tourism. The objective is to study of elders’ needs in Bangkok Metropolis for the options of health tourism. The research her collected data using a questionnaire. The samples used in this research is elderly people living in the Dusit area. Of 400 people found the majority were female than male. Accounted for18 percent aged between 50-55 years, mostly undergraduate degree. Moreover, most seniors do not have underlying disease. The study found that 1. Elders’ needs in Bangkok Metropolis for the options of health tourism; 2. Tourism activity patterns that fit elderly was divided into 5 categories, including massage, massage, and herbal sauna. Practicing meditation and ascetic. The results showed that selection of elderly tourist activities by choosing healthy eating are the first. The hypothesis testing period: Elders’ needs in Bangkok Metropolis for the options of health tourism is different. The level of statistical significance .05 level.

Keywords: needs, elder, health tourism, Bangkok

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1933 Implied Adjusted Volatility by Leland Option Pricing Models: Evidence from Australian Index Options

Authors: Mimi Hafizah Abdullah, Hanani Farhah Harun, Nik Ruzni Nik Idris

Abstract:

With the implied volatility as an important factor in financial decision-making, in particular in option pricing valuation, and also the given fact that the pricing biases of Leland option pricing models and the implied volatility structure for the options are related, this study considers examining the implied adjusted volatility smile patterns and term structures in the S&P/ASX 200 index options using the different Leland option pricing models. The examination of the implied adjusted volatility smiles and term structures in the Australian index options market covers the global financial crisis in the mid-2007. The implied adjusted volatility was found to escalate approximately triple the rate prior the crisis.

Keywords: implied adjusted volatility, financial crisis, Leland option pricing models, Australian index options

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1932 Characterization of current–voltage (I–V) and capacitance–voltage–frequency (C–V–f) features of Au/GaN Schottky diodes

Authors: Abdelaziz Rabehi

Abstract:

The current–voltage (I–V) characteristics of Au/GaN Schottky diodes were measured at room temperature. In addition, capacitance–voltage–frequency (C–V–f) characteristics are investigated by considering the interface states (Nss) at frequency range 100 kHz to 1 MHz. From the I–V characteristics of the Schottky diode, ideality factor (n) and barrier height (Φb) values of 1.22 and 0.56 eV, respectively, were obtained from a forward bias I–V plot. In addition, the interface states distribution profile as a function of (Ess − Ev) was extracted from the forward bias I–V measurements by taking into account the bias dependence of the effective barrier height (Φe) for the Schottky diode. The C–V curves gave a barrier height value higher than those obtained from I–V measurements. This discrepancy is due to the different nature of the I–V and C–V measurement techniques.

Keywords: Schottky diodes, frequency dependence, barrier height, interface states

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1931 Lie Symmetry Treatment for Pricing Options with Transactions Costs under the Fractional Black-Scholes Model

Authors: B. F. Nteumagne, E. Pindza, E. Mare

Abstract:

We apply Lie symmetries analysis to price and hedge options in the fractional Brownian framework. The reputation of Lie groups is well spread in the area of Mathematical sciences and lately, in Finance. In the presence of transactions costs and under fractional Brownian motions, analytical solutions become difficult to obtain. Lie symmetries analysis allows us to simplify the problem and obtain new analytical solution. In this paper, we investigate the use of symmetries to reduce the partial differential equation obtained and obtain the analytical solution. We then proposed a hedging procedure and calibration technique for these types of options, and test the model on real market data. We show the robustness of our methodology by its application to the pricing of digital options.

Keywords: fractional brownian model, symmetry, transaction cost, option pricing

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1930 Executive Stock Options, Business Ethics and Financial Reporting Quality

Authors: Philemon Rakoto

Abstract:

This paper tests the improvement of financial reporting quality when firms award stock options to their executives. The originality of this study is that we introduce the moderating effect of business ethics in the model. The sample is made up of 116 Canadian high-technology firms with available data for the fiscal year ending in 2012. We define the quality of financial reporting as the value relevance of accounting information as developed by Ohlson. Our results show that executive stock option award alone does not improve the quality of financial reporting. Rather, the quality improves when a firm awards stock options to its executives and investors perceive that the level of business ethics in that firm is high.

Keywords: business ethics, Canada, high-tech firms, stock options, value relevance

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1929 Homogeneous Anti-Corrosion Coating of Spontaneously Dissolved Defect-Free Graphene

Authors: M. K. Bin Subhan, P. Cullen, C. Howard

Abstract:

A recent study by the World Corrosion Organization estimated that corrosion related damage causes $2.5tr worth of damage every year. As such, a low cost easily scalable solution is required to the corrosion problem which is economically viable. Graphene is an ideal anti-corrosion barrier layer material due to its excellent barrier properties and chemical stability, which makes it impermeable to all molecules. However, attempts to employ graphene as a barrier layer has been hampered by the fact that defect sites in graphene accelerate corrosion due to the inert nature of graphene which promotes galvanic corrosion at the expense of the metal. The recent discovery of spontaneous dissolution of charged graphite intercalation compounds in aprotic solvents enables defect free graphene platelets to be employed for anti-corrosion applications. These ‘inks’ of defect-free charged graphene platelets in solution can be coated onto a metallic surfaces via electroplating to form a homogeneous barrier layer. In this paper, initial data showing homogeneous coatings of graphene barrier layers on steel coupons via electroplating will be presented. This easily scalable technique also provides a controllable method for applying different barrier thicknesses from ultra thin layers to thick opaque coatings making it useful for a wide range of applications.

Keywords: anti-corrosion, defect-free, electroplating, graphene

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1928 The Structural and Electrical Properties of Cadmium Implanted Silicon Diodes at Room Temperature

Authors: J. O. Bodunrin, S. J. Moloi

Abstract:

This study reports on the x-ray crystallography (XRD) structure of cadmium-implanted p-type silicon, the current-voltage (I-V) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics of unimplanted and cadmium-implanted silicon-based diodes. Cadmium was implanted at the energy of 160 KeV to the fluence of 10¹⁵ ion/cm². The results obtained indicate that the diodes were well fabricated, and the introduction of cadmium results in a change in behavior of the diodes from normal exponential to ohmic I-V behavior. The C-V measurements, on the other hand, show that the measured capacitance increased after cadmium doping due to the injected charge carriers. The doping density of the p-Si material and the device's Schottky barrier height was extracted, and the doping density of the undoped p-Si material increased after cadmium doping while the Schottky barrier height reduced. In general, the results obtained here are similar to those obtained on the diodes fabricated on radiation-hard material, indicating that cadmium is a promising metal dopant to improve the radiation hardness of silicon. Thus, this study would assist in adding possible options to improve the radiation hardness of silicon to be used in high energy physics experiments.

Keywords: cadmium, capacitance-voltage, current-voltage, high energy physics experiment, x-ray crystallography, XRD

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1927 Evaluation of the Impact of Green Infrastructure on Dispersion and Deposition of Particulate Matter in Near-Roadway Areas

Authors: Deeksha Chauhan, Kamal Jain

Abstract:

Pollutant concentration is high in near-road environments, and vegetation is an effective measure to mitigate urban air quality problems. This paper presents the influence of roadside green infrastructure in dispersion and Deposition of Particulate matter (PM) by the ENVI-met Simulations. Six green infrastructure configurations were specified (i) hedges only, (ii) trees only, (iii) a mix of trees and shrubs (iv) green barrier (v) green wall, and (vi) no tree buffer were placed on both sides of the road. The changes in concentrations at all six scenarios were estimated to identify the best barrier to reduce the dispersion and deposition of PM10 and PM2.5 in an urban environment.

Keywords: barrier, concentration, dispersion, deposition, Particulate matter, pollutant

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1926 Evaluation of Thermal Barrier Coating According to Temperature and Curvature

Authors: Hyunwoo Song, Jeong-Min Lee, Yongseok Kim, Junghan Yun, Jungin Byun, Jae-Mean Koo, Chang-Sung Seok

Abstract:

To avoid the damage of gas turbine blade from high-temperature, thermal barrier coating (TBC) is applied on the blade. However, it is damaged by thermal fatigue during the operation of gas turbine, and this damage lead to delamination of TBC between top coat and bond coat. The blade can be damaged after the failure of TBC, so durability evaluation of TBC should be performed. The durability of thermal barrier coating was decreased according to the increase of temperature, because thermal stress according to increase of temperature. Also, the curvature can be affect to durability of TBC, because the stress is determined by the shape of the TBC. Therefore, the effect of temperature and curvature on the stress should be evaluated. In this study, finite element analysis according to temperature and curvature were performed in the same condition of Kim et al. Finally, the stress was evaluated from the finite element analysis results according to temperature and curvature.

Keywords: curvature, finite element analysis, thermal barrier coating, thermal fatigue, temperature

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1925 Numerical Simulation of Truck Collision with Road Blocker

Authors: Engin Metin Kaplan, Kemal Yaman

Abstract:

In this study, the crash of a medium heavy vehicle onto a designed Road blocker (vehicle barrier) is studied numerically. Structural integrity of the Road blocker is studied by nonlinear dynamic methods under the loading conditions which are defined in the standards. NASTRAN® and LS-DYNA® which are commercial software are used to solve the problem. Outer geometry determination, alignment of the inner part and material properties of the road blocker are studied linearly to yield design parameters. Best design parameters are determined to achieve the most structurally optimized road blocker. Strain and stress values of the vehicle barrier are obtained by solving the partial differential equations.

Keywords: vehicle barrier, truck collision, road blocker, crash analysis

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1924 Mine Project Evaluations in the Rising of Uncertainty: Real Options Analysis

Authors: I. Inthanongsone, C. Drebenstedt, J. C. Bongaerts, P. Sontamino

Abstract:

The major concern in evaluating the value of mining projects related to the deficiency of the traditional discounted cash flow (DCF) method. This method does not take uncertainties into account and, hence it does not allow for an economic assessment of managerial flexibility and operational adaptability, which are increasingly determining long-term corporate success. Such an assessment can be performed with the real options valuation (ROV) approach, since it allows for a comparative evaluation of unforeseen uncertainties in a project life cycle. This paper presents an economic evaluation model for open pit mining projects based on real options valuation approach. Uncertainties in the model are caused by metal prices and cost uncertainties and the system dynamics (SD) modeling method is used to structure and solve the real options model. The model is applied to a case study. It can be shown that that managerial flexibility reacting to uncertainties may create additional value to a mining project in comparison to the outcomes of a DCF method. One important insight for management dealing with uncertainty is seen in choosing the optimal time to exercise strategic options.

Keywords: DCF methods, ROV approach, system dynamics modeling methods, uncertainty

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1923 Barriers to Marital Expectation among Individuals with Hearing Impairment in Oyo State

Authors: Adebomi M. Oyewumi, Sunday Amaize

Abstract:

The study was designed to examine the barriers to marital expectations among unmarried persons with hearing impairment in Oyo State, Nigeria. Descriptive survey research design was adopted. Purposive sampling technique was used to select one hundred participants made up forty-four (44) males and fifty-six (56) females, all with varying degrees of hearing impairment. Eight research questions were raised and answered. The instrument used was Marital Expectations Scale with reliability coefficient of 0.86. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics tools of frequency count and simple percentage as well as inferential statistics tools of T-TEST and ANOVA. The findings revealed that there was a significant relationship existing among the main identified barriers (environmental barrier, communication barrier, hearing loss, unemployment and poor sexuality education) to the marital expectations of unmarried persons with hearing impairment. The joint contribution of the independent variables (identified barriers) to the dependent variable (marital expectations) was significant, F = 5.842, P < 0.05, accounting for about 89% of the variance. The relative contribution of the identified barriers to marital expectations of unmarried persons with hearing impairment is as follows: environmental barrier (β = 0.808, t = 5.176, P < 0.05), communication barrier (β = 0.533, t = 3.305, P < 0.05), hearing loss (β = 0.550, t = 2.233, P < 0.05), unemployment (β = 0.431, t = 2.102, P < 0.05), poor sexuality education (β = 0.361, t = 1.985, P < 0.05). Environmental barrier proved to be the most potent contributor to the poor marital expectations among unmarried persons with hearing impairment. Therefore, it is recommended that society dismantles the nagging environmental barrier through positive identification with individuals suffering from hearing impairment. In this connection, members of society should change their negative attitudes and do away with all the wrong notions about the marital ability of individuals with hearing impairment.

Keywords: environmental barrier, hearing impairment, marriage, marital expectations

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1922 Comparative Life Cycle Assessment of High Barrier Polymer Packaging for Selecting Resource Efficient and Environmentally Low-Impact Materials

Authors: D. Kliaugaitė, J. K, Staniškis

Abstract:

In this study tree types of multilayer gas barrier plastic packaging films were compared using life cycle assessment as a tool for resource efficient and environmentally low-impact materials selection. The first type of multilayer packaging film (PET-AlOx/LDPE) consists of polyethylene terephthalate with barrier layer AlOx (PET-AlOx) and low density polyethylene (LDPE). The second type of polymer film (PET/PE-EVOH-PE) is made of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and co-extrusion film PE-EVOH-PE as barrier layer. And the third one type of multilayer packaging film (PET-PVOH/LDPE) is formed from polyethylene terephthalate with barrier layer PVOH (PET-PVOH) and low density polyethylene (LDPE). All of analyzed packaging has significant impact to resource depletion, because of raw materials extraction and energy use and production of different kind of plastics. Nevertheless the impact generated during life cycle of functional unit of II type of packaging (PET/PE-EVOH-PE) was about 25% lower than impact generated by I type (PET-AlOx/LDPE) and III type (PET-PVOH/LDPE) of packaging. Result revealed that the contribution of different gas barrier type to the overall environmental problem of packaging is not significant. The impact are mostly generated by using energy and materials during raw material extraction and production of different plastic materials as plastic polymers material as PE, LDPE and PET, but not gas barrier materials as AlOx, PVOH and EVOH. The LCA results could be useful in different decision-making processes, for selecting resource efficient and environmentally low-impact materials.

Keywords: life cycle assessment, polymer packaging, resource efficiency, materials extraction, polyethylene terephthalate

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1921 PLC Based Automatic Railway Crossing System for India

Authors: Tapan Upadhyay, Aqib Siddiqui, Sameer Khan

Abstract:

Railway crossing system in India is a manually operated level crossing system, either manned or unmanned. The main aim is to protect pedestrians and vehicles from colliding with trains, which pass at regular intervals, as India has the largest and busiest railway network. But because of human error and negligence, every year thousands of lives are lost due to accidents at railway crossings. To avoid this, we suggest a solution, by using Programmable Logical Controller (PLC) based automatic system, which will automatically control the barrier as well as roadblocks to stop people from crossing while security warning is given. Often people avoid security warning, and pass two-wheelers from beneath the barrier, while the train is at a distance away. This paper aims at reducing the fatality and accident rate by controlling barrier and roadblocks using sensors which sense the incoming train and vehicles and sends a signal to PLC. The PLC in return sends a signal to barrier and roadblocks. Once the train passes, the barrier and roadblocks retrieve back, and the passage is clear for vehicles and pedestrians to cross. PLC’s are used because they are very flexible, cost effective, space efficient, reduces complexity and minimises errors. Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) is used to monitor the functioning.

Keywords: level crossing, PLC, sensors, SCADA

Procedia PDF Downloads 350