Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1326

Search results for: permeable reactive Barrier

1326 Assessment the Capacity of Retention of a Natural Material for the Protection of Ground Water

Authors: Hakim Aguedal, Abdelkader Iddou, Abdalla Aziz, Abdelhadi Bentouami, Ferhat Bensalah, Salah Bensadek


The major environmental risk of soil pollution is the contamination of groundwater by infiltration of organic and inorganic pollutants that can cause a serious pollution. To prevent the migration of this pollution through this structure, many studies propose the installation of layers, which play a role of a barrier that inhibiting the contamination of groundwater by limiting or slowing the flow of rainwater carrying pollution through the layers of soil. However, it is practically impossible to build a barrier layer that let through only water, but it is possible to design a structure with low permeability, which reduces the infiltration of dangerous pollutant. In an environmental context of groundwater protection, the main objective of this study was to investigate the environmental and appropriate suitability method to preserve groundwater, by establishment of a permeable reactive barrier (PRB) intermediate in soil. Followed the influence of several parameters allow us to find the most effective materials and the most appropriate way to incorporate this barrier in the soil.

Keywords: Ground water, protection, permeable reactive Barrier, soil pollution.

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1325 Soil Mixed Constructed Permeable Reactive Barrier for Groundwater Remediation: Field Observation

Authors: Ziyda Abunada


In-situ remediation of contaminated land with deep mixing can deliver a multi-technique remedial strategy. A field trail includes permeable reactive barrier (PRB) took place at a severely contaminated site in Yorkshire to the north of the UK through the SMiRT (Soil Mix Remediation Technology) project in May 2011. SMiRT involved the execution of the largest research field trials in the UK to provide field validation. Innovative modified bentonite materials in combination with zeolite and organoclay were used to construct six different walls of a hexagonal PRB. Field monitoring, testing and site cores were collected from the PRB twice: once 2 months after the construction and again in March 2014 (almost 34 months later).This paper presents an overview of the results of the PRB materials’ relative performance with some initial 3-year time-related assessment. Results from the monitoring program and the site cores are presented. Some good correlations are seen together with some clear difference among the materials’ efficiency. These preliminary observations represent a potential for further investigations and highlighted the main lessons learned in a filed scale.

Keywords: in-situ remediation, groundwater, permeable reactive barrier, site cores

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1324 Numerical Investigation of Wave Interaction with Double Vertical Slotted Walls

Authors: H. Ahmed, A. Schlenkhoff


Recently, permeable breakwaters have been suggested to overcome the disadvantages of fully protection breakwaters. These protection structures have minor impacts on the coastal environment and neighboring beaches where they provide a more economical protection from waves and currents. For regular waves, a numerical model is used (FLOW-3D, VOF) to investigate the hydraulic performance of a permeable breakwater. The model of permeable breakwater consists of a pair of identical vertical slotted walls with an impermeable upper and lower part, where the draft is a decimal multiple of the total depth. The middle part is permeable with a porosity of 50%. The second barrier is located at distant of 0.5 and 1.5 of the water depth from the first one. The numerical model is validated by comparisons with previous laboratory data and semi-analytical results of the same model. A good agreement between the numerical results and both laboratory data and semi-analytical results has been shown and the results indicate the applicability of the numerical model to reproduce most of the important features of the interaction. Through the numerical investigation, the friction factor of the model is carefully discussed.

Keywords: coastal structures, permeable breakwater, slotted wall, numerical model, energy dissipation coefficient

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1323 Experimental and Semi-Analytical Investigation of Wave Interaction with Double Vertical Slotted Walls

Authors: H. Ahmed, A. Schlenkhoff, R. Rousta, R. Abdelaziz


Vertical slotted walls can be used as permeable breakwaters to provide economical and environmental protection from undesirable waves and currents inside the port. The permeable breakwaters are partially protection and have been suggested to overcome the environmental disadvantages of fully protection breakwaters. For regular waves a semi-analytical model is based on an eigenfunction expansion method and utilizes a boundary condition at the surface of each wall are developed to detect the energy dissipation through the slots. Extensive laboratory tests are carried out to validate the semi-analytic models. The structure of the physical model contains two walls and it consists of impermeable upper and lower part, where the draft is based a decimal multiple of the total depth. The middle part is permeable with a porosity of 50%. The second barrier is located at a distant of 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 times of the water depth from the first one. A comparison of the theoretical results with previous studies and experimental measurements of the present study show a good agreement and that, the semi-analytical model is able to adequately reproduce most the important features of the experiment.

Keywords: permeable breakwater, double vertical slotted walls, semi-analytical model, transmission coefficient, reflection coefficient, energy dissipation coefficient

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1322 Temperature-Dependent Barrier Characteristics of Inhomogeneous Pd/n-GaN Schottky Barrier Diodes Surface

Authors: K. Al-Heuseen, M. R. Hashim


The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of Pd/n-GaN Schottky barrier were studied at temperatures over room temperature (300-470K). The values of ideality factor (n), zero-bias barrier height (φB0), flat barrier height (φBF) and series resistance (Rs) obtained from I-V-T measurements were found to be strongly temperature dependent while (φBo) increase, (n), (φBF) and (Rs) decrease with increasing temperature. The apparent Richardson constant was found to be 2.1x10-9 Acm-2K-2 and mean barrier height of 0.19 eV. After barrier height inhomogeneities correction, by assuming a Gaussian distribution (GD) of the barrier heights, the Richardson constant and the mean barrier height were obtained as 23 Acm-2K-2 and 1.78eV, respectively. The corrected Richardson constant was very closer to theoretical value of 26 Acm-2K-2.

Keywords: electrical properties, Gaussian distribution, Pd-GaN Schottky diodes, thermionic emission

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
1321 Permeable Reactive Pavement for Controlling the Transport of Benzene, Toluene, Ethyl-Benzene, and Xylene (BTEX) Contaminants

Authors: Shengyi Huang, Chenju Liang


Volatile organic compounds such as benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, and xylene (BTEX) are common contaminants in environment, which could come from asphalt concrete or exhaust emissions of vehicles. The BTEX may invade to the subsurface environment via wet and dry atmospheric depositions. If there aren’t available ways for controlling contaminants’ fate and transport, they would extensively harm natural environment. In the 1st phase of this study, various adsorbents were screened for a suitable one to be an additive in the porous asphalt mixture. In the 2nd phase, addition of the selected adsorbent was incorporated with the design of porous asphalt concrete (PAC) to produce the permeable reactive pavement (PRP), which was subsequently tested for the potential of adsorbing aqueous BTEX as compared to the PAC, in the 3rd phase. The PRP was prepared according to the following steps: firstly, the suitable adsorbent was chosen based on the analytical results of specific surface area analysis, thermal-gravimetric analysis, adsorption kinetics and isotherms, and thermal dynamics analysis; secondly, the materials of coarse aggregate, fine aggregate, filler, asphalt, and fiber were tested in order to meet regulated specifications (e.g., water adsorption, soundness, viscosity etc.) for preparing the PRP; thirdly, the amount of adsorbent additive was determined in the PRP; fourthly, the prepared PAC and PRP were examined for their physical properties (e.g., abrasion loss, drain-down loss, Marshall stability, Marshall flow, dynamic stability etc.). As a result of comparison between PRP and PAC, the PRP showed better physical performance than the traditional PAC. At last, the Marshall Specimen column tests were conducted to explore the adsorption capacities of PAC and PRPs. The BTEX adsorption capacities of PRPs are higher than those obtained from traditional PAC. In summary, PRPs showed superior physical performance and adsorption capacities, which exhibit the potential of PRP to be applied as a replacement of PAC for better controlling the transport of non-point source pollutants.

Keywords: porous asphalt concrete, volatile organic compounds, permeable reactive pavement, non-point source pollution

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1320 Reactive Power Cost Evaluation with FACTS Devices in Restructured Power System

Authors: A. S. Walkey, N. P. Patidar


It is not always economical to provide reactive power using synchronous alternators. The cost of reactive power can be minimized by optimal placing of FACTS devices in power systems. In this paper a Particle Swarm Optimization- Sequential Quadratic Programming (PSO-SQP) algorithm is applied to minimize the cost of reactive power generation along with real power generation to alleviate the bus voltage violations. The effectiveness of proposed approach tested on IEEE-14 bus systems. In this paper in addition to synchronous generators, an opportunity of FACTS devices are also proposed to procure the reactive power demands in the power system.

Keywords: reactive power, reactive power cost, voltage security margins, capability curve, FACTS devices

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1319 A Succinct Method for Allocation of Reactive Power Loss in Deregulated Scenario

Authors: J. S. Savier


Real power is the component power which is converted into useful energy whereas reactive power is the component of power which cannot be converted to useful energy but it is required for the magnetization of various electrical machineries. If the reactive power is compensated at the consumer end, the need for reactive power flow from generators to the load can be avoided and hence the overall power loss can be reduced. In this scenario, this paper presents a succinct method called JSS method for allocation of reactive power losses to consumers connected to radial distribution networks in a deregulated environment. The proposed method has the advantage that no assumptions are made while deriving the reactive power loss allocation method.

Keywords: deregulation, reactive power loss allocation, radial distribution systems, succinct method

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1318 Flow Control around Bluff Bodies by Attached Permeable Plates

Authors: Gokturk Memduh Ozkan, Huseyin Akilli


The aim of present study is to control the unsteady flow structure downstream of a circular cylinder by use of attached permeable plates. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique and dye visualization experiments were performed in deep water and the flow characteristics were evaluated by means of time-averaged streamlines, Reynolds Shear Stress and Turbulent Kinetic Energy concentrations. The permeable plate was made of a chrome-nickel screen having a porosity value of β=0.6 and it was attached on the cylinder surface along its midspan. Five different angles were given to the plate (θ=0°, 15°, 30°, 45°, 60°) with respect to the centerline of the cylinder in order to examine its effect on the flow control. It was shown that the permeable plate is effective on elongating the vortex formation length and reducing the fluctuations in the wake region. Compared to the plain cylinder, the reductions in the values of maximum Reynolds shear stress and Turbulent Kinetic Energy were evaluated as 72.5% and 66%, respectively for the plate angles of θ=45° and 60° which were also found to be suggested for applications concerning the vortex shedding and consequent Vortex-Induced Vibrations.

Keywords: bluff body, flow control, permeable plate, PIV, VIV, vortex shedding

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1317 Investigation of Textile Laminates Structure and Electrical Resistance

Authors: A. Gulbiniene, V. Jankauskaite


Textile laminates with breathable membranes are used extensively in protective footwear. Such polymeric membranes act as a barrier to liquid water and soil entry from the environment, but are sufficiently permeable to water vapour to allow significant amounts of sweat to evaporate and affect the comfort of the wearer. In this paper the influence of absorbed humidity amount on the electrical properties of textiles lining laminates with and without polymeric membrane is presented. It was shown that textile laminate structure and its layers have a great influence on the water vapour absorption. Laminates with polyurethane foam layers show lower ability to absorb water vapour. Semi-permeable membrane increases absorbed humidity amount. The increase of water vapour absorption ability decreases textile laminates' electrical resistance. However, the intensity of the decrease in electrical resistance depends on the textile laminate layers' nature. Laminates with polyamide layers show significantly lower electrical resistance values.

Keywords: electrical resistance, humid atmosphere, textiles laminate, water vapour absorption

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1316 Predicting the Adsorptive Capacities of Biosolid as a Barrier in Soil to Remove Industrial Contaminants

Authors: H. Aguedal, H. Hentit, A. Aziz, D. R. Merouani, A. Iddou


The major environmental risk of soil pollution is the contamination of groundwater by infiltration of organic and inorganic pollutants that can cause a serious pollution. To protect the groundwater, in this study, we proceeded to test the reliability of a bio solid as barrier to prevent the migration of a very dangerous pollutant ‘Cadmium’ through the different soil layers. The follow-up the influence of several parameters, such as: turbidity, pluviometry, initial concentration of cadmium and the nature of soil, allow us to find the most effective manner to integrate this barrier in the soil. From the results obtained, we noted the effective intervention of the barrier. Indeed, the recorded passing quantities are lowest for the highest rainfall; we noted that the barrier has a better affinity towards higher concentrations; the most retained amounts of cadmium has been in the top layer of the two types of soil, while the lowest amounts of cadmium are recorded in the inner layers of soils.

Keywords: adsorption of cadmium, barrier, groundwater pollution, protection

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
1315 Permeable Bio-Reactive Barriers to Tackle Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contamination in the Sub-Antarctic

Authors: Benjamin L. Freidman, Sally L. Gras, Ian Snape, Geoff W. Stevens, Kathryn A. Mumford


Increasing transportation and storage of petroleum hydrocarbons in Antarctic and sub-Antarctic regions have resulted in frequent accidental spills. Migrating petroleum hydrocarbon spills can have a significant impact on terrestrial and marine ecosystems in cold regions, as harsh environmental conditions result in heightened sensitivity to pollution. This migration of contaminants has led to the development of Permeable Reactive Barriers (PRB) for application in cold regions. PRB’s are one of the most practical technologies for on-site or in-situ groundwater remediation in cold regions due to their minimal energy, monitoring and maintenance requirements. The Main Power House site has been used as a fuel storage and power generation area for the Macquarie Island research station since at least 1960. Soil analysis at the site has revealed Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) (C9-C28) concentrations as high as 19,000 mg/kg soil. Groundwater TPH concentrations at this site can exceed 350 mg/L TPH. Ongoing migration of petroleum hydrocarbons into the neighbouring marine ecosystem resulted in the installation of a ‘funnel and gate’ PRB in November 2014. The ‘funnel and gate’ design successfully intercepted contaminated groundwater and analysis of TPH retention and biodegradation on PRB media are currently underway. Installation of the PRB facilitates research aimed at better understanding the contribution of particle attached biofilms to the remediation of groundwater systems. Bench-scale PRB system analysis at The University of Melbourne is currently examining the role biofilms play in petroleum hydrocarbon degradation, and how controlled release nutrient media can heighten the metabolic activity of biofilms in cold regions in the presence of low temperatures and low nutrient groundwater.

Keywords: groundwater, petroleum, Macquarie island, funnel and gate

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1314 The Differences in Normative Beliefs among Schoolchildren with Reactive, Proactive, Reactive-Proactive Aggression, and without Aggression

Authors: Annis Lai Chu Fung


This study is to fill up a research gap on examining the differences in normative beliefs (namely acceptance of weaknesses, acceptance of provoked aggression, and acceptance of unprovoked aggression) among different subtypes of aggressors and non-aggressors (reactive aggressors, proactive aggressors, reactive-proactive aggressors, and non-aggressors,). 2,236 students (1,372 males and 864 females), aged from 11 to 18, completed a self-reported questionnaire. Results revealed that (a) schoolchildren with reactive-proactive aggression have the highest acceptance of provoked aggression, the highest acceptance of unprovoked aggression, and the lowest acceptance of weakness; (b) schoolchildren with proactive aggression have higher acceptance of unprovoked aggression and lower acceptance of weakness than reactive aggressors; and (c) schoolchildren without aggression have the lowest acceptance of provoked aggression, the lowest acceptance of unprovoked aggression, and the highest acceptance of weakness.

Keywords: normative belief, schoolchildren, reactive, proactive, aggression

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1313 Effect of Epoxy-ZrP Nanocomposite Top Coating on Inorganic Barrier Layer

Authors: Haesook Kim, Ha Na Ra, Mansu Kim, Hyun Gi Kim, Sung Soo Kim


Epoxy-ZrP (α-zirconium phosphate) nanocomposites were coated on inorganic barrier layer such as sputtering and atomic layer deposition (ALD) to improve the barrier properties and protect the layer. ZrP nanoplatelets were synthesized using a reflux method and exfoliated in the polymer matrix. The barrier properties of coating layer were characterized by measuring water vapor transmission rate (WVTR). The WVTR dramatically decreased after epoxy-ZrP nanocomposite coating, while maintaining the optical properties. It was also investigated the effect of epoxy-ZrP coating on inorganic layer after bending and reliability test. The optimal structure composed of inorganic and epoxy-ZrP nanocomposite layers was used in organic light emitting diodes (OLED) encapsulation.

Keywords: α-zirconium phosphate, barrier properties, epoxy nanocomposites, OLED encapsulation

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1312 Circadian Regulations in Epithelial Barrier Functions

Authors: Kanami Orihara, Agnia Vibriani, Jayshree Low Jit Sze, Manitahina Mizan, Yao Du


Peripheral clocks are suggested to influence many aspects of keeping our health. However, the circadian profile of epithelial barrier functions is yet to be elucidated. We investigated the circadian profile of gene expressions of epithelial barriers using quantitative PCR in vitro study with human cell lines. The study found that four tight junction molecule gene expressions (CLDN1, CLDN4, OCLN, ZO1), as well as DEFB1 in skin keratinocytes, demonstrated circadian variations. These results suggest that the peripheral clock is taking an important role in keeping the homeostasis of epithelial barrier functions.

Keywords: chronobiology, barrier function, innate immunity, homeostasis

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1311 Energy Efficiency Index Applied to Reactive Systems

Authors: P. Góes, J. Manzi


This paper focuses on the development of an energy efficiency index that will be applied to reactive systems, which is based in the First and Second Law of Thermodynamics, by giving particular consideration to the concept of maximum entropy. Among the requirements of such energy efficiency index, the practical feasibility must be essential. To illustrate the performance of the proposed index, such an index was used as decisive factor of evaluation for the optimization process of an industrial reactor. The results allow the conclusion to be drawn that the energy efficiency index applied to the reactive system is consistent because it extracts the information expected of an efficient indicator, and that it is useful as an analytical tool besides being feasible from a practical standpoint. Furthermore, it has proved to be much simpler to use than tools based on traditional methodologies.

Keywords: energy, efficiency, entropy, reactive

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1310 Semiconductor Nanofilm Based Schottky-Barrier Solar Cells

Authors: Mariyappan Shanmugam, Bin Yu


Schottky-barrier solar cells are demonstrated employing 2D-layered MoS2 and WS2 semiconductor nanofilms as photo-active material candidates synthesized by chemical vapor deposition method. Large area MoS2 and WS2 nanofilms are stacked by layer transfer process to achieve thicker photo-active material studied by atomic force microscopy showing a thickness in the range of ~200 nm. Two major vibrational active modes associated with 2D-layered MoS2 and WS2 are studied by Raman spectroscopic technique to estimate the quality of the nanofilms. Schottky-barrier solar cells employed MoS2 and WS2 active materials exhibited photoconversion efficiency of 1.8 % and 1.7 % respectively. Fermi-level pinning at metal/semiconductor interface, electronic transport and possible recombination mechanisms are studied in the Schottky-barrier solar cells.

Keywords: two-dimensional nanosheet, graphene, hexagonal boron nitride, solar cell, Schottky barrier

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1309 Acoustics Barrier Design to Reduce Railway Noise by Using Maekawa's Method

Authors: Malinda Sabrina, Khoerul Anwar


Railway noise generated by pass-by train has been described as a form of environmental pollutants especially for the residential area near the railway. Many studies have shown, that environmental noise particularly transportation noise has negative effects on people which resulting in annoyance and specific health problems such as cardiovascular disease, cognitive impairment and sleep disturbance. Therefore, various attempts are made to reduce the noise. One method of reducing such noise to acceptable noise levels is to build acoustically barrier walls. The objective of this study was to review the method of reducing railway noise and obtain the preliminary design of the acoustics barrier on the edge of railway tracks close to the residential area. The design of this barrier is using the Maekawa's method. Measurements have been performed in residential areas around the railroads in the Karawang - Indonesia with the absence of an acoustical barrier. From the observation, it was found that the railway was passed by five trains within thirty minutes. With the limited distance between the railway tracks and the location of the residential area as well as the street of residents, then it was obtained that a reduction in sound pressure level is 25 dBA. Maximum sound pressure level obtained is 86.9 dBA then by setting the barrier as high as 4 m at a distance, 2.5 m from the railway, the noise level received by residents in the settlement around the railway line becomes 61.9 dBA.

Keywords: acoustics barrier, Maekawa's method, noise attenuation, railway noise

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1308 On-Site Management from Reactive to Proactive

Authors: Yu-Tzu Chen, Luh-Maan Chang


Construction is an inherently risky industry. The projects have been dominated by reactive actions owing to non-routine in nature. The on-site activities are especially crucial for successful project control. In order to alter actions from reactive to proactive, this paper presents an on-site data collection system utilizing advanced technology RFID and GPS in assisting on-site management with near real time progress monitoring.

Keywords: On-Site management, progress monitoring, RFID, GPS

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1307 A Three Phase Shunt Active Power Filter for Currents Harmonics Elimination and Reactive Power Compensation

Authors: Amar Omeiri


This paper presents a three-phase shunt active power filter for current harmonics suppression and reactive power compensation using the supply current as reference. The proposed APF has a simple control circuit; it consists of detecting the supply current instead of the load current. The advantages of this APF are simplicity of control circuits and low implementation cost. The simulation results show that the proposed APF can compensate the reactive power and suppress current harmonics with two types of non-linear loads.

Keywords: active power filter, current harmonics and reactive power compensation, PWM inverter, Total Harmonic Distortion, power quality

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1306 Reactive Fabrics for Chemical Warfare Agent Decomposition Using Particle Crystallization

Authors: Myungkyu Park, Minkun Kim, Sunghoon Kim, Samgon Ryu


Recently, research for reactive fabrics which have the characteristics of CWA (Chemical Warfare Agent) decomposition is being performed actively. The performance level of decomposition for CWA decomposition in various environmental condition is one of the critical factors in applicability as protective materials for NBC (Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical) protective clothing. In this study, results of performance test for CWA decomposition by reactive fabric made of electrospinning web and reactive particle are presented. Currently, the MOF (metal organic framework) type of UiO-66-NH₂ is frequently being studied as material for decomposing CWA especially blister agent HD [Bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide]. When we test decomposition rate with electrospinning web made of PVB (Polyvinyl Butiral) polymer and UiO-66-NH₂ particle, we can get very high protective performance than the case other particles are applied. Furthermore, if the repellant surface fabric is added on reactive material as the component of protective fabric, the performance of layer by layered reactive fabric could be approached to the level of current NBC protective fabric for HD decomposition rate. Reactive fabric we used in this study is manufactured by electrospinning process of polymer which contains the reactive particle of UiO-66-NH₂, and we performed crystalizing process once again on that polymer fiber web in solvent systems as a second step for manufacturing reactive fabric. Three kinds of polymer materials are used in this process, but PVB was most suitable as an electrospinning fiber polymer considering the shape of product. The density of particle on fiber web and HD decomposition rate is enhanced by secondary crystallization compared with the results which are not processed. The amount of HD penetration by 24hr AVLAG (Aerosol Vapor Liquid Assessment Group) swatch test through the reactive fabrics with secondary crystallization and without crystallization is 24 and 146μg/cm² respectively. Even though all of the reactive fiber webs for this test are combined with repellant surface layer at outer side of swatch, the effects of secondary crystallization of particle for the reactive fiber web are remarkable.

Keywords: CWA, Chemical Warfare Agent, gas decomposition, particle growth, protective clothing, reactive fabric, swatch test

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1305 Simulation of the Reactive Rotational Molding Using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics

Authors: A. Hamidi, S. Khelladi, L. Illoul, A. Tcharkhtchi


Reactive rotational molding (RRM) is a process to manufacture hollow plastic parts with reactive material has several advantages compared to conventional roto molding of thermoplastic powders: process cycle time is shorter; raw material is less expensive because polymerization occurs during processing and high-performance polymers may be used such as thermosets, thermoplastics or blends. However, several phenomena occur during this process which makes the optimization of the process quite complex. In this study, we have used a mixture of isocyanate and polyol as a reactive system. The chemical transformation of this system to polyurethane has been studied by thermal analysis and rheology tests. Thanks to these results of the curing process and rheological measurements, the kinetic and rheokinetik of polyurethane was identified. Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics, a Lagrangian meshless method, was chosen to simulate reactive fluid flow in 2 and 3D configurations of the polyurethane during the process taking into account the chemical, and chemiorehological results obtained experimentally in this study.

Keywords: reactive rotational molding, simulation, smoothed particle hydrodynamics, surface tension, rheology, free surface flows, viscoelastic, interpolation

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1304 Coating of Cotton with Blend of Natural Rubber and Chloroprene Containing Ammonium Acetate for Producing Moisture Vapour Permeable Waterproof Fabric

Authors: Debasish Das, Mainak Mitra, A.Chaudhuri


For the purpose of producing moisture vapor permeable waterproof cotton fabric to be used for protective apparel against rain, cotton fabric was coated with the blend of natural rubber and chloroprene rubber containing ammonium acetate as the water-soluble salt, employing a calendar coating technique. Rubber formulations also contained filler, homogenizer, and a typical sulphur curing system. Natural rubber and chloroprene blend in the blend ratio of 30: 70, containing 25 parts of sodium acetate per hundred parts of rubber was coated on the fabric. The coated fabric was vulcanized thereafter at 140oC for 3 h. Coated and vulcanized fabric was subsequently dipped in water for 45 min, followed by drying in air. Such set of treatments produced optimum results. Coated, vulcanized, washed and dried cotton fabric showed optimum developments in the property profiles in respect of waterproofness, breathability as revealed by moisture vapor transmission rate, coating adhesion, tensile properties, abrasion resistance, flex endurance and fire retardancy. Incorporation of highly water-soluble ammonium acetate salt in the coating formulation and their subsequent removal from vulcanized coated layer affected by post washing in consequent to dipping in the water-bath produced holes of only a few microns in the coating matrix of the fabric. Such microporous membrane formed on the cotton fabric allowed only transportation of moisture vapor through them, giving a moisture vapor transmission rate of 3734 g/m2/24h, while acting as a barrier for large liquid water droplet resisting 120cm of the water column in the hydrostatic water-head tester, rendering the coated cotton fabric waterproof. Examination of surface morphology of vulcanized coating by scanning electron microscopy supported the mechanism proposed for development of breathable waterproof layer on cotton fabric by the process employed above. Such process provides an easy and cost-effective route for achieving moisture vapor permeable waterproof cotton.

Keywords: moisture vapour permeability, waterproofness, chloroprene, calendar coating, coating adhesion, fire retardancy

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1303 Effect of Nitrogen Gaseous Plasma on Cotton Fabric Dyed with Reactive Yellow105

Authors: Mohammad Mirjalili, Hamid Akbarpour


In this work, a bleached well cotton sample was dyed with reactive yellow105 dye and subsequently, the dyed sample was exposed to the plasma condition containing Nitrogen gas at 1 and 5 minutes of plasma exposure time, respectively. The effect of plasma on surface morphology fabric was studied by Scanning Electronic Microscope (SEM). CIELab, K/S, and %R of samples (treated and untreated samples) were measured by a reflective spectrophotometer, and consequently, the experiments show that the sample dyed with Reactive yellow 105 after being washed, with the increase in the operation time of plasma, its dye fastness decreases. In addition, the increase in plasma operation time at constant pressure would increase the destructing effect on the surface morphology of samples dyed with reactive yellow105.

Keywords: cotton fabric, nitrogen cold plasma, reflective spectrophotometer, scanning electronic microscope (SEM), reactive yellow105 dye

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1302 Transport of Reactive Carbo-Iron Composite Particles for in situ Groundwater Remediation Investigated at Laboratory and Field Scale

Authors: Sascha E. Oswald, Jan Busch


The in-situ dechlorination of contamination by chlorinated solvents in groundwater via zero-valent iron (nZVI) is potentially an efficient and prompt remediation method. A key requirement is that nZVI has to be introduced in the subsurface in a way that substantial quantities of the contaminants are actually brought into direct contact with the nZVI in the aquifer. Thus it could be a more flexible and precise alternative to permeable reactive barrier techniques using granular iron. However, nZVI are often limited by fast agglomeration and sedimentation in colloidal suspensions, even more so in the aquifer sediments, which is a handicap for the application to treat source zones or contaminant plumes. Colloid-supported nZVI show promising characteristics to overcome these limitations and Carbo-Iron Colloids is a newly developed composite material aiming for that. The nZVI is built onto finely ground activated carbon of about a micrometer diameter acting as a carrier for it. The Carbo-Iron Colloids are often suspended with a polyanionic stabilizer, and carboxymethyl cellulose is one with good properties for that. We have investigated the transport behavior of Carbo-Iron Colloids (CIC) on different scales and for different conditions to assess its mobility in aquifer sediments as a key property for making its application feasible. The transport properties were tested in one-dimensional laboratory columns, a two-dimensional model aquifer and also an injection experiment in the field. Those experiments were accompanied by non-invasive tomographic investigations of the transport and filtration processes of CIC suspensions. The laboratory experiments showed that a larger part of the CIC can travel at least scales of meters for favorable but realistic conditions. Partly this is even similar to a dissolved tracer. For less favorable conditions this can be much smaller and in all cases a particular fraction of the CIC injected is retained mainly shortly after entering the porous medium. As field experiment a horizontal flow field was established, between two wells with a distance of 5 meters, in a confined, shallow aquifer at a contaminated site in North German lowlands. First a tracer test was performed and a basic model was set up to define the design of the CIC injection experiment. Then CIC suspension was introduced into the aquifer at the injection well while the second well was pumped and samples taken there to observe the breakthrough of CIC. This was based on direct visual inspection and total particle and iron concentrations of water samples analyzed in the laboratory later. It could be concluded that at least 12% of the CIC amount injected reached the extraction well in due course, some of it traveling distances larger than 10 meters in the non-uniform dipole flow field. This demonstrated that these CIC particles have a substantial mobility for reaching larger volumes of a contaminated aquifer and for interacting there by their reactivity with dissolved contaminants in the pore space. Therefore they seem suited well for groundwater remediation by in-situ formation of reactive barriers for chlorinated solvent plumes or even source removal.

Keywords: carbo-iron colloids, chlorinated solvents, in-situ remediation, particle transport, plume treatment

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1301 Reactive Sputter Deposition of Titanium Nitride on Silicon Using a Magnetized Sheet Plasma Source

Authors: Janella Salamania, Marcedon Fernandez, Matthew Villanueva Henry Ramos


Titanium nitrite (TiN) a popular functional and decorative coating because of its golden yellow color, high hardness and superior wear resistance. It is also being studied as a diffusion barrier in integrated circuits due to its known chemical stability and low resistivity. While there have been numerous deposition methods done for TiN, most required the heating of substrates at high temperatures. In this work, TiN films are deposited on silicon (111) and (100) substrates without substrate heating using a patented magnetized sheet plasma source. Films were successfully deposited without substrate heating at various target bias, while maintaining a constant 25% N2 to Ar ratio, and deposition of time of 30 minutes. The resulting films exhibited a golden yellow color which is characteristic of TiN. X-ray diffraction patterns show the formation of TiN predominantly oriented in the (111) direction regardless of substrate used. EDX data also confirms the 1:1 stoichiometry of titanium an nitrogen. Ellipsometry measurements estimate the thickness to range from 28 nm to 33 nm. SEM images were also taken to observe the morphology of the film.

Keywords: coatings, nitrides, coatings, reactive magnetron sputtering, thin films

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1300 Variable Shunt Reactors for Reactive Power Compensation of HV Subsea Cables

Authors: Saeed A. AlGhamdi, Nabil Habli, Vinoj Somasanran


This paper presents an application of 230 kV Variable Shunt Reactors (VSR) used to compensate reactive power of dual 90 KM subsea cables. VSR integrates an on-load tap changer (OLTC) that adjusts reactive power compensation to maintain acceptable bus voltages under variable load profile and network configuration. An automatic voltage regulator (AVR) or a power management system (PMS) that allows VSR rating to be changed in discrete steps typically controls the OLTC. Typical regulation range start as minimum as 20% up to 100% and are available for systems up to 550kV. The regulation speed is normally in the order of seconds per step and approximately a minute from maximum to minimum rating. VSR can be bus or line connected depending on line/cable length and compensation requirements. The flexible reactive compensation ranges achieved by recent VSR technologies have enabled newer facilities design to deploy line connected VSR through either disconnect switches, which saves space and cost, or through circuit breakers. Lines with VSR are typically energized with lower taps (reduced reactive compensation) to minimize or remove the presence of delayed zero crossing.

Keywords: power management, reactive power, subsea cables, variable shunt reactors

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1299 Characterization of current–voltage (I–V) and capacitance–voltage–frequency (C–V–f) features of Au/GaN Schottky diodes

Authors: Abdelaziz Rabehi


The current–voltage (I–V) characteristics of Au/GaN Schottky diodes were measured at room temperature. In addition, capacitance–voltage–frequency (C–V–f) characteristics are investigated by considering the interface states (Nss) at frequency range 100 kHz to 1 MHz. From the I–V characteristics of the Schottky diode, ideality factor (n) and barrier height (Φb) values of 1.22 and 0.56 eV, respectively, were obtained from a forward bias I–V plot. In addition, the interface states distribution profile as a function of (Ess − Ev) was extracted from the forward bias I–V measurements by taking into account the bias dependence of the effective barrier height (Φe) for the Schottky diode. The C–V curves gave a barrier height value higher than those obtained from I–V measurements. This discrepancy is due to the different nature of the I–V and C–V measurement techniques.

Keywords: Schottky diodes, frequency dependence, barrier height, interface states

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1298 A Reactive Flexible Job Shop Scheduling Model in a Stochastic Environment

Authors: Majid Khalili, Hamed Tayebi


This paper considers a stochastic flexible job-shop scheduling (SFJSS) problem in the presence of production disruptions, and reactive scheduling is implemented in order to find the optimal solution under uncertainty. In this problem, there are two main disruptions including machine failure which influences operation time, and modification or cancellation of the order delivery date during production. In order to decrease the negative effects of these difficulties, two derived strategies from reactive scheduling are used; the first one is relevant to being able to allocate multiple machine to each job, and the other one is related to being able to select the best alternative process from other job while some disruptions would be created in the processes of a job. For this purpose, a Mixed Integer Linear Programming model is proposed.

Keywords: flexible job-shop scheduling, reactive scheduling, stochastic environment, mixed integer linear programming

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1297 Identification and Characterization of in Vivo, in Vitro and Reactive Metabolites of Zorifertinib Using Liquid Chromatography Lon Trap Mass Spectrometry

Authors: Adnan A. Kadi, Nasser S. Al-Shakliah, Haitham Al-Rabiah


Zorifertinib is a novel, potent, oral, a small molecule used to treat non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). zorifertinib is an Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) inhibitor and has good blood–brain barrier permeability for (NSCLC) patients with EGFR mutations. zorifertinibis currently at phase II/III clinical trials. The current research reports the characterization and identification of in vitro, in vivo and reactive intermediates of zorifertinib. Prediction of susceptible sites of metabolism and reactivity pathways (cyanide and GSH) of zorifertinib were performed by the Xenosite web predictor tool. In-vitro metabolites of zorifertinib were performed by incubation with rat liver microsomes (RLMs) and isolated perfused rat liver hepatocytes. Extraction of zorifertinib and it's in vitro metabolites from the incubation mixtures were done by protein precipitation. In vivo metabolism was done by giving a single oral dose of zorifertinib(10 mg/Kg) to Sprague Dawely rats in metabolic cages by using oral gavage. Urine was gathered and filtered at specific time intervals (0, 6, 12, 18, 24, 48, 72,96and 120 hr) from zorifertinib dosing. A similar volume of ACN was added to each collected urine sample. Both layers (organic and aqueous) were injected into liquid chromatography ion trap mass spectrometry(LC-IT-MS) to detect vivozorifertinib metabolites. N-methyl piperizine ring and quinazoline group of zorifertinib undergoe metabolism forming iminium and electro deficient conjugated system respectively, which are very reactive toward nucleophilic macromolecules. Incubation of zorifertinib with RLMs in the presence of 1.0 mM KCN and 1.0 Mm glutathione were made to check reactive metabolites as it is often responsible for toxicities associated with this drug. For in vitro metabolites there were nine in vitro phase I metabolites, four in vitro phase II metabolites, eleven reactive metabolites(three cyano adducts, five GSH conjugates metabolites, and three methoxy metabolites of zorifertinib were detected by LC-IT-MS. For in vivo metabolites, there were eight in vivo phase I, tenin vivo phase II metabolitesofzorifertinib were detected by LC-IT-MS. In vitro and in vivo phase I metabolic pathways wereN- demthylation, O-demethylation, hydroxylation, reduction, defluorination, and dechlorination. In vivo phase II metabolic reaction was direct conjugation of zorifertinib with glucuronic acid and sulphate.

Keywords: in vivo metabolites, in vitro metabolites, cyano adducts, GSH conjugate

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