Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8234

Search results for: Ground water

8234 A Novel Approach for the Analysis of Ground Water Quality by Using Classification Rules and Water Quality Index

Authors: Kamakshaiah Kolli, R. Seshadri


Water is a key resource in all economic activities ranging from agriculture to industry. Only a tiny fraction of the planet's abundant water is available to us as fresh water. Assessment of water quality has always been paramount in the field of environmental quality management. It is the foundation for health, hygiene, progress and prosperity. With ever increasing pressure of human population, there is severe stress on water resources. Therefore efficient water management is essential to civil society for betterment of quality of life. The present study emphasizes on the groundwater quality, sources of ground water contamination, variation of groundwater quality and its spatial distribution. The bases for groundwater quality assessment are groundwater bodies and representative monitoring network enabling determination of chemical status of groundwater body. For this study, water samples were collected from various areas of the entire corporation area of Guntur. Water is required for all living organisms of which 1.7% is available as ground water. Water has no calories or any nutrients, but essential for various metabolic activities in our body. Chemical and physical parameters can be tested for identifying the portability of ground water. Electrical conductivity, pH, alkalinity, Total Alkalinity, TDS, Calcium, Magnesium, Sodium, Potassium, Chloride, and Sulphate of the ground water from Guntur district: Different areas of the District were analyzed. Our aim is to check, if the ground water from the above areas are potable or not. As multivariate are present, Data mining technique using JRIP rules was employed for classifying the ground water.

Keywords: groundwater, water quality standards, potability, data mining, JRIP, PCA, classification

Procedia PDF Downloads 355
8233 Hybrid Nano Material of Ground Egg Shells with Metal Oxide for Lead Removal

Authors: A. Threepanich, S. Youngme, P. Praipipat


Although ground egg shells had the ability to eliminate lead in water, their efficiency may decrease in a case of contaminating of other cations such as Na⁺, Ca²⁺ in the water. The development of ground egg shells may solve this problem in which metal oxides are a good choice for this case since they have the ability to remove any heavy metals including lead in the water. Therefore, this study attempts to use this advantage for improving ground egg shells for the specific lead removal efficiency in the water. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) technique was used for the chemical element contents analysis of ground egg shells (GES) and ground egg shells with metal oxide (GESM), and Transmission electron microscope (TEM) technique was used to examine the material sizes. The batch test studies were designed to investigate the factor effects on dose (5, 10, 15 grams), pH (5, 7, 9), and settling time (1, 3, 5 hours) for the lead removal efficiency in the water. The XRF analysis results showed GES contained calcium (Ca) 91.41% and Silicon (Si) 4.03% and GESM contained calcium (Ca) 91.41%, Silicon (Si) 4.03%, and Iron (Fe) 3.05%. TEM results confirmed the sizes of GES and GESM in the range of 1-20 nm. The batch test studies showed the best optimum conditions for the lead removal in the water of GES and GESM in dose, pH, and settling time were 10 grams, pH 9, 5 hours and 5 grams, pH 9, 3 hours, respectively. The competing ions (Na⁺ and Ca²⁺) study reported GESM had the higher % lead removal efficiency than GES at 90% and 60%, respectively. Therefore, this result can confirm that adding of metal oxide to ground egg shells helps to improve the lead removal efficiency in the water.

Keywords: nano material, ground egg shells, metal oxide, lead

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
8232 Ergonomics Sallow Recharge Well for Sustainable Ground Water Resources

Authors: Lilik Sudiajeng, Wiraga Wayan, Lanang Parwita I Gusti


This is the ongoing research started in 2013 with the final aim is to design the recharge wells both for housing and industry for ground water conservation in Bali - Indonesia. The research started in Denpasar Regency, one of the strategic areas in Bali. The research showed that there is some critical area of ground water resources, especially in north and west part of Denpasar Regency. It driven by the rapid increase of the tourism industry which is followed by the high rate of population, change of land use that leads to the decreasing of rain water catchment areas, and less awareness on preserve natural resources, including ground water. Focus Group Discussion concluded that in order to solve the problem of groundwater crisis, requires the contribution of all parties, started from making simple recharge well for housing. Because of the availability of land is limited and expensive, it is necessary to present an ergonomic shallow recharge well in accordance with the ability of the family or community. The ergonomics shallow recharge well is designed based on the data of hydrology and the characteristics of soil. The design is very flexible depending on the availability of land, environmentally friendly, energy efficient, culture-based, and affordable. To meet the recommended standard of ground water quality, then it equipped with a filtration and sedimentation ponds. Before design recharge wells is disseminated to the public, it is necessary to analyze the effectiveness of the wells to harvest and absorb rainwater into the ground.

Keywords: ergonomics, ground water resources, recharge well, sustainable

Procedia PDF Downloads 178
8231 Ground Water Contamination by Tannery Effluents and Its Impact on Human Health in Peshawar, Pakistan

Authors: Fawad Ali, Muhammad Ateeq, Ikhtiar Khan


Ground water, a major source of drinking water supply in Peshawar has been severely contaminated by leather tanning industry. Effluents from the tanneries contain high concentration of chromium besides several other chemical species. Release of untreated effluents from the tanning industry has severely damaged surface and ground water, agriculture soil as well as vegetables and crops. Chromium is a well-known carcinogenic and mutagenic agent. Once in the human food chain, it causes multiple problems to the exposed population including various types of cancer, skin dermatitis, and DNA damage. In order to assess the extent of chromium and other heavy metals contamination, water samples were analyzed for heavy metals using Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (GFAAS, Analyst 700, Perkin Elmer). Total concentration of chromium was above the permissible limit (0.048 mg/l) in 85% of the groundwater (drinking water) samples. The concentration of cobalt, manganese, cadmium, nickel, lead, zinc and iron was also determined in the ground water, surface water, agriculture soil, and vegetables samples from the affected area.

Keywords: heavy metals, soil, groundwater, tannery effluents, food chain

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
8230 Assessment of Ground Water Potential Zone: A Case Study of Paramakudi Taluk, Ramanathapuram, Tamilnadu, India

Authors: Shri Devi


This paper was conducted to see the ground water potential zones in Paramakudi taluk, Ramanathapuram,Tamilnadu India with a total areal extent of 745 sq. km. The various thematic map have been prepared for the study such as soil, geology, geomorphology, drainage, land use of the particular study area using the Toposheet of 1: 50000. The digital elevation model (DEM) has been generated from contour interval of 10m and also the slope was prepared. The ground water potential zone of the region was obtained using the weighted overlay analysis for which all the thematic maps were overlayed in arc gis 10.2. For the particular output the ranking has been given for all the parameters of each thematic layer with different weightage such as 25% was given to soil, 25% to geomorphology and land use land cover also 25%, slope 15%, lineament with 5% and drainage streams with 5 percentage. Using these entire potential zone maps was prepared which was overlayed with the village map to check the region which has good, moderate and low groundwater potential zone.

Keywords: GIS, ground water, Paramakudi, weighted overlay analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 274
8229 Physiochemical Analysis of Ground Water in Zaria, Kaduna state, Nigeria

Authors: E. D. Paul, F. G. Okibe, C. E. Gimba, S. Yakubu


Some physicochemical characteristics and heavy metal concentrations of water samples collected from ten boreholes in Samaru, Zaria, Kaduna state, Nigeria were analysed in order to assess the drinking water quality. Physicochemical parameters were determined using classical methods while the heavy metals were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Results of the analysis obtained were as follows: Temperature 29 – 310C, pH 5.74 – 6.19, Electrical conductivity 3.21 – 7.54 µs, DO 0.51 – 1.00 mg/L, BOD 0.0001 – 0.006 mg/L, COD 160 – 260 mg/L, TDS 2.08 – 4.55 mg/L, Total Hardness 97.44 – 401.36 mg/L CaCO3, and Chloride 0.97 – 59.12 mg/L. Concentrations of heavy metals were in the range; Zinc 0.000 – 0.7568 mg/L, Lead 0.000 – 0.070 mg/L and Cadmium 0.000 – 0.009 mg/L. The implications of these findings are discussed.

Keywords: ground water, water quality, heavy metals, Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS)

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8228 The Utilization of Rain Water to Ground Water with Tube in the Area of Tourism in Yogyakarta

Authors: Kurniawan Agung Pambudi, Alfian Deo Pradipta


Yogyakarta is the famous tourism city in Indonesia. The Tugu Jogja is a tourism center located in Jetis. To support the tourism activities required facilities such as tourist hotel and guest house. The existence of tourism also has an impact on the environment. The surface of the land is covered by cement and a local company dealing in ceramics, then an infiltration process is not running. The existence of the building in layers resulting in the amount of water resource in Jetis decreases. The purpose of this research is to know the impact of the construction of the building in layers in Jetis. To obtain the data done by observation, measurements and taking the land profile, along with the interview to people in Jetis. The results of the study showed that the number of water sources in Jetis, Yogyakarta start decreases as a result of the construction of the building on stilts as a result, the height of the surface of the groundwater decreases and digging a pit must be in to get the source of the waters. Based on the results of research it can be concluded that the height of the surface of the groundwater decreases. To resolve the issue required a method to rainwater can seep into the ground for maximum. The rain that fell upon the precarious houses or other buildings is channeled toward the ground through the tubes with the depth of 1-2 meters. Rainwater will be absorbed into the land and increase the amount of ground water.

Keywords: rain water, tube, water resource, groundwater

Procedia PDF Downloads 141
8227 Sustainable Water Resource Management and Challenges in Indian Agriculture

Authors: Rajendra Kumar Isaac, Monisha Isaac


India, having a vast cultivable area and regional climatic variability, encounters water Resource Management Problems at various levels. The agricultural production of India needs to be increased to meet out projected population growth. Sustainable water resource is the only option to ensure food security, especially in northern Indian states, where the ground and surface water resources are fast depleting. Various tools and technologies available for management of scarce water resources have been discussed. It was concluded that multiple use of water, adopting latest water management options, identification of climate adoptable cropping and farming systems, can enhance water productivity and would encounter the fast growing water management and water shortage problems in Indian agriculture.

Keywords: water resource management, sustainable, water management technologies, water productivity, agriculture

Procedia PDF Downloads 298
8226 Impure Water, a Future Disaster: A Case Study of Lahore Ground Water Quality with GIS Techniques

Authors: Rana Waqar Aslam, Urooj Saeed, Hammad Mehmood, Hameed Ullah, Imtiaz Younas


This research has been conducted to assess the water quality in and around Lahore Metropolitan area on the basis of three different land uses, i.e. residential, commercial, and industrial land uses. For this, 29 sample sites have been selected on the basis of simple random sampling technique. Samples were collected at the source (WASA tube wells). The criteria for selecting sample sites are to have a maximum concentration of population in the selected land uses. The results showed that in the residential land use the proportion of nitrate and turbidity is at their highest level in the areas of Allama Iqbal Town and Samanabad Town. Commercial land use of Gulberg and Data Gunj Bakhsh Town have highest level of proportion of chlorides, calcium, TDS, pH, Mg, total hardness, arsenic and alkalinity. Whereas in industrial type of land use in Ravi and Wahga Town have the proportion of arsenic, Mg, nitrate, pH, and turbidity are at their highest level. The high rate of concentration of these parameters in these areas is basically due to the old and fractured pipelines that allow bacterial as well as physiochemical contaminants to contaminate the portable water at the sources. Furthermore, it is seen in most areas that waste water from domestic, industrial, as well as municipal sources may get easy discharge into open spaces and water bodies, like, cannels, rivers, lakes that seeps and become a part of ground water. In addition, huge dumps located in Lahore are becoming the cause of ground water contamination as when the rain falls, the water gets seep into the ground and impures the ground water quality. On the basis of the derived results with the help of Geo-spatial technology ACRGIS 9.3 Interpolation (IDW), it is recommended that water filtration plants must be installed with specific parameter control. A separate team for proper inspection has to be made for water quality check at the source. Old water pipelines must be replaced with the new pipelines, and safe water depth must be ensured at the source end.

Keywords: GIS, remote sensing, pH, nitrate, disaster, IDW

Procedia PDF Downloads 134
8225 Bearing Capacity of Sulphuric Acid Content Soil

Authors: R. N. Khare, J. P. Sahu, Rajesh Kumar Tamrakar


Tests were conducted to determine the property of soil with variation of H2SO4 content for soils under different stage. The soils had varying amounts of plasticity’s ranging from low to high plasticity. The unsaturated soil behavior was investigated for different conditions, covering a range of compactive efforts and water contents. The soil characteristic curves were more sensitive to changes in compaction effort than changes in compaction water content. In this research paper two types of water (Ground water Ph =7.9, Turbidity= 13 ppm; Cl =2.1mg/l and surface water Ph =8.65; Turbidity=18.5; Cl=1mg/l) were selected of Bhilai Nagar, State-Chhattisgarh, India which is mixed with a certain type of soil. Results shows that by the presence of ground water day by day the particles are becoming coarser in 7 days thereafter its size reduces; on the other hand by the presence of surface water the courser particles are disintegrating, finer particles are accumulating and also the dry density is reduces. Plasticity soils retained the smallest water content and the highest plasticity soils retained the highest water content at a specified suction. In addition, soil characteristic for soils to be compacted in the laboratory and in the field are still under process for analyzing the bearing capacity. The bearing capacity was reduced 2 to 3 times in the presence of H2SO4.

Keywords: soil compaction, H2SO4, soil water, water conditions

Procedia PDF Downloads 449
8224 Thermal Management of Ground Heat Exchangers Applied in High Power LED

Authors: Yuan-Ching Chiang, Chien-Yeh Hsu, Chen Chih-Hao, Sih-Li Chen


The p-n junction temperature of LEDs directly influences their operating life and luminous efficiency. An excessively high p-n junction temperature minimizes the output flux of LEDs, decreasing their brightness and influencing the photon wavelength; consequently, the operating life of LEDs decreases and their luminous output changes. The maximum limit of the p-n junction temperature of LEDs is approximately 120 °C. The purpose of this research was to devise an approach for dissipating heat generated in a confined space when LEDs operate at low temperatures to reduce light decay. The cooling mode of existing commercial LED lights can be divided into natural- and forced convection cooling. In natural convection cooling, the volume of LED encapsulants must be increased by adding more fins to increase the cooling area. However, this causes difficulties in achieving efficient LED lighting at high power. Compared with forced convection cooling, heat transfer through water convection is associated with a higher heat transfer coefficient per unit area; therefore, we dissipated heat by using a closed loop water cooling system. Nevertheless, cooling water exposed to air can be easily influenced by environmental factors. Thus, we incorporated a ground heat exchanger into the water cooling system to minimize the influence of air on cooling water and then observed the relationship between the amounts of heat dissipated through the ground and LED efficiency.

Keywords: helical ground heat exchanger, high power LED, ground source cooling system, heat dissipation

Procedia PDF Downloads 491
8223 Groundwater Utilization and Sustainability: A Case Study of Pydibheemavaram Industrial Area, India

Authors: G. Venkata Rao, R. Srinivasa Rao, B. Neelima Sri Priya


The over extraction of groundwater from the coastal aquifers, result in reduction of groundwater resource and lowering of water level. In general, the depletion of groundwater level enhances the landward migration of saltwater wedge. Now a days the ground water extraction increases by year to year because increased population and industrialization. The ground water is the only source of irrigation, domestic and Industrial purposes at Pydibhimavaram industrial area, which is located in the coastal belt of Srikakulam district, India of Latitudes 18.145N 83.627E and Longitudes 18.099N 83.674E. The present study has been attempted to calculate amount of water getting recharged into this aquifer, status of rainfall pattern for the past two decades and the runoff is calculated by using Khosla’s formula with available rainfall and temperature in the study area. A decision support model has been developed on the basis of Monthly Extractions of the water from the ground through bore wells and the Net Recharge of the aquifer. It is concluded that the amount of extractions is exceeding the amount of recharge from May to October in a given year which will in turn damage the water balance in the subsurface layers.

Keywords: aquifer, decision support model, groundwater extraction, run off estimation and rainfall

Procedia PDF Downloads 210
8222 Effect of Monsoon on Ground Water Quality and Contamination: A Case Study of Narsapur-Mogalthur Mandals, West Godavari District, Andhra Pradesh, India

Authors: M. S. V. K. V. Prasad, G. Siva Praveena, P. V. V. Prasada Rao


It is known that the groundwater quality is very important parameter because it is the main factor determining its suitability for drinking, agricultural and industrial purposes. Water Quality Index (WQI) has been calculated for ground water samples taken from Narsapur-Mogalthur mandals, West Godavari district, Andhra Pradesh, India, from 10 different locations in the pre-monsoon season as well as post monsoon. The water samples were analyzed for pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Total Hardness (TH), major cations like calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium and anions like chloride, nitrate and sulphate in the laboratory using the standard methods given by the American Public Health Association (APHA). The overall quality of water in the study area is somewhat good for all constituents. Drinking water at almost all the locations was found to be slightly contaminated, except a few locations during the year 2014. It was found that some effective measures are urgently required for water quality management in this region.

Keywords: Water Quality Index, Physico-chemical parameters, Quality rating, monsoon

Procedia PDF Downloads 243
8221 Addressing the Water Shortage in Beijing: Increasing Water Use Efficiency in Domestic Sector

Authors: Chenhong Peng


Beijing, the capital city of China, is running out of water. The water resource per capita in Beijing is only 106 cubic meter, accounts for 5% of the country’s average level and less than 2% of the world average level. The tension between water supply and demand is extremely serious. For one hand, the surface and ground water have been over-exploited during the last decades; for the other hand, water demand keep increasing as the result of population and economic growth. There is a massive gap between water supply and demand. This paper will focus on addressing the water shortage in Beijing city by increasing water use efficiency in domestic sector. First, we will emphasize on the changing structure of water supply and demand in Beijing under the economic development and restructure during the last decade. Second, by analyzing the water use efficiency in agriculture, industry and domestic sectors in Beijing, we identify that the key determinant for addressing the water crisis is to increase the water use efficiency in domestic sector. Third, this article will explore the two primary causes for the water use inefficiency in Beijing: The ineffective water pricing policy and the poor water education and communication policy. Finally, policy recommendation will offered to improve the water use efficiency in domestic sector by making and implementing an effective water pricing policy and people-engaged water education and communication policy.

Keywords: Beijing, water use efficiency, domestic sector, water pricing policy, water education policy

Procedia PDF Downloads 444
8220 Investigating the Significance of Ground Covers and Partial Root Zone Drying Irrigation for Water Conservation Weed Suppression and Quality Traits of Wheat

Authors: Muhammad Aown Sammar Raza, Salman Ahmad, Muhammad Farrukh Saleem, Muhammad Saqlain Zaheer, Rashid Iqbal, Imran Haider, Muhammad Usman Aslam, Muhammad Adnan Nazar


One of the main negative effects of climate change is the increasing scarcity of water worldwide, especially for irrigation purpose. In order to ensure food security with less available water, there is a need to adopt easy and economic techniques. Two of the effective techniques are; use of ground covers and partial root zone drying (PRD). A field experiment was arranged to find out the most suitable mulch for PRD irrigation system in wheat. The experiment was comprised of two irrigation methods (I0 = irrigation on both sides of roots and I1= irrigation to only one side of the root as alternate irrigation) and four ground covers (M0= open ground without any cover, M1= black plastic cover, M2= wheat straw cover and M4= cotton sticks cover). More plant height, spike length, number of spikelets and number of grains were found in full irrigation treatment. While water use efficiency and grain nutrient (NPK) contents were more in PRD irrigation. All soil covers suppress the weeds and significantly influenced the yield attributes, final yield as well as the grain nutrient contents. However black plastic cover performed the best. It was concluded that joint use of both techniques was more effective for water conservation and increasing grain yield than their sole application and combination of PRD with black plastic mulch performed the best than other ground covers combination used in the experiment.

Keywords: ground covers, partial root zone drying, grain yield, quality traits, WUE, weed control efficiency

Procedia PDF Downloads 103
8219 Comparison of Petrophysical Relationship for Soil Water Content Estimation at Peat Soil Area Using GPR Common-Offset Measurements

Authors: Nurul Izzati Abd Karim, Samira Albati Kamaruddin, Rozaimi Che Hasan


The appropriate petrophysical relationship is needed for Soil Water Content (SWC) estimation especially when using Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR). Ground penetrating radar is a geophysical tool that provides indirectly the parameter of SWC. This paper examines the performance of few published petrophysical relationships to obtain SWC estimates from in-situ GPR common- offset survey measurements with gravimetric measurements at peat soil area. Gravimetric measurements were conducted to support of GPR measurements for the accuracy assessment. Further, GPR with dual frequencies (250MHhz and 700MHz) were used in the survey measurements to obtain the dielectric permittivity. Three empirical equations (i.e., Roth’s equation, Schaap’s equation and Idi’s equation) were selected for the study, used to compute the soil water content from dielectric permittivity of the GPR profile. The results indicate that Schaap’s equation provides strong correlation with SWC as measured by GPR data sets and gravimetric measurements.

Keywords: common-offset measurements, ground penetrating radar, petrophysical relationship, soil water content

Procedia PDF Downloads 170
8218 Thermal Properties of the Ground in Cyprus and Their Correlations and Effect on the Efficiency of Ground Heat Exchangers

Authors: G. A. Florides, E. Theofanous, I. Iosif-Stylianou, P. Christodoulides, S. Kalogirou, V. Messarites, Z. Zomeni, E. Tsiolakis, P. D. Pouloupatis, G. P. Panayiotou


Ground Coupled Heat Pumps (GCHPs) exploit effectively the heat capacity of the ground, with the use of Ground Heat Exchangers (GHE). Depending on the mode of operation of the GCHPs, GHEs dissipate or absorb heat from the ground. For sizing the GHE the thermal properties of the ground need to be known. This paper gives information about the density, thermal conductivity, specific heat and thermal diffusivity of various lithologies encountered in Cyprus with various relations between these properties being examined through comparison and modeling. The results show that the most important correlation is the one encountered between thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity with both properties showing similar response to the inlet and outlet flow temperature of vertical and horizontal heat exchangers.

Keywords: ground heat exchangers, ground thermal conductivity, ground thermal diffusivity, ground thermal properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 292
8217 Development of Risk Management System for Urban Railroad Underground Structures and Surrounding Ground

Authors: Y. K. Park, B. K. Kim, J. W. Lee, S. J. Lee


To assess the risk of the underground structures and surrounding ground, we collect basic data by the engineering method of measurement, exploration and surveys and, derive the risk through proper analysis and each assessment for urban railroad underground structures and surrounding ground including station inflow. Basic data are obtained by the fiber-optic sensors, MEMS sensors, water quantity/quality sensors, tunnel scanner, ground penetrating radar, light weight deflectometer, and are evaluated if they are more than the proper value or not. Based on these data, we analyze the risk level of urban railroad underground structures and surrounding ground. And we develop the risk management system to manage efficiently these data and to support a convenient interface environment at input/output of data.

Keywords: urban railroad, underground structures, ground subsidence, station inflow, risk

Procedia PDF Downloads 264
8216 Technical Option Brought Solution for Safe Waste Water Management in Urban Public Toilet and Improved Ground Water Table

Authors: Chandan Kumar


Background and Context: Population growth and rapid urbanization resulted nearly 2 Lacs migrants along with families moving to Delhi each year in search of jobs. Most of these poor migrant families end up living in slums and constitute an estimated population of 1.87 lacs every year. Further, more than half (52 per cent) of Delhi’s population resides in places such as unauthorized and resettled colonies. Slum population is fully dependent on public toilet to defecate. In Public toilets, manholes either connected with Sewer line or septic tank. Septic tank connected public toilet faces major challenges to dispose of waste water. They have to dispose of waste water in outside open drain and waste water struck out side of public toilet complex and near to the slum area. As a result, outbreak diseases such as Malaria, Dengue and Chikungunya in slum area due to stagnated waste water. Intervention and Innovation took place by Save the Children in 21 Public Toilet Complexes of South Delhi and North Delhi. These public toilet complexes were facing same waste water disposal problem. They were disposing of minimum 1800 liters waste water every day in open drain. Which caused stagnated water-borne diseases among the nearest community. Construction of Soak Well: Construction of soak well in urban context was an innovative approach to minimizing the problem of waste water management and increased water table of existing borewell in toilet complex. This technique made solution in Ground water recharging system, and additional water was utilized in vegetable gardening within the complex premises. Soak well had constructed with multiple filter media with inlet and safeguarding bed on surrounding surface. After construction, soak well started exhausting 2000 liters of waste water to raise ground water level through different filter media. Finally, we brought a change in the communities by constructing soak well and with zero maintenance system. These Public Toilet Complexes were empowered by safe disposing waste water mechanism and reduced stagnated water-borne diseases.

Keywords: diseases, ground water recharging system, soak well, toilet complex, waste water

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8215 A Case Study of the Ground Collapse Due to Excavation Using Non-Destructive Testing

Authors: Ki-Cheong Yoo, Yushik Han, Heejeung Sohn, Jinwoo Kim


A ground collapse can be caused by natural and artificial factors. Ground collapses that have occurred frequently in Korea were observed and classified into different types by the main contributing factor. In this study, ground collapse induced by groundwater level disturbance in an excavation site was analyzed. Also, ground loosening region around the excavation site was detected and analyzed using non-destructive testing, such as GPR (Ground Penetrating Radar) survey and Electrical Resistivity. The result of the surveys showed that the ground was loosened widely over the surrounding area of the excavation due to groundwater discharge.

Keywords: electrical resistivity, ground collapse, groundwater level, GPR (ground penetrating radar)

Procedia PDF Downloads 110
8214 Ground Water Pollution Investigation around Çorum Stream Basin in Turkey

Authors: Halil Bas, Unal Demiray, Sukru Dursun


Water and ground water pollution at the most of the countries is important problem. Investigation of water pollution source must be carried out to save fresh water. Because fresh water sources are very limited and recent sources are not enough for increasing population of world. In this study, investigation was carried out on pollution factors effecting the quality of the groundwater in Çorum Stream Basin in Turkey. Effect of geological structure of the region and the interaction between the stream and groundwater was researched. For the investigation, stream and groundwater sampling were performed at rainy and dry seasons to see if there is a change on quality parameters. The results were evaluated by the computer programs and then graphics, distribution maps were prepared. Thus, degree of the quality and pollution were tried to understand. According to analysis results, because the results of streams and the ground waters are not so close to each other we can say that there is no interaction between the stream and the groundwater. As the irrigation water, the stream waters are generally in the range between C3S1 region and the ground waters are generally in the range between C3S1 and C4S2 regions according to US Salinity Laboratory Diagram. According to Wilcox diagram stream waters are generally good-permissible and ground waters are generally good permissible, doubtful to unsuitable and unsuitable type. Especially ground waters are doubtful to unsuitable and unsuitable types in dry season. It may be assumed that as the result of relative increase in concentration of salt minerals. Especially samples from groundwater wells bored close to gypsium bearing units have high hardness, electrical conductivity and salinity values. Thus for drinking and irrigation these waters are determined as unsuitable. As a result of these studies, it is understood that the groundwater especially was effected by the lithological contamination rather than the anthropogenic or the other types of pollution. Because the alluvium is covered by the silt and clay lithology it is not affected by the anthropogenic and the other foreign factors. The results of solid waste disposal site leachate indicate that this site would have a risk potential for pollution in the future. Although the parameters did not exceed the maximum dangerous values it does not mean that they will not be dangerous in the future, and this case must be taken into account.

Keywords: Çorum, environment, groundwater, hydrogeology, geology, pollution, quality, stream

Procedia PDF Downloads 424
8213 Assessing Water Quality Using GIS: The Case of Northern Lebanon Miocene Aquifer

Authors: M. Saba, A. Iaaly, E. Carlier, N. Georges


This research focuses on assessing the ground water quality of Northern Lebanon affected by saline water intrusion. The chemical, physical and microbiological parameters were collected in various seasons spanning over the period of two years. Results were assessed using Geographic Information System (GIS) due to its visual capabilities in presenting the pollution extent in the studied region. Future projections of the excessive pumping were also simulated using GIS in order to assess the extent of the problem of saline intrusion in the near future.

Keywords: GIS, saline water, quality control, drinkable water quality standards, pumping

Procedia PDF Downloads 267
8212 Schematic Study of Groundwater Potential Zones in Granitic Terrain Using Remotesensing and GIS Techniques, in Miyapur and Bollaram Areas of Hyderabad, India

Authors: Ishrath, Tapas Kumar Chatterjee


The present study aims developing interpretation and evaluation to integrate various data types for management of existing water resources for sustainable use. Proper study should be followed based on the geomorphology of the area. Thematic maps such as lithology, base map, land use/land cover, geomorphology, drainage and lineaments maps are prepared to study the area by using area toposheet, IRS P6 and LISIII Satellite imagery. These thematic layers are finally integrated by using Arc GIS, Arc View, and software to prepare a ground water potential zones map of the study area. In this study, an integrated approach involving remote sensing and GIS techniques has successfully been used in identifying groundwater potential zones in the study area to classify them as good, moderate and poor. It has been observed that Pediplain shallow (PPS) has good recharge, Pediplain moderate (PPM) has moderately good recharge, Pediment Inselberg complex (PIC) has poor recharge and Inselberg (I) has no recharge. The study has concluded that remote sensing and GIS techniques are very efficient and useful for identifying ground water potential zones.

Keywords: satellite remote sensing, GIS, ground water potential zones, Miyapur

Procedia PDF Downloads 367
8211 Resolution Method for Unforeseen Ground Condition Problem Case in Coal Fired Steam Power Plant Project Location Adipala, Indonesia

Authors: Andi Fallahi, Bona Ryan Situmeang


The Construction Industry is notoriously risky. Much of the preparatory paperwork that precedes construction project can be viewed as the formulation of risk allocation between the owner and the Contractor. The Owner is taking the risk that his project will not get built on the schedule that it will not get built for what he has budgeted and that it will not be of the quality he expected. The Contractor Face a multitude of risk. One of them is an unforeseen condition at the construction site. The Owner usually has the upper hand here if the unforeseen condition occurred. Site data contained in Ground Investigation report is often of significant contractual importance in disputes related to the unforeseen ground condition. A ground investigation can never fully disclose all the details of the underground condition (Risk of an unknown ground condition can never be 100% eliminated). Adipala Coal Fired Steam Power Plant (CSFPP) 1 x 660 project is one of the large CSFPP project in Indonesia based on Engineering, Procurement, and Construction (EPC) Contract. Unforeseen Ground Condition it’s responsible by the Contractor has stipulated in the clausal of Contract. In the implementation, there’s indicated unforeseen ground condition at Circulating Water Pump House (CWPH) area which caused the Contractor should be changed the Method of Work that give big impact against Time of Completion and Cost Project. This paper tries to analyze the best way for allocating the risk between The Owner and The Contractor. All parties that allocating of sharing risk fairly can ultimately save time and money for all parties, and get the job done on schedule for the least overall cost.

Keywords: unforeseen ground condition, coal fired steam power plant, circulating water pump house, Indonesia

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8210 Feasibility of Ground Alkali-Active Sandstone Powder for Use in Concrete as Mineral Admixture

Authors: Xia Chen, Hua-Quan Yang, Shi-Hua Zhou


Alkali-active sandstone aggregate was ground by vertical and ball mill into particles with residue over 45 μm less than 12%, and investigations have been launched on particles distribution and characterization of ground sandstone powder, fluidity, heat of hydration, strength as well as hydration products morphology of pastes with incorporation of ground sandstone powder. Results indicated that ground alkali-active sandstone powder with residue over 45 μm less than 8% was easily obtainable, and specific surface area was more sensitive to characterize its fineness with extension of grinding length. Incorporation of sandstone powder resulted in higher water demand and lower strength, advanced hydration of C3A and C2S within 3days and refined pore structure. Based on its manufacturing, characteristics and influence on properties of pastes, it was concluded that sandstone powder was a good selection for use in concrete as mineral admixture.

Keywords: concrete, mineral admixture, hydration, structure

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8209 Ancient Iran Water Technologies

Authors: Akbar Khodavirdizadeh, Ali Nemati Babaylou, Hassan Moomivand


The history of human access to water technique has been one of the factors in the formation of human civilizations in the ancient world. The technique that makes surface water and groundwater accessible to humans on the ground has been a clever technique in human life to reach the water. In this study, while examining the water technique of ancient Iran using the Qanats technique, the water supply system of different regions of the ancient world were also studied and compared. Six groups of the ancient region of ancient Greece (Archaic 480-750 BC and Classical 223-480 BC), Urartu in Tuspa (600-850 BC), Petra (106-168 BC), Ancient Rome (265 BC), and the ancient United States (1450 BC) and ancient Iranian water technologies were studied under water supply systems. Past water technologies in these areas: water transmission systems in primary urban centers, use of water structures in water control, use of bridges in water transfer, construction of waterways for water transfer, storage of rainfall, construction of various types of pottery- ceramic, lead, wood and stone pipes have been used in water transfer, flood control, water reservoirs, dams, channel, wells, and Qanat. The central plateau of Iran is one of the arid and desert regions. Archaeological, geomorphological, and paleontological studies of the central region of the Iranian plateau showed that without the use of Qanats, the possibility of urban civilization in this region was difficult and even impossible. Zarch aqueduct is the most important aqueduct in Yazd region. Qanat of Zarch is a plain Qanat with a gallery length of 80 km; its mother well is 85 m deep and has 2115 well shafts. The main purpose of building the Qanat of Zārch was to access the groundwater source and transfer it to the surface of the ground. Regarding the structure of the aqueduct and the technique of transferring water from the groundwater source to the surface, it has a great impact on being different from other water techniques in the ancient world. The results show that the use of water technologies in ancient is very important to understand the history of humanity in the use of hydraulic techniques.

Keywords: ancient water technologies, groundwaters, qanat, human history, Ancient Iran

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8208 The Damage and Durability of a Sport Synthetic Resin Floor: A Case Study

Authors: C. Paglia, C. Mosca


Synthetic resin floorsare often used in sport infrastructure. These organic materials are often in contact with a bituminous substrate, which in turn is placed on the ground. In this work, the damage of a basket resin field surface was characterized by means of visual inspection, optical microscopy, resin thickness measurements, adhesion strength, water vapor transmission capacity, capillary water adsorption, granulometry of the bituminous conglomerate, the surface properties, and the water ground infiltration speed. The infiltration speed indicates water pemeability. This was due to its composition: clean sand mixed with gravel. Relatively good adhesion was present between the synthetic resin and the bituminous layer. The adhesion resistance of the bituminous layer was relatively low. According to the required bitumoniousasphalt-concrete mixes AC 11 S, the placed material was more porous. Insufficient constipation was present. The spaces values were above the standard limits, while the apparent densities were lower compared to the conventional AC 11 mixtures. The microstructure outlines the high permeability and porosity of the bituminous layer. The synthetic resin wasvapourproof and did not exhibit capillary adsorption. It exhibited a lower thickness as required, and no multiple placing steps were observed. Multiple cavities were detected along with the interface between the bituminous layer and the resin coating with no intermediate layers. The layer for the pore filling in the bituminous surface was not properly applied. The swelling bubbles on the synthetic pavement were caused by the humidity in the bituminous layer. Water or humidity were present prior to the application of the resin, and the effect was worsened by the upward movement of the water from the ground.

Keywords: resin, floor, damage, durability

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8207 Mitigating the Vulnerability of Subsistence Farmers through Ground Water Optimisation

Authors: Olayemi Bakre


The majoritant of the South African rural populace are directly or indirectly engaged in agricultural practices for a livelihood. However, impediments such as the climate change and inadequacy of governmental support has undermined the once thriving subsistence farming communities of South Africa. Furthermore, the poor leadership in hydrology, coupled with lack of depths in skills to facilitate the understanding and acceptance of groundwater from national level to local governance has made it near impossible for subsistence farmers to optimally benefit from the groundwater beneath their feet. The 2012 drought experienced in South Africa paralysed the farming activities across several subsistence farming communities across the KwaZulu-Natal Province. To revamp subsistence farming, a variety of interventions and strategies such as the Resource Poor Farmers (RPF) and Water Allocation Reforms (WAR) have been launched by the Department of Water and Sanitation (DWS) as an agendum to galvanising the defunct subsistence farming communities of KwaZulu-Natal as well as other subsistence farming communities across South Africa. Despite the enormous resources expended on the subsistence farming communities whom often fall under the Historically Disadvantaged Individuals (HDI); indicators such as the unsustainable farming practices, poor crop yield, pitiable living condition as well as the poor standard of living, are evidential to the claim that these afore cited interventions and a host of other similar strategies indicates that these initiatives have not yield the desired result. Thus, this paper seeks to suggest practicable interventions aimed at salvaging the vulnerability of subsistence farmers within the province understudy. The study pursued a qualitative approach as the view of experts on ground water and similarly related fields from the DWS were solicited as an agendum to obtaining in-depth perspective into the current study. Some of the core challenges undermining the sustainability and growth of subsistence farming in the area of study were - inadequacy of experts (engineers, scientist, researchers) in ground water; water shortages; lack of political will as well as lack of coordination among stakeholders. As an agendum to optimising the ground water usage for subsistence farming, this paper advocates the strengthening of geohydrological skills, development of technical training capacity, interactive participation among stakeholders as well as the initiation of Participatory Action Research as an agenda to optimising the available ground water in KwaZulu-Natal which is intended to orchestrate a sustainable and viable subsistence farming practice within the province.

Keywords: subsistence farming, ground water optimisation, resource poor farmers, and water allocation reforms, hydrology

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8206 The Study of Hydro Physical Complex Characteristic of Clay Soil-Ground of Colchis Lowland

Authors: Paata Sitchinava


It has been studied phenomena subjected on the water physical (hydrophysical, mineralogy containing, specific hydrophysical) class of heavy clay soils of the Colchis lowland, according to various categories and forms of the porous water, which will be the base of the distributed used methods of the engineering practice and reclamation effectiveness evaluation. According to of clay grounds data, it has been chosen three research bases section in the central part of lowland, where has implemented investigation works by using a special program. It has been established, that three of cuts are somewhat identical, and by morphological grounds separated layers are the difference by Gallic quality. It has been implemented suitable laboratory experimental research at the samples taken from the cuts, at the base of these created classification mark of physical-technical characteristic, which is the base of suitable calculation of hydrophysical researches.

Keywords: Colchis lowland, drainage, water, soil-ground

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8205 Hydrological Analysis for Urban Water Management

Authors: Ranjit Kumar Sahu, Ramakar Jha


Urban Water Management is the practice of managing freshwater, waste water, and storm water as components of a basin-wide management plan. It builds on existing water supply and sanitation considerations within an urban settlement by incorporating urban water management within the scope of the entire river basin. The pervasive problems generated by urban development have prompted, in the present work, to study the spatial extent of urbanization in Golden Triangle of Odisha connecting the cities Bhubaneswar (20.2700° N, 85.8400° E), Puri (19.8106° N, 85.8314° E) and Konark (19.9000° N, 86.1200° E)., and patterns of periodic changes in urban development (systematic/random) in order to develop future plans for (i) urbanization promotion areas, and (ii) urbanization control areas. Remote Sensing, using USGS (U.S. Geological Survey) Landsat8 maps, supervised classification of the Urban Sprawl has been done for during 1980 - 2014, specifically after 2000. This Work presents the following: (i) Time series analysis of Hydrological data (ground water and rainfall), (ii) Application of SWMM (Storm Water Management Model) and other soft computing techniques for Urban Water Management, and (iii) Uncertainty analysis of model parameters (Urban Sprawl and correlation analysis). The outcome of the study shows drastic growth results in urbanization and depletion of ground water levels in the area that has been discussed briefly. Other relative outcomes like declining trend of rainfall and rise of sand mining in local vicinity has been also discussed. Research on this kind of work will (i) improve water supply and consumption efficiency (ii) Upgrade drinking water quality and waste water treatment (iii) Increase economic efficiency of services to sustain operations and investments for water, waste water, and storm water management, and (iv) engage communities to reflect their needs and knowledge for water management.

Keywords: Storm Water Management Model (SWMM), uncertainty analysis, urban sprawl, land use change

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