Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 56

Search results for: pathwise sensitivities

56 Monte Carlo Pathwise Sensitivities for Barrier Options with Application to Coco-Bond Calibration

Authors: Thomas Gerstner, Bastian von Harrach, Daniel Roth

Abstract:

The Monte Carlo pathwise sensitivities approach is well established for smooth payoff functions. In this work, we present a new Monte Carlo algorithm that is able to calculate the pathwise sensitivities for discontinuous payoff functions. Our main tool is the one-step survival idea of Glasserman and Staum. Although this technique yields to new terms per observation, while differentiating, the algorithm is still efficient. As an application, we use the results for a two-dimensional calibration of a Coco-Bond, which we model with different types of discretely monitored barrier options.

Keywords: Monte Carlo, discretely monitored barrier options, pathwise sensitivities, Coco-Bond

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55 Non–Geometric Sensitivities Using the Adjoint Method

Authors: Marcelo Hayashi, João Lima, Bruno Chieregatti, Ernani Volpe

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The adjoint method has been used as a successful tool to obtain sensitivity gradients in aerodynamic design and optimisation for many years. This work presents an alternative approach to the continuous adjoint formulation that enables one to compute gradients of a given measure of merit with respect to control parameters other than those pertaining to geometry. The procedure is then applied to the steady 2–D compressible Euler and incompressible Navier–Stokes flow equations. Finally, the results are compared with sensitivities obtained by finite differences and theoretical values for validation.

Keywords: adjoint method, aerodynamics, sensitivity theory, non-geometric sensitivities

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54 Comparison of Overall Sensitivity of Meloidogyne incognita to Pure Cucurbitacins and Cucurbitacin-Containing Crude Extracts

Authors: Zakheleni P. Dube, Phatu W. Mashela

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The Curve-fitting Allelochemical Response Data (CARD) model had been adopted as a valuable tool in enhancing the understanding of the efficacy of cucurbitacin-containing phytonematicides on the suppression of nematodes. In most cases, for registration purposes, the active ingredients should be in purified form. Evidence in other phytonematicides suggested that purified active ingredients were less effective in suppression of nematodes. The objective of this study was to use CARD model to compare the overall sensitivities of Meloidogyne incognita J2 hatch, mobility and mortality to Nemarioc-AL phytonematicides, cucurbitacin A, Nemafric-BL phytonematicide and cucurbitacin B. Meloidogyne incognita eggs and J2 were exposed to 0.00, 0.50, 1.00, 1.50, 2.00, 2.50, 3.00, 3.50, 4.00, 4.50 and 5.00% of each phytonematicide, whereas in purified form the concentrations were 0.00, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00, 1.25, 1.50, 1.75, 2.00, 2.25 and 2.50 μg.mL⁻¹. The exposure period to each concentration was 24-, 48- and 72-h. The overall sensitivities of J2 hatch to Nemarioc-AL phytonematicide, cucurbitacin A, Nemafric-BL phytonematicide and cucurbitacin B were 1, 30, 5 and 2 units, respectively, whereas J2 mobiltity were 3, 17, 3 and 6 units, respectively. For J2 mortality overall sensitivities to Nemarioc-AL phytonematicide, cucurbitacin A, Nemafric-BL phytonematicide and cucurbitacin B were 2, 4, 1 and 4 units, respectively. In conclusion, the two crude extracts, Nemarioc-AL and Nemafric-BL phytonematicides were generally more potent to M. incognita compared to their pure active ingredients. The crude plant extract preparation is easy, and they could be an ideal tactic for the management of nematodes in resource poor farming communities.

Keywords: Botanicals, cucumin, leptodermin, plant extracts, triterpenoids

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53 Portfolio Optimization Based on Neural Networks Sensitivities From Assets Dynamics Respect Common Drivers

Authors: Alejandro Rodriguez Dominguez

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In this work, we present a framework for modeling portfolio dynamics and how to incorporate this information into the portfolio selection process. We define drivers for asset and portfolio dynamics and their optimal selection. We introduce the Principle of Commonality for Portfolio Drivers, which gives a solution for the optimal selection of portfolio drivers as being the common drivers. The principle is proved with Modern Portfolio Theory and Reichenbach’s Common Cause Principle. Asset dynamics are modeled with PDEs and approximated with Neural Networks, and sensitivities of portfolio constituents with respect to portfolio common drivers are obtained via Automatic Adjoint Differentiation (AAD). Information on asset dynamics is incorporated via sensitivities into the portfolio selection process. Sensitivities are projections of portfolio constituents into a hypersurface metric space formed by the returns of common drivers of the portfolio. A distance matrix of portfolio constituents in this embedded space of sensitivities with respect to common drivers is computed as the Sensitivity Matrix. The Principle of Commonality allows for the necessary geometric link between the hyperplane formed by portfolio constituents in a traditional Mean-Variance setup with no exogenous information and the hypersurface formed by the vector space of common portfolio drivers so that when portfolio constituents are projected into this hypersurface, the representations of idiosyncratic risks from the hyperplane are kept at most in this subspace, while systematic risks representations are added via exogenous information as part of this common drivers vector space. The geometric link is based on a probability measure which is the consequence of the Common Cause Principle. To the best of the author’s knowledge, this is the literature that a methodology can achieve maximum idiosyncratic diversification while keeping systematic diversification thanks to the Principle of Commonality for Portfolio Drivers. Also, to the best of the author’s knowledge, that neural networks are used to approximate asset and portfolio dynamics, and sensitivities are incorporated as part of the portfolio optimization process. The sensitivity matrix, which is a similarity matrix of the projections of portfolio constituents in the metric space of common drivers, can be used to optimize for diversification on both idiosyncratic and systematic risks. Finally, we solve the convex optimization problem for optimal diversification by applying hierarchical clustering to the sensitivity matrix, avoiding quadratic optimizers due to the properties of this matrix. We apply numerical methods from the literature to the matrix of hierarchies to solve the convex optimization problem. We reach over-performance in all experiments with respect to all other out-of-sample methods for different markets and real datasets. We also include a recipe for the methodology to increase performance even further and tackle the main issues in portfolio management, such as regimes, non-stationarity, overfitting, and selection bias.

Keywords: automatic adjoin differentiation, causality, hierarchical clustering, neural networks, partial differential equations, portfolio optimization, risk management, sensitivity analysis

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52 Determination of Strain Rate Sensitivity (SRS) for Grain Size Variants on Nanocrystalline Materials Produced by ARB and ECAP

Authors: P. B. Sob, T. B. Tengen, A. A. Alugongo

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Mechanical behavior of 6082T6 aluminum is investigated at different temperatures. The strain rate sensitivity is investigated at different temperatures on the grain size variants. The sensitivity of the measured grain size variants on 3-D grain is discussed. It is shown that the strain rate sensitivities are negative for the grain size variants during the deformation of nanostructured materials. It is also observed that the strain rate sensitivities vary in different ways with the equivalent radius, semi minor axis radius, semi major axis radius and major axis radius. From the obtained results, it is shown that the variation of strain rate sensitivity with temperature suggests that the strain rate sensitivity at the low and the high temperature ends of the 6082T6 aluminum range is different. The obtained results revealed transition at different temperature from negative strain rate sensitivity as temperature increased on the grain size variants.

Keywords: nanostructured materials, grain size variants, temperature, yield stress, strain rate sensitivity

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51 Evaluating the Effect of Nursing Ethics Education on Nursing Students' Sensitivity and Moral Judgments

Authors: Hsiao Lu Lee

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This study was based Quasi-experimental design. The study explored the relationships of nursing ethics education, nursing students’ moral sensitivity and moral judgments in Taiwan. A total of 242 nursing students (NS) participated the study.The proposed teaching nursing ethics from 2 to 16 weeks. Three questionnaires were adopted in this study. First, Demographic of nursing students questionnaire; Second, the questionnaire is Taiwan’s Moral Sensitivity Questionnaire for Student Nurses (TMMSQ-SN); Third, Defining Issues Test (DIT). The pre-test data were collected during the first week, and the post-test data was collected during the 17ᵗʰ week of the semester. The purpose of the study is explored evaluating the effect of nursing ethics education on nursing students’ moral sensitivity and moral judgments. The results of the study showed that moral sensitivities and moral judgments have been significantly improved after 16 weeks (Pair-t=--11.10***; Pair-t=-7.393***). Moral sensitivities and moral judgments were significant in the pretest. There was a negative correlation, but there was no correlation between moral sensitivity and moral judgments in the post-test. There was a significant correlation between the moral judgments (DIT)and the hours of work and other ethical courses (r=.28**; r=.015*). Nursing ethics education is necessary for nursing students in Taiwan. The nursing ethics courses are necessary to improve nursing students’ moral sensitivity and moral judgment (DIT).

Keywords: defining issues test, moral judgments, moral sensitivity, nursing ethics education, nursing students

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50 Efficient Computer-Aided Design-Based Multilevel Optimization of the LS89

Authors: A. Chatel, I. S. Torreguitart, T. Verstraete

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The paper deals with a single point optimization of the LS89 turbine using an adjoint optimization and defining the design variables within a CAD system. The advantage of including the CAD model in the design system is that higher level constraints can be imposed on the shape, allowing the optimized model or component to be manufactured. However, CAD-based approaches restrict the design space compared to node-based approaches where every node is free to move. In order to preserve a rich design space, we develop a methodology to refine the CAD model during the optimization and to create the best parameterization to use at each time. This study presents a methodology to progressively refine the design space, which combines parametric effectiveness with a differential evolutionary algorithm in order to create an optimal parameterization. In this manuscript, we show that by doing the parameterization at the CAD level, we can impose higher level constraints on the shape, such as the axial chord length, the trailing edge radius and G2 geometric continuity between the suction side and pressure side at the leading edge. Additionally, the adjoint sensitivities are filtered out and only smooth shapes are produced during the optimization process. The use of algorithmic differentiation for the CAD kernel and grid generator allows computing the grid sensitivities to machine accuracy and avoid the limited arithmetic precision and the truncation error of finite differences. Then, the parametric effectiveness is computed to rate the ability of a set of CAD design parameters to produce the design shape change dictated by the adjoint sensitivities. During the optimization process, the design space is progressively enlarged using the knot insertion algorithm which allows introducing new control points whilst preserving the initial shape. The position of the inserted knots is generally assumed. However, this assumption can hinder the creation of better parameterizations that would allow producing more localized shape changes where the adjoint sensitivities dictate. To address this, we propose using a differential evolutionary algorithm to maximize the parametric effectiveness by optimizing the location of the inserted knots. This allows the optimizer to gradually explore larger design spaces and to use an optimal CAD-based parameterization during the course of the optimization. The method is tested on the LS89 turbine cascade and large aerodynamic improvements in the entropy generation are achieved whilst keeping the exit flow angle fixed. The trailing edge and axial chord length, which are kept fixed as manufacturing constraints. The optimization results show that the multilevel optimizations were more efficient than the single level optimization, even though they used the same number of design variables at the end of the multilevel optimizations. Furthermore, the multilevel optimization where the parameterization is created using the optimal knot positions results in a more efficient strategy to reach a better optimum than the multilevel optimization where the position of the knots is arbitrarily assumed.

Keywords: adjoint, CAD, knots, multilevel, optimization, parametric effectiveness

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49 Exploring the Process of Cultivating Tolerance: The Case of a Pakistani University

Authors: Uzma Rashid, Mommnah Asad

Abstract:

As more and more people fall victim to the intolerance that has become a plague globally, academicians are faced with the herculean task of sowing the roots for more tolerant individuals. Being the multilayered task that it is, promoting an acceptance of diversity and pushing an agenda to push back hate requires efforts on multiple levels. Not only does the curriculum need to be in line with such goals, but teachers also need to be trained to cater to the sensitivities surrounding conversations of tolerance and diversity. In addition, institutional support needs to be there to provide conducive conditions for a diversity driven learning process to take place. In reality, teachers have to struggle with forwarding ideas about diversity and tolerance which do not sound particularly risky to be shared but given the current socio-political and religious milieu, can put the teacher in a difficult position and can make the task exponentially challenging. This paper is based on an auto-ethnographic account of teaching undergraduate and graduate courses at a private university in Pakistan. These courses were aimed at teaching tolerance to adult learners through classes focused on key notions pertaining to religion, culture, gender, and society. Authors’ classroom experiences with the students in these courses indicate a marked heightening of religious sensitivities that can potentially threaten a teacher’s life chances and become a hindrance in deep, meaningful conversations, thus lending a superficiality to the whole endeavor. The paper will discuss in detail the challenges that this teacher dealt with in the process, how those were addressed, and locate them in the larger picture of how tolerance can be materialized in current times in the universities in Pakistan and in similar contexts elsewhere.

Keywords: tolerance, diversity, gender, Pakistani Universities

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48 Carbon-Based Electrochemical Detection of Pharmaceuticals from Water

Authors: M. Ardelean, F. Manea, A. Pop, J. Schoonman

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The presence of pharmaceuticals in the environment and especially in water has gained increasing attention. They are included in emerging class of pollutants, and for most of them, legal limits have not been set-up due to their impact on human health and ecosystem was not determined and/or there is not the advanced analytical method for their quantification. In this context, the development of various advanced analytical methods for the quantification of pharmaceuticals in water is required. The electrochemical methods are known to exhibit the great potential for high-performance analytical methods but their performance is in direct relation to the electrode material and the operating techniques. In this study, two types of carbon-based electrodes materials, i.e., boron-doped diamond (BDD) and carbon nanofiber (CNF)-epoxy composite electrodes have been investigated through voltammetric techniques for the detection of naproxen in water. The comparative electrochemical behavior of naproxen (NPX) on both BDD and CNF electrodes was studied by cyclic voltammetry, and the well-defined peak corresponding to NPX oxidation was found for each electrode. NPX oxidation occurred on BDD electrode at the potential value of about +1.4 V/SCE (saturated calomel electrode) and at about +1.2 V/SCE for CNF electrode. The sensitivities for NPX detection were similar for both carbon-based electrode and thus, CNF electrode exhibited superiority in relation to the detection potential. Differential-pulsed voltammetry (DPV) and square-wave voltammetry (SWV) techniques were exploited to improve the electroanalytical performance for the NPX detection, and the best results related to the sensitivity of 9.959 µA·µM-1 were achieved using DPV. In addition, the simultaneous detection of NPX and fluoxetine -a very common antidepressive drug, also present in water, was studied using CNF electrode and very good results were obtained. The detection potential values that allowed a good separation of the detection signals together with the good sensitivities were appropriate for the simultaneous detection of both tested pharmaceuticals. These results reclaim CNF electrode as a valuable tool for the individual/simultaneous detection of pharmaceuticals in water.

Keywords: boron-doped diamond electrode, carbon nanofiber-epoxy composite electrode, emerging pollutans, pharmaceuticals

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47 Method to Find a ε-Optimal Control of Stochastic Differential Equation Driven by a Brownian Motion

Authors: Francys Souza, Alberto Ohashi, Dorival Leao

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We present a general solution for finding the ε-optimal controls for non-Markovian stochastic systems as stochastic differential equations driven by Brownian motion, which is a problem recognized as a difficult solution. The contribution appears in the development of mathematical tools to deal with modeling and control of non-Markovian systems, whose applicability in different areas is well known. The methodology used consists to discretize the problem through a random discretization. In this way, we transform an infinite dimensional problem in a finite dimensional, thereafter we use measurable selection arguments, to find a control on an explicit form for the discretized problem. Then, we prove the control found for the discretized problem is a ε-optimal control for the original problem. Our theory provides a concrete description of a rather general class, among the principals, we can highlight financial problems such as portfolio control, hedging, super-hedging, pairs-trading and others. Therefore, our main contribution is the development of a tool to explicitly the ε-optimal control for non-Markovian stochastic systems. The pathwise analysis was made through a random discretization jointly with measurable selection arguments, has provided us with a structure to transform an infinite dimensional problem into a finite dimensional. The theory is applied to stochastic control problems based on path-dependent stochastic differential equations, where both drift and diffusion components are controlled. We are able to explicitly show optimal control with our method.

Keywords: dynamic programming equation, optimal control, stochastic control, stochastic differential equation

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46 Comparison of the Response of TLD-100 and TLD-100H Dosimeters in Diagnostic Radiology

Authors: S. Sina, B. Zeinali, M. Karimipourfard, F. Lotfalizadeh, M. Sadeghi, E. Zamani, M. Zehtabian, R. Faghihi

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Proper dosimetery is very essential in diagnostic radiology. The goal of this study is to verify the application of LiF:Mg, Cu, P (TLD100H) in obtaining the entrance skin dose (ESD) of patients undergoing diagnostic radiology. The results of dosimetry performed by TLD-100H were compared with those obtained by TLD100, which is a common dosimeter in diagnostic radiology. The results show a close agreement between the dose measured by the two dosimeters. According to the results of this study, the TLD-100H dosimeters have higher sensitivities (i.e. signal(nc)/dose) than TLD-100. Therefore, it is suggested that the TLD-100H are effective dosimeters for dosimetry in low dose fields.

Keywords: entrance skin dose, TLD, diagnostic radiology, dosimeter

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45 Quantitative Analysis of Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) Using Micromechanical Piezoresistive Cantilever

Authors: Meisam Omidi, M. Mirijalili, Mohammadmehdi Choolaei, Z. Sharifi, F. Haghiralsadat, F. Yazdian

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In this work, we have used arrays of micromechanical piezoresistive cantilever with different geometries to detect carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), which is known as an important biomarker associated with various cancers such as the colorectal, lung, breast, pancreatic, and bladder cancer. The sensing principle is based on the surface stress changes induced by antigen–antibody interaction on the microcantilevers surfaces. Different concentrations of CEA in a human serum albumin (HSA) solution were detected as a function of the deflection of the beams. According to the experiments, it was revealed that microcantilevers have surface stress sensitivities in the order of 8 (mJ/m). This matter allows them to detect CEA concentrations as low as 3 ng/mL or 18 pM. This indicates the fact that the self-sensing microcantilever approach is beneficial for pathological tests.

Keywords: micromechanical biosensors, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), surface stress

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44 Effect of Parameters for Exponential Loads on Voltage Transmission Line with Compensation

Authors: Benalia Nadia, Bensiali Nadia, Zerzouri Noura

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This paper presents an analysis of the effects of parameters np and nq for exponential load on the transmission line voltage profile, transferred power and transmission losses for different shunt compensation size. For different values for np and nq in which active and reactive power vary with it is terminal voltages as in exponential form, variations of the load voltage for different sizes of shunt capacitors are simulated with a simple two-bus power system using Matlab SimPowerSystems Toolbox. It is observed that the compensation level is significantly affected by the voltage sensitivities of loads.

Keywords: static load model, shunt compensation, transmission system, exponentiel load model

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43 Effects of Macrophyte Vallisneria asiatica Biomasses on the Algae Community

Authors: Caixia Kang, Takahiro Kuba, Aimin Hao, Yasushi Iseri, Chunjie Li, Zhenjia Zhang

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To improve the water quality of lakes and control algae blooms, The effects of Vallisneria asiatica which is one of aquatic plants spread over Lake Taihu. With different biomasses on the water quality and algae communities were researched. The results indicated that V. asiatica could control an excess of Microcystis spp. When the V. asiatica biomass was larger than 50g in the tank with 30L solution in the laboratory, Planktonic and epiphytic algae responded differently to V. asiatica. The presence of macrophyte V. asiatica in eutrophic waters has a positive effect on algae compositions because of different sensitivities of algae species to allelopathic substances released by macrophyte V. asiatica. That is, V. asiatica could inhibit the growth of Microcystis spp. effectively and was benefited to the diatom on the condition in the laboratory.

Keywords: algae bloom, algae community, Microcystis spp., Vallisneria asiatica

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42 Refractometric Optical Sensing by Using Photonics Mach–Zehnder Interferometer

Authors: Gong Zhang, Hong Cai, Bin Dong, Jifang Tao, Aiqun Liu, Dim-Lee Kwong, Yuandong Gu

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An on-chip refractive index sensor with high sensitivity and large measurement range is demonstrated in this paper. The sensing structures are based on Mach-Zehnder interferometer configuration, built on the SOI substrate. The wavelength sensitivity of the sensor is estimated to be 3129 nm/RIU. Meanwhile, according to the interference pattern period changes, the measured period sensitivities are 2.9 nm/RIU (TE mode) and 4.21 nm/RIU (TM mode), respectively. As such, the wavelength shift and the period shift can be used for fine index change detection and larger index change detection, respectively. Therefore, the sensor design provides an approach for large index change measurement with high sensitivity.

Keywords: Mach-Zehnder interferometer, nanotechnology, refractive index sensing, sensors

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41 1G2A IMU\GPS Integration Algorithm for Land Vehicle Navigation

Authors: O. Maklouf, Ahmed Abdulla

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A general decline in the cost, size, and power requirements of electronics is accelerating the adoption of integrated GPS/INS technologies in consumer applications such Land Vehicle Navigation. Researchers are looking for ways to eliminate additional components from product designs. One possibility is to drop one or more of the relatively expensive gyroscopes from microelectromechanical system (MEMS) versions of inertial measurement units (IMUs). For land vehicular use, the most important gyroscope is the vertical gyro that senses the heading of the vehicle and two horizontal accelerometers for determining the velocity of the vehicle. This paper presents a simplified integration algorithm for strap down (ParIMU)\GPS combination, with data post processing for the determination of 2-D components of position (trajectory), velocity and heading. In the present approach we have neglected earth rotation and gravity variations, because of the poor gyroscope sensitivities of the low-cost IMU and because of the relatively small area of the trajectory.

Keywords: GPS, ParIMU, INS, Kalman filter

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40 Time-Frequency Modelling and Analysis of Faulty Rotor

Authors: B. X. Tchomeni, A. A. Alugongo, T. B. Tengen

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In this paper, de Laval rotor system has been characterized by a hinge model and its transient response numerically treated for a dynamic solution. The effect of the ensuing non-linear disturbances namely rub and breathing crack is numerically simulated. Subsequently, three analysis methods: Orbit Analysis, Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) and Wavelet Transform (WT) are employed to extract features of the vibration signal of the faulty system. An analysis of the system response orbits clearly indicates the perturbations due to the rotor-to-stator contact. The sensitivities of WT to the variation in system speed have been investigated by Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT). The analysis reveals that features of crack, rubs and unbalance in vibration response can be useful for condition monitoring. WT reveals its ability to detect non-linear signal, and obtained results provide a useful tool method for detecting machinery faults.

Keywords: Continuous wavelet, crack, discrete wavelet, high acceleration, low acceleration, nonlinear, rotor-stator, rub

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39 The Combination Of Aortic Dissection Detection Risk Score (ADD-RS) With D-dimer As A Diagnostic Tool To Exclude The Diagnosis Of Acute Aortic Syndrome (AAS)

Authors: Mohamed Hamada Abdelkader Fayed

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Background: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of (ADD-RS) with D-dimer as a screening test to exclude AAS. Methods: We conducted research for the studies examining the diagnostic accuracy of (ADD- RS)+ D-dimer to exclude the diagnosis of AAS, We searched MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane of Trials up to 31 December 2020. Results: We identified 3 studies using (ADD-RS) with D-dimer as a diagnostic tool for AAS, involving 3261 patients were AAS was diagnosed in 559(17.14%) patients. Overall results showed that the pooled sensitivities were 97.6 (95% CI 0.95.6, 99.6) at (ADD-RS)≤1(low risk group) with D-dimer and 97.4(95% CI 0.95.4,, 99.4) at (ADD-RS)>1(High risk group) with D-dimer., the failure rate was 0.48% at low risk group and 4.3% at high risk group respectively. Conclusions: (ADD-RS) with D-dimer was a useful screening test with high sensitivity to exclude Acute Aortic Syndrome.

Keywords: aortic dissection detection risk score, D-dimer, acute aortic syndrome, diagnostic accuracy

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38 Home Owner Focused Investment Analysis Tool for Energy Refurbishment

Authors: Jonas Hinker, Lisa Zumholz, Johanna M. A. Myrzik

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Despite strong efforts by the German government to make a transition to higher quality level of building stocks, the rate of renovation continues to remain below the proclaimed level of 2%. As the mandatory standards for residential retrofits are well-balanced in such a way that strict adherence to them guarantees profit from the investment, it becomes difficult to explain the reasons why there are so many people hesitant with their investments. Risks and transaction costs can be understood as socio-technical boundaries and have to be taken into consideration to be able to understand why a worthwhile investment is postponed or rejected. This paper therefore presents a method for investment analyses that is focused on such socio-technical constraints, which helps to reveal the strongest misconceptions of home owners. By depicting sensitivities and risk factors in an integrated and impartial way, such a tool can be utilized by home owners to address reservations and misunderstandings. In the end, this leads to an exploitation of smaller energy efficiency measures that makes up a big demand reduction in the residential sector altogether.

Keywords: energy refurbishment, investment analysis, residential buildings, risk-aware investment strategy

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37 Gendered Water Insecurity: a Structural Equation Approach for Female-Headed Households in South Africa

Authors: Saul Ngarava, Leocadia Zhou, Nomakhaya Monde

Abstract:

Water crises have the fourth most significant societal impact after weapons of mass destruction, climate change, and extreme weather conditions, ahead of natural disasters. Intricacies between women and water are central to achieving the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The majority of the 1.2 billion poor people worldwide, with two-thirds being women, and mostly located in Sub Sahara Africa (SSA) and South Asia, do not have access to safe and reliable sources of water. There exist gendered differences in water security based on the division of labour associating women with water. Globally, women and girls are responsible for water collection in 80% of the households which have no water on their premises. Women spend 16 million hours a day collecting water, while men and children spend 6 million and 4 million per day, respectively, which is time foregone in the pursuit of other livelihood activities. Due to their proximity and activities concerning water, women are vulnerable to water insecurity through exposures to water-borne diseases, fatigue from physically carrying water, and exposure to sexual and physical harassment, amongst others. Proximity to treated water and their wellbeing also has an effect on their sensitivity and adaptive capacity to water insecurity. The great distances, difficult terrain and heavy lifting expose women to vulnerabilities of water insecurity. However, few studies have quantified the vulnerabilities and burdens on women, with a few taking a phenomenological qualitative approach. Vulnerability studies have also been scanty in the water security realm, with most studies taking linear forms of either quantifying exposures, sensitivities or adaptive capacities in climate change studies. The current study argues for the need for a water insecurity vulnerability assessment, especially for women into research agendas as well as policy interventions, monitoring, and evaluation. The study sought to identify and provide pathways through which female-headed households were water insecure in South Africa, the 30th driest country in the world. This was through linking the drinking water decision as well as the vulnerability frameworks. Secondary data collected during the 2016 General Household Survey (GHS) was utilised, with a sample of 5928 female-headed households. Principal Component Analysis and Structural Equation Modelling were used to analyse the data. The results show dynamic relationships between water characteristics and water treatment. There were also associations between water access and wealth status of the female-headed households. Association was also found between water access and water treatment as well as between wealth status and water treatment. The study concludes that there are dynamic relationships in water insecurity (exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity) for female-headed households in South Africa. The study recommends that a multi-prong approach is required in tackling exposures, sensitivities, and adaptive capacities to water insecurity. This should include capacitating and empowering women for wealth generation, improve access to water treatment equipment as well as prioritising the improvement of infrastructure that brings piped and safe water to female-headed households.

Keywords: gender, principal component analysis, structural equation modelling, vulnerability, water insecurity

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36 Drug Sensitivity Pattern of Organisms Causing Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media

Authors: Fatma M. Benrabha

Abstract:

The aim of the study was to determine the type and pattern of antibiotic susceptibility of the pathogenic microorganisms causing chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM), which could lead to better therapeutic decisions and consequently avoidance of appearance of resistance to specific antibiotics. Most frequently isolated agents were Pseudomonas aeruginosa 28.5%; followed by Staphylococcus aureus 18.2%; proteus mirabilis 13.9%; Providencia stuartti 6.7%; Bacteroides melaninogenicus, Aspergillus sp., candida sp., 4.2% each; and other microorganisms were represented in 3-0.2%. Drug sensitivities pattern of Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed that ciprofloxacin was active against the majority of isolates (93.9%) followed by ceftazidime 86.2%, amikacin 76.2% and gentamicin 40.8%. However, Staphylococcus aureus isolates were resistant to penicillin 72.7%, erythromycin 28.6%, cephalothin 18.2%, cloxacillin 8.3% and ciprofloxacin was active against 96.2% of isolates. The resistance pattern of proteus mirabilis were 55.6% to ampicillin, 47.1% to carbencillin, 29.4% to cephalothin, 14.3% to gentamicin and 4.8% to amikacin while 100% were sensitive to ciprofloxacin. We conclude that ciprofloxacin is the best drug of choice in treatment of CSOM caused by the common microorganisms.

Keywords: otitis media, chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM), microorganism, drug sensitivity

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35 Drug Sensitivity Pattern of Organisms Causing Suppurative Otitis Media

Authors: Nagat M. Saeed, Mabruka S. Elashheb, Fatma M. Ben Rabaha, Aisha M Edrah

Abstract:

The aim of the study was to determine the type and pattern of antibiotic susceptibility of the pathogenic microorganisms causing chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM), which could lead to better therapeutic decisions and consequently avoidance of appearance of resistance to specific antibiotics. Most frequently isolated agents were Pseudomonas aeruginosa 28.5%; followed by Staphylococcus aureus 18.2%; proteus mirabilis 13.9%; Providencia stuartti 6.7%; Bacteroides melaninogenicus, Aspergillus sp., candida sp., 4.2% each; and other microorganisms were represented in 3-0.2%. Drug sensitivities pattern of Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed that ciprofloxacin was active against the majority of isolates (93.9%) followed by ceftazidime 86.2%, amikacin 76.2% and gentamicin 40.8%. However, Staphylococcus aureus isolates were resistant to penicillin 72.7%, erythromycin 28.6%, cephalothin 18.2%, cloxacillin 8.3% and ciprofloxacin was active against 96.2% of isolates. The resistance pattern of proteus mirabilis was 55.6% to ampicillin, 47.1% to carbencillin, 29.4% to cephalothin, 14.3% to gentamicin and 4.8% to amikacin while 100% were sensitive to ciprofloxacin. We conclude that ciprofloxacin is the best drug of choice in the treatment of CSOM caused by the common microorganisms.

Keywords: otitis media, chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM), microorganisms, drug sensitivity

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34 Robustness Analysis of the Carbon and Nitrogen Co-Metabolism Model of Mucor mucedo

Authors: Nahid Banihashemi

Abstract:

An emerging important area of the life sciences is systems biology, which involves understanding the integrated behavior of large numbers of components interacting via non-linear reaction terms. A centrally important problem in this area is an understanding of the co-metabolism of protein and carbohydrate, as it has been clearly demonstrated that the ratio of these metabolites in diet is a major determinant of obesity and related chronic disease. In this regard, we have considered a systems biology model for the co-metabolism of carbon and nitrogen in colonies of the fungus Mucor mucedo. Oscillations are an important diagnostic of underlying dynamical processes of this model. The maintenance of specific patterns of oscillation and its relation to the robustness of this system are the important issues which have been targeted in this paper. In this regard, parametric sensitivity approach as a theoretical approach has been considered for the analysis of the robustness of this model. As a result, the parameters of the model which produce the largest sensitivities have been identified. Furthermore, the largest changes that can be made in each parameter of the model without losing the oscillations in biomass production have been computed. The results are obtained from the implementation of parametric sensitivity analysis in Matlab.

Keywords: system biology, parametric sensitivity analysis, robustness, carbon and nitrogen co-metabolism, Mucor mucedo

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33 Application of Universal Distribution Factors for Real-Time Complex Power Flow Calculation

Authors: Abdullah M. Alodhaiani, Yasir A. Alturki, Mohamed A. Elkady

Abstract:

Complex power flow distribution factors, which relate line complex power flows to the bus injected complex powers, have been widely used in various power system planning and analysis studies. In particular, AC distribution factors have been used extensively in the recent power and energy pricing studies in free electricity market field. As was demonstrated in the existing literature, many of the electricity market related costing studies rely on the use of the distribution factors. These known distribution factors, whether the injection shift factors (ISF’s) or power transfer distribution factors (PTDF’s), are linear approximations of the first order sensitivities of the active power flows with respect to various variables. This paper presents a novel model for evaluating the universal distribution factors (UDF’s), which are appropriate for an extensive range of power systems analysis and free electricity market studies. These distribution factors are used for the calculations of lines complex power flows and its independent of bus power injections, they are compact matrix-form expressions with total flexibility in determining the position on the line at which line flows are measured. The proposed approach was tested on IEEE 9-Bus system. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed approach is very accurate compared with exact method.

Keywords: distribution factors, power system, sensitivity factors, electricity market

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32 Case Scenario Simulation concerning Eventual Ship Sourced Oil Spill, Expansion and Response Process in Istanbul Strait

Authors: Cihat Aşan

Abstract:

Istanbul Strait is a crucial and narrow waterway, not only having a role in linking two continents but also has a crossover mission for the petroleum, which is the biggest energy resource, between its supply and demand sources. Besides its substantial features, sensitivities like around 18 million populations in surroundings, military facilities, ports, oil lay down areas etc. also brings the high risk to use of Istanbul Strait. Based on the statistics of Turkish Ministry of Transportation, Maritime and Communication, although the number of vessel passage in Istanbul Strait is declining, tonnage of hazardous and flammable cargo like oil and chemical transportation is increasing and subsequently the risk of oil pollution, loss of life and property is also rising. Based on the mentioned above; it is crucial to be prepared for the initial and subsequent response to eventual ship sourced oil spill which may cause to block the Strait for an unbearable duration. In this study; preconditioned Istanbul Strait sensitive areas studies has been taken into account and possible oil spill scenario is loaded to PISCES 2 (Potential Incident Simulation Control and Evaluation System) decision support system for the determined specific sea area. Consequences of the simulation like oil expanding process, required number and types of assets to response, had in hand and evaluated.

Keywords: Istanbul strait, oil spill, PISCES simulator, initial response

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31 Nonlinear Porous Diffusion Modeling of Ionic Agrochemicals in Astomatous Plant Cuticle Aqueous Pores: A Mechanistic Approach

Authors: Eloise C. Tredenick, Troy W. Farrell, W. Alison Forster, Steven T. P. Psaltis

Abstract:

The agriculture industry requires improved efficacy of sprays being applied to crops. More efficacious sprays provide many environmental and financial benefits. The plant leaf cuticle is known to be the main barrier to diffusion of agrochemicals within the leaf. The importance of a mathematical model to simulate uptake of agrochemicals in plant cuticles has been noted, as the results of each uptake experiments are specific to each formulation of active ingredient and plant species. In this work we develop a mathematical model and numerical simulation for the uptake of ionic agrochemicals through aqueous pores in plant cuticles. We propose a nonlinear porous diffusion model of ionic agrochemicals in isolated cuticles, which provides additions to a simple diffusion model through the incorporation of parameters capable of simulating plant species' variations, evaporation of surface droplet solutions and swelling of the aqueous pores with water. The model could feasibly be adapted to other ionic active ingredients diffusing through other plant species' cuticles. We validate our theoretical results against appropriate experimental data, discuss the key sensitivities in the model and relate theoretical predictions to appropriate physical mechanisms.

Keywords: aqueous pores, ionic active ingredient, mathematical model, plant cuticle, porous diffusion

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30 Influence of Thermal Treatments on Ovomucoid as Allergenic Protein

Authors: Nasser A. Al-Shabib

Abstract:

Food allergens are most common non-native form when exposed to the immune system. Most food proteins undergo various treatments (e.g. thermal or proteolytic processing) during food manufacturing. Such treatments have the potential to impact the chemical structure of food allergens so as to convert them to more denatured or unfolded forms. The conformational changes in the proteins may affect the allergenicity of treated-allergens. However, most allergenic proteins possess high resistance against thermal modification or digestive enzymes. In the present study, ovomucoid (a major allergenic protein of egg white) was heated in phosphate-buffered saline (pH 7.4) at different temperatures, aqueous solutions and on different surfaces for various times. The results indicated that different antibody-based methods had different sensitivities in detecting the heated ovomucoid. When using one particular immunoassay‚ the immunoreactivity of ovomucoid increased rapidly after heating in water whereas immunoreactivity declined after heating in alkaline buffer (pH 10). Ovomucoid appeared more immunoreactive when dissolved in PBS (pH 7.4) and heated on a stainless steel surface. To the best of our knowledge‚ this is the first time that antibody-based methods have been applied for the detection of ovomucoid adsorbed onto different surfaces under various conditions. The results obtained suggest that use of antibodies to detect ovomucoid after food processing may be problematic. False assurance will be given with the use of inappropriate‚ non-validated immunoassays such as those available commercially as ‘Swab’ tests. A greater understanding of antibody-protein interaction after processing of a protein is required.

Keywords: ovomucoid, thermal treatment, solutions, surfaces

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29 Determining Food Habits in Süleymanpasa Town of Tekirdag City, Turkey

Authors: Emine Yilmaz, Ismail Yilmaz, Harun Uran

Abstract:

Food-borne problems have been placed among the most leading problems of the society especially in recent years. This state arises as a problem which affects the society wholly such as the supply of food stuffs that are necessary for an individual to perform his physiological and biological functions, their amount, compound, their effects on health and distribution by individuals. This study was conducted in order to determine the sensitivities and criteria of people, who have different socio-economic backgrounds and live in Süleymanpasa Town of Tekirdag City, in their preference of food stuffs. The research data were collected by means of Interview Technique with individuals within the scope of the study (300) and applying surveys with convenience sampling. According to the research results, quality appears in the first rank among the factors by which consumers are affected while buying food stuffs. Consumers stated that they try to be careful with not buying food sold outdoors. The most preferred food among the ones being sold outdoor were found to be breakfast food. Also, food stuff which consumers become the most selective for while buying was determined to be meat and meat products. Due to general knowledge about the food stuff consumed in human nutrition may affect their health negatively; consumers expressed that they are very relevant with their diets and this circumstances affects their purchase preferences.  

Keywords: consumption, food safety, consumer behaviour, purchase preferences

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28 Major Depressive Disorder: Diagnosis based on Electroencephalogram Analysis

Authors: Wajid Mumtaz, Aamir Saeed Malik, Syed Saad Azhar Ali, Mohd Azhar Mohd Yasin

Abstract:

In this paper, a technique based on electroencephalogram (EEG) analysis is presented, aiming for diagnosing major depressive disorder (MDD) among a potential population of MDD patients and healthy controls. EEG is recognized as a clinical modality during applications such as seizure diagnosis, index for anesthesia, detection of brain death or stroke. However, its usability for psychiatric illnesses such as MDD is less studied. Therefore, in this study, for the sake of diagnosis, 2 groups of study participants were recruited, 1) MDD patients, 2) healthy people as controls. EEG data acquired from both groups were analyzed involving inter-hemispheric asymmetry and composite permutation entropy index (CPEI). To automate the process, derived quantities from EEG were utilized as inputs to classifier such as logistic regression (LR) and support vector machine (SVM). The learning of these classification models was tested with a test dataset. Their learning efficiency is provided as accuracy of classifying MDD patients from controls, their sensitivities and specificities were reported, accordingly (LR =81.7 % and SVM =81.5 %). Based on the results, it is concluded that the derived measures are indicators for diagnosing MDD from a potential population of normal controls. In addition, the results motivate further exploring other measures for the same purpose.

Keywords: major depressive disorder, diagnosis based on EEG, EEG derived features, CPEI, inter-hemispheric asymmetry

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27 Suspended Nickel Oxide Nano-Beam and Its Heterostructure Device for Gas Sensing

Authors: Kusuma Urs M. B., Navakant Bhat, Vinayak B. Kamble

Abstract:

Metal oxide semiconductors (MOS) are known to be excellent candidates for solid-state gas sensor devices. However, in spite of high sensitivities, their high operating temperatures and lack of selectivity is a big concern limiting their practical applications. A lot of research has been devoted so far to enhance their sensitivity and selectivity, often empirically. Some of the promising routes to achieve the same are reducing dimensionality and formation of heterostructures. These heterostructures offer improved sensitivity, selectivity even at relatively low operating temperatures compared to bare metal oxides. Thus, a combination of n-type and p-type metal oxides leads to the formation of p-n junction at the interface resulting in the diffusion of the carriers across the barrier along with the surface adsorption. In order to achieve this and to study their sensing mechanism, we have designed and lithographically fabricated a suspended nanobeam of NiO, which is a p-type semiconductor. The response of the same has been studied for various gases and is found to exhibit selective response towards hydrogen gas at room temperature. Further, the same has been radially coated with TiO₂ shell of varying thicknesses, in order to study the effect of radial p-n junction thus formed. Subsequently, efforts have been made to study the effect of shell thickness on the space charge region and to shed some light on the basic mechanism involved in gas sensing of MOS sensors.

Keywords: gas sensing, heterostructure, metal oxide semiconductor, space charge region

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