Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 679

Search results for: high-tech firms

679 The Influence of Knowledge Spillovers on High-Impact Firm Growth: A Comparison of Indigenous and Foreign Firms

Authors: Yazid Abdullahi Abubakar, Jay Mitra

Abstract:

This paper is concerned with entrepreneurial high-impact firms, which are firms that generate ‘both’ disproportionate levels of employment and sales growth, and have high levels of innovative activity. It investigates differences in factors influencing high-impact growth between indigenous and foreign firms. The study is based on an analysis of data from United Kingdom (UK) Innovation Scoreboard on 865 firms, which were divided into high-impact firms (those achieving positive growth in both sales and employment) and low-impact firms (negative or no growth in sales or employment); in order to identifying the critical differences in regional, sectorial and size related factors that facilitate knowledge spillovers and high-impact growth between indigenous and foreign firms. The findings suggest that: 1) Firms’ access to regional knowledge spillovers (from businesses and higher education institutions) is more significantly associated with high-impact growth of UK firms in comparison to foreign firms, 2) Because high-tech sectors have greater use of knowledge spillovers (compared to low-tech sectors), high-tech sectors are more associated with high-impact growth, but the relationship is stronger for UK firms compared to foreign firms, 3) Because small firms have greater need for knowledge spillovers (relative to large firms), there is a negative relationship between firm size and high-impact growth, but the negative relationship is greater for UK firms in comparison to foreign firms.

Keywords: entrepreneurship, high-growth, indigenous firms, foreign firms, small firms, large firms

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678 Local Gambling Attitudes, Corporate R&D Investment and Long-Term Financial Performance

Authors: Hong Fan, Lifang Gao, Feng Zhan

Abstract:

This paper examines the influence of local gambling attitudes on a firm's long-term financial performance. Firms located in gambling-prone regions may be more willing to take risks, thus spending more on innovative projects. However, firms in such regions may also be likely to choose projects impulsively and allocate resources inefficiently. By studying Chinese publicly listed firms from 2010 to 2017, we find that firms in more gambling-prone regions invest more in R&D. Both local gambling attitudes and firms’ R&D spending are positively associated with firms’ long-term financial performance. More importantly, our study reveals that the positive impact of R&D spending on firms’ long-term financial performance is weakened by gambling-friendly attitudes, probably because firms in gambling-prone regions are more likely to overinvest in risky projects. This effect is stronger for larger firms, state-owned enterprises (SOEs), firms with more government subsidies, and firms with weaker internal control.

Keywords: regional gambling attitudes, long-term financial performance, R&D, risk, local bias

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677 The Accuracy of Small Firms at Predicting Their Employment

Authors: Javad Nosratabadi

Abstract:

This paper investigates the difference between firms' actual and expected employment along with the amount of loans invested by them. In addition, it examines the relationship between the amount of loans received by firms and wages. Empirically, using a causal effect estimation and firm-level data from a province in Iran between 2004 and 2011, the results show that there is a range of the loan amount for which firms' expected employment meets their actual one. In contrast, there is a gap between firms' actual and expected employment for any other loan amount. Furthermore, the result shows that there is a positive and significant relationship between the amount of loan invested by firms and wages.

Keywords: expected employment, actual employment, wage, loan

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676 Transparency of Audit Firms in Croatia

Authors: Marko Čular

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to raise general awareness of transparency importance for audit firms and for audit services’ users. This paper analyses transparency of audit firms that audited financial statements of listed companies, for year 2011 and 2012. We use this two years because in the meantime Code of Ethics for Professional Accountants has been adopted. This paper investigates whether transparency reports of audit firms are in accordance with the Croatian Audit Act and whether there is a difference on transparency in observed years. For this paper, quality index of transparency report and financial indicators of audit firms are used to get conclusion about condition of audit firms transparency reporting. Results of our study indicate that audit firms are not fully transparent, looking for both years. Transparency of audit firms in 2012 has improved significantly, compared with transparency in 2011.

Keywords: transparency report, index quality of transparency report, Croatian audit act, code of ethics for professional accountants

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675 Dividend Initiations and IPO Long-Run Performance

Authors: Nithi Sermsiriviboon, Somchai Supattarakul

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Dividend initiations are an economically significant event that has important implications for a firm’s future financial capacity. Given that the market’s expectation of a consistent payout, managers of IPO firms must approach the initial dividend decision cautiously. We compare the long run performance of IPO firms that initiated dividends with those of similarly matched non-payers. We found that firms which initiated dividends perform significantly better up to three years after the initiation date. Moreover, we measure investor reactions by 2-day around dividend announcement date cumulative abnormal return. We evidence no statistically significant differences between cumulative abnormal returns (CAR) of IPO firms and cumulative abnormal returns of Non-IPO firms, indicating that investors do not respond to dividend announcement of IPO firms more than they do to the dividend announcement of Non-IPO firms.

Keywords: dividend, initial public offerings, long-run performance, finance

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674 Tax Avoidance and Leadership Replacement: Moderating Influence of Ownership and Political Connections

Authors: Radwan Hussien Alkebsee

Abstract:

Under the argument that reputational costs deter firms from engaging in tax avoidance activities, this paper investigates the relationship between tax avoidance and forced CEO turnover. This study is based on a broad sample of Chinese listed companies spanning the period 2011 to 2018. The findings reveal that tax avoidance is positively associated with forced CEO turnover. This suggests that firms that engage in tax avoidance experience a high rate of leadership replacement. The findings also reveal that the positive association between tax avoidance and forced CEO turnover is pronounced for state-owned firms, firms with no political connections, and firms located in “more developed” regions with extensive tax enforcement action, while it is not for private firms, firms with political connections, and firms located in “less developed” regions with weak tax enforcement actions. The baseline results remain consistent and robust for endogeneity concerns.

Keywords: tax avoidance, CEO turnover, political connections, regional tax enforcement, China

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673 The Impacts of Cost Stickiness on the Profitability of Indonesian Firms

Authors: Dezie L. Warganegara, Dewi Tamara

Abstract:

The objectives of this study are to investigate the existence of the sticky cost behaviour of firms listed in the Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX) and to find an evidence on the effects of sticky operating expenses (SG&A expenses) on profitability of firms. For the first objective, this study found that the sticky cost behaviour does exist. For the second objective, this study finds that the stickier the operating expenses the less future profitability of the firms. This study concludes that sticky cost affects negatively to the performance and, therefore, firms should include flexibility in designing the cost structure of their firms.

Keywords: sticky costs, Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX), profitability, operating expenses, SG&A

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672 Corporate Governance Mechanisms, Whistle-Blowing Policy and Earnings Management Practices of Firms in Malaysia

Authors: Mujeeb Saif Mohsen Al-Absy, Ku Nor Izah Ku Ismail, Sitraselvi Chandren

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This study examines whether corporate governance (CG) mechanisms in firms that have a whistle-blowing policy (WHBLP) are more effective in constraining earnings management (EM), than those without. A sample of 288 Malaysian firms for the years 2013 to 2015, amounting to 864 firm-years were grouped into firms with and without WHBLP. Results show that for firms without WHBLP, the board chairman tenure would minimize EM activities. Meanwhile, for firms with WHBLP, board chairman independence, board chairman tenure, audit committee size, audit committee meeting and women in the audit committees are found to be associated with less EM activities. Further, it is found that ownership concentration and Big 4 auditing firms help to reduce EM activities in firms with WHBLP, while not in firms without WHBLP. Hence, functional and effective governance can be achieved by having a WHBLP, which is in line with agency and resource dependent theories. Therefore, this study suggests that firms should have a WHBLP in place, and policymakers should come up with enhanced criteria to strengthen the mechanisms of WHBLP.

Keywords: corporate governance, earnings management, whistle-blowing policy, audit committee, board of directors

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671 Corporate Governance and Firms` Performance: Evidence from Quoted Firms on the Nigerian Stock Exchange

Authors: Ogunwole Cecilia Oluwakemi, Wahid Damilola Olanipekun, Omoyele Olufemi Samuel, Timothy Ayomitunde Aderemi

Abstract:

The issues relating to corporate governance in both locally and internationally managed firms cannot be overemphasized because the lack of efficient corporate governance could orchestrate serious problems in any organization. Against this backdrop, this study examines the nexus between corporate governance and performance of firms from 2012 to 2020, using the case study of the Nigerian stock exchange. Consequently, data was collected from forty (40) listed firms on the Nigerian Stock Exchange. The study employed a fixed effect technique of estimation to address the objective of the study. It was discovered from the study that the influence of corporate governance components such as gender diversity, board independence and managerial ownership led to a significant positive impact on the performance of the firms under the investigation. In view of the above finding, this study makes the following recommendations for the policymakers in Nigeria that anytime the goal of the policymakers is the improvement of performance of the listed firms in the Nigerian stock exchange, board independence and a balance in the inclusion of male and female among the board of directors should be encouraged in these firms.

Keywords: corporate, governance, firms, performance, Nigeria, stock, exchange

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670 Corporate Social Responsibility and Dividend Policy

Authors: Mohammed Benlemlih

Abstract:

Using a sample of 22,839 US firm-year observations over the 1991-2012 period, we find that high CSR firms pay more dividends than low CSR firms. The analysis of individual components of CSR provides strong support for this main finding: five of the six individual dimensions are also associated with high dividend payout. When analyzing the stability of dividend payout, our results show that socially irresponsible firms adjust dividends more rapidly than socially responsible firms do: dividend payout is more stable in high CSR firms. Additional results suggest that firms involved in two controversial activities -the military and alcohol - are associated with low dividend payouts. These findings are robust to alternative assumptions and model specifications, alternative measures of dividend, additional control, and several approaches to address endogeneity. Overall, our results are consistent with the expectation that high CSR firms may use dividend policy to manage the agency problems related to overinvestment in CSR.

Keywords: corporate social responsibility, dividend policy, Lintner model, agency theory, signaling theory, dividend stability

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669 International Comparative Study of International Financial Reporting Standards Adoption and Earnings Quality: Effects of Differences in Accounting Standards, Industry Category, and Country Characteristics

Authors: Ichiro Mukai

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The purpose of this study is to investigate whether firms applying International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), provide high-quality and comparable earnings information that is useful for decision making of information users relative to firms applying local Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP). Focus is placed on the earnings quality of listed firms in several developed countries: Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom (UK), and the United States (US). Except for Japan and the US, the adoption of IFRS is mandatory for listed firms in these countries. In Japan, the application of IFRS is allowed for specific listed firms. In the US, the foreign firms listed on the US securities market are permitted to apply IFRS but the listed domestic firms are prohibited from doing so. In this paper, the differences in earnings quality are compared between firms applying local GAAP and those applying IFRS in each country and industry category, and the reasons of differences in earnings quality are analyzed using various factors. The results show that, although the earnings quality of firms applying IFRS is higher than that of firms applying local GAAP, this varies with country and industry category. Thus, even if a single set of global accounting standards is used for all listed firms worldwide, it is difficult to establish comparability of financial information among global firms. These findings imply that various circumstances surrounding firms, industries, and countries etc. influence business operations and affect the differences in earnings quality.

Keywords: accruals, earnings quality, IFRS, information comparability

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668 Transform to Succeed: An Empirical Analysis of Digital Transformation in Firms

Authors: Sarah E. Stief, Anne Theresa Eidhoff, Markus Voeth

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Despite all progress firms are facing the increasing need to adapt and assimilate digital technologies to transform their business activities in order to pursue business development. By using new digital technologies, firms can implement major business improvements in order to stay competitive and foster new growth potentials. The corresponding phenomenon of digital transformation has received some attention in previous literature in respect to industries such as media and publishing. Nevertheless, there is a lack of understanding of the concept and its organization within firms. With the help of twenty-three in-depth field interviews with German experts responsible for their company’s digital transformation, we examined what digital transformation encompasses, how it is organized and which opportunities and challenges arise within firms. Our results indicate that digital transformation is an inevitable task for all firms, as it bears the potential to comprehensively optimize and reshape established business activities and can thus be seen as a strategy of business development.

Keywords: business development, digitalization, digital strategies, digital transformation

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667 Firm Performance and Stock Price in Nigeria

Authors: Tijjani Bashir Musa

Abstract:

The recent global crisis which suddenly results to Nigerian stock market crash revealed some peculiarities of Nigerian firms. Some firms in Nigeria are performing but their stock prices are not increasing while some firms are at the brink of collapse but their stock prices are increasing. Thus, this study examines the relationship between firm performance and stock price in Nigeria. The study covered the period of 2005 to 2009. This period is the period of stock boom and also marked the period of stock market crash as a result of global financial meltdown. The study is a panel study. A total of 140 firms were sampled from 216 firms listed on the Nigerian Stock Exchange (NSE). Data were collected from secondary source. These data were divided into four strata comprising the most performing stock, the least performing stock, most performing firms and the least performing firms. Each stratum contains 35 firms with characteristic of most performing stock, most performing firms, least performing stock and least performing firms. Multiple linear regression models were used to analyse the data while statistical/econometrics package of Stata 11.0 version was used to run the data. The study found that, relationship exists between selected firm performance parameters (operating efficiency, firm profit, earning per share and working capital) and stock price. As such firm performance gave sufficient information or has predictive power on stock prices movements in Nigeria for all the years under study.. The study recommends among others that Managers of firms in Nigeria should formulate policies and exert effort geared towards improving firm performance that will enhance stock prices movements.

Keywords: firm, Nigeria, performance, stock price

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666 The Association between Corporate Social Responsibility Disclosure, Assurance, and Tax Aggressiveness: Evidence from Indonesia

Authors: Eko Budi Santoso

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There is a growing interest in Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) issues in developing countries such as Indonesia. Firms disclose their CSR activities, and some provide assurance to gain recognition as socially responsible firms. However, several of those socially responsible firms involve in tax scandals and raise a question of whether CSR disclosure is used to disguise firm misconduct or as a reflection of socially responsible firms. Specifically, whether firms engage in CSR disclosure and its assurance also responsible for their tax matters. This study examines the association between CSR disclosure and tax aggressiveness and the role of sustainability reporting assurance to the association. This research develops a modified index according to global reporting initiatives to measure CSR disclosure and various measurement for tax aggressiveness. Using a sample of Indonesian go public companies issued CSR disclosure, the empirical result shows that there is an association between CSR disclosure and tax aggressiveness. In addition, results also indicate sustainability reporting assurance moderate those association. The findings suggest that stakeholder in developing countries should examine carefully firms with active CSR disclosure before label it as socially responsible firms. JEL Classification: M14

Keywords: CSR disclosure, tax aggressiveness, assurance, business ethics

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665 Antecedence of Accounting Value: the Role of Board Capital and Control

Authors: Suresh Ramachandra

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Accounting values of firms are determined by strategies that firms pursue which are influenced by board characteristics specific to firms. Using two broad constructs of board characteristics, namely, board capital and board control, in the Malaysian context, this research attempts to infer their conjoint relevance to accounting values. The results of this research indicate that firms are able to increase their accounting values by deliberately selecting board characteristics which include director reputation and political affiliations.

Keywords: accounting values, board characteristics, board capital, board control

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664 Relationship between ISO 14001 and Market Performance of Firms in China: An Institutional and Market Learning Perspective

Authors: Hammad Riaz, Abubakr Saeed

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Environmental Management System (EMS), i.e., ISO 14001 helps to build corporate reputation, legitimacy and can also be considered as firms’ strategic response to institutional pressure to reduce the impact of business activity on natural environment. The financial outcomes of certifying with ISO 14001 are still unclear and equivocal. Drawing on institutional and market learning theories, the impact of ISO 14001 on firms’ market performance is examined for Chinese firms. By employing rigorous event study approach, this paper compared ISO 14001 certified firms with non-certified counterpart firms based on different matching criteria that include size, return on assets and industry. The results indicate that the ISO 14001 has been negatively signed by the investors both in the short and long-run. This paper suggested implications for policy makers, managers, and other nonprofit organizations.

Keywords: ISO 14001, legitimacy, institutional forces, event study approach, emerging markets

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663 Enterpreneurial Orientation Dimensions for Sustainable Development in Construction Firms

Authors: Kudirat I. Zakariyyah, Iniobong B. John, Julius O. Faremi, David Adio-Moses

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One of the key contributors to firms’ growth, performance, and sustainability is entrepreneurial orientation (EO). Most studies on EO, however, are in other industries than construction and, more often, exploratory. The purpose of this study is thus to create an awareness on entrepreneurial orientation and its dimensions in contracting firms. Considering the need for sustainability, the study thus examined contracting firms’ entrepreneurial orientation dimensions that are required in order to keep pace with the demands for sustainable development. This was done by giving out questionnaires to a sample of 116 respondents from a population of 166 construction firms in Lagos state. Data were collected through a survey and analysed using mean scores and analysis of variance (ANOVA). The result revealed the prevalence of the four dimensions of EO, though in moderate proportion. In addition, the study identified review of organisational structure as the top entrepreneurial orientation dimension needed for sustainable development. The study concludes that the firms should identify the existing orientation dimensions and its relevance with sustainability so as to be able to know the required review that will be appropriate in the industry. It is recommended that the firms need to do more on raising the level of prevalence of the various orientation dimensions in order to achieve the merits of the different constructs of sustainability.

Keywords: construction, culture, entrepreneurial-orientation, dimension, sustainability

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662 Integrated Framework for Establishing Born-Global Firms in Sub-Saharan Africa

Authors: Nonso Ochinanwata, Patrick Oseloka Ezepue

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This paper explores the process of creating and capturing born-global firm opportunities. It reviews the key constructs that underpin the establishment of born-global firms in sub-Saharan Africa. These include entrepreneurial orientation, resources and capabilities, collaboration, and contextual influences. The paper discusses how individuals and entrepreneurs in sub-Saharan Africa can establish home-based born-global firms that seek early international markets from inception. The paper suggests that sub-Saharan African governments should make a favourable microeconomics policy that will enable entrepreneurs and firms to acquire some certain minimal resources and capabilities, in order to develop global products and services.

Keywords: born global-firms, collaboration, internationalisation, dynamic capabilities, entrepreneurship, sub-Saharan Africa

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661 The Effect of Foreign Owned Firms and Licensed Manufacturing Agreements on Innovation: Case of Pharmaceutical Firms in Developing Countries

Authors: Ilham Benali, Nasser Hajji, Nawfal Acha

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Given the fact that the pharmaceutical industry is a commonly studied sector in the context of innovation, the majority of innovation research is devoted to the developed markets known by high research and development (R&D) assets and intensive innovation. In contrast, in developing countries where R&D assets are very low, there is relatively little research to mention in the area of pharmaceutical sector innovation, characterized mainly by two principal elements which are the presence of foreign-owned firms and licensed manufacturing agreements between local firms and multinationals. With the scarcity of research in this field, this paper attempts to study the effect of these two elements on the firms’ innovation tendencies. Other traditional factors that influence innovation, which are the age and the size of the firm, the R&D activities and the market structure, revealed in the literature review, will be included in the study in order to try to make this work more exhaustive. The study starts by examining innovation tendency in pharmaceutical firms located in developing countries before analyzing the effect of foreign-owned firms and licensed manufacturing agreements between local firms and multinationals on technological, organizational and marketing innovation. Based on the related work and on the theoretical framework developed, there is a probability that foreign-owned firms and licensed manufacturing agreements between local firms and multinationals have a negative influence on technological innovation. The opposite effect is possible in the case of organizational and marketing innovation.

Keywords: developing countries, foreign owned firms, innovation, licensed manufacturing agreements, pharmaceutical industry

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660 Applying the Integrative Design Process in Architectural Firms: An Analytical Study on Egyptian Firms

Authors: Carole A. El Raheb, Hassan K. Abdel-Salam, Ingi Elcherif

Abstract:

An architect carrying the design process alone is the main reason for the deterioration of the quality of the architectural product as the complexity of the projects makes it a multi-disciplinary work; then, the Integrative Design Process (IDP) must be applied in the architectural firm especially from the early design phases to improve the product’s quality and to eliminate the ignorance of the principles of design causing the occurrence of low-grade buildings. The research explores the Integrative Design (ID) principles that fit in the architectural practice. Constraints facing this application are presented with strategies and solutions to overcome them. A survey questionnaire was conducted to collect data from a number of recognized Egyptian Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) firms that explores their opinions on using the IDP. This survey emphasizes the importance of the IDP in firms and presents the reasons preventing the firms from applying the IDP. The aim here is to investigate the potentials of integrating this approach into architectural firms emphasizing the importance of this application which ensures the realization of the project’s goal and eliminates the reduction in the project’s quality.

Keywords: application, architectural firms, integrative design principles, integrative design process, the project quality

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659 Investigating the Factors Affecting the Innovation of Firms in Metropolitan Regions: The Case of Mashhad Metropolitan Region, Iran

Authors: Hashem Dadashpoor, Sadegh Saeidi Shirvan

Abstract:

While with the evolution of the economy towards a knowledge-based economy, innovation is a requirement for metropolitan regions, the adoption of an open innovation strategy is an option and a requirement for many industrial firms in these regions. Studies show that investing in research and development units cannot alone increase innovation. Within the framework of the theory of learning regions, this gap, which scholars call it the ‘innovation gap’, is filled with regional features of firms. This paper attempts to investigate the factors affecting the open innovation of firms in metropolitan regions, and it searches for these in territorial innovation models and, in particular, the theory of learning regions. In the next step, the effect of identified factors which is considered as regional learning factors in this research is analyzed on the innovation of sample firms by SPSS software using multiple linear regression. The case study of this research is constituted of industrial enterprises from two groups of food industry and auto parts in Toos industrial town in Mashhad metropolitan region. For data gathering of this research, interviews were conducted with managers of industrial firms using structured questionnaires. Based on this study, the effect of factors such as size of firms, inter-firm competition, the use of local labor force and institutional infrastructures were significant in the innovation of the firms studied, and 44% of the changes in the firms’ innovation occurred as a result of the change in these factors.

Keywords: regional knowledge networks, learning regions, interactive learning, innovation

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658 Good Banks, Bad Banks, and Public Scrutiny: The Determinants of Corporate Social Responsibility in Times of Financial Volatility

Authors: A. W. Chalmers, O. M. van den Broek

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This article examines the relationship between the global financial crisis and corporate social responsibility activities of financial services firms. It challenges the general consensus in existing studies that firms, when faced with economic hardship, tend to jettison CSR commitments. Instead, and building on recent insights into the institutional determinants of CSR, it is argued that firms are constrained in their ability to abandon CSR by the extent to which they are subject to intense public scrutiny by regulators and the news media. This argument is tested in the context of the European sovereign debt crisis drawing on a unique dataset of 170 firms in 15 different countries over a six-year period. Controlling for a battery of alternative explanations and comparing financial service providers to firms operating in other economic sectors, results indicate considerable evidence supporting the main argument. Rather than abandoning CSR during times of economic hardship, financial industry firms ramp up their CSR commitments in order to manage their public image and foster public trust in light of intense public scrutiny.

Keywords: corporate social responsibility (CSR), public scrutiny, global financial crisis, financial services firms

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657 Options Trading and Crash Risk

Authors: Cameron Truong, Mikhail Bhatia, Yangyang Chen, Viet Nga Cao

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Using a sample of U.S. firms between 1996 and 2011, this paper documents a positive association between options trading volume and future stock price crash risk. This relation is evidently more pronounced among firms with higher information asymmetry, business uncertainty, and short-sale constraints. In a dichotomous cross-sectional setting, we also document that firms with options trading have higher future crash risk than firms without options trading. We further show in a difference-in-difference analysis that firms experience an increase in crash risk immediately after the listing of options. The results suggest that options traders are able of identifying bad news hoarding by management and choose to trade in a liquid options market in anticipation of future crashes.

Keywords: bad news hoarding, cross-sectional setting, options trading, stock price crash

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656 Earnings Management from Taiwan Gisa Firms

Authors: An-an Chiu, Shaio Yan Huang, Ling-Na Chen, Wei-Hua Lin

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Research has primarily focused on listed companies, less is done regarding small and medium-sized enterprises. Under the authorities' support, Taipei Exchange (TPEx) started Go Incubation Board for Startup and Acceleration Firms (GISA) in January 2014. This platform is designed to help small-sized innovative companies grow and to enter the capital market in the future. This research yield insight into earnings management activities around seasoned equity offerings (SEO) based on Taiwan’s GISA firms and the effectiveness of external corporate governance. Data for the study come from the GISA Market Observation Post System from January 2014 to December 2016. The result finds that GISA firms prone to upward accrual-based earnings management during SEO to avoid long-term negative consequences. Especially, firms with paid-in capital more than NT$ 30 million, higher fundraising amounts, or smaller-sized firms, tend to increase discretionary accruals. Finally, consistent with prior literature, CPA firms effectively serve as the role of external corporate governances on mitigating earnings management.

Keywords: GISA, earnings management, CPA, seasoned equity offerings

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655 The Effect of the 2015 Revision to the Corporate Governance Code on Japanese Listed Firms

Authors: Tomotaka Yanagida

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The Corporate Governance Code, revised in 2015, requires firms listed within the first and second sections of Japan’s Tokyo stock exchange to select two or more independent outside directors (the Corporate Governance Code4-8). Therefore, Japanese listed firms must do this or explain the reason why they are not able to do so. This study investigates how the Corporate Governance Code affects Japanese listed firms. We find that the Corporate Governance Code increases the ratio of outside directors by nearly 8.8% for a sample of Japanese firms comprising nearly 4,200 firm-year observations from 2014 to 2015 using a difference-in-differences approach. This implies that they felt it would have been difficult to explain why it was not appropriate to have an outside director at the annual shareholders' meeting. Moreover, this suggests that they appoint outside directors as defined by the Corporate Governance Code, but maintain board size. This situation shows that compliance in Japan may simply be 'window dressing,' that is, more form than substance.

Keywords: board structure, comply or explain, corporate governance code, soft law

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654 Performance of Shariah-Based Investment: Evidence from Pakistani Listed Firms

Authors: Mohsin Sadaqat, Hilal Anwar Butt

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Following the stock selection guidelines provided by the Sharia Board (SB), we segregate the firms listed at Pakistan Stock Exchange (PSX) into Sharia Compliant (SC) and Non-Sharia Compliant (NSC) stocks. Subsequently, we form portfolios within each group based on market capitalization and volatility. The purpose is to analyze and compare the performance of these two groups as the SC stocks have lesser diversification opportunities due to SB restrictions. Using data ranging from January 2004 until June 2016, our results indicate that in most of the cases the risk-adjusted returns (alphas) for the returns differential between SC and NCS firms are positive. In addition, the SC firms in comparison to their counterparts in PSX provides excess returns that are hedged against the market, size, and value-based systematic risks factors. Overall, these results reconcile with one prevailing notion that the SC stocks that have lower financial leverage and higher investment in real assets are lesser exposed to market-based risks. Further, the SC firms that are more capitalized and less volatile, perform better than lower capitalized and higher volatile SC and NSC firms. To sum up our results, we do not find any substantial evidence for opportunity loss due to limited diversification opportunities in case of SC firms. To optimally utilize scarce resources, investors should consider SC firms as a candidate in portfolio construction.

Keywords: diversification, performance, sharia compliant stocks, risk adjusted returns

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653 The Determinants and Effects of R&D Outsourcing in Korean Manufacturing Firm

Authors: Sangyun Han, Minki Kim

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R&D outsourcing is a strategy for acquiring the competitiveness of firms as an open innovation strategy. As increasing total R&D investment of firms, the ratio of amount of R&D outsourcing in it is also increased in Korea. In this paper, we investigate the determinants and effects of R&D outsourcing of firms. Through analyzing the determinants of R&D outsourcing and effect on firm’s performance, we can find some academic and politic issues. Firstly, in the point of academic view, distinguishing the determinants of R&D outsourcing is linked why the firms do open innovation. It can be answered resource based view, core competence theory, and etc. Secondly, we can get some S&T politic implication for transferring the public intellectual properties to private area. Especially, for supporting the more SMEs or ventures, government can get the basement and the reason why and how to make the policies.

Keywords: determinants, effects, R&D, outsourcing

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652 Family Firms and Investment–Cash Flow Sensitivity: Empirical Evidence from Canada

Authors: Imen Latrous

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Family firm is the most common form of business organization in the world. Many family businesses rely heavily on their own capital to finance their expansion. This dependence on internal funds for their investment may be deliberate to maintain the family dominant position or involuntary as family firms have limited access to external funds. Our understanding of family firm’s choice to fund their own growth using existing capital is somewhat limited. The aim of this paper is to study whether the presence of a controlling family in the company either mitigates or exacerbates external financing constraints. The impact of family ownership on investment–cash flow sensitivity is ultimately an empirical question. We use a sample of 406 Canadian firms listed in Toronto Stock exchange (TSX) over the period 2005–2014 in order to explore this relationship. We distinguish between three elements in the definition of family firms, specifically ownership, control and management, to explore the issue whether family firms are more efficient organisational form. Our research contributes to the extant literature on family ownership in several ways. First, as our understanding of family firm’s investment cash flow sensitivity is somewhat limited in recession times, we explore the effect of family firms on the relation between investment and cash flow during the recent 2007-2009 financial crisis. We also analyse this relationship difference between family firms and non family firms before and during financial crisis. Finally, our paper addresses the endogeneity problem of family ownership and investment-cash flow sensitivity.

Keywords: family firms, investment–cash flow sensitivity, financial crisis, corporate governance

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651 The Effects of Governmental Regulation on Technological Innovation in Korean Firms

Authors: SeungKu Ahn, Sewon Lee

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This study examines the effects of regulatory policies on corporate R&D activities and innovation and suggests regulatory directions for the enhancement of corporate performance. This study employs a regression model with R&D activities as dependent variables and the regulatory index as an independent variable. The results of this study are as follows: The regulation is negatively associated with the input and output of R&D activities. The regulation encourages small and medium-sized firms to invest in R&D. The regulation has a positive effect on patent applications for small and medium-sized firms.

Keywords: governmental regulation, research and development performance, small and medium-sized firms, technological innovation

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650 Internal and External Influences on the Firm Objective

Authors: A. Briseno, A, Zorrilla

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Firms are increasingly responding to social and environmental claims from society. Practices oriented to attend issues such as poverty, work equality, or renewable energy, are being implemented more frequently by firms to address impacts on sustainability. However, questions remain on how the responses of firms vary across industries and regions between the social and the economic objectives. Using concepts from organizational theory and social network theory, this paper aims to create a theoretical framework that explains the internal and external influences that make a firm establish its objective. The framework explains why firms might have a different objective orientation in terms of its economic and social prioritization.

Keywords: organizational identity, social network theory, firm objective, value maximization, social responsibility

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