Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4051

Search results for: criminal investigation

4051 The Cases Studies of Eyewitness Misidentifications during Criminal Investigation in Taiwan

Authors: Chih Hung Shih

Abstract:

Eyewitness identification is one of the efficient information to identify suspects during criminal investigation. However eyewitness identification is improved frequently, inaccurate and plays vital roles in wrongful convictions. Most eyewitness misidentifications are made during police criminal investigation stage and then accepted by juries. Four failure investigation case studies in Taiwan are conduct to demonstrate how misidentifications are caused during the police investigation context. The result shows that there are several common grounds among these cases: (1) investigators lacked for knowledge about eyewitness memory so that they couldn’t evaluate the validity of the eyewitnesses’ accounts and identifications, (2) eyewitnesses were always asked to filter out several suspects during the investigation, and received investigation information which contaminated the eyewitnesses’ memory, (3) one to one live individual identifications were made in most of cases, (4) eyewitness identifications were always used to support the hypotheses of investigators, and exaggerated theirs powers when conform with the investigation lines, (5) the eyewitnesses’ confidence didn’t t reflect the validity of their identifications , but always influence the investigators’ beliefs for the identifications, (6) the investigators overestimated the power of the eyewitness identifications and ignore the inconsistency with other evidence. Recommendations have been proposed for future academic research and police practice of eyewitness identification in Taiwan.

Keywords: criminal investigation, eyewitness identification, investigative bias, investigative failures

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4050 The Lawfulness of the Determination of a Criminal Suspect as a New Pre-Trial's Object

Authors: Muhammad Tanziel Aziezi

Abstract:

In Indonesia, pre-trial (in Indonesia called ‘praperadilan’) is a mechanism that is regulated on Criminal Procedure Code as a form of oversight and check and balance on the process at the stage of inquiry, investigation, and prosecution, so that actions taken by the State (in this case, the police and prosecutor) is carried out in accordance with its authority and not violate human rights. Article 77 of the Criminal Procedure Code has been set that the object may be filed pretrial is just about the lawfulness of the arrest, the lawfulness of the detention, and the legitimacy of stopping investigation and prosecution. However, since the beginning of 2015, there was a further object which is then entered as a pre-trial object, namely the lawfulness of the determination of a criminal suspect. This is because the determination of the suspect is considered as one of the forceful measures that could restrict the rights of a person, so the implementation should have oversight and checks and balances by the courts. This paper will discuss the development of the pre-trial on the lawfulness of the determination of a criminal suspect as a new judicial mechanism as the protection of human rights in Indonesia.

Keywords: criminal procedure law, pre-trial, lawfulness of determination of a criminal suspect, check and balance by the court

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
4049 Skills and Abilities Expected from Professionals Conducting Serious Crimes Investigations: A Descriptive Study from Turkey

Authors: Burak M. Gonultas

Abstract:

Criminal investigation provides a practical contribution to this process while criminology provides a theoretical background in the apprehension of criminals arrest and clarification of crimes. However, studies on criminal investigation, which is a practical aspect of this process, are not sufficient. Every crime involves different dynamics in terms of investigation. But investigations of serious crimes are versatile and contains complex processes because of cases they are conducted. Therefore, professionals who conduct serious crime investigations differ in some aspects from others in the field. The most fundamental element of this differentiation is skills and abilities of these professionals. According to Eurostat data, Turkey is in an important position in terms of homicide rates. Therefore, in Turkey practice of serious crime investigation is specialized. The present study aims to research the skills and abilities expected from professionals in conducting an effective serious criminal investigation in Turkey and so aims to offer a number of suggestions. 25 emerged ability and skills collected from literature were asked to professionals (n=289) with semi-structured form according to 5 provinces with the highest and 2 provinces with the lowest number of serious crime cases. Three data categories were collected during experience: 1- Five most important skills and abilities, 2- The most important skills for knowledge and inquiry management and 3- Ability and skills that stand out for five stages of serious criminal investigation. The most rated skills and abilities are investigative skill (13%, n=134), planning/designing (9,2%, n=95) and interpersonal relations/communication (8,8%, n=91) in 1010 skills and abilities. While the 1st and 2nd suggest elections of these professionals, the 3rd also suggests how and what type of training will be given to these professionals. This practice differs from other studies in the area in terms of separately addressing the skills and abilities expected in stages of investigation and in terms of selected methodology.

Keywords: ability, criminal investigation, criminology, homicide, serious crimes, skill, Turkey

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4048 The Islamic Administrative Morals among Criminal Investigators in the Investigation and Prosecution Bureau in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: A Practical Study on the Investigation and Prosecution Bureau in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Authors: Majed Aldusaimani

Abstract:

Introduction: The researcher aims to verify the extent of the criminal investigator's commitment to the Islamic morals set out in the Holy Quran, their application in his work, and to understand the point of view of police officers, clerks and suspects regarding the investigator's commitment to moral and ethics in practice. Research question: Are the criminal investigators at the Bureau of Investigation and Public Prosecution in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia committed to the application of the practical morals set out in the Holy Quran in the view of the police officers, clerks and suspects with whom they work? Objectives of the study: 1. Identifying the standing of morality in Islam. 2. Identifying the practical morals outlined in the Holy Quran. 3. Identifying the most important practical morals in the Holy Quran that must be met by the criminal investigator from the viewpoint of the investigator himself. 4. Identifying the criminal investigator's commitment to the practical morals set out in the Holy Quran as perceived from the perspectives of police officers, clerks and suspects. Methodology: This study will use a descriptive methodology through quantitative and qualitative analysis of the data from respondents, who will be asked to answer questions about the extent of the commitment to the practical morals set out in the Holy Quran of the criminal investigators at the Bureau of Investigation and Public Prosecution that they have encountered.

Keywords: Islamic, investigator, Morals, Quran

Procedia PDF Downloads 352
4047 The Situation in Afghanistan as a Step Forward in Putting an End to Impunity

Authors: Jelena Radmanovic

Abstract:

On 5 March 2020, the International Criminal Court has decided to authorize the investigation into the crimes allegedly committed on the territory of Afghanistan after 1 May 2003. The said determination has raised several controversies, including the recently imposed sanctions by the United States, furthering the United States' long-standing rejection of the authority of the International Criminal Court. The purpose of this research is to address the said investigation in light of its importance for the prevention of impunity in the cases where the perpetrators are nationals of Non-Party States to the Rome Statute. Difficulties that the International Criminal Court has been facing, concerning the establishment of its jurisdiction in those instances where an involved state is not a Party to the Rome Statute, have become the most significant stumbling block undermining the importance, integrity, and influence of the Court. The Situation in Afghanistan raises even further concern, bearing in mind that the Prosecutor’s Request for authorization of an investigation pursuant to article 15 from 20 November 2017 has initially been rejected with the ‘interests of justice’ as an applied rationale. The first method used for the present research is the description of the actual events regarding the aforementioned decisions and the following reactions in the international community, while with the second method – the method of conceptual analysis, the research will address the decisions pertaining to the International Criminal Court’s jurisdiction and will attempt to address the mentioned Decision of 5 March 2020 as an example of good practice and a precedent that should be followed in all similar situations. The research will attempt parsing the reasons used by the International Criminal Court, giving rather greater attention to the latter decision that has authorized the investigation and the points raised by the officials of the United States. It is a find of this research that the International Criminal Court, together with other similar judicial instances (Nuremberg and Tokyo Tribunals, The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia, The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda), has presented the world with the possibility of non-impunity, attempting to prosecute those responsible for the gravest of crimes known to the humanity and has shown that such persons should not enjoy the benefits of their immunities, with its focus primarily on the victims of such crimes. Whilst it is an issue that will most certainly be addressed further in the future, with the situations that will be brought before the International Criminal Court, the present research will make an attempt at pointing to the significance of the situation in Afghanistan, the International Criminal Court as such and the international criminal justice as a whole, for the purpose of putting an end to impunity.

Keywords: Afghanistan, impunity, international criminal court, sanctions, United States

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4046 Web-Based Criminal Diary: Paperless Criminal Evidence for Federal Republic of Nigeria

Authors: Yekini Nureni Asafe, Haastrup Victor Adeleye, Ikotun Abiodun Motunrayo, Ojo Olanrewaju

Abstract:

Web Based Criminal Diary is a web based application whereby data of criminals been convicted by a judge in the court of law in Nigeria are shown to the entire public. Presently, criminal records are kept manually in Nigeria, which means when a person needs to be investigated to know if the person has a criminal record in the country, there is need to pass through different manual processes. With the use of manual record keeping, the criminal records can easily be manipulated by people in charge. The focus of this research work is to design a web-based application system for criminal record in Nigeria, towards elimination of challenges (such as loss of criminal records, in-efficiency in criminal record keeping, data manipulation, and other attendant problems of paper-based record keeping) which surrounds manual processing currently in use. The product of this research work will also help to minimize crime rate in our country since the opportunities and benefits lost as a result of a criminal record create will a lifelong barriers for anyone attempting to overcome a criminal past in our country.

Keywords: court of law, criminal, criminal diary, criminal evidence, Nigeria, web-based

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4045 The Notion of International Criminal Law: Between Criminal Aspects of International Law and International Aspects of Criminal Law

Authors: Magda Olesiuk-Okomska

Abstract:

Although international criminal law has grown significantly in the last decades, it still remains fragmented and lacks doctrinal cohesiveness. Its concept is described in the doctrine as highly disputable. There is no concrete definition of the term. In the domestic doctrine, the problem of criminal law issues that arise in the international setting, and international issues that arise within the national criminal law, is underdeveloped both theoretically and practically. To the best of author’s knowledge, there are no studies describing international aspects of criminal law in a comprehensive manner, taking a more expansive view of the subject. This paper presents results of a part of the doctoral research, undertaking a theoretical framework of the international criminal law. It aims at sorting out the existing terminology on international aspects of criminal law. It demonstrates differences between the notions of international criminal law, criminal law international and law international criminal. It confronts the notion of criminal law with related disciplines and shows their interplay. It specifies the scope of international criminal law. It diagnoses the current legal framework of international aspects of criminal law, referring to both criminal law issues that arise in the international setting, and international issues that arise in the context of national criminal law. Finally, de lege lata postulates were formulated and direction of changes in international criminal law was proposed. The adopted research hypothesis assumed that the notion of international criminal law was inconsistent, not understood uniformly, and there was no conformity as to its place within the system of law, objective and subjective scopes, while the domestic doctrine did not correspond with international standards and differed from the worldwide doctrine. Implemented research methods included inter alia a dogmatic and legal method, an analytical method, a comparative method, as well as desk research.

Keywords: criminal law, international crimes, international criminal law, international law

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4044 The Comparative Analysis on Pre-Trial in Relation to the Reform of Pre-Trial in Indonesian Criminal Procedural Code

Authors: Muhammad Fatahillah Akbar

Abstract:

Criminal Procedural Law is established to protect the society from the abuse of authority. To achieve that purpose, the criminal procedural law shall be established in accordance with the laws of human right and the protection of the society. One of the mechanisms to protect human rights and to ensure the compliance of authorities in criminal procedural law is pre-trial mechanism. In many countries, there are various mechanisms of pre-trial. In the recent cases in Indonesia, pre-trial has been an interesting issue. The issue is also addressed by the Constitutional Court Decision Number 21/PUU-XII/2014 which enhance the competence of pre-trial which includes the suspect determination and the legality of seizure and search. Before that decision, some pre-trial decisions have made landmark decision by enhancing the competence of pre-trial, such as the suspect determination case in Budi Gunawan Case and legality of the investigation in Hadi Purnomo Case. These pre-trial cases occurred because the society needs protection even though it is not provided by written legislations, in this matter, The Indonesian Criminal Procedural Code (KUHAP). For instance, a person can be a suspect for unlimited time because the Criminal Procedural Code does not regulate the limit of investigation, so the suspect enactment shall be able to be challenged to protect human rights. Before the Constitutional Court Decision Suspect Determination cannot be challenged so that the society is not fully protected. The Constitutional Court Decision has provided more protections. Nowadays, investigators shall be more careful in conducting the investigation. However, those decisions, including the Constitutional Court Decision are not sufficient for society to be protected by abuse of authority. For example, on 7 March 2017, a single judge, in a Pre-Trial, at the Surabaya District Court, decided that the investigation was unlawful and shall be terminated. This is not regulated according to the Code and also any decisions in pre-trial. It can be seen that the reform of pre-trial is necessary. Hence, this paper aims to examine how pre-trial shall be developed in the future to provide wide access for society to have social justice in criminal justice system. The question will be answered by normative, historical, and comparative approaches. Firstly, the paper will examine the history of pre-trial in Indonesia and also landmark decisions on pre-trial. Then, the lessons learned from other countries regarding to the pre-trial mechanism will be elaborated to show how pre-trial shall be developed and what the competences of a pre-trial are. The focus of all discussions shall be on how the society is protected and provided access to legally complain to the authority. At the end of the paper, the recommendation to reform the pre-trial mechanism will be suggested.

Keywords: pre-trial, criminal procedural law, society

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4043 The Role of Asset Recovery in Combatting Organized Crime

Authors: Tamas Bezsenyi, Noemi Katona

Abstract:

Fighting Human Trafficking is a highly important issue worldwide that states need to deal with in international politics. In the EU combatting human trafficking is emphasized in international policy making and also in the work of international law enforcement, thus in the work of the EUROPOL. While the EU Directive against Human Trafficking prescribes how states should fight this transnational crime and also how victims should be assisted, the EUROPOL focuses on the effective cooperation between national law enforcement agencies. However, despite the aims of the common fight, human trafficking is regulated differently in the punitive law of various nation states. This deeply defines the work and possibilities of national law enforcement organizations. Among the manifold differences in this paper, we focus on the role of regulating asset recovery. We highlight that money, and the regulation and practice how the law enforcement deals with income gained from criminal activities, play essential role in combatting human trafficking. While doing research on the investigation of transnational human trafficking by the Hungarian Law Enforcement Agencies, we have found that the unfortunate regulation of asset recovery determines the lower effectiveness of eliminating criminal organizations. While i.e. in the Netherlands confiscation of property takes place in an early stage of the criminal procedure, in Hungary it can be conducted only if money laundering is also assumed. Our presentation builds on the comparison of criminal procedures which we analyse based on criminal files and interviews with coworkers of the National Bureau of Investigation.

Keywords: human trafficking, law enforcement, asset recovery, organized crime

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
4042 Idea of International Criminal Justice in the Function of Prosecution International Crimes

Authors: Vanda Božić, Željko Nikač

Abstract:

The wars and armed conflicts have often resulted in violations of international humanitarian law, and often commit the most serious international crimes such as war crimes, crimes against humanity, aggression and genocide. However, only in the XX century the rule was articulated idea of establishing a body of international criminal justice in order to prosecute these crimes and their perpetrators. The first steps in this field have been made by establishing the International military tribunals for war crimes at Nuremberg and Tokyo, and the formation of ad hoc tribunals for the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda. In the end, The International Criminal Court was established in Rome in 1998 with the aim of justice and in order to give satisfaction the victims of crimes and their families. The aim of the paper was to provide a historical and comparative analysis of the institutions of international criminal justice based on which these institutions de lege lata fulfilled the goals of individual criminal responsibility and justice. Furthermore, the authors suggest de lege ferenda that the Permanent International Criminal Tribunal, in addition to the prospective case, also takes over the current ICTY and ICTR cases.

Keywords: international crimes, international criminal justice, prosecution of crimes, ad hoc tribunal, the international criminal court

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4041 Formulation Policy of Criminal Sanction in Indonesian Criminal Justice System

Authors: Dini Dewi Heniarti

Abstract:

This One of criminal sanctions that are often imposed by the judge is imprisonment. The issue on the imposition of imprisonment has been subject of contentious debate and criticism among various groups for a long time. In practice, the problematics of imprisonment lead to complicated problems. The impact of the reckless imposition of the imprisonment includes among others overcapacity of the correctional institution and increasing crimes within the correctional facilities. Therefore, there is a need for renewal of the existing condemnation paradigm, considering the developing phenomena associated with the penal imposition. Imprisonment as one element of the Indonesian penal system is an important and integral part of the other elements. The philosophy of the current penal system, which still refers to the Criminal Code, still carries the values of retaliation and fault-finding toward the offender. Therefore, it is important to reconstruct a new thought in order to realize a penal system that is represented in the formulation of a more humanistic criminal sanction

Keywords: criminal code, criminal sanction, Indonesian legal system, reconstruction of thought

Procedia PDF Downloads 147
4040 Police and Crime Scene Management Model

Authors: Najaf Hamadzadeh Arbabi

Abstract:

Crime scene management is the first and most critical step in criminal investigations and all the criminal investigations are based on the ability of the crime scene investigation officers for diagnosing the importance and the role of physical evidence at the crime scene. According to the role of available physical evidence at the scene to prove the crime and identify the perpetrator and prove the innocence of those accused have been unduly and also impossible due to the rejection of these reasons, the maintenance and investigation of crime scene and collect evidence are very important in the crime scene. This research, by identifying the factors affecting the management of the crime scene, looking for presenting the effective and efficient indigenous pattern for managing of the crime scene in Iran. Method: This study is an applied and development research. Wilcoxon signed-rank test and the Friedman test for ranking, were used for analyzing the data and all hypotheses were tested at 95% confidence level. The target population is 50 judges and experts in Tehran.

Keywords: crime scene, identification, designation, individualization, reconstruction

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4039 An International Comparison of Forensic Identification Evidence Legislation: Balancing Community Interests and Individual Rights

Authors: Marcus Smith

Abstract:

DNA profiling has made a valuable contribution to criminal investigations over the past thirty years. Direct matching DNA profiles from a crime scene and suspect, or between a suspect and a database remain of great importance to crimes such as murder, assault, and property theft. As scientific and technological advancement continues, a wide range of new DNA profiling applications has been developed. The application of new techniques involves an interesting balancing act between admitting probative evidence in a criminal trial, evaluating its degree of relevance and validity, and limiting its prejudicial impact. The impact of new DNA profiling applications that have significant implications for law enforcement and the legal system can be evaluated through a review of relevant case law, legislation and the latest empirical evidence from jurisdictions around the world including the United States, United Kingdom, and Australia. There are benefits in further examining the implications of these new developments, including how the criminal law can best be adapted to ensure that new technology is used to enhance criminal investigation and prosecution while ensuring it is applied in a measured way that respects individual rights and maintains principles of fairness enshrined in the legal system.

Keywords: criminal procedure, forensic evidence, DNA profiling, familial searching, phenotyping

Procedia PDF Downloads 48
4038 The Use of Artificial Intelligence in Digital Forensics and Incident Response (DFIR) in a Constrained Environment

Authors: Dipo Dunsin

Abstract:

Digital investigators often have a hard time spotting evidence in digital information. It has become hard to determine which source of proof relates to a specific investigation. A growing concern is that the various processes, technology, and specific procedures used in the digital investigation are not keeping up with criminal developments. Therefore, the criminals are taking advantage of these weaknesses to commit further crimes. In digital forensics investigations, Artificial Intelligence is invaluable in identifying crime. It has been observed that an algorithm based on artificial intelligence (AI) is highly effective in detecting risks, preventing criminal activity, and forecasting illegal activity. Providing objective data and conducting an assessment is the goal of digital forensics and digital investigation, which will assist in developing a plausible theory that can be presented as evidence in court. Researchers and other authorities have used the available data as evidence in court to convict a person. This research paper aims at developing a multi-agent framework for digital investigations using specific intelligent software agents (ISA). During each task, the agents communicate to address particular tasks jointly and keep the same objectives in mind. The rules and knowledge contained within each agent are dependent on the investigation type. A criminal investigation is classified quickly and efficiently using the case-based reasoning (CBR) technique. The MADIK is implemented using the Java Agent Development Framework and implemented using Eclipse, Postgres repository and a rule engine for agent reasoning. Testing of the proposed framework was carried out using the Lone Wolf image files and datasets. Experiments were conducted using various sets of ISA and VMs. There was a significant reduction in the time taken for the Hash Set Agent to execute. As a result of loading the agents, 5 percent of the time was lost, as the File Path Agent prescribed deleting 1,510, while the Timeline Agent found multiple executable files. In comparison, the integrity check carried out on the Lone Wolf image file using a digital forensic tool kit took approximately 48 minutes (2,880ms), whereas the MADIK framework accomplished this in 16 minutes (960ms). The framework is integrated with Python, allowing for further integration of other digital forensic tools, such as AccessData Forensic Toolkit (FTK), Wireshark, Volatility, and Scapy.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, computer science, criminal investigation, digital forensics

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
4037 Ontologies for Social Media Digital Evidence

Authors: Edlira Kalemi, Sule Yildirim-Yayilgan

Abstract:

Online Social Networks (OSNs) are nowadays being used widely and intensively for crime investigation and prevention activities. As they provide a lot of information they are used by the law enforcement and intelligence. An extensive review on existing solutions and models for collecting intelligence from this source of information and making use of it for solving crimes has been presented in this article. The main focus is on smart solutions and models where ontologies have been used as the main approach for representing criminal domain knowledge. A framework for a prototype ontology named SC-Ont will be described. This defines terms of the criminal domain ontology and the relations between them. The terms and the relations are extracted during both this review and the discussions carried out with domain experts. The development of SC-Ont is still ongoing work, where in this paper, we report mainly on the motivation for using smart ontology models and the possible benefits of using them for solving crimes.

Keywords: criminal digital evidence, social media, ontologies, reasoning

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4036 Sexual and Gender Based Crimes in International Criminal Law: Moving Forwards or Backwards

Authors: Khadija Ali

Abstract:

Prosecution of sexual violence in international criminal law requires not only an understanding of the mechanisms employed to prosecute sexual violence but also a critical analysis of the factors facilitating perpetuation of such crimes in armed conflicts. The extrapolations laid out in this essay delve into the jurisprudence of international criminal law pertaining to sexual and gender based violence followed by the core question of this essay: Has the entrenchment of sexual violence as international crimes in the Rome Statute been successful to address such violence in armed conflicts?

Keywords: conflict, gender, international criminal law, sexual violence

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4035 Criminal Liability for Criminal Tax

Authors: Theresia Simatupang dan Rahmayanti

Abstract:

Tax Law is a legal product and therefore should be subject to the legal norms, both about this actions, implementation, and about the material. Law has always aimed at providing justice, and besides that the law as a tool used to organize the order or rule of law. tax classification of a crime in this is very necessary, because the crime of taxation is very detrimental to the country and is still very high in society and socialization associated with punishment in sentencing that would have to provide a deterrent for the perpetrators, so refer to the this, these criminal offenses can endanger the stability of the nation's economy and the country that require special snacks. The application of legal sanctions against the perpetrators of the crime of taxation already has a strong legal basis, namely UU KUP. UU KUP have loaded threat (sanctions) severe punishment for tax payers who commit offenses and crimes in the field of taxation, which is contained in Article 38, and Article 39, Article 41, Article 41 A, and 41 B as well as Article 43 of Law and Law No. 12 KUP about 1985 Land Tax and Building. Criminal sanctions against violators of the tax provision are important because tax payers sanctions for violating tax laws.

Keywords: accountability, tax crime, criminal liability, taxation

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4034 DNA as an Instrument in Constructing Narratives and Justice in Criminal Investigations: A Socio-Epistemological Exploration

Authors: Aadita Chaudhury

Abstract:

Since at least the early 2000s, DNA profiling has achieved a preeminent status in forensic investigations into criminal acts. While the criminal justice system has a long history of using forensic evidence and testing them through establish technoscientific means, the primacy of DNA in establishing 'truth' or reconstructing a series of events is unparalleled in the history of forensic science. This paper seeks to elucidate the ways in which DNA profiling has become the most authoritative instrument of 'truth' in criminal investigations, and how it is used in the legal process to ascertain culpability, create the notion of infallible evidence, and advance the search for justice. It is argued that DNA profiling has created a paradigm shift in how the legal system and the general public understands crime and culpability, but not without limitations. There are indications that even trace amounts of DNA evidence can point to causal links in a criminal investigation, however, there still remains many rooms to create confusion and doubt from empirical evidence within the narrative of crimes. Many of the shortcomings of DNA-based forensic investigations are explored and evaluated with regards to claims of the authority of biological evidence and implications for the public understanding of the elusive concepts of truth and justice in the present era. Public misinformation about the forensic analysis processes could produce doubt or faith in the judgements rooted in them, depending on other variables presented at the trial. A positivist understanding of forensic science that is shared by the majority of the population does not take into consideration that DNA evidence is far from definitive, and can be used to support any theories of culpability, to create doubt and to deflect blame.

Keywords: DNA profiling, epistemology of forensic science, philosophy of forensic science, sociology of scientific knowledge

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4033 Evolving Jurisprudence of Rape Laws in India: A Study of Last One Decade

Authors: Drutika Upadhyay

Abstract:

Rape is one of the most heinous crimes committed against the body of a woman violating her privacy and dignity. The Right to Privacy and the Right to Live with Dignity constitute the very essence of the Right to Life and Personal Liberty, a Fundamental Right guaranteed under Article 21 of the Indian Constitution. The study is conducted with the primary objective of analyzing the efficacy of rape laws in India. The study begins by explaining the origin, meaning, and kinds of rape recognised under Indian jurisprudence. Further, it explains various statutory and penal provisions relating to rape and the loopholes in such provisions. It focuses on the procedure followed during investigation and trial and also aims at developing an understanding of the rights of the victim and the sentence in cases of rape. The study also throws some light upon the amendments made to the criminal law and the recommendations of the Law Commission of India to meet the demands of the changing criminal justice delivery system. The outcome of the study suggests that the laws relating to rape have proved to be a major failure owing to the lack of proper implementation. Also, the lack of education among the masses leads to gender biasness, which is the ultimate cause for the commission of such crime. At last, the author concludes that the present criminal law system of the country contains various lacunae that need to be filled in so as to make the criminal justice system more stringent. Further, the scope of the definition of ‘rape’ needs to be widened in order to include such other acts of non-consensual and sexual nature that are currently not included in the definition. The author has adopted a non-doctrinal and analytical approach and relied upon the secondary sources of data for the purpose of the study. The scope of the study is limited to the crime committed against women.

Keywords: amendment, criminal law, fundamental right, personal liberty, privacy, rape

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4032 Social Media, Society, and Criminal Victimization: A Qualitative Study on University Students of Bangladesh

Authors: Md. Tawohidul Haque

Abstract:

The main objective of this study is to explore the nature, types and, causes of the involvement of criminal activities of the university students using social media namely Social Networking Sites (SNS). The evidence shows that the students have greater chance to involve such criminal activities during sharing their personal messages, photos, and even sharing their academic works. Used qualitative case studies with six students from two universities, this study provides a detail information about the processes how this media provokes the students to commit to the criminal activities such as unethical pose, naked picture, post against persona’s prestige and dignity as well as social position, phone call at midnight, personal threats, sexual offer, kidnapping attitude, and so on. This finding would be an important guideline for the media persons, policy makers, restorative justice, and human rights workers.

Keywords: social media, criminal victimization, human gathering scheme, social code of ethics

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4031 Provide Adequate Protection to Avoid Secondary Victimization: Ensuring the Rights of the Child Victims in the Criminal Justice System

Authors: Muthukuda Arachchige Dona Shiroma Jeeva Shirajanie Niriella

Abstract:

The necessity of protection of the rights of victims of crime is a matter of concerns today. In the criminal justice system, child victims who are subjected to sexual abuse/violence are more vulnerable than the other crime victims. When they go to the police to lodge the complaint and until the end of the court proceedings, these victims are re-victimized in the criminal justice system. The rights of the suspects, accused and convicts are recognized and guaranteed by the constitution under fair trial norm, contemporary penal laws where crime is viewed as an offence against the State and existing criminal justice system in many jurisdictions including Sri Lanka. In this backdrop, a reasonable question arises as to whether the existing criminal justice system, especially which follow the adversarial mode of judicial trial protect the fair trial norm in the criminal justice process. Therefore, this paper intends to discuss the rights of the sexually abused child victims in the criminal justice system in order to restore imbalance between the rights of the wrongdoer and victim and suggest legal reforms to strengthen their rights in the criminal justice system which is essential to end secondary victimization. The paper considers Sri Lanka as a sample to discuss this issue. The paper looks at how the child victims are marginalized in the traditional adversarial model of the justice process, whether the contemporary penal laws adequately protect the right of these victims and whether the current laws set out the provisions to provide sufficient assistance and protection to them. The study further deals with the important principles adopted in international human rights law relating to the protection of the rights of the child victims in sexual offences cases. In this research paper, rights of the child victims in the investigation, trial and post-trial stages in the criminal justice process will be assessed. This research contains an extensive scrutiny of relevant international standards and local statutory provisions. Case law, books, journal articles, government publications such as commissions’ reports under this topic are rigorously reviewed as secondary resources. Further, randomly selected 25 child victims of sexual offences from the decided cases in last two years, police officers from 5 police divisions where the highest numbers of sexual offences were reported in last two years and the judicial officers both Magistrates and High Court Judges from the same judicial zones are interviewed. These data will be analyzed in order to find out the reasons for this specific sexual victimization, needs of these victims in various stages of the criminal justice system, relationship between victimization and offending and the difficulties and problems that these victims come across in criminal justice system. The author argues that the child victims are considerably neglected and their rights are not adequately protected in the adversarial model of the criminal justice process.

Keywords: child victims of sexual violence, criminal justice system, international standards, rights of child victims, Sri Lanka

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4030 The Role of the Accused’s Attorney in the Criminal Justice System of Iran, Mashhad 2014

Authors: Mahdi Karimi

Abstract:

One of the most basic standards of fair trial is the right to defense, hire an attorney and its presence in the hearing stages. On the one hand, based on the reason and justice, as the legal issues, particularly criminal affairs, become complicated, the accused must benefit from an attorney in the court in order to defend itself which requires legal knowledge. On the other hand, as the judicial system has jurists such as investigation judges at its disposal, the accused must enjoy the same right to defend itself and reject allegations so that the balance is maintained between the litigating parties based on the principle of "equality of arms". The right to adequate time and facilities for defense is cited among the principles and rights relevant to the proceedings in international regulations such as the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. The innovations made in the Code of Criminal Procedure in 2013 guaranteed the presence of the accused’s attorney in the proceedings. The present study aims at assessing the result of the aforementioned guarantee in practice and made attempts to investigate the effect of the presence of accused’s attorney on reducing the punishment by asking the question and addressing the statistical population of this study including 48 judges of lower courts and courts of appeal. It seems that in despite of guarantees provided in the new Code of Criminal Procedure, Iran's penal system, does not tolerate the presence of an attorney in practice.

Keywords: defense attorney, equality of arms, fair trial, reducing the penalty, right to defense

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
4029 Judicial Analysis of the Burden of Proof on the Perpetrator of Corruption Criminal Act

Authors: Rahmayanti, Theresia Simatupang, Ronald H. Sianturi

Abstract:

Corruption criminal act develops rapidly since in the transition era there is weakness in law. Consequently, there is an opportunity for a few people to do fraud and illegal acts and to misuse their positions and formal functions in order to make them rich, and the criminal acts are done systematically and sophisticatedly. Some people believe that legal provisions which specifically regulate the corruption criminal act; namely, Law No. 31/1999 in conjunction with Law No. 20/2001 on the Eradication of Corruption Criminal Act are not effective any more, especially in onus probandi (the burden of proof) on corruptors. The research was a descriptive analysis, a research method which is used to obtain description on a certain situation or condition by explaining the data, and the conclusion is drawn through some analyses. The research used judicial normative approach since it used secondary data as the main data by conducting library research. The system of the burden of proof, which follows the principles of reversal of the burden of proof stipulated in Article 12B, paragraph 1 a and b, Article 37A, and Article 38B of Law No. 20/2001 on the Amendment of Law No. 31/1999, is used only as supporting evidence when the principal case is proved. Meanwhile, how to maximize the implementation of the burden of proof on the perpetrators of corruption criminal act in which the public prosecutor brings a corruption case to Court, depends upon the nature of the case and the type of indictment. The system of burden of proof can be used to eradicate corruption in the Court if some policies and general principles of justice such as independency, impartiality, and legal certainty, are applied.

Keywords: burden of proof, perpetrator, corruption criminal act

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4028 Legalizing Prostitution: Providing Equality Amongst Men and Women in the Criminal Justice System through a Socialist Feminist Framework

Authors: Amanda Rebman

Abstract:

This paper challenges the criminal justice system’s traditional stance regarding prostitution. Historically, the acceptance and morality of prostitution within the United States has fluctuated depending upon the social attitudes of the era. Today, prostitutes are allegedly viewed as victims; however, they are treated like criminals throughout the criminal justice system and society. Dominant patriarchal narratives within the United States has resulted in woman lacking autonomy over their bodies and diminished their ability to choose their own career. Even though prostitutes are deemed victims, many times, they are convicted of crimes, a practice that results in further victimization. Utilizing the socialist feminist theory to understand these juxtaposing positions on whether to legalize prostitution facilitates a greater understanding of how patriarchal capitalist arrangements ensure the oppression of women throughout the criminal justice system. The legalization of prostitution will alleviate some of this oppression and ensure a more equal treatment of women in the criminal justice system and society at large.

Keywords: equality, feminist theory, prostitution, sex work

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4027 The Withdrawal of African States from the International Criminal Court

Authors: Allwell Uwazuruike

Abstract:

With the withdrawal, in 2016, of 3 African states from the ICC, the discourse took an interesting twist. African states, or at least some of them, had now shown their resolve to part ways with the ICC and, by implication, focus on further enthroning regional control and governance through an improved continental justice system. A range of views has been expressed over the years on the allegations of bias by some African states and the continued membership of the ICC. While there may be a split on the merits of the allegations of bias, academic analysts have generally not opposed African states’ membership of the ICC nor been particularly optimistic about the prospects of an African criminal court. There is also a degree of ambivalence on whether there are positives to be taken from African states’ withdrawal from the ICC. This article examines the recent developments with the ICC and analyses whether these could be viewed from the positive (or, at least, alternative) spectrum of the AU’s spirited march towards regional sovereignty or entirely negatively from the point of view of African Heads-of-State seeking to enthrone an era of authoritarianism and non-accountability.

Keywords: international criminal court, Africa, regionalism, criminal justice

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4026 Reduction of Process of Evidence in Specific Forms of Criminal Proceeding: Problems and Risks

Authors: Filip Ščerba, Veronika Pochylá

Abstract:

Performing of the acts within criminal proceedings usually takes too long and thus this phenomenon can be regarded as one of the most burning problems which have plagued the criminal justice not only in the Czech Republic but at least all over Europe for the last few decades. This problem obviously has to be dealt with and thus the need to tackle this issue has resulted in the trend which is sometimes called Criminal Justice Rationalization, i.e. introducing and enforcing methods supporting the increase in efficiency of the criminal justice in order to make the criminal proceedings shorter and administrative procedure easier. This resulted in the introduction of institutes such as e.g. diversions in criminal proceedings or other forms of shortened pre-trial proceedings, which may be used primarily for dealing with less serious crimes. But also the institute, which was originally mentioned in connection with the system of criminal law in the countries belonging to the Anglo-Saxon legal order where it is frequently called of plea bargaining, has been introduced into the criminal law of many European countries, and it may be applied also in cases of serious crimes. All these special and shortened forms of criminal proceedings are connected with limited extent of process of evidence; in fact, some of these specific forms of criminal proceedings are designed for the purpose to simplify the process of evidence. That is also the reason, why some of these procedures are conditioned with the defendant’s confession. Main hypothesis: Limited process of evidence represents also a potential conflict with certain fundamental principles upon which the criminal proceeding in the Continental legal system is based. (A conflict with principle of material truth may be considered as the most important problem. This principle states that the bodies in criminal proceedings must clarify the facts of the case beyond reasonable doubt to such extent that a decision can be made; the defendant’s confession does not mean that these bodies are freed from the duty to review all the circumstances and facts of the case. Such principle is typical for criminal law in Central European region.) Basic methodologies: The paper is going to analyze such a problem of weakening of the principle of material truth in modern criminal law. Such analysis will be provided primarily on the base of the Czech criminal law, but also other legal regulations will be taken into consideration, and its result may have some relevance for all legal regulations belonging to the Continental legal system, so the paper offers also a comparison with legal systems of other Central European countries.

Keywords: burden of proof, central European countries, criminal justice rationalization, criminal proceeding, Czech legislation, Czech republic, defendant, diversions, evidence, fundamental principles, plea bargaining, pre-trial proceedings, principle of material truth, process of evidence, process of evidence

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4025 Criminal Law Instruments to Counter Corporate Crimes in Poland

Authors: Dorota Habrat

Abstract:

In Polish law, the idea of the introduction of corporate responsibility for crimes is becoming more popular and creates a lot of questions. The need to introduce into the Polish legal system liability of corporate (collective entities) has resulted, among others, from the Polish Republic's international commitments, in particular related to membership in the European Union. The Act of 28 October 2002 on the liability of collective entities for acts prohibited under penalty is one of the example of adaptation of Polish law to Community law. Introduction to Polish law a criminal nature liability of corporations (legal persons) has resulted in a lot of controversy and lack of acceptance from both the scientific community as well as the judiciary. The responsibility of collective entities under the Act has a criminal nature. The main question concerns the ability of the collective entity to be brought to guilt under criminal law sense. Polish criminal law knows only the responsibility of individual persons. So far, guilt as a personal feature of action, based on the ability of the offender to feel in his psyche, could be considered only in relation to the individual person, while the said Act destroyed this conviction. Guilt of collective entity must be proven under at least one of the three possible forms: the guilt in the selection or supervision and so called organizational guilt. The next question is how the principle of proportionality in relation to criminal measures in response of collective entities should be considered. It should be remembered that the legal subjectivity of collective entities, including their rights and freedoms, is an emanation of the rights and freedoms of individual persons which create collective entities and through these entities implement their rights and freedoms. The adopted Act largely reflects the international legal regulations but also contains the unknown and original legislative solutions.

Keywords: criminal corporate responsibility, Polish criminal law, legislative solutions, Act of 28 October 2002

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4024 Prison Reforms: An Overview of the Nigerian Prisons as a Key Component of an Efficient Criminal Justice Delivery System

Authors: Foluke Dada

Abstract:

Prisons all over the world are set up by law to provide restraint and custody for individuals accused or convicted of crimes by the state. The Nigerian prison dates back to the colonial era and is modelled after the British system. It is a system that lays emphasis on punishment and deterrence. It emphasises retribution rather than reformation. These, it can be argued, results in the inhuman conditions of Nigerian prisons and the conscienceless treatment of convicts and awaiting trial inmates in Nigerian prisons. This paper attempts an examination of the challenges currently beguiling Nigerian prisons, the need for reforms in the prison systems and the imperative of these reforms to an efficient criminal justice delivery system in the country. This paper further postulates that rehabilitation should be favoured as against retribution f the development of the Nigerian criminal justice system in line with the shift towards reform.

Keywords: criminal justice, human rights, prison reforms, rehabilitation and retribution

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4023 The Application of Insects in Forensic Investigations

Authors: Shirin Jalili, Hadi Shirzad, Samaneh Nabavi, Somayeh Khanjani

Abstract:

Forensic entomology is the science of study and analysis of insects evidences to aid in criminal investigation. Being aware of the distribution, biology, ecology and behavior of insects, which are founded at crime scene can provide information about when, where and how the crime has been committed. It has many application in criminal investigations. Its main use is estimation of the minimum time after death in suspicious death. The close association between insects and corpses and the use of insects in criminal investigations is the subject of forensic entomology. Because insects attack to the decomposing corpse and spawning on it from the initial stages. Forensic scientists can estimate the postmortem index by studying the insects population and the developing larval stages.In addition, toxicological and molecular studies of these insects can reveal the cause of death or even the identity of a victim. It also be used to detect drugs and poisons, and determination of incident location. Gathering robust entomological evidences is made possible for experts by recent Techniques. They can provide vital information about death, corpse movement or burial, submersion interval, time of decapitation, identification of specific sites of trauma, post-mortem artefacts on the body, use of drugs, linking a suspect to the scene of a crime, sexual molestations and the identification of suspects.

Keywords: Forensic entomology, post mortem interval, insects, larvae

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4022 The Nature of Origin of New Criminal Occurrences in Gjakova Region: Cultural and Criminological “Intersection” in 1999-2009

Authors: Bekim Avdiaj

Abstract:

The transition period of Kosovo society brought fundamental changes in all the spheres of organizing life. This was the period when also in the cultural tradition the biggest movement and an emerging from ‘isolation’ or from the ‘shell’ occurred. Transformation of the traditional and embracing of the modern began here. The same was experienced and is currently being experienced also by Gjakova and its surrounding which is historically renowned for its great tradition and culture. The population of this region is actually facing a transition from the traditional system into the modern one and quite often with huge leaps. These ‘movements’ or ‘evolutions’ of the society of this region, besides the numerous positive things it ‘harvested’, also brought things that do not at all correspond with their tradition as well as new criminal occurrences which in the past were not present in this area. Furthermore, some of the ‘new’ behaviours that are embraced from other ‘cultures’ and ‘civilizations’, and which are often exceeded, are quite perturbing. The security situation is also worrying, particularly following the appearance of some new criminal occurrences. Therefore, with this research paper we will strive to analyse the new cultural “intersections” as well as the nature of the origin of some new very worrying criminal occurrences. We will present there also some factors inciting into these occurrences, which were confessed by the persons involved in these criminal occurrences and who come from this very region.

Keywords: crime, occurrence, culture, Gjakova Region

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