Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2744

Search results for: electrical vehicle

2744 Field Oriented Control of Electrical Motor for Efficiency Improvement of Aerial Vehicle

Authors: Francois Defay

Abstract:

Uses of Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) are increasing for many applicative cases. Long endurance UAVs are required for inspection or transportation in some deserted places. The global optimization of the efficiency is the aim of the works in ISAE-SUPAERO. From the propulsive part until the motor control, the global optimization can increase significantly the global efficiency. This paper deals with the global improvement of the efficiency of the electrical propulsion for the aerial vehicle. The application case of study is a small airplane of 2kg. A global modelization is presented in order to validate the electrical engine in a complete simulation from aerodynamics to battery. The classical control of the synchronous permanent drive is compared to the field-oriented control which is not yet applied for UAVs. The experimental results presented show an increase of more than 10 percent of the efficiency. A complete modelization and simulation based on Matlab/ Simulink are presented in this paper and compared to the experimental study. Finally this paper presents solutions to increase the endurance of the electrical aerial vehicle and provide models to optimize the global consumption for a specific mission. The next step is to use this model and the control to work with distributed propulsion which is the future for small distance plane.

Keywords: electrical propulsion, endurance, field-oriented control, UAV

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2743 Design and Implementation of the Embedded Control System for the Electrical Motor Based Cargo Vehicle

Authors: Syed M. Rizvi, Yiqing Meng, Simon Iwnicki

Abstract:

With an increased demand in the land cargo industry, it is predicted that the freight trade will rise to a record $1.1 trillion in revenue and volume in the following years to come. This increase is mainly driven by the e-commerce model ever so popular in the consumer market. Many innovative ideas have stemmed from this demand and change in lifestyle likes of which include e-bike cargo and drones. Rural and urban areas are facing air quality challenges to keep pollution levels in city centre to a minimum. For this purpose, this paper presents the design and implementation of a non-linear PID control system, employing a micro-controller and low cost sensing technique, for controlling an electrical motor based cargo vehicle with various loads, to follow a leading vehicle (bike). Within using this system, the cargo vehicle will have no load influence on the bike rider on different gradient conditions, such as hill climbing. The system is being integrated with a microcontroller to continuously measure several parameters such as relative displacement between bike and the cargo vehicle and gradient of the road, and process these measurements to create a portable controller capable of controlling the performance of electrical vehicle without the need of a PC. As a result, in the case of carrying 180kg of parcel weight, the cargo vehicle can maintain a reasonable spacing over a short length of sensor travel between the bike and itself.

Keywords: cargo, e-bike, microcontroller, embedded system, nonlinear pid, self-adaptive, inertial measurement unit (IMU)

Procedia PDF Downloads 141
2742 Control Strategy for a Solar Vehicle Race

Authors: Francois Defay, Martim Calao, Jean Francois Dassieu, Laurent Salvetat

Abstract:

Electrical vehicles are a solution for reducing the pollution using green energy. The shell Eco-Marathon provides rules in order to minimize the battery use for the race. The use of solar panel combined with efficient motor control and race strategy allow driving a 60kg vehicle with one pilot using only the solar energy in the best case. This paper presents a complete modelization of a solar vehicle used for the shell eco-marathon. This project called Helios is cooperation between non-graduated students, academic institutes, and industrials. The prototype is an ultra-energy-efficient vehicle based on one-meter square solar panel and an own-made brushless controller to optimize the electrical part. The vehicle is equipped with sensors and embedded system to provide all the data in real time in order to evaluate the best strategy for the course. A complete modelization with Matlab/Simulink is used to test the optimal strategy to increase the global endurance. Experimental results are presented to validate the different parts of the model: mechanical, aerodynamics, electrical, solar panel. The major finding of this study is to provide solutions to identify the model parameters (Rolling Resistance Coefficient, drag coefficient, motor torque coefficient, etc.) by means of experimental results combined with identification techniques. One time the coefficients are validated, the strategy to optimize the consumption and the average speed can be tested first in simulation before to be implanted for the race. The paper describes all the simulation and experimental parts and provides results in order to optimize the global efficiency of the vehicle. This works have been started four years ago and evolved many students for the experimental and theoretical parts and allow to increase the knowledge on electrical self-efficient vehicle.

Keywords: electrical vehicle, endurance, optimization, shell eco-marathon

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
2741 The Analysis of Own Signals of PM Electrical Machines – Example of Eccentricity

Authors: Marcin Baranski

Abstract:

This article presents a vibration diagnostic method designed for permanent magnets (PM) traction motors. Those machines are commonly used in traction drives of electrical vehicles. Specific structural properties of machines excited by permanent magnets are used in this method - electromotive force (EMF) generated due to vibrations. This work presents: field-circuit model, results of static tests, results of calculations and simulations.

Keywords: electrical vehicle, permanent magnet, traction drive, vibrations, electrical machine, eccentricity

Procedia PDF Downloads 531
2740 Effect of Architecture and Operating Conditions of Vehicle on Bulb Lifetime in Automotive

Authors: Hatice Özbek, Caner Çil, Ahmet Rodoplu

Abstract:

Automotive lighting is the leading function in the configuration of vehicle architecture. Especially headlights and taillights from external lighting functions are among the structures that determine the stylistic character of the vehicle. At the same time, the fact that lighting functions are related to many other functions brings along difficulties in design. Customers expect maximum quality from the vehicle. In these circumstances, it is necessary to make designs that aim to keep the performance of bulbs with limited working lives at the highest level. With this study, the factors that influence the working lives of filament lamps were examined and bulb explosions that can occur sooner than anticipated in the future were prevented while the vehicle was still in the design phase by determining the relations with electrical, dynamical and static variables. Especially the filaments of the bulbs used in the front lighting of the vehicle are deformed in a shorter time due to the high voltage requirement. In addition to this, rear lighting lamps vibrate as a result of the tailgate opening and closing and cause the filaments to be exposed to high stress. With this study, the findings that cause bulb explosions were evaluated. Among the most important findings: 1. The structure of the cables to the lighting functions of the vehicle and the effect of the voltage values are drawn; 2. The effect of the vibration to bulb throughout the life of the vehicle; 3 The effect of the loads carried to bulb while the vehicle doors are opened and closed. At the end of the study, the maximum performance was established in the bulb lifetimes with the optimum changes made in the vehicle architecture based on the findings obtained.

Keywords: vehicle architecture, automotive lighting functions, filament lamps, bulb lifetime

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2739 Implementation and Modeling of a Quadrotor

Authors: Ersan Aktas, Eren Turanoğuz

Abstract:

In this study, the quad-electrical rotor driven unmanned aerial vehicle system is designed and modeled using fundamental dynamic equations. After that, mechanical, electronical and control system of the air vehicle are designed and implemented. Brushless motor speeds are altered via electronic speed controllers in order to achieve desired controllability. The vehicle's fundamental Euler angles (i.e., roll angle, pitch angle, and yaw angle) are obtained via AHRS sensor. These angles are provided as an input to the control algorithm that run on soft the processor on the electronic card. The vehicle control algorithm is implemented in the electronic card. Controller is designed and improved for each Euler angles. Finally, flight tests have been performed to observe and improve the flight characteristics.

Keywords: quadrotor, UAS applications, control architectures, PID

Procedia PDF Downloads 269
2738 Electrification Strategy of Hybrid Electric Vehicle as a Solution to Decrease CO2 Emission in Cities

Authors: M. Mourad, K. Mahmoud

Abstract:

Recently hybrid vehicles have become a major concern as one alternative vehicles. This type of hybrid vehicle contributes greatly to reducing pollution. Therefore, this work studies the influence of electrification phase of hybrid electric vehicle on emission of vehicle at different road conditions. To accomplish this investigation, a simulation model was used to evaluate the external characteristics of the hybrid electric vehicle according to variant conditions of road resistances. Therefore, this paper reports a methodology to decrease the vehicle emission especially greenhouse gas emission inside cities. The results show the effect of electrification on vehicle performance characteristics. The results show that CO2 emission of vehicle decreases up to 50.6% according to an urban driving cycle due to applying the electrification strategy for hybrid electric vehicle.

Keywords: electrification strategy, hybrid electric vehicle, driving cycle, CO2 emission

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2737 Comparison of Different Machine Learning Models for Time-Series Based Load Forecasting of Electric Vehicle Charging Stations

Authors: H. J. Joshi, Satyajeet Patil, Parth Dandavate, Mihir Kulkarni, Harshita Agrawal

Abstract:

As the world looks towards a sustainable future, electric vehicles have become increasingly popular. Millions worldwide are looking to switch to Electric cars over the previously favored combustion engine-powered cars. This demand has seen an increase in Electric Vehicle Charging Stations. The big challenge is that the randomness of electrical energy makes it tough for these charging stations to provide an adequate amount of energy over a specific amount of time. Thus, it has become increasingly crucial to model these patterns and forecast the energy needs of power stations. This paper aims to analyze how different machine learning models perform on Electric Vehicle charging time-series data. The data set consists of authentic Electric Vehicle Data from the Netherlands. It has an overview of ten thousand transactions from public stations operated by EVnetNL.

Keywords: forecasting, smart grid, electric vehicle load forecasting, machine learning, time series forecasting

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2736 A Review of In-Vehicle Network for Cloud Connected Vehicle

Authors: Hanbhin Ryu, Ilkwon Yun

Abstract:

Automotive industry targets to provide an improvement in safety and convenience through realizing fully autonomous vehicle. For partially realizing fully automated driving, Current vehicles already feature varieties of advanced driver assistance system (ADAS) for safety and infotainment systems for the driver’s convenience. This paper presents Cloud Connected Vehicle (CCV) which connected vehicles with cloud data center via the access network to control the vehicle for achieving next autonomous driving form and describes its features. This paper also describes the shortcoming of the existing In-Vehicle Network (IVN) to be a next generation IVN of CCV and organize the 802.3 Ethernet, the next generation of IVN, related research issue to verify the feasibility of using Ethernet. At last, this paper refers to additional considerations to adopting Ethernet-based IVN for CCV.

Keywords: autonomous vehicle, cloud connected vehicle, ethernet, in-vehicle network

Procedia PDF Downloads 398
2735 PM Electrical Machines Diagnostic: Methods Selected

Authors: M. Barański

Abstract:

This paper presents a several diagnostic methods designed to electrical machines especially for permanent magnets (PM) machines. Those machines are commonly used in small wind and water systems and vehicles drives. Those methods are preferred by the author in periodic diagnostic of electrical machines. The special attention should be paid to diagnostic method of turn-to-turn insulation and vibrations. Both of those methods were created in Institute of Electrical Drives and Machines Komel. The vibration diagnostic method is the main thesis of author’s doctoral dissertation. This is method of determination the technical condition of PM electrical machine basing on its own signals is the subject of patent application No P.405669. Specific structural properties of machines excited by permanent magnets are used in this method - electromotive force (EMF) generated due to vibrations. There was analysed number of publications which describe vibration diagnostic methods and tests of electrical machines with permanent magnets and there was no method found to determine the technical condition of such machine basing on their own signals.

Keywords: electrical vehicle, generator, main insulation, permanent magnet, thermography, turn-to-traction drive, turn insulation, vibrations

Procedia PDF Downloads 309
2734 Review of Vehicle to Grid Applications in Recent Years

Authors: Afsane Amiri

Abstract:

Electric Vehicle (EV) technology is expected to take a major share in the light-vehicle market in the coming decades. Charging of EVs will put an extra burden on the distribution grid and in some cases adjustments will need to be made. In this paper a review of different plug-in and vehicle to grid (V2G) capable vehicles are given along with their power electronics topologies. The economic implication of charging the vehicle or sending power back to the utility is described in brief.

Keywords: energy storage system, battery unit, cost, optimal sizing, plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), smart grid

Procedia PDF Downloads 524
2733 Technical Assessment of Utilizing Electrical Variable Transmission Systems in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

Authors: Majid Vafaeipour, Mohamed El Baghdadi, Florian Verbelen, Peter Sergeant, Joeri Van Mierlo, Kurt Stockman, Omar Hegazy

Abstract:

The Electrical Variable Transmission (EVT), an electromechanical device, can be considered as an alternative solution to the conventional transmission system utilized in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs). This study present comparisons in terms of fuel consumption, power split, and state of charge (SoC) of an HEV containing an EVT to a conventional parallel topology and a series topology. To this end, corresponding simulations of these topologies are all performed in presence of control strategies enabling battery charge-sustaining and efficient power split. The power flow through the components of the vehicle are attained, and fuel consumption results of the considered cases are compared. The investigation of the results indicates utilizing EVT can provide significant added values in HEV configurations. The outcome of the current research paves its path for implementation of design optimization approaches on such systems in further research directions.

Keywords: Electrical Variable Transmission (EVT), Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV), parallel, series, modeling

Procedia PDF Downloads 151
2732 Effect of Design Parameters on a Two Stage Launch Vehicle Performance

Authors: Assem Sallam, Aly Elzahaby, Ahmed Makled, Mohamed Khalil

Abstract:

Change in design parameters of launch vehicle affects its overall flight path trajectory. In this paper, several design parameters are introduced to study their effect. Selected parameters are the launch vehicle mass, which is presented in the form of payload mass, the maximum allowable angle of attack the launch vehicle can withstand, the flight path angle that is predefined for the launch vehicle second stage, the required inclination and its effect on the launch azimuth and finally by changing the launch pad coordinate. Selected design parameters are studied for their effect on the variation of altitude, ground range, absolute velocity and the flight path angle. The study gives a general mean of adjusting the design parameters to reach the required launch vehicle performance.

Keywords: launch vehicle azimuth, launch vehicle trajectory, launch vehicle payload, launch pad location

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
2731 Feasibilty and Penetration of Electric Vehicles in Indian Power Grid

Authors: Kashyap L. Mokariya, Varsha A. Shah, Makarand M. Lokhande

Abstract:

As the current status and growth of Indian automobile industry is remarkable, transportation sectors are the main concern in terms of Energy security and climate change. Rising demand of fuel and its dependency on other countries affects the GDP of nation. So in this context if the 10 percent of vehicle got operated in Electrical mode how much saving in terms of Rs and in terms of liters is achieved has been analyzed which is also a part of Nations Electric mobility mission plan. Analysis is also done for converting unit consumption of Electricity of Electric vehicle into equivalent fuel consumption in liters which shows that at present tariff rate Electrical operated vehicles are far more beneficial. It also gives benchmark to the authorities to set the tariff rate for Electrical vehicles. Current situation of Indian grid is shown and how the Gap between Generation and Demand can be reduced is analyzed in terms of increasing generation capacity and Energy Conservation measures. As the certain regions of country is facing serious deficit than how to take energy conservation measures in Industry and especially in rural areas where generally Energy Auditing is not carried out that is analyzed in context of Electric vehicle penetration in near future. Author was a part of Vishvakarma yojna where in 255 villages of Gujarat Energy losses were measured and solutions were given to mitigate them and corresponding report to the authorities of villages was delivered.

Keywords: vehiclepenetration, feasibility, Energyconservation, future grid, Energy security, pf controller

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2730 The Effect of Gross Vehicle Weight on the Stability of Heavy Vehicle during Cornering

Authors: Nurzaki Ikhsan, Ahmad Saifizul Abdullah, Rahizar Ramli

Abstract:

One of the functions of the commercial heavy vehicle is to safely and efficiently transport goods and people. Due to its size and carrying capacity, it is important to study the vehicle dynamic stability during cornering. Study has shown that there are a number of overloaded heavy vehicles or permissible gross vehicle weight (GVW) violations recorded at selected areas in Malaysia assigned by its type and category. Thus, the objective of this study is to investigate the correlation and effect of the GVW on heavy vehicle stability during cornering event using simulation. Various selected heavy vehicle types and category are simulated using IPG/Truck Maker® with different GVW and road condition (coefficient of friction of road surface), while the speed, driver characteristic, center of gravity of load and road geometry are constant. Based on the analysis, the relationship between GVW and lateral acceleration were established. As expected, on the same value of coefficient of friction, the maximum lateral acceleration would be increased as the GVW increases.

Keywords: heavy vehicle, road safety, vehicle stability, lateral acceleration, gross vehicle weight

Procedia PDF Downloads 454
2729 Methodology of Geometry Simplification for Conjugate Heat Transfer of Electrical Rotating Machines Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

Authors: Sachin Aggarwal, Sarah Kassinger, Nicholas Hoffman

Abstract:

Geometry simplification is a key step in performing conjugate heat transfer analysis using CFD. This paper proposes a standard methodology for the geometry simplification of rotating machines, such as electrical generators and electrical motors (both air and liquid-cooled). These machines are extensively deployed throughout the aerospace and automotive industries, where optimization of weight, volume, and performance is paramount -especially given the current global transition to renewable energy sources and vehicle hybridization and electrification. Conjugate heat transfer analysis is an essential step in optimizing their complex design. This methodology will help in reducing convergence issues due to poor mesh quality, thus decreasing computational cost and overall analysis time.

Keywords: CFD, electrical machines, Geometry simplification, heat transfer

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2728 Fuel Economy of Electrical Energy in the City Bus during Japanese Test Procedure

Authors: Piotr Kacejko, Lukasz Grabowski, Zdzislaw Kaminski

Abstract:

This paper discusses a model of fuel consumption and on-board electricity generation. Rapid changes in speed result in a constantly changing kinetic energy accumulated in a bus mass and an increased fuel consumption due to hardly recuperated kinetic energy. The model is based on the results achieved from chassis dynamometer, airport and city street researches. The verified model was applied to simulate the on-board electricity generation during the Japanese JE05 Emission Test Cycle. The simulations were performed for several values of vehicle mass and electrical load applied to on-board devices. The research results show that driving dynamics has an impact on a consumption of fuel to drive alternators.

Keywords: city bus, heavy duty vehicle, Japanese JE05 test cycle, power generation

Procedia PDF Downloads 128
2727 Energy Management of Hybrid Energy Source Composed of a Fuel Cell and Supercapacitor for an Electric Vehicle

Authors: Mejri Achref

Abstract:

This paper proposes an energy management strategy for an electrical hybrid vehicle which is composed of a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell and a supercapacitor storage device. In this paper, the mathematical model for the proposed power train, comprising the PEM Fuel Cell, supercapacitor, boost converter, inverter, and vehicular structure, was modeled in MATLAB/Simulink. The proposed algorithm is evaluated for the Highway Fuel Economy Test (HWFET) driving cycle. The obtained results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed energy management strategy in reduction of hydrogen consumption.

Keywords: proton exchange membrane fuel cell, hybrid vehicle, hydrogen consumption, energy management strategy

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
2726 Road Vehicle Recognition Using Magnetic Sensing Feature Extraction and Classification

Authors: Xiao Chen, Xiaoying Kong, Min Xu

Abstract:

This paper presents a road vehicle detection approach for the intelligent transportation system. This approach mainly uses low-cost magnetic sensor and associated data collection system to collect magnetic signals. This system can measure the magnetic field changing, and it also can detect and count vehicles. We extend Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients to analyze vehicle magnetic signals. Vehicle type features are extracted using representation of cepstrum, frame energy, and gap cepstrum of magnetic signals. We design a 2-dimensional map algorithm using Vector Quantization to classify vehicle magnetic features to four typical types of vehicles in Australian suburbs: sedan, VAN, truck, and bus. Experiments results show that our approach achieves a high level of accuracy for vehicle detection and classification.

Keywords: vehicle classification, signal processing, road traffic model, magnetic sensing

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
2725 Electric Propulsion System Development for High Floor Trolley Bus

Authors: Asep Andi Suryandi, Katri Yulianto, Dewi Rianti Mandasari

Abstract:

The development of environmentally friendly vehicles increasingly attracted the attention of almost all countries in the world, including Indonesia. There are various types of environmentally friendly vehicles, such as: electric vehicles, hybrid, and fuel gas. The Electric vehicle has been developed in Indonesia, a private or public vehicle. But many electric vehicles had been developed using the battery as a power source, while the battery technology for electric vehicles still constraints in capacity, dimensions of the battery itself and charging system. Trolley bus is one of the electric buses with the main power source of the network catenary / overhead line with trolley pole as the point of contact. This paper will discuss the design and manufacture electrical system in Trolleybus.

Keywords: trolley bus, electric propulsion system, design, manufacture, electric vehicle

Procedia PDF Downloads 243
2724 Quick Response(QR) Code for Vehicle Registration and Identification

Authors: S. Malarvizhi, S. Sadiq Basha, M. Santhosh Kumar, K. Saravanan, R. Sasikumar, R. Satheesh

Abstract:

This is a web based application which provides authorization for the vehicle identification and registration. It also provides mutual authentication between the police and users in order to avoid misusage. The QR code generation in this application overcomes the difficulty in the manual registration of the vehicle documents. This generated QR code is placed in the number plates of the vehicles. The QR code is scanned using the QR Reader installed in the smart devices. The police officials can check the vehicle details and file cases on accidents, theft and traffic rules violations using QR code. In addition to vehicle insurance payments and renewals, the renewal alert is sent to the vehicle owner about payment deadline. The non-permitted vehicles can be blocked in the next check-post by sending the alert messages.

Keywords: QR code, QR reader, registration, authentication, idenfication

Procedia PDF Downloads 318
2723 A Study on the Method of Accelerated Life Test to Electric Rotating System

Authors: Youn-Hwan Kim, Jae-Won Moon, Hae-Joong Kim

Abstract:

This paper introduces the study on the method of accelerated life test to electrical rotating system. In recent years, as well as efficiency for motors and generators, there is a growing need for research on the life expectancy. It is considered impossible to calculate the acceleration coefficient by increasing the rotational load or temperature load as the acceleration stress in the motor system because the temperature of the copper exceeds the wire thermal class rating. In this paper, the accelerated life test methods of the electrical rotating system are classified according to the application. This paper describes the development of the test procedure for the highly accelerated life test (HALT) of the 100kW permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) of electric vehicle. Finally, it explains how to select acceleration load for vibration, temperature, bearing load, etc. for accelerated life test.

Keywords: acceleration coefficient, electric vehicle motor, HALT, life expectancy, vibration

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
2722 Infrastructure Problems in Indonesia: The Uncontrolled Increase of Motor Vehicle Usage in Indonesia

Authors: Tanda Soala Gogo Sirait

Abstract:

The existence of motor vehicle in Indonesia has a very essential role for daily mobility in urban areas. The motor vehicle market is growing tremendously particularly for the motorcycle. The growth of motorcycles ownership was 15 % annually from 2002 to 2012. It is predicted that the number of motorcycles still continue to grow in the future. The increase of motor vehicle has led to the creation of serious urban problems and Indonesian economy structure. Today, Indonesia's cities are well known as the jungle of motorcycle world. The volume of motor vehicle traffic in Indonesia cities is astounding, which more than 55% of motorised transport is on motorcycle and car. The reason it happens is due lack and inconvenient of the public transportation in Indonesia. Motor vehicle ownership by individual households tends to rising rapidly. Indonesian government still does not have a clear direction how to face this phenomenon.

Keywords: Indonesian economy, inconvenient public transportation, motor vehicle growth, urban problems

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2721 Design and Implementation of Neural Network Based Controller for Self-Driven Vehicle

Authors: Hassam Muazzam

Abstract:

This paper devises an autonomous self-driven vehicle that is capable of taking a disabled person to his/her desired location using three different power sources (gasoline, solar, electric) without any control from the user, avoiding the obstacles in the way. The GPS co-ordinates of the desired location are sent to the main processing board via a GSM module. After the GPS co-ordinates are sent, the path to be followed by the vehicle is devised by Pythagoras theorem. The distance and angle between the present location and the desired location is calculated and then the vehicle starts moving in the desired direction. Meanwhile real-time data from ultrasonic sensors is fed to the board for obstacle avoidance mechanism. Ultrasonic sensors are used to quantify the distance of the vehicle from the object. The distance and position of the object is then used to make decisions regarding the direction of vehicle in order to avoid the obstacles using artificial neural network which is implemented using ATmega1280. Also the vehicle provides the feedback location at remote location.

Keywords: autonomous self-driven vehicle, obstacle avoidance, desired location, pythagoras theorem, neural network, remote location

Procedia PDF Downloads 337
2720 A Reliable Multi-Type Vehicle Classification System

Authors: Ghada S. Moussa

Abstract:

Vehicle classification is an important task in traffic surveillance and intelligent transportation systems. Classification of vehicle images is facing several problems such as: high intra-class vehicle variations, occlusion, shadow, illumination. These problems and others must be considered to develop a reliable vehicle classification system. In this study, a reliable multi-type vehicle classification system based on Bag-of-Words (BoW) paradigm is developed. Our proposed system used and compared four well-known classifiers; Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), Support Vector Machine (SVM), k-Nearest Neighbour (KNN), and Decision Tree to classify vehicles into four categories: motorcycles, small, medium and large. Experiments on a large dataset show that our approach is efficient and reliable in classifying vehicles with accuracy of 95.7%. The SVM outperforms other classification algorithms in terms of both accuracy and robustness alongside considerable reduction in execution time. The innovativeness of developed system is it can serve as a framework for many vehicle classification systems.

Keywords: vehicle classification, bag-of-words technique, SVM classifier, LDA classifier, KNN classifier, decision tree classifier, SIFT algorithm

Procedia PDF Downloads 267
2719 Underneath Vehicle Inspection Using Fuzzy Logic, Subsumption, and Open Cv-Library

Authors: Hazim Abdulsada

Abstract:

The inspection of underneath vehicle system has been given significant attention by governments after the threat of terrorism become more prevalent. New technologies such as mobile robots and computer vision are led to have more secure environment. This paper proposed that a mobile robot like Aria robot can be used to search and inspect the bombs under parking a lot vehicle. This robot is using fuzzy logic and subsumption algorithms to control the robot that movies underneath the vehicle. An OpenCV library and laser Hokuyo are added to Aria robot to complete the experiment for under vehicle inspection. This experiment was conducted at the indoor environment to demonstrate the efficiency of our methods to search objects and control the robot movements under vehicle. We got excellent results not only by controlling the robot movement but also inspecting object by the robot camera at same time. This success allowed us to know the requirement to construct a new cost effective robot with more functionality.

Keywords: fuzzy logic, mobile robots, Opencv, subsumption, under vehicle inspection

Procedia PDF Downloads 387
2718 Evaluation of the Impact of Pavement Roughness on Vehicle Emissions by HDM-4

Authors: Muhammad Azhar, Arshad Hussain

Abstract:

Vehicular emissions have increased in recent years due to rapid growth in world traffic resulting in an increase in associated problems such as air pollution and climate change, therefore it’s necessary to control vehicle emissions. This study looks at the effect of road maintenance on vehicle emissions. The Highway Development and Management Tool (HDM-4) was used to find the effect of road maintenance on vehicle emissions. Key data collected were traffic volume and composition, vehicle characteristics, pavement characteristics and climate data of the study area. Two options were analysed using the HDM-4 software; the base case or do nothing while the second is overlay maintenance. The study also showed a strong correlation between average roughness and yearly emission levels in both the alternatives. Finally, the study showed that proper maintenance reduces the roughness and emissions.

Keywords: vehicle emissions, road roughness, IRI, maintenance, HDM-4, CO2

Procedia PDF Downloads 204
2717 Evaluation of Vehicle Classification Categories: Florida Case Study

Authors: Ren Moses, Jaqueline Masaki

Abstract:

This paper addresses the need for accurate and updated vehicle classification system through a thorough evaluation of vehicle class categories to identify errors arising from the existing system and proposing modifications. The data collected from two permanent traffic monitoring sites in Florida were used to evaluate the performance of the existing vehicle classification table. The vehicle data were collected and classified by the automatic vehicle classifier (AVC), and a video camera was used to obtain ground truth data. The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) vehicle classification definitions were used to define vehicle classes from the video and compare them to the data generated by AVC in order to identify the sources of misclassification. Six types of errors were identified. Modifications were made in the classification table to improve the classification accuracy. The results of this study include the development of updated vehicle classification table with a reduction in total error by 5.1%, a step by step procedure to use for evaluation of vehicle classification studies and recommendations to improve FHWA 13-category rule set. The recommendations for the FHWA 13-category rule set indicate the need for the vehicle classification definitions in this scheme to be updated to reflect the distribution of current traffic. The presented results will be of interest to States’ transportation departments and consultants, researchers, engineers, designers, and planners who require accurate vehicle classification information for planning, designing and maintenance of transportation infrastructures.

Keywords: vehicle classification, traffic monitoring, pavement design, highway traffic

Procedia PDF Downloads 112
2716 Vehicle to Grid Potential for Solar Powered Electric Vehicle

Authors: Marcin Kowalski, Tomasz Wiktor, Piotr Ladonski, Krzysztof Bortnowski, Szymon Przybyl, Mateusz Grzesiak

Abstract:

This paper provides a detailed overview of the so-called smart grid or vehicle-to-grid idea, including a description of our way of implementation. The primary targets of this paper are technical students, young constructors, visionaries, however more experienced designers may find useful ideas for developing their vehicles. The publication will also be useful for home-grown builders who want to save on electricity. This article as well summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of V2G solution and might be helpful for students teams planning to participate in Bridgestone World Solar Challenge.

Keywords: solar powered vehicle, vehicle to grid, electric car, v2g, bridgestone world solar challenge

Procedia PDF Downloads 102
2715 Parking Space Detection and Trajectory Tracking Control for Vehicle Auto-Parking

Authors: Shiuh-Jer Huang, Yu-Sheng Hsu

Abstract:

On-board available parking space detecting system, parking trajectory planning and tracking control mechanism are the key components of vehicle backward auto-parking system. Firstly, pair of ultrasonic sensors is installed on each side of vehicle body surface to detect the relative distance between ego-car and surrounding obstacle. The dimension of a found empty space can be calculated based on vehicle speed and the time history of ultrasonic sensor detecting information. This result can be used for constructing the 2D vehicle environmental map and available parking type judgment. Finally, the auto-parking controller executes the on-line optimal parking trajectory planning based on this 2D environmental map, and monitors the real-time vehicle parking trajectory tracking control. This low cost auto-parking system was tested on a model car.

Keywords: vehicle auto-parking, parking space detection, parking path tracking control, intelligent fuzzy controller

Procedia PDF Downloads 155