Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 838

Search results for: deviation.

838 Characteristics of Speed Dispersion in Urban Expressway

Authors: Fujian Wang, Shubin Ruan, Meiwei Dai


Speed dispersion has tight relation to traffic safety. In this paper, several kinds of indicating parameters (the standard speed deviation, the coefficient of variation, the deviation of V85 and V15, the mean speed deviations, and the difference between adjacent car speeds) are applied to investigate the characteristics of speed dispersion, where V85 and V15 are 85th and 15th percentile speed, respectively. Their relationships are into full investigations and the results show that: there exists a positive relation (linear) between mean speed and the deviation of V85 and V15; while a negative relation (quadratic) between traffic flow and standard speed deviation. The mean speed deviation grows exponentially with mean speed while the absolute speed deviation between adjacent cars grows linearly with the headway. The results provide some basic information for traffic management.

Keywords: headway, indicating parameters, speed dispersion, urban expressway

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
837 X̄ and S Control Charts based on Weighted Standard Deviation Method

Authors: Derya Karagöz


A Shewhart chart based on normality assumption is not appropriate for skewed distributions since its Type-I error rate is inflated. This study presents X̄ and S control charts for monitoring the process variability for skewed distributions. We propose Weighted Standard Deviation (WSD) X̄ and S control charts. Standard deviation estimator is applied to monitor the process variability for estimating the process standard deviation, in the case of the W SD X̄ and S control charts as this estimator is simple and easy to compute. Unlike the Shewhart control chart, the proposed charts provide asymmetric limits in accordance with the direction and degree of skewness to construct the upper and lower limits. The performances of the proposed charts are compared with other heuristic charts for skewed distributions by using Simulation study. The Simulation studies show that the proposed control charts have good properties for skewed distributions and large sample sizes.

Keywords: weighted standard deviation, MAD, skewed distributions, S control charts

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
836 Eliminating Cutter-Path Deviation For Five-Axis Nc Machining

Authors: Alan C. Lin, Tsong Der Lin


This study proposes a deviation control method to add interpolation points to numerical control (NC) codes of five-axis machining in order to achieve the required machining accuracy. Specific research issues include: (1) converting machining data between the CL (cutter location) domain and the NC domain, (2) calculating the deviation between the deviated path and the linear path, (3) finding interpolation points, and (4) determining tool orientations for the interpolation points. System implementation with practical examples will also be included to highlight the applicability of the proposed methodology.

Keywords: CAD/CAM, cutter path, five-axis machining, numerical control

Procedia PDF Downloads 317
835 A Simple and Efficient Method for Accurate Measurement and Control of Power Frequency Deviation

Authors: S. J. Arif


In the presented technique, a simple method is given for accurate measurement and control of power frequency deviation. The sinusoidal signal for which the frequency deviation measurement is required is transformed to a low voltage level and passed through a zero crossing detector to convert it into a pulse train. Another stable square wave signal of 10 KHz is obtained using a crystal oscillator and decade dividing assemblies (DDA). These signals are combined digitally and then passed through decade counters to give a unique combination of pulses or levels, which are further encoded to make them equally suitable for both control applications and display units. The developed circuit using discrete components has a resolution of 0.5 Hz and completes measurement within 20 ms. The realized circuit is simulated and synthesized using Verilog HDL and subsequently implemented on FPGA. The results of measurement on FPGA are observed on a very high resolution logic analyzer. These results accurately match the simulation results as well as the results of same circuit implemented with discrete components. The proposed system is suitable for accurate measurement and control of power frequency deviation.

Keywords: digital encoder for frequency measurement, frequency deviation measurement, measurement and control systems, power systems

Procedia PDF Downloads 267
834 Design of Fuzzy Logic Based Global Power System Stabilizer for Dynamic Stability Enhancement in Multi-Machine Power System

Authors: N. P. Patidar, J. Earnest, Laxmikant Nagar, Akshay Sharma


This paper describes the diligence of a new input signal based fuzzy power system stabilizer in multi-machine power system. Instead of conventional input pairs like speed deviation (∆ω) and derivative of speed deviation i.e. acceleration (∆ω ̇) or speed deviation and accelerating power deviation of each machine, in this paper, deviation of active power through the tie line colligating two areas is used as one of the inputs to the fuzzy logic controller in concurrence with the speed deviation. Fuzzy Logic has the features of simple concept, easy effectuation, and computationally efficient. The advantage of this input is that, the same signal can be fed to each of the fuzzy logic controller connected with each machine. The simulated system comprises of two fully symmetrical areas coupled together by two 230 kV lines. Each area is equipped with two superposable generators rated 20 kV/900MVA and area-1 is exporting 413 MW to area-2. The effectiveness of the proposed control scheme has been assessed by performing small signal stability assessment and transient stability assessment. The proposed control scheme has been compared with a conventional PSS. Digital simulation is used to demonstrate the performance of fuzzy logic controller.

Keywords: Power System Stabilizer (PSS), small signal stability, inter-area oscillation, fuzzy logic controller, membership function, rule base

Procedia PDF Downloads 395
833 Support Vector Regression with Weighted Least Absolute Deviations

Authors: Kang-Mo Jung


Least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) is a penalized regression which considers both fitting and generalization ability of a model. However, the squared loss function is very sensitive to even single outlier. We proposed a weighted absolute deviation loss function for the robustness of the estimates in least absolute deviation support vector machine. The proposed estimates can be obtained by a quadratic programming algorithm. Numerical experiments on simulated datasets show that the proposed algorithm is competitive in view of robustness to outliers.

Keywords: least absolute deviation, quadratic programming, robustness, support vector machine, weight

Procedia PDF Downloads 365
832 The Effect of an e-Learning Program of Basic Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation for Students of an Emergency Medical Technician Program

Authors: Itsaree Padphai, Jiranan Pakpeian, Suksun Niponchai


This study is a descriptive research which aims to: 1) Compare the difference of knowledge before and after using the e-Learning program entitled “Basic Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation for Students in an Emergency Medical Technician Diploma Program”, and 2) Assess the students’ satisfaction after using the said program. This research is a kind of teaching and learning management supplemented with the e-Learning system; therefore, the purposively selected samples are 44 first-year and class-16 students of an emergency medical technician diploma program who attend the class in a second semester of academic year 2012 in Sirindhorn College of Public Health, Khon Kaen province. The research tools include 1) the questionnaire for general information of the respondents, 2) the knowledge tests before and after using the e-Learning program, and 3) an assessment of satisfaction in using the e-Learning program. The statistics used in data analysis percentage, include mean, standard deviation, and inferential statistics: paired t-test. 1. The general information of the respondents was mostly 37 females representing 84.09 percent. The average age was 19.5 years (standard deviation was 0.81), the maximum age was 21 years, and the minimum age was 19 years respectively. Students (35 subjects) admitted that they preferred the methods of teaching and learning by using the e-Learning systems. This was totally 79.95 percent. 2. A comparison on the difference of knowledge before and after using the e-Learning program showed that the mean before an application was 6.64 (standard deviation was 1.94) and after was 18.84 (standard deviation 1.03), which was higher than the knowledge of students before using the e-Learning program with the statistical significance (P value < 0.001). 3. For the satisfaction after using the e-Learning program, it was found that students’ satisfaction was at a very good level with the mean of 4.93 (standard deviation was 0.11).

Keywords: e-Learning, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, diploma program, Khon Kaen Province

Procedia PDF Downloads 273
831 Deviations and Defects of the Sub-Task’s Requirements in Construction Projects

Authors: Abdullah Almusharraf, Andrew Whyte


The sub-task pattern in terms of the deviations and defects should be identified and understand in order to improve the quality practices in construction projects. Therefore, the sub-task susceptibility to exposure to deviations and defects have been evaluated and classified via six classifications that have proposed in this study. 34 case studies on specific sub-task (from compression member in construction concrete structure) have been collected from seven construction projects in order to examined study’s classifications. The study revealed that the sub-task has high sensitive to deviation where (91%) of the cases recorded as deviations, however, only (19%) of cases recorded as defects. Another findings were that the actual work during the execution process has high source of deviation for this sub-task (74%) while only (26%) of the deviation source was due to both design documentations with the actual work. These findings significantly imply that it could be used the study’s classifications to determine the pattern of each sub-task and develop the proactive actions to overcome issues of the sub-task deviations and defects.

Keywords: sub-tasks, deviations, defects, quality, construction projects

Procedia PDF Downloads 287
830 A Deterministic Large Deviation Model Based on Complex N-Body Systems

Authors: David C. Ni


In the previous efforts, we constructed N-Body Systems by an extended Blaschke product (EBP), which represents a non-temporal and nonlinear extension of Lorentz transformation. In this construction, we rely only on two parameters, nonlinear degree, and relative momentum to characterize the systems. We further explored root computation via iteration with an algorithm extended from Jenkins-Traub method. The solution sets demonstrate a form of σ+ i [-t, t], where σ and t are the real numbers, and the [-t, t] shows various canonical distributions. In this paper, we correlate the convergent sets in the original domain with solution sets, which demonstrating large-deviation distributions in the codomain. We proceed to compare our approach with the formula or principles, such as Donsker-Varadhan and Wentzell-Freidlin theories. The deterministic model based on this construction allows us to explore applications in the areas of finance and statistical mechanics.

Keywords: nonlinear Lorentz transformation, Blaschke equation, iteration solutions, root computation, large deviation distribution, deterministic model

Procedia PDF Downloads 310
829 CFD Studies on Forced Convection Nanofluid Flow Inside a Circular Conduit

Authors: M. Khalid, W. Rashmi, L. L. Kwan


This work provides an overview on the experimental and numerical simulations of various nanofluids and their flow and heat transfer behavior. It was further extended to study the effect of nanoparticle concentration, fluid flow rates and thermo-physical properties on the heat transfer enhancement of Al2O3/water nanofluid in a turbulent flow circular conduit using ANSYS FLUENT™ 14.0. Single-phase approximation (homogeneous model) and two-phase (mixture and Eulerian) models were used to simulate the nanofluid flow behavior in the 3-D horizontal pipe. The numerical results were further validated with experimental correlations reported in the literature. It was found that heat transfer of nanofluids increases with increasing particle volume concentration and Reynolds number, respectively. Results showed good agreement (~9% deviation) with the experimental correlations, especially for a single-phase model with constant properties. Among two-phase models, mixture model (~14% deviation) showed better prediction compared to Eulerian-dispersed model (~18% deviation) when temperature independent properties were used. Non-drag forces were also employed in the Eulerian two-phase model. However, the two-phase mixture model with temperature dependent nanofluid properties gave slightly closer agreement (~12% deviation).

Keywords: nanofluid, CFD, heat transfer, forced convection, circular conduit

Procedia PDF Downloads 442
828 Neural Network Based Fluctuation Frequency Control in PV-Diesel Hybrid Power System

Authors: Heri Suryoatmojo, Adi Kurniawan, Feby A. Pamuji, Nursalim, Syaffaruddin, Herbert Innah


Photovoltaic (PV) system hybrid with diesel system is utilized widely for electrification in remote area. PV output power fluctuates due to uncertainty condition of temperature and sun irradiance. When the penetration of PV power is large, the reliability of the power utility will be disturbed and seriously impact the unstable frequency of system. Therefore, designing a robust frequency controller in PV-diesel hybrid power system is very important. This paper proposes new method of frequency control application in hybrid PV-diesel system based on artificial neural network (ANN). This method can minimize the frequency deviation without smoothing PV output power that controlled by maximum power point tracking (MPPT) method. The neural network algorithm controller considers average irradiance, change of irradiance and frequency deviation. In order the show the effectiveness of proposed algorithm, the addition of battery as energy storage system is also presented. To validate the proposed method, the results of proposed system are compared with the results of similar system using MPPT only. The simulation results show that the proposed method able to suppress frequency deviation smaller compared to the results of system using MPPT only.

Keywords: energy storage system, frequency deviation, hybrid power generation, neural network algorithm

Procedia PDF Downloads 379
827 Coconut Shells as the Alternative Equipment for Foot Reflexology

Authors: Nichanant Sermsri, Chananchida Yuktirat


This research was the experimental research. Its purpose was to find out how coconut shells can be adapted to be equipment for foot and calf reflexology. The sample group was 58 female street vendors in Thewet Market, Dusit District, Bangkok, selected by selection criteria and voluntary. The data collecting tool in this research was the Visual Analogue Scale. The massaging tool made from coconut shells (designed and produced by the research team) was the key equipment for this research. The duration of the research was 1 month. The research team assessed the level of exhaustion and heart rate among sample group before and after the massage, then analyzed the data by mean, standard deviation and paired sample t-test. We found out from the research that 1) The level of exhaustion decreased 4.529 levels after the massage. The standard deviation was 1.6195. The heart rates went down 11.67 times/minute. The standard deviation was 6.742. 2) The level of exhaustion and heart rate after the massage decreased with the statistically significance at 0.01.

Keywords: foot reflexology, massaging plate, coconut shells, ecological sciences

Procedia PDF Downloads 94
826 The Consumer's Behavior of Bakery Products in Bangkok

Authors: Jiraporn Weenuttranon


The objectives of the consumer behavior of bakery products in Bangkok are to study consumer behavior of the bakery product, to study the essential factors that could possibly affect the consumer behavior and to study recommendations for the development of the bakery products. This research is a survey research. Populations are buyer’s bakery products in Bangkok. The probability sample size is 400. The research uses a questionnaire for self-learning by using information technology. The researcher created a reliability value at 0.71 levels of significance. The data analysis will be done by using the percentage, mean, and standard deviation and testing the hypotheses by using chi-square.

Keywords: consumer, behavior, bakery, standard deviation

Procedia PDF Downloads 324
825 Epileptic Seizure Prediction by Exploiting Signal Transitions Phenomena

Authors: Mohammad Zavid Parvez, Manoranjan Paul


A seizure prediction method is proposed by extracting global features using phase correlation between adjacent epochs for detecting relative changes and local features using fluctuation/deviation within an epoch for determining fine changes of different EEG signals. A classifier and a regularization technique are applied for the reduction of false alarms and improvement of the overall prediction accuracy. The experiments show that the proposed method outperforms the state-of-the-art methods and provides high prediction accuracy (i.e., 97.70%) with low false alarm using EEG signals in different brain locations from a benchmark data set.

Keywords: Epilepsy, seizure, phase correlation, fluctuation, deviation.

Procedia PDF Downloads 308
824 Ghost Frequency Noise Reduction through Displacement Deviation Analysis

Authors: Paua Ketan, Bhagate Rajkumar, Adiga Ganesh, M. Kiran


Low gear noise is an important sound quality feature in modern passenger cars. Annoying gear noise from the gearbox is influenced by the gear design, gearbox shaft layout, manufacturing deviations in the components, assembly errors and the mounting arrangement of the complete gearbox. Geometrical deviations in the form of profile and lead errors are often present on the flanks of the inspected gears. Ghost frequencies of a gear are very challenging to identify in standard gear measurement and analysis process due to small wavelengths involved. In this paper, gear whine noise occurring at non-integral multiples of gear mesh frequency of passenger car gearbox is investigated and the root cause is identified using the displacement deviation analysis (DDA) method. DDA method is applied to identify ghost frequency excitations on the flanks of gears arising out of generation grinding. Frequency identified through DDA correlated with the frequency of vibration and noise on the end-of-line machine as well as vehicle level measurements. With the application of DDA method along with standard lead profile measurement, gears with ghost frequency geometry deviations were identified on the production line to eliminate defective parts and thereby eliminate ghost frequency noise from a vehicle. Further, displacement deviation analysis can be used in conjunction with the manufacturing process simulation to arrive at suitable countermeasures for arresting the ghost frequency.

Keywords: displacement deviation analysis, gear whine, ghost frequency, sound quality

Procedia PDF Downloads 12
823 The Influence of Cycle Index of Simulation Condition on Main Bearing Wear Prognosis of Internal Combustion Engine

Authors: Ziyu Diao, Yanyan Zhang, Zhentao Liu, Ruidong Yan


The update frequency of wear profile in main bearing wear prognosis of internal combustion engine plays an important role in the calculation efficiency and accuracy. In order to investigate the appropriate cycle index of the simplified working condition of wear simulation, the main bearing-crankshaft journal friction pair of a diesel engine in service was studied in this paper. The method of multi-body dynamics simulation was used, and the wear prognosis model of the main bearing was established. Several groups of cycle indexes were set up for the wear calculation, and the maximum wear depth and wear profile were compared and analyzed. The results showed that when the cycle index reaches 3, the maximum deviation rate of the maximum wear depth is about 2.8%, and the maximum deviation rate comes to 1.6% when the cycle index reaches 5. This study provides guidance and suggestions for the optimization of wear prognosis by selecting appropriate value of cycle index according to the requirement of calculation cost and accuracy of the simulation work.

Keywords: cycle index, deviation rate, wear calculation, wear profile

Procedia PDF Downloads 24
822 Integrated Grey Rational Analysis-Standard Deviation Method for Handover in Heterogeneous Networks

Authors: Mohanad Alhabo, Naveed Nawaz, Mahmoud Al-Faris


The dense deployment of small cells is a promising solution to enhance the coverage and capacity of the heterogeneous networks (HetNets). However, the unplanned deployment could bring new challenges to the network ranging from interference, unnecessary handovers and handover failures. This will cause a degradation in the quality of service (QoS) delivered to the end user. In this paper, we propose an integrated Grey Rational Analysis Standard Deviation based handover method (GRA-SD) for HetNet. The proposed method integrates the Standard Deviation (SD) technique to acquire the weight of the handover metrics and the GRA method to select the best handover base station. The performance of the GRA-SD method is evaluated and compared with the traditional Multiple Attribute Decision Making (MADM) methods including Simple Additive Weighting (SAW) and VIKOR methods. Results reveal that the proposed method has outperformed the other methods in terms of minimizing the number of frequent unnecessary handovers and handover failures, in addition to improving the energy efficiency.

Keywords: energy efficiency, handover, HetNets, MADM, small cells

Procedia PDF Downloads 12
821 Dry Friction Fluctuations in Plain Journal Bearings

Authors: James Moran, Anusarn Permsuwan


This paper compares oscillations in the dry friction coefficient in different journal bearings. Measurements are made of the average and standard deviation in the coefficient of friction as a function of sliding velocity. The standard deviation of the friction coefficient changed dramatically with sliding velocity. The magnitude and frequency of the oscillations were a function of the velocity. A numerical model was developed for the frictional oscillations. There was good agreement between the model and results. Five different materials were used as the sliding surfaces in the experiments, Aluminum, Bronze, Mild Steel, Stainless Steel, and Nylon.

Keywords: Coulomb friction, dynamic friction, non-lubricated bearings, frictional oscillations

Procedia PDF Downloads 212
820 T-S Fuzzy Modeling Based on Power Coefficient Limit Nonlinearity Applied to an Isolated Single Machine Load Frequency Deviation Control

Authors: R. S. Sheu, H. Usman, M. S. Lawal


Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy model based control of a load frequency deviation in a single machine with limit nonlinearity on power coefficient is presented in the paper. Two T-S fuzzy rules with only rotor angle variable as input in the premise part, and linear state space models in the consequent part involving characteristic matrices determined from limits set on the power coefficient constant are formulated, state feedback control gains for closed loop control was determined from the formulated Linear Matrix Inequality (LMI) with eigenvalue optimization scheme for asymptotic and exponential stability (speed of esponse). Numerical evaluation of the closed loop object was carried out in Matlab. Simulation results generated of both the open and closed loop system showed the effectiveness of the control scheme in maintaining load frequency stability.

Keywords: T-S fuzzy model, state feedback control, linear matrix inequality (LMI), frequency deviation control

Procedia PDF Downloads 292
819 Estimating the Technological Deviation Impact on the Value of the Output Parameter of the Induction Converter

Authors: Marinka K. Baghdasaryan, Siranush M. Muradyan, Avgen A. Gasparyan


Based on the experimental data, the impact of resistance and reactance of the winding, as well as the magnetic permeability of the magnetic circuit steel material on the value of the electromotive force of the induction converter is investigated. The obtained results allow to estimate the main technological spreads and determine the maximum level of the electromotive force change. By the method of experiment planning, the expression of a polynomial for the electromotive force which can be used to estimate the adequacy of mathematical models to be used at the investigation and design of induction converters is obtained.

Keywords: induction converter, electromotive force, expectation, technological spread, deviation, planning an experiment, polynomial, confidence level

Procedia PDF Downloads 353
818 Active Learning Management for Teacher's Professional Courses in Curriculum and Instruction, Faculty of Education Thaksin University

Authors: Chuanphit Chumkhong


This research aimed 1) to study the effects of the management of Active Learning among 3rd year students enrolled in teacher’s profession courses and 2) to assess the satisfaction of the students with courses using the Active Learning approach. The population for the study consisted of 442 3rd year undergraduate students enrolled in two teacher education courses in 2015: Curriculum Development and Learning Process Management. They were 442 from 11 education programs. Respondents for evaluation of satisfaction with Active Learning management comprised 432 students. The instruments used in research included a detailed course description and rating scale questionnaire on Active Learning. The data were analyzed using arithmetic mean and standard deviation. The results of the study reveal the following: 1. Overall, students gain a better understanding of the Active Learning due to their actual practice on the activity of course. Students have the opportunity to exchange learning knowledge and skills. The AL teaching activities make students interested in the contents and they seek to search for knowledge on their own. 2. Overall, 3rd year students are satisfied with the Active Learning management at a ‘high’ level with a mean score (μ) of 4.12 and standard deviation (σ) of. 51. By individual items, students are satisfied with the 10 elements in the two courses at a ‘high’ level with the mean score (μ) between 3.79 to 4.41 and a standard deviation (σ) between to 68. 79.

Keywords: active learning teaching model, teacher’s professional courses, professional courses, curriculum and instruction teacher's

Procedia PDF Downloads 142
817 Mathematics Anxiety among Male and Female Students

Authors: Wern Lin Yeo, Choo Kim Tan, Sook Ling Lew


Mathematics anxiety refers to the feeling of anxious when one having difficulties in solving mathematical problem. Mathematics anxiety is the most common type of anxiety among other types of anxiety which occurs among the students. However, level of anxiety among males and females are different. There were few past study were conducted to determine the relationship of anxiety and gender but there were still did not have an exact results. Hence, the purpose of this study is to determine the relationship of anxiety level between male and female undergraduates at a private university in Malaysia. Convenient sampling method used in this study in which the students were selected based on the grouping assigned by the faculty. There were 214 undergraduates who registered the probability courses had participated in this study. Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale (MARS) was the instrument used in study which used to determine students’ anxiety level towards probability. Reliability and validity of instrument was done before the major study was conducted. In the major study, students were given briefing about the study conducted. Participation of this study were voluntary. Students were given consent form to determine whether they agree to participate in the study. Duration of two weeks were given for students to complete the given online questionnaire. The data collected will be analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) to determine the level of anxiety. There were three anxiety level, i.e., low, average and high. Students’ anxiety level were determined based on their scores obtained compared with the mean and standard deviation. If the scores obtained were below mean and standard deviation, the anxiety level was low. If the scores were at below and above the mean and between one standard deviation, the anxiety level was average. If the scores were above the mean and greater than one standard deviation, the anxiety level was high. Results showed that both of the gender were having average anxiety level. Males having high frequency of three anxiety level which were low, average and high anxiety level as compared to females. Hence, the mean values obtained for males (M = 3.62) was higher than females (M = 3.42). In order to be significant of anxiety level among the gender, the p-value should be less than .05. The p-value obtained in this study was .117. However, this value was greater than .05. Thus, there was no significant difference of anxiety level among the gender. In other words, there was no relationship of anxiety level with the gender.

Keywords: anxiety level, gender, mathematics anxiety, probability and statistics

Procedia PDF Downloads 174
816 Phase Segregating and Complex Forming Pb Based (=X-Pb) Liquid Alloys

Authors: Indra Bahadur Bhandari, Narayan Panthi, Ishwar Koirala, Devendra Adhikari


We have used a theoretical model based on the assumption of compound formation in binary alloys to study the thermodynamic, microscopic, and surface properties of Bi-Pb and In-Pb liquid alloys. A review of the phase diagrams for these alloys shows that one of the stable complexes for Bi-Pb liquid alloy is BiPb3; also, that InPb is a stable phase in liquid In-Pb alloys. Using the same interaction parameters that are fitted for the free energy of mixing, we have been able to compute the bulk and thermodynamic properties of the alloys. From our observations, we are able to show that the Bi-Pb liquid alloy exhibits compound formation over the whole concentration range and the In-Pb alloys undergo phase separation. With regards to surface properties, Pb segregates more to the surface in In-Pb alloys than in Bi-Pb alloys. The viscosity isotherms have a positive deviation from ideality for both Bi-Pb and In-Pb alloys.

Keywords: asymmetry, Bi-Pb, deviation, In-Pb, interaction parameters

Procedia PDF Downloads 26
815 Methodology: A Review in Modelling and Predictability of Embankment in Soft Ground

Authors: Bhim Kumar Dahal


Transportation network development in the developing country is in rapid pace. The majority of the network belongs to railway and expressway which passes through diverse topography, landform and geological conditions despite the avoidance principle during route selection. Construction of such networks demand many low to high embankment which required improvement in the foundation soil. This paper is mainly focused on the various advanced ground improvement techniques used to improve the soft soil, modelling approach and its predictability for embankments construction. The ground improvement techniques can be broadly classified in to three groups i.e. densification group, drainage and consolidation group and reinforcement group which are discussed with some case studies.  Various methods were used in modelling of the embankments from simple 1-dimensional to complex 3-dimensional model using variety of constitutive models. However, the reliability of the predictions is not found systematically improved with the level of sophistication.  And sometimes the predictions are deviated more than 60% to the monitored value besides using same level of erudition. This deviation is found mainly due to the selection of constitutive model, assumptions made during different stages, deviation in the selection of model parameters and simplification during physical modelling of the ground condition. This deviation can be reduced by using optimization process, optimization tools and sensitivity analysis of the model parameters which will guide to select the appropriate model parameters.

Keywords: cement, improvement, physical properties, strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
814 An Elbow Biomechanical Model and Its Coefficients Adjustment

Authors: Jie Bai, Yongsheng Gao, Shengxin Wang, Jie Zhao


Through the establishment of the elbow biomechanical model, it can provide theoretical guide for rehabilitation therapy on the upper limb of the human body. A biomechanical model of the elbow joint can be built by the connection of muscle force model and elbow dynamics. But there are many undetermined coefficients in the model like the optimal joint angle and optimal muscle force which are usually specified as the experimental parameters of other workers. Because of the individual differences, there is a certain deviation of the final result. To this end, the RMS value of the deviation between the actual angle and calculated angle is considered. A set of coefficients which lead to the minimum RMS value will be chosen to be the optimal parameters. The direct search method and the conjugacy search method are used to get the optimal parameters, thus the model can be more accurate and mode adaptability.

Keywords: elbow biomechanical model, RMS, direct search, conjugacy search

Procedia PDF Downloads 398
813 A Study on the Iterative Scheme for Stratified Shields Gamma Ray Buildup Factor Using Layer-Splitting Technique in Double-Layer Shield

Authors: Sari F. Alkhatib, Chang Je Park, Gyuhong Roh, Daeseong Jo


The iterative scheme which is used to treat buildup factors for stratified shields of three-layers or more is being investigated here using the layer-splitting technique. The second layer in a double-layer shield was split into two equivalent layers and the scheme was implemented on the new 'three-layer' shield configuration. The results of such manipulation for water-lead and water-iron shields combinations are presented here for 1 MeV photons. It was found that splitting the second layer introduces some deviation on the overall buildup factor. This expected deviation appeared to be higher in the case of low Z layer followed by high Z. However, the iterative scheme showed a great consistency and strong coherence with the introduced changes.

Keywords: build-up factor, iterative scheme, stratified shields, radiation protection

Procedia PDF Downloads 458
812 Philippine English: An Exploratory Mixed-Methods Inquiry on Digital Immigrants and Digital Natives' Variety

Authors: Lesley Karen Penera


Despite the countless that has been drawn to investigate Philippine English for a myriad of reasons, none was known to have ventured on a probe of its grammatical features as used in a technology-driven linguistic landscape by two generations in the digital age. Propelled by the assumption of an emerging Philippine English variety, this paper determined the grammatical features that characterize the digital native-immigrants’ Philippine English. It also ascertained whether mistake or deviation instigated the use of the features, and established this variety’s level of comprehensibility. This exploratory mixed-methods inquiry employed some qualitative and quantitative data drawn from a social networking site, the digital native-immigrant group, and the comprehensibility-raters who were selected through non-random purposive sampling. The study yields 8 grammatical features, mostly deemed results of deviation, yet the texts characterized by such features were mostly rated with excellent comprehensibility. This substantiates some of the grammatical features identified in earlier studies, provides evidentiary proof that the digital groups’ Philippine English is not bound by the standard of syntactic accuracy and corroborates the assertion on language’s manipulability as an instrument fashioned to satisfy the users’ need for successful communication in actual instances for use of English past the walls of any university where the variety is cultivated. The same could also be rationalized by some respondents’ position on grammar and accuracy to be less vital than one’s facility to communicate effectively.

Keywords: comprehensibility, deviation, digital immigrants, digital natives, mistake, Philippine English variety

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
811 Evaluating the Effect of Splitting Wind Farms on Power Output

Authors: Nazanin Naderi, Milton Smith


Since worldwide demand for renewable energy is increasing rapidly because of the climate problem and the limitation of fossil fuels, technologies of alternative energy sources have been developed and the electric power network now includes renewable energy resources such as wind energy. Because of the huge advantages that wind energy has, like reduction in natural gas use, price pressure, emissions of greenhouse gases and other atmospheric pollutants, electric sector water consumption and many other contributions to the nation’s economy like job creation it has got too much attention these days from different parts of the world especially in the United States which is trying to provide 20% of the nation’s energy from wind by 2030. This study is trying to evaluate the effect of splitting wind farms on power output. We are trying to find if we can get more output by installing wind turbines in different sites rather than installing all wind turbines in one site. Five potential sites in Texas have been selected as a case study and two years wind data has been gathered for these sites. Wind data are analyzed and effect of correlation between sites on power output has been evaluated. Standard deviation and autocorrelation effect has also been considered for this study. The paper has been organized as follows: After the introduction the second section gives a brief overview of wind analysis. The third section addresses the case study and evaluates correlation between sites, auto correlation of sites and standard deviation of power output. In section four we describe the results.

Keywords: auto correlation, correlation between sites, splitting wind farms, power output, standard deviation

Procedia PDF Downloads 491
810 Customers’ Satisfaction of ASEAN Camp: A Camp to Provide Training and Knowledge to Faculty and Staff Members

Authors: Kevin Wongleedee, Atcharapun Daiporn


This research paper was aimed to examine the level of satisfaction of the faculty and staff members who participated in the ASEAN camp. The population of this study included all the faculty and staff members who participated in the activities of the ASEAN camp during January 2014. Based on 106 faculty and staff members who answered the questionnaire, the data were complied by using SPSS. Mean and standard deviation were utilized in analyzing the data. The findings revealed that the average mean of satisfaction was 4.16, and standard deviation was 0.6634. Moreover, the mean average can be used to rank the level of satisfaction from each of the following factors: useful knowledge, technique of explaining knowledge, understanding materials, appropriateness of knowledge, document available, time of activities, service from staff, and public relation.

Keywords: ASEAN camp, customer, satisfaction, faculty and staff members

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
809 Satisfaction of the Training at ASEAN Camp: E-Learning Knowledge and Application at Chantanaburi Province, Thailand

Authors: Sinchai Poolklai


The purpose of this research paper was aimed to examine the level of satisfaction of the faculty members who participated in the ASEAN camp, Chantaburi, Thailand. The population of this study included all the faculty members of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University who participated in the training and activities of the ASEAN camp during March, 2014. Among a total of 200 faculty members who answered the questionnaire, the data was complied by using SPSS program. Percentage, mean and standard deviation were utilized in analyzing the data. The findings revealed that the average mean of satisfaction was 4.37, and standard deviation was 0.7810. Moreover, the mean average can be used to rank the level of satisfaction from each of the following factors: lower cost, less time consuming, faster delivery, more effective learning, and lower environment impact.

Keywords: ASEAN camp, e-learning, satisfaction, application

Procedia PDF Downloads 284