Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1054

Search results for: Mohammad Zavid Parvez

1054 Epileptic Seizure Prediction by Exploiting Signal Transitions Phenomena

Authors: Mohammad Zavid Parvez, Manoranjan Paul

Abstract:

A seizure prediction method is proposed by extracting global features using phase correlation between adjacent epochs for detecting relative changes and local features using fluctuation/deviation within an epoch for determining fine changes of different EEG signals. A classifier and a regularization technique are applied for the reduction of false alarms and improvement of the overall prediction accuracy. The experiments show that the proposed method outperforms the state-of-the-art methods and provides high prediction accuracy (i.e., 97.70%) with low false alarm using EEG signals in different brain locations from a benchmark data set.

Keywords: Epilepsy, seizure, phase correlation, fluctuation, deviation.

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1053 Epileptic Seizure Prediction Focusing on Relative Change in Consecutive Segments of EEG Signal

Authors: Mohammad Zavid Parvez, Manoranjan Paul

Abstract:

Epilepsy is a common neurological disorders characterized by sudden recurrent seizures. Electroencephalogram (EEG) is widely used to diagnose possible epileptic seizure. Many research works have been devoted to predict epileptic seizure by analyzing EEG signal. Seizure prediction by analyzing EEG signals are challenging task due to variations of brain signals of different patients. In this paper, we propose a new approach for feature extraction based on phase correlation in EEG signals. In phase correlation, we calculate relative change between two consecutive segments of an EEG signal and then combine the changes with neighboring signals to extract features. These features are then used to classify preictal/ictal and interictal EEG signals for seizure prediction. Experiment results show that the proposed method carries good prediction rate with greater consistence for the benchmark data set in different brain locations compared to the existing state-of-the-art methods.

Keywords: EEG, epilepsy, phase correlation, seizure

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1052 The English Translation of Arabic Metaphors in the Holy Qura’n

Authors: Mohammad Hamzah Alshehab

Abstract:

Metaphor is a substitute expression in everyday life in languages, thoughts and actions. It has an original value in language use with different conceptual, grammatical and properties. In addition, it is a central concept in literary studies. The present paper aims at investigating metaphor’s types imbedded in some Holy Verses (HV). For achieving the objectives of this paper, two English versions were chosen , the first is the Translation of the Meanings of the Noble Qura’n in the English Language by Mohammad AlHilali and Mohammad Khan, and the second version is the English Translation of the Holy Qura’n by Mohammad Ali were used. The researcher selected (20) Holy Verses include metaphors to be analyzed and investigated. Metaphor types were categorized by an assessment of the two translations followed by a discussion between the two versions of translation.

Keywords: metaphor, metaphor’s types, Holy Qura’n, Holy Verses

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1051 In Vitro Hepatoprotective and Anti-Hepatitis B Activitis of Cyperus rotundus Rhizome Fractions

Authors: Mohammad K. Parvez, Ahmed H. Arbab, Mohammed S. Al-Dosari

Abstract:

Cyperus rotendus rhizomes are used as traditional medicine, including Ayurveda in chronic liver diseases and hepatitis B. We investigated the in vitro hepatoprotective and anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV) potential of Cyperus rotundus rhizome organic and aqueous fractions. Of these, the n-butanol and aqueous fractions showed the most promising, dose-dependent hepatoprotection in DCFH-injured HepG2 cells at 48 h. DCFH-toxicated cells were recovered to about 88% and 96%, upon treatment with n-butanol and aqueous fractions (200 g/ml), respectively compared to DCFH-only treated cells. Further, C. rotundus fractions were tested for anti-HBV activities by measuring the expression levels of viral antigens (HBsAg and HBeAg) in the HepG2.2.15 culture supernatants. At 48 h post-treatment, the ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous fractions showed dose-dependent inhibition wherein at a higher dose (100 g/ml), HBsAg production was reduced to 60.27%, 46.87 and 42.76%, respectively. In a time-course study, HBsAg production was inhibited up to 50% and 40% by ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions (100 g/ml), respectively on day 5. Three three active fractions were further subjected to time-dependent inhibition of HBeAg expression, an indirect measure of HBV active DNA replication. At day 5 post-treatment, ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions downregulated HBV replication by 44.14% and 24.70%, respectively. In conclusion, our results showed very promising hepatoprotective and anti-HBV potential of C. rotendus tubers fractions in vitro. Our data could, therefore, provide the basis for the claimed traditional use of C. rotendus for jaundice and hepatitis.

Keywords: anti-hepatitis B, cyperus rotundus, hepatitis B virus, hepatoprotection

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1050 Efficacy of Ethanolic Extract of Aerva javanica Aerial Parts in the Amelioration of CCl4-Induced Hepatotoxicity and Oxidative Damage in Rats

Authors: Mohammad K. Parvez, Ahmed H. Arbab, Mohammed S. Al-Dosari, Adnan J. Al-Rehaily

Abstract:

We investigated ex vivo and in vivo antioxidative and hepatoprotective effect of Aerva javanica. Total ethanol extract of A. javanica aerial parts was prepared, and tested on DCFH-toxicated HepG2 cell in CCl4-injured Wistar rats. MTT-assay was used to determine cell viability, and serum biochemical markers of liver injury as well as histopathology were performed. In vitro DPPH and β-carotene free-radical scavenging assay and phytochemical screening of the extract was done. Furthermore, A. javanica total extract was standardized and validated by HPTLC method. While DCFH-injured cells were recovered to about 56.7% by 100 microg/ml of the extract, a 200 microg/ml dose resulted in hepatocytes recovery by about 90.2%. Oral administration of the extract (100 and 200 mg/kg.bw/day) significantly normalized the serum SGOT, SGPT, GGT, ALP, bilirubin, cholesterol, HDL, LDL, VLDL, TG and MDA levels, including tissue NP-SH and TP in CCl4-injured rats. In addition, the histopathology of dissected liver also revealed that A. javanica cured the tissue lesion compared to reference drug, Silymarin. In vitro assays revealed strong free-radical scavenging ability of the extract and presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, sterols and saponins where Rutin, a well-known antioxidant flavonoid was identified. Our finding therefore, suggests the therapeutic potential of A. javanica in various liver diseases. However, isolation of the active principles, their mechanism of action and other therapeutic contribution remain to be addressed.

Keywords: Aerva javanica, antioxidant, hepatoprotection, rutin

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1049 A Replicon-Baculovirus Model for Efficient Packaging of Hepatitis E Virus RNA and Production of Infectious Virions

Authors: Mohammad K. Parvez, Mohammed S. Al-Dosari

Abstract:

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an emerging RNA virus that causes acute and chronic liver disease with a global mortality rate of about 2%. Despite milestone developments in understanding of HEV biology, there is still lack of a robust culture system or animal model. Therefore, in a novel approach, two recombinant-baculoviruses (vBac-ORF2 and vBac-ORF3) that could overexpress HEV ORF2 (structural/capsid) and ORF3 (nonstructural/regulatory) proteins, respectively were constructed. The established HEV-SAR55 (genotype 1) replicon that contained GFP gene, in place of ORF2/ORF3 sequences was in vitro transcribed, and GFP production in RNA transfected S10-3 cells was scored by FACS. Enhanced infectivity, if any, of nascent virions produced by exogenously-supplied ORF2 and viral RNA by co-expression of ORF3 was tested on naïve HepG2 cells. Co-transduction with vBac-ORF2/vBac-ORF3 (108 pfu/microL) produced high amounts of native ORF2/ORF3 in approximately 60% of S10-3 cells, determined by immunofluorescence microscopy and Western analysis. FACS analysis showed about 9% GFP positivity of S10-3 cells on day6 post-transfection (i.e, day5 post-transduction). Further, FACS scoring indicated that lysates from S10-3 cultures receiving the RNA plus vBac-ORF2 were capable of producing HEV particles with about 4% infectivity in HepG2 cells. However, lysates of cultures co-transduced with vBac-ORF3, were found to further enhance virion infectivity by approximately 17%. This supported a previously proposed role of ORF3 as a minor-structural protein in HEV virion assembly and infectivity. In conclusion, the present model for efficient genomic RNA packaging and production of infectious virions could be a valuable tool to study various aspects of HEV molecular biology, in vitro.

Keywords: chronic liver disease, hepatitis E virus, ORF2, ORF3, replicon

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1048 Risk Based on Computer Auditing and Measures of ‎Prevention

Authors: Mohammad Hadi Khorashadi Zadeh, Amin Karkon, Seyd Mohammad Reza Mashhoori

Abstract:

The technology of computer audit played a major role in the progress and prospects of a proper application to improve the quality and efficiency of audit work. But due to the technical complexity and the specific risks of computer audit, it should be shown effective in audit and preventive action. Mainly through research in this paper, we propose the causes of audit risk in a computer environment and the risk of further proposals for measures to control, to some extent reduce the risk of computer audit and improve the audit quality.

Keywords: computer auditing, risk, measures to prevent, information management

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1047 Risk-Based Computer Auditing and Measures of Prevention

Authors: Mohammad Hadi Khorashadi Zadeh, Amin Karkon, Seyd Mohammad Reza Mashhoori ‎

Abstract:

the technology of Computer audit played a major role in the progress and ‎prospects of a proper application to improve the quality and efficiency of audit ‎work. But due to the technical complexity and the specific risks of computer ‎audit, it should be shown effective in audit and preventive action. Mainly through ‎research in this paper, we proposes the causes of audit risk in a computer ‎environment and the risk of further proposals for measures to control, to some ‎extent reduce the risk of computer audit and improve the audit quality.‎

Keywords: computer auditing, risk, measures to prevent, information technology

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1046 Evaluate the Changes in Stress Level Using Facial Thermal Imaging

Authors: Amin Derakhshan, Mohammad Mikaili, Mohammad Ali Khalilzadeh, Amin Mohammadian

Abstract:

This paper proposes a stress recognition system from multi-modal bio-potential signals. For stress recognition, Support Vector Machines (SVM) and LDA are applied to design the stress classifiers and its characteristics are investigated. Using gathered data under psychological polygraph experiments, the classifiers are trained and tested. The pattern recognition method classifies stressful from non-stressful subjects based on labels which come from polygraph data. The successful classification rate is 96% for 12 subjects. It means that facial thermal imaging due to its non-contact advantage could be a remarkable alternative for psycho-physiological methods.

Keywords: stress, thermal imaging, face, SVM, polygraph

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1045 The Influence of Workplace Aggression on Employee Turnover Intention

Authors: Nimra Parvez, Nawaz Ahmed

Abstract:

Workplace aggression not only is a proven safety and health issue but it also is a problem witnessed at workplace which has far-reaching consequences. It hinders the overall productivity of the organizations and individual employees. The current study examined employee turnover intentions as a result of workplace aggression. The study was conducted on employees from the private sector. Self-report questionnaires that measured the workplace aggression and turnover intentions of employees were used to target a sample size of 200 employees. In the hypothesis, it was assumed that high levels of workplace aggression at any organization will result in subsequent high levels of employee turnover intentions. It was therefore identified that there has been a relationship between workplace aggression and employee turnover intentions. The results determined a positive relationship between the workplace bullying behaviors towards the individuals and the turnover intention.

Keywords: bullying, organizational commitment, turnover intention, workplace aggression

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1044 Flood Scenarios for Hydrological and Hydrodynamic Modelling

Authors: M. Sharif Imam Ibne Amir, Mohammad Masud Kamal Khan, Mohammad Golam Rasul, Raj H. Sharma, Fatema Akram

Abstract:

Future flood can be predicted using the probable maximum flood (PMF). PMF is calculated using the historical discharge or rainfall data considering the other climatic parameter stationary. However, climate is changing globally and the key climatic variables are temperature, evaporation, rainfall and sea level rise (SLR). To develop scenarios to a basin or catchment scale these important climatic variables should be considered. Nowadays scenario based on climatic variables is more suitable than PMF. Six scenarios were developed for a large Fitzroy basin and presented in this paper.

Keywords: climate change, rainfall, potential evaporation, scenario, sea level rise (SLR), sub-catchment

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1043 Modern Literary Authors and Samuel Beckett's Trace of Lost Self in Modernity

Authors: Mohammad Mehdi Mazaheri, Mohammad Motiee Lahromi

Abstract:

In a depression after world wars, Beckett's plays presented a picture of the world fragmented and disrupted. Among other modern literary works, Beckett's path-breakingly innovative literature presented the parodies of pointlessness of human actions and thoughts in the world. This new dramatic style catapulted Beckett to the centre stage of modern drama, though it should be mentioned that he may not have been influenced in this without the prevailing climate of ideas. The prevailing literary attitude of Modernism indicates that the modern world is irrational and incoherent. The present study explores Samuel Beckett's literary approach to modern drama and shows how the author could create the characters stuck in a lifelong suspicious about the Self.

Keywords: modern drama, absurdity, the theatre of the absurd, existentialism, self searching

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1042 Micropropagation of Pelargonium odoratissimum (L.) L’Her., Using Petiole and Leaf Explants

Authors: Mohammad Ali Aazami Mavaloo, Mohammad Bagher Hassanpouraghdam

Abstract:

Intact leaves, leaf segments and petiole sections derived from nodal explants in vitro were employed for the optimization of Pelargonium odoratissimum micropropagation. MS and ½ MS media enriched with BAP (1, 1.5, 2 and 4.5 mg/l) and NAA (0.1, 1 and 1.5 mg/l) were the treatment combinations used for. With leaf segments, the lowest browning incidence, the greatest callogenesis and the highest number of shoots were obtained with the media containing 1.5 mg/L BAP and 1 mg/L NAA. Two mg/L BAP + 0.1 mg/L NAA hold the same results for petiole explants. Intact leaves showed the best results for the three before-mentioned traits with 1 mg/L BAP + 1 mg/L NAA. 0.2 mg/L NAA caused the highest rooting percentage and the greatest mean data for the number and length of the roots. Rooted plantlets were transferred to the pots containing 1:1 peat-moss and perlite. Acclimatization of the plantlets was followed by 90 percent of survival rate in the greenhouse.

Keywords: Pelargonium odoratissimum, micropropagation, BAP, NAA

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1041 Development Framework Based on Mobile Augmented Reality for Pre-Literacy Kit

Authors: Nazatul Aini Abd Majid, Faridah Yunus, Haslina Arshad, Mohammad Farhan Mohammad Johari

Abstract:

Mobile technology, augmented reality, and game-based learning are some of the key learning technologies that can be fully optimized to promote pre-literacy skills. The problem is how to design an effective pre-literacy kit that utilizes some of the learning technologies. This paper presents a framework based on mobile augmented reality for the development of pre-literacy kit. This pre-literacy kit incorporates three main components which are contents, design, and tools. A prototype of a mobile app based on the three main components was developed for promoting pre-literacy. The results show that the children and teachers gave positive feedbacks after using the mobile app for the pre-literacy.

Keywords: framework, mobile technology, augmented reality, pre-literacy skills

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1040 Investigating and Comparing the Performance of Baseboard and Panel Radiators by Calculating the Thermal Comfort Coefficient

Authors: Mohammad Erfan Doraki, Mohammad Salehi

Abstract:

In this study, to evaluate the performance of Baseboard and Panel radiators with thermal comfort coefficient, A room with specific dimensions was modeled with Ansys fluent and DesignBuilder, then calculated the speed and temperature parameters in different parts of the room in two modes of using Panel and Baseboard radiators and it turned out that use of Baseboard radiators has a more uniform temperature and speed distribution, but in a Panel radiator, the room is warmer. Then, by calculating the thermal comfort indices, It was shown that using a Panel radiator is a more favorable environment and using a Baseboard radiator is a more uniform environment in terms of thermal comfort.

Keywords: Radiator, Baseboard, optimal, comfort coefficient, heat

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1039 Peat Soil Stabilization Methods: A Review

Authors: Mohammad Saberian, Mohammad Ali Rahgozar, Reza Porhoseini

Abstract:

Peat soil is formed naturally through the accumulation of organic matter under water and it consists of more than 75% organic substances. Peat is considered to be in the category of problematic soil, which is not suitable for construction, due to its high compressibility, high moisture content, low shear strength, and low bearing capacity. Since this kind of soil is generally found in many countries and different regions, finding desirable techniques for stabilization of peat is absolutely essential. The purpose of this paper is to review the various techniques applied for stabilizing peat soil and discuss outcomes of its improved mechanical parameters and strength properties. Recognizing characterization of stabilized peat is one of the most significant factors for architectural structures; as a consequence, various strategies for stabilization of this susceptible soil have been examined based on the depth of peat deposit.

Keywords: peat soil, stabilization, depth, strength, unconfined compressive strength (USC)

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1038 Modeling and Control of a 4DoF Robotic Assistive Device for Hand Rehabilitation

Authors: Christopher Spiewak, M. R. Islam, Mohammad Arifur Rahaman, Mohammad H. Rahman, Roger Smith, Maarouf Saad

Abstract:

For those who have lost the ability to move their hand, going through repetitious motions with the assistance of a therapist is the main method of recovery. We have been developed a robotic assistive device to rehabilitate the hand motions in place of the traditional therapy. The developed assistive device (RAD-HR) is comprised of four degrees of freedom enabling basic movements, hand function, and assists in supporting the hand during rehabilitation. We used a nonlinear computed torque control technique to control the RAD-HR. The accuracy of the controller was evaluated in simulations (MATLAB/Simulink environment). To see the robustness of the controller external disturbance as modelling uncertainty (±10% of joint torques) were added in each joints.

Keywords: biorobotics, rehabilitation, robotic assistive device, exoskeleton, nonlinear control

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1037 An investigation of Leading Edge and Trailing Edge Corrugation for Low Reynolds Number Application

Authors: Syed Hassan Raza Shah, Mohammad Mohammad Ali

Abstract:

The flow over a smoothly profiled airfoil at a low Reynolds number is highly susceptible to separate even at a very low angle of attack. An investigation was made to study the effect of leading-edge and trailing-edge corrugation with the spanwise change in the ridges resulted due to the change in the chord length for an infinite wing. The wind tunnel results using NACA0018 wings revealed that leading and trailing edge corrugation did not have any benefit in terms of aerodynamic efficiency or delayed stall. The leading edge and trailing edge corrugation didn't change the lift curve slope, with the leading edge corrugation wing stalling first in the range of Reynolds number of 50,000 to 125,000.

Keywords: leading and trailing edge corrugations, low reynolds number, wind tunnel testing, NACA0018

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1036 Efficacy of Sea Water with Reduced Rate Herbicide to Control Weeds in Tropical Turf

Authors: Md. Kamal Uddin, Abdul Shukor Juraimi, Md. Parvez Anwar

Abstract:

Seawater with reduced herbicide could be considered as a low cost environment friendly alternative method for weed control in turfgrass. Different concentration of sea water in combination with trifloxysulfuron-sodium and quinclorac were used to determine weed control level in turfgrass field. The weed species S. diander, C. aromaticus, and C. rotundus except E. atrovirens were fully controlled when treated with ¾ recommended trifloxysulfuron–sodium with sea water, ¾ recommended trifloxysulfuron–sodium with ¾ sea water, ½ recommended trifloxysulfuron–sodium with sea water, ¾ recommended quinclorac with sea water and ¾ recommended quinclorac with ¾ sea water. Eragrostis atrovirens showed maximum 48% injury when treated with ¾ recommended trifloxysulfuron–sodium and sea water. Among the tested turf grasses, P. vaginatum showed only 8% injury to sea water in combination with ¾ recommended quinclorac, indicating greater salt tolerance. Zoysia japonica also showed no more than 14% injury when treated with sea water in combination with ¾ recommended trifloxysulfuron–sodium or quinclorac.

Keywords: sea water, trifloxysulfuron–sodium, quinclorac, turf

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1035 Values That Should Be Taken into Account in the Arts: The Tension between Economic Influences and Cultural Values

Authors: Mohammad Mehdi Mazaheri, Mohammad Motiee Lahromi

Abstract:

Recently the two matters of how to evaluate art and what the influencing economic effects on cultural values are have attracted many researchers to investigate them. Therefore, in the present article the researcher made an attempt to answer the above questions. However, the fundamental distinction between this article and the other ones is in comparing the economic value (shown by monetary phrases) with cultural values (that reflects the aesthetic values and the importance of the artist). This article shows a different and trivial distinction that has a very clearly pivotal significance in the process of cultural policy making. The economic activities would be influenced when there are cultural values. The increase of commercial activities is measured by impact assessment. In other words, the value of culture is reflected in the satisfaction of the users of cultural activities. This kind of value is measured by “willingness to pay” researches. The researcher believes that these two values are dominant in the cultural policy but they include many aspects and are presented by different kinds of communities.

Keywords: economic influence, cultural values, monetary phrases, aesthetic values

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1034 In Vitro Micropropagation of Rosa damascena Mill

Authors: Asghar Ebrahimzadeh, Sattar Malekian, Mohammad Ali Aazami, Mohammad Bagher Hassanpouraghdam

Abstract:

Roses are of main ornamental flowers worldwide. Rosa damascena Mill., besides being an ornamental plant, has major pharmaceutical, cosmetic and fragrance applications. Traditional propagation methods of the plant are using suckers, cutting and grafting. In the present experiment, we used the different explants (leaf section, petioles and nodal cutting) for the optimization of this high-valued ornamental from a native clonal plant. Diverse explants were acquired from mature plants during the growing season and were planted on MS medium supplemented with different hormonal combinations. 70% alcohol and sodium hypochloride were utilized for the surface sterilization. For proliferation, BAP and BA (1-5 mg L-1) and NAA (1-2 mg L-1) were tested. The highest proliferation rate was afforded from MS medium supplemented with 1.5 mg L-1 BA and 5 mg L-1 BAP. Callogenesis from leaf samples and petioles was the best with 1/2 MS medium enriched with 1mg L-1 BAP and 4 mg L-1 2,4-D. Rooting was occurred with the highest frequency in a medium containing 0.1 mg L-1 IBA.

Keywords: Rosa damascene, micropropagation, petiole, IBA, BAP

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1033 A Comparative Study of Afghan Traditional and Contemporary Courtyard Housing Regarding Affordable Planning and Sustainability

Authors: Mohammad Saraj Sharifzai, Keisuke Kitagawa, Mohammad Kamil Halimee, Javid Habib, Daishi Sakaguchi

Abstract:

The purpose of this research is to upgrade a pleasing, sustainable and safe shelter in the Afghan urban community. It also aims to maintain traditional housing, which is fitted to its environment, while attempting to upgrade it with new, traditional standards. The three main objectives of this study are to upgrade the traditional courtyard house to become safe and sustainable today and tomorrow; to fit the contemporary house environmentally and culturally, and to suppress or reduce the broad gap between traditional and contemporary housing. The paper tries to exhibit and analyze the sustainably best practices available in both traditional and contemporary courtyard housing in Afghanistan. For instance, the use of thick walls and Tawa-Khana (floor heating system) shows the best sustainable practice in that context.

Keywords: Afghan Traditional Courtyard Housing (ATCH), Afghan Contemporary Courtyard Housing (ACCH), suitability planning, affordable and thermal comfort

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1032 Influence of Flame-Holder on Existence Important Parameters in a Duct Combustion Simulator

Authors: Mohammad Mahdi Doustdar, Mohammad Mojtahedpoor

Abstract:

The effects of flame-holder position, the ratio of flame holder diameter to combustion chamber diameter and injection angle on fuel propulsive droplets sizing and effective mass fraction have been studied by a cold flow. We named the mass of fuel vapor inside the flammability limit as the effective mass fraction. An empty cylinder as well as a flame-holder which are as a simulator for duct combustion has been considered. The airflow comes into the cylinder from one side and injection operation will be done by four nozzles which are located on the entrance of cylinder. To fulfill the calculations a modified version of KIVA-3V code which is a transient, three-dimensional, multi phase, multi component code for the analysis of chemically reacting flows with sprays, is used.

Keywords: KIVA-3V, flame-holder, duct combustion, effective mass fraction, mean diameter of droplets

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1031 Investigation on the Effect of Sugarcane Bagasse/HDPE Composition on the Screw Withdrawal Resistance of Injection Molded Parts

Authors: Seyed Abdol Mohammad Rezavand, Mohammad Nikbakhsh

Abstract:

Withdrawal resistance of screws driven into HDPE/Sugarcane Bagasse injection molded parts was investigated. After chemical treatment and drying, SCB was pre-mixed with HDPE using twin extruder. The resulting granules are used in producing samples in injection molding machine. SCB with the quantity of %10, %20, and %30 was used. By using a suitable fixture, screw heads can take with tensile test machine grips. Parts with screws in the center and edge were fasten together. Then, withdrawal resistance was measured with tensile test machine. Injection gate is at the one edge of the part. The results show that by increasing SCB content in composite, the withdrawal resistance is decreased. Furthermore, the withdrawal resistance at the edges (near injection gate and the end of the filling path of mold cavity) is more than that of the center.

Keywords: polyethylene, sugarcane bagasse, wood plastic, screw, withdrawal resistance

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1030 Improvement on the Specific Activities of Immobilized Enzymes by Poly(Ethylene Oxide) Surface Modification

Authors: Shaohua Li, Aihua Zhang, Kelly Zatopek, Saba Parvez, Andrew F. Gardner, Ivan R. Corrêa Jr., Christopher J. Noren, Ming-Qun Xu

Abstract:

Covalent immobilization of enzymes on solid supports is an alternative approach to biocatalysis with the added benefits of simple enzyme removal, improved stability, and adaptability to automation and high-throughput applications. Nevertheless, immobilized enzymes generally suffer from reduced activities compared to their soluble counterparts. One major factor leading to activity loss is the intrinsic hydrophobic property of the supporting material surface, which could result in the conformational change/confinement of enzymes. We report a strategy of utilizing flexible poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO) moieties as to improve the surface hydrophilicity of solid supports used for enzyme immobilization. DNA modifying enzymes were covalently conjugated to PEO-coated magnetic-beads. Kinetics studies proved that the activities of the covalently-immobilized DNA modifying enzymes were greatly enhanced by the PEO modification on the bead surface.

Keywords: immobilized enzymes, biocatalysis, poly(ethylene oxide), surface modification

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1029 An Approach for Determination of Shotcrete Thickness in Underground Structures

Authors: Mohammad Mohammadi, Mojtaba Askari, Mohammad Farouq Hossaini

Abstract:

An intrinsic property of rock mass known as rock bolt supporting factor (RSF) or rock bolting capability of rock mass was developed and used for explanation of the mechanism of rock bolting practice. Based on the theory of RSF, numeral values can be assigned to each given rock mass to show the capability of that rock mass to be reinforced by rock bolting. For determination of shotcrete thickness, both safety and cost must be taken into account. The present paper introduces a scientific approach for determination of the necessary shotcrete thickness in underground structures for support purposes using the concept of rock bolt supporting factor (RSF). The proposed approach makes the outcome of shotcrete design one step more accurate than before. The actual dataset of 500 meters of Alborz Tunnel length is used as an example of the application of the approach.

Keywords: rock bolt supporting factor (RSF), shotcrete design, underground excavation, Alborz Tunnel

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1028 Diffusion Adaptation Strategies for Distributed Estimation Based on the Family of Affine Projection Algorithms

Authors: Mohammad Shams Esfand Abadi, Mohammad Ranjbar, Reza Ebrahimpour

Abstract:

This work presents the distributed processing solution problem in a diffusion network based on the adapt then combine (ATC) and combine then adapt (CTA)selective partial update normalized least mean squares (SPU-NLMS) algorithms. Also, we extend this approach to dynamic selection affine projection algorithm (DS-APA) and ATC-DS-APA and CTA-DS-APA are established. The purpose of ATC-SPU-NLMS and CTA-SPU-NLMS algorithm is to reduce the computational complexity by updating the selected blocks of weight coefficients at every iteration. In CTA-DS-APA and ATC-DS-APA, the number of the input vectors is selected dynamically. Diffusion cooperation strategies have been shown to provide good performance based on these algorithms. The good performance of introduced algorithm is illustrated with various experimental results.

Keywords: selective partial update, affine projection, dynamic selection, diffusion, adaptive distributed networks

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1027 Heat Recovery System from Air-Cooled Chillers in Iranian Hospitals

Authors: Saeed Vahidifar, Mohammad Nakhaee Sharif, Mohammad Ghaffari

Abstract:

Few people would dispute the fact that one of the most common applications of energy is creating comfort in buildings, so it is probably true to say that management of energy consumption is required due to the environmental issues and increasing the efficiency of mechanical systems. From the geographical point of view, Iran is located in a warm and semi-arid region; therefore, air-cooled chillers are usually used for cooling residential buildings, commercial buildings, medical buildings, etc. In this study, a heat exchanger was designed for providing laundry hot water by utilizing condenser heat lost base on analytical results of a 540-bed hospital in the city of Mashhad in Iran. In this paper, by using the analytical method, energy consumption reduces about 13%, and coefficient of performance increases a bit. Results show that this method can help in the management of energy consumption a lot.

Keywords: air cooled chiller, energy management, environmental issues, heat exchanger, hospital laundry system

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1026 Starch Incorporated Hydroxyapatite/Chitin Nanocomposite as a Novel Bone Construct

Authors: Reshma Jolly, Mohammad Shakir, Mohammad Shoeb Khan, Noor E. Iram

Abstract:

A nanocomposite system integrating hydroxyapatite, chitin and starch (n-HA/CT/ST) has been synthesized via co-precipitation approach at room temperature, addressing the issues of biocompatibility, mechanical strength and cytotoxicity required for Bone tissue engineering. The interactions, crystallite size and surface morphology against n-HA/CT (nano-hydroxyapatite/chitin) nanocomposite have been obtained by correlating and comparing the results of FTIR, SEM, TEM and XRD. The comparative study of the bioactivity of n-HA/CT and n-HA/CT/ST nanocomposites revealed that the incorporation of starch as templating agent improved these properties in n-HA/CT/ST nanocomposite. The rise in thermal stability in n-HA/CT/ST nanocomposite as compared to n-HA/CT has been observed by comparing the TGA results. The comparison of SEM images of both the scaffolds indicated that the addition of ST influenced the surface morphology of n-HA/CT scaffold which appeared to be rougher and porous. The MTT assay on murine fibroblast L929 cells and in-vitro bioactivity of n-HA/CT/ST matrix referred superior non-toxic property of n-HA/CT/ST nanocomposite and higher possibility of osteo-integration in-vivo, respectively.

Keywords: bioactive, chitin, hyroxyapatite, nanocomposite

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1025 Substitution of Silver-Thiosulfate (STS) with Some Essential Oils on Vase-Life of Cut Carnation cv. Liberty

Authors: Mohammad Bagher Hassanpouraghdam, Mohammad Ali Aazami Mavaloo

Abstract:

Due to the huge side-effects of chemicals; essential oils have been considered as suitable alternatives for keeping the vase-life of cut flowers mainly owing to the availability and environment-friend nature of these bio-chemicals. In the present experiment, 50% substitution of STS was achieved and tested on cut carnation flowers cv. Liberty by using the essential oils from four plants; Satureja sahendica Bornm., Echinophora platyloba DC., Tanacetum balsamita L. and Cupressus arizonica Greene., as CRD with five treatments and 3 replications. Vase-life and flower diameter were affected with 50% substitution of STS by essential oils from C. arizonica and T. balsamita. Membrane stability index, Malondialdehyde (MDA) content and Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) amounts were affected by the substitution treatments as well. The main preservative effect belonged to the substitution with C. arizonica. So that, 50% STS substitution with Cupressus oil holds the highest membrane integrity and the least data for MDA and H2O2 content.

Keywords: Carnation, essential oil, Membrane stability index (MSI), vase life

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