Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 172

Search results for: fluctuation

172 The Droplet Generation and Flow in the T-Shape Microchannel with the Side Wall Fluctuation

Authors: Yan Pang, Xiang Wang, Zhaomiao Liu

Abstract:

Droplet microfluidics, in which nanoliter to picoliter droplets acted as individual compartments, are common to a diverse array of applications such as analytical chemistry, tissue engineering, microbiology and drug discovery. The droplet generation in a simplified two dimension T-shape microchannel with the main channel width of 50 μm and the side channel width of 25 μm, is simulated to investigate effects of the forced fluctuation of the side wall on the droplet generation and flow. The periodic fluctuations are applied on a length of the side wall in the main channel of the T-junction with the deformation shape of the double-clamped beam acted by the uniform force, which varies with the flow time and fluctuation periods, forms and positions. The fluctuations under most of the conditions expand the distribution range of the droplet size but have a little effect on the average size, while the shape of the fixed side wall changes the average droplet size chiefly. Droplet sizes show a periodic pattern along the relative time when the fluctuation is forced on the side wall near the T-junction. The droplet emerging frequency is not varied by the fluctuation of the side wall under the same flow rate and geometry conditions. When the fluctuation period is similar with the droplet emerging period, the droplet size shows a nice stability as the no fluctuation case.

Keywords: droplet generation, droplet size, flow flied, forced fluctuation

Procedia PDF Downloads 151
171 The Relationship between Fluctuation of Biological Signal: Finger Plethysmogram in Conversation and Anthropophobic Tendency

Authors: Haruo Okabayashi

Abstract:

Human biological signals (pulse wave and brain wave, etc.) have a rhythm which shows fluctuations. This study investigates the relationship between fluctuations of biological signals which are shown by a finger plethysmogram (i.e., finger pulse wave) in conversation and anthropophobic tendency, and identifies whether the fluctuation could be an index of mental health. 32 college students participated in the experiment. The finger plethysmogram of each subject was measured in the following conversation situations: Fun memory talking/listening situation and regrettable memory talking/ listening situation for three minutes each. Lyspect 3.5 was used to collect the data of the finger plethysmogram. Since Lyspect calculates the Lyapunov spectrum, it is possible to obtain the largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE). LLE is an indicator of the fluctuation and shows the degree to which a measure is going away from close proximity to the track in a dynamical system. Before the finger plethysmogram experiment, each participant took the psychological test questionnaire “Anthropophobic Scale.” The scale measures the social phobia trend close to the consciousness of social phobia. It is revealed that there is a remarkable relationship between the fluctuation of the finger plethysmography and anthropophobic tendency scale in talking about a regrettable story in conversation: The participants (N=15) who have a low anthropophobic tendency show significantly more fluctuation of finger pulse waves than the participants (N=17) who have a high anthropophobic tendency (F (1, 31) =5.66, p<0.05). That is, the participants who have a low anthropophobic tendency make conversation flexibly using large fluctuation of biological signal; on the other hand, the participants who have a high anthropophobic tendency constrain a conversation because of small fluctuation. Therefore, fluctuation is not an error but an important drive to make better relationships with others and go towards the development of interaction. In considering mental health, the fluctuation of biological signals would be an important indicator.

Keywords: anthropophobic tendency, finger plethymogram, fluctuation of biological signal, LLE

Procedia PDF Downloads 113
170 Signal Processing Approach to Study Multifractality and Singularity of Solar Wind Speed Time Series

Authors: Tushnik Sarkar, Mofazzal H. Khondekar, Subrata Banerjee

Abstract:

This paper investigates the nature of the fluctuation of the daily average Solar wind speed time series collected over a period of 2492 days, from 1st January, 1997 to 28th October, 2003. The degree of self-similarity and scalability of the Solar Wind Speed signal has been explored to characterise the signal fluctuation. Multi-fractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (MFDFA) method has been implemented on the signal which is under investigation to perform this task. Furthermore, the singularity spectra of the signals have been also obtained to gauge the extent of the multifractality of the time series signal.

Keywords: detrended fluctuation analysis, generalized hurst exponent, holder exponents, multifractal exponent, multifractal spectrum, singularity spectrum, time series analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
169 Annual Water Level Simulation Using Support Vector Machine

Authors: Maryam Khalilzadeh Poshtegal, Seyed Ahmad Mirbagheri, Mojtaba Noury

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In this paper, by application of the input yearly data of rainfall, temperature and flow to the Urmia Lake, the simulation of water level fluctuation were applied by means of three models. According to the climate change investigation the fluctuation of lakes water level are of high interest. This study investigate data-driven models, support vector machines (SVM), SVM method which is a new regression procedure in water resources are applied to the yearly level data of Lake Urmia that is the biggest and the hyper saline lake in Iran. The evaluated lake levels are found to be in good correlation with the observed values. The results of SVM simulation show better accuracy and implementation. The mean square errors, mean absolute relative errors and determination coefficient statistics are used as comparison criteria.

Keywords: simulation, water level fluctuation, urmia lake, support vector machine

Procedia PDF Downloads 236
168 Wall Pressure Fluctuations in Naturally Developing Boundary Layer Flows on Axisymmetric Bodies

Authors: Chinsuk Hong

Abstract:

This paper investigates the characteristics of wall pressure fluctuations in naturally developing boundary layer flows on axisymmetric bodies experimentally. The axisymmetric body has a modified ellipsoidal blunt nose. Flush-mounted microphones are used to measure the wall pressure fluctuations in the boundary layer flow over the body. The measurements are performed in a low noise wind tunnel. It is found that the correlation between the flow regime and the characteristics of the pressure fluctuations is distinct. The process from small fluctuation in laminar flow to large fluctuation in turbulent flow is investigated. Tollmien-Schlichting wave (T-S wave) is found to generate and develop in transition. Because of the T-S wave, the wall pressure fluctuations in the transition region are higher than those in the turbulent boundary layer.

Keywords: wall pressure fluctuation, boundary layer flow, transition, turbulent flow, axisymmetric body, flow noise

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
167 Epileptic Seizure Prediction by Exploiting Signal Transitions Phenomena

Authors: Mohammad Zavid Parvez, Manoranjan Paul

Abstract:

A seizure prediction method is proposed by extracting global features using phase correlation between adjacent epochs for detecting relative changes and local features using fluctuation/deviation within an epoch for determining fine changes of different EEG signals. A classifier and a regularization technique are applied for the reduction of false alarms and improvement of the overall prediction accuracy. The experiments show that the proposed method outperforms the state-of-the-art methods and provides high prediction accuracy (i.e., 97.70%) with low false alarm using EEG signals in different brain locations from a benchmark data set.

Keywords: Epilepsy, seizure, phase correlation, fluctuation, deviation.

Procedia PDF Downloads 305
166 Designing Price Stability Model of Red Cayenne Pepper Price in Wonogiri District, Centre Java, Using ARCH/GARCH Method

Authors: Fauzia Dianawati, Riska W. Purnomo

Abstract:

Food and agricultural sector become the biggest sector contributing to inflation in Indonesia. Especially in Wonogiri district, red cayenne pepper was the biggest sector contributing to inflation on 2016. A national statistic proved that in recent five years red cayenne pepper has the highest average level of fluctuation among all commodities. Some factors, like supply chain, price disparity, production quantity, crop failure, and oil price become the possible factor causes high volatility level in red cayenne pepper price. Therefore, this research tries to find the key factor causing fluctuation on red cayenne pepper by using ARCH/GARCH method. The method could accommodate the presence of heteroscedasticity in time series data. At the end of the research, it is statistically found that the second level of supply chain becomes the biggest part contributing to inflation with 3,35 of coefficient in fluctuation forecasting model of red cayenne pepper price. This model could become a reference to the government to determine the appropriate policy in maintaining the price stability of red cayenne pepper.

Keywords: ARCH/GARCH, forecasting, red cayenne pepper, volatility, supply chain

Procedia PDF Downloads 79
165 Numerical Investigations of Unstable Pressure Fluctuations Behavior in a Side Channel Pump

Authors: Desmond Appiah, Fan Zhang, Shouqi Yuan, Wei Xueyuan, Stephen N. Asomani

Abstract:

The side channel pump has distinctive hydraulic performance characteristics over other vane pumps because of its generation of high pressure heads in only one impeller revolution. Hence, there is soaring utilization and application in the fields of petrochemical, food processing fields, automotive and aerospace fuel pumping where high heads are required at low flows. The side channel pump is characterized by unstable flow because after fluid flows into the impeller passage, it moves into the side channel and comes back to the impeller again and then moves to the next circulation. Consequently, the flow leaves the side channel pump following a helical path. However, the pressure fluctuation exhibited in the flow greatly contributes to the unwanted noise and vibration which is associated with the flow. In this paper, a side channel pump prototype was examined thoroughly through numerical calculations based on SST k-ω turbulence model to ascertain the pressure fluctuation behavior. The pressure fluctuation intensity of the 3D unstable flow dynamics were carefully investigated under different working conditions 0.8QBEP, 1.0 QBEP and 1.2QBEP. The results showed that the pressure fluctuation distribution around the pressure side of the blade is greater than the suction side at the impeller and side channel interface (z=0) for all three operating conditions. Part-load condition 0.8QBEP recorded the highest pressure fluctuation distribution because of the high circulation velocity thus causing an intense exchanged flow between the impeller and side channel. Time and frequency domains spectra of the pressure fluctuation patterns in the impeller and the side channel were also analyzed under the best efficiency point value, QBEP using the solution from the numerical calculations. It was observed from the time-domain analysis that the pressure fluctuation characteristics in the impeller flow passage increased steadily until the flow reached the interrupter which separates low-pressure at the inflow from high pressure at the outflow. The pressure fluctuation amplitudes in the frequency domain spectrum at the different monitoring points depicted a gentle decreasing trend of the pressure amplitudes which was common among the operating conditions. The frequency domain also revealed that the main excitation frequencies occurred at 600Hz, 1200Hz, and 1800Hz and continued in the integers of the rotating shaft frequency. Also, the mass flow exchange plots indicated that the side channel pump is characterized with many vortex flows. Operating conditions 0.8QBEP, 1.0 QBEP depicted less and similar vortex flow while 1.2Q recorded many vortex flows around the inflow, middle and outflow regions. The results of the numerical calculations were finally verified experimentally. The performance characteristics curves from the simulated results showed that 0.8QBEP working condition recorded a head increase of 43.03% and efficiency decrease of 6.73% compared to 1.0QBEP. It can be concluded that for industrial applications where the high heads are mostly required, the side channel pump can be designed to operate at part-load conditions. This paper can serve as a source of information in order to optimize a reliable performance and widen the applications of the side channel pumps.

Keywords: exchanged flow, pressure fluctuation, numerical simulation, side channel pump

Procedia PDF Downloads 31
164 Effects of Charge Fluctuating Positive Dust on Linear Dust-Acoustic Waves

Authors: Sanjit Kumar Paul, A. A. Mamun, M. R. Amin

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The Linear propagation of the dust-acoustic wave in a dusty plasma consisting of Boltzmann distributed electrons and ions and mobile charge fluctuating positive dust grains has been investigated by employing the reductive perturbation method. It has been shown that the dust charge fluctuation is a source of dissipation and its responsible for the formation of the dust-acoustic waves in such a dusty plasma. The basic features of such dust-acoustic waves have been identified. It has been proposed to design a new laboratory experiment which will be able to identify the basic features of the dust-acoustic waves predicted in this theoretical investigation.

Keywords: dust acoustic waves, dusty plasma, Boltzmann distributed electrons, charge fluctuation

Procedia PDF Downloads 495
163 Multiple Relaxation Times in the Gibbs Ensemble Monte Carlo Simulation of Phase Separation

Authors: Bina Kumari, Subir K. Sarkar, Pradipta Bandyopadhyay

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The autocorrelation function of the density fluctuation is studied in each of the two phases in a Gibbs Ensemble Monte Carlo (GEMC) simulation of the problem of phase separation for a square well potential with various values of its range. We find that the normalized autocorrelation function is described very well as a linear combination of an exponential function with a time scale τ₂ and a stretched exponential function with a time scale τ₁ and an exponent α. Dependence of (α, τ₁, τ₂) on the parameters of the GEMC algorithm and the range of the square well potential is investigated and interpreted. We also analyse the issue of how to choose the parameters of the GEMC simulation optimally.

Keywords: autocorrelation function, density fluctuation, GEMC, simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 19
162 Renewable Integration Algorithm to Compensate Photovoltaic Power Using Battery Energy Storage System

Authors: Hyung Joo Lee, Jin Young Choi, Gun Soo Park, Kyo Sun Oh, Dong Jun Won

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The fluctuation of the output of the renewable generator caused by weather conditions must be mitigated because it imposes strain on the system and adversely affects power quality. In this paper, we focus on mitigating the output fluctuation of the photovoltaic (PV) using battery energy storage system (BESS). To satisfy tight conditions of system, proposed algorithm is developed. This algorithm focuses on adjusting the integrated output curve considering state of capacity (SOC) of the battery. In this paper, the simulation model is PSCAD / EMTDC software. SOC of the battery and the overall output curve are shown using the simulation results. We also considered losses and battery efficiency.

Keywords: photovoltaic generation, battery energy storage system, renewable integration, power smoothing

Procedia PDF Downloads 163
161 Optimal Geothermal Borehole Design Guided By Dynamic Modeling

Authors: Hongshan Guo

Abstract:

Ground-source heat pumps provide stable and reliable heating and cooling when designed properly. The confounding effect of the borehole depth for a GSHP system, however, is rarely taken into account for any optimization: the determination of the borehole depth usually comes prior to the selection of corresponding system components and thereafter any optimization of the GSHP system. The depth of the borehole is important to any GSHP system because the shallower the borehole, the larger the fluctuation of temperature of the near-borehole soil temperature. This could lead to fluctuations of the coefficient of performance (COP) for the GSHP system in the long term when the heating/cooling demand is large. Yet the deeper the boreholes are drilled, the more the drilling cost and the operational expenses for the circulation. A controller that reads different building load profiles, optimizing for the smallest costs and temperature fluctuation at the borehole wall, eventually providing borehole depth as the output is developed. Due to the nature of the nonlinear dynamic nature of the GSHP system, it was found that between conventional optimal controller problem and model predictive control problem, the latter was found to be more feasible due to a possible history of both the trajectory during the iteration as well as the final output could be computed and compared against. Aside from a few scenarios of different weighting factors, the resulting system costs were verified with literature and reports and were found to be relatively accurate, while the temperature fluctuation at the borehole wall was also found to be within acceptable range. It was therefore determined that the MPC is adequate to optimize for the investment as well as the system performance for various outputs.

Keywords: geothermal borehole, MPC, dynamic modeling, simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 198
160 Comparison of Formation Sensitivity Gap between Islamic Maybank Indonesia and Islamic Maybank Malaysia

Authors: Puji Sucia Sukmaningrum, Achsania Hendratmi, Noven Suprayogi, Muhammad Madyan

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Theoretically, Islamic banks in Indonesia and Malaysia not necessarily aware to the interest rate fluctuation, since they don’t use interest-based instruments. Both countries use dual banking system in which Islamic and conventional banking system are exist. This situation makes the profit-sharing level of the Islamic banks will be indirectly affected by the interest rate fluctuation from the conventional banks system. One of the risk management tools for anticipating the risk of interest rate fluctuation is gap management, which has purpose to narrow the difference between Rate Sensitive Asset (RSA) and Rate Sensitive Liability (RSL). This formed gap will give the information about the risk potential in Islamic banks which respect to the fluctuation on the interest rate. This study aims to determine the position of the gap formed at Islamic Maybank Indonesia and Islamic Maybank Malaysia, and analyze the difference in the formation of gap based on the period of sensitivity. This study is a quantitative research with comparative study using sensitivity gap analysis, independent sample t-test, and Mann-Whitney method. The data being used was secondary data from Maturity Profile contained in the Annual Financial Report of Islamic Maybank Indonesia and Islamic Maybank Malaysia from 2011 to 2015 period. The result shows that, cumulatively the formation of the gap was negative gap. From the results of independent sample t-test and Mann-Whitney, the formation of the gap in Islamic Maybank Indonesia and Islamic Maybank Malaysia for a period of sensitivity of ≤ 1 month and >1-3 months show a significant difference, while the period of sensitivity >3-12 months does not. The result shows, even though Indonesia and Malaysia using same dual banking systems, the gap values are different. The difference in debt policy between Indonesia and Malaysia also affecting the gap sensitivity in debt. In can be concluded that each country needs an appropriate gap management to support its Islamic banking performance specifically.

Keywords: assets and liability management, gap management, interest rate risk, Islamic bank

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
159 Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of Flow Properties Fluctuations in Slug-Churn Flow through Pipe Elbow

Authors: Nkemjika Chinenye-Kanu, Mamdud Hossain, Ghazi Droubi

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Prediction of multiphase flow induced forces, void fraction and pressure is crucial at both design and operating stages of practical energy and process pipe systems. In this study, transient numerical simulations of upward slug-churn flow through a vertical 90-degree elbow have been conducted. The volume of fluid (VOF) method was used to model the two-phase flows while the K-epsilon Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations were used to model turbulence in the flows. The simulation results were validated using experimental results. Void fraction signal, peak frequency and maximum magnitude of void fraction fluctuation of the slug-churn flow validation case studies compared well with experimental results. The x and y direction force fluctuation signals at the elbow control volume were obtained by carrying out force balance calculations using the directly extracted time domain signals of flow properties through the control volume in the numerical simulation. The computed force signal compared well with experiment for the slug and churn flow validation case studies. Hence, the present numerical simulation technique was able to predict the behaviours of the one-way flow induced forces and void fraction fluctuations.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, flow induced vibration, slug-churn flow, void fraction and force fluctuation

Procedia PDF Downloads 39
158 Impact of Climate Change on Water Level and Properties of Gorgan Bay in the Southern Caspian Sea

Authors: Siamak Jamshidi

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The Caspian Sea is the Earth's largest inland body of water. One of the most important issues related to the sea is water level changes. For measuring and recording Caspian Sea water level, there are at least three gauges and radar equipment in Anzali, Nowshahr and Amirabad Ports along the southern boundary of the Caspian Sea. It seems that evaporation, hotter surface air temperature, and in general climate change is the main reasons for its water level fluctuations. Gorgan Bay in the eastern part of the southern boundary of the Caspian Sea is one of the areas under the effect of water level fluctuation. Based on the results of field measurements near the Gorgan Bay mouth temperature ranged between 24°C–28°C and salinity was about 13.5 PSU in midsummer while temperature changed between 10-11.5°C and salinity mostly was 15-16.5 PSU in mid-winter. The decrease of Caspian Sea water level and rivers outflow are the two most important factors for the increase in water salinity of the Gorgan Bay. Results of field observations showed that, due to atmospheric factors, climate changes and decreasing of precipitation over the southern basin of the Caspian Sea during last decades, the water level of bay was reduced around 0.5 m.

Keywords: Caspian Sea, Gorgan Bay, water level fluctuation, climate changes

Procedia PDF Downloads 45
157 Analysis of Epileptic Electroencephalogram Using Detrended Fluctuation and Recurrence Plots

Authors: Mrinalini Ranjan, Sudheesh Chethil

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Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder characterised by the recurrence of seizures. Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals are complex biomedical signals which exhibit nonlinear and nonstationary behavior. We use two methods 1) Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) and 2) Recurrence Plots (RP) to capture this complex behavior of EEG signals. DFA considers fluctuation from local linear trends. Scale invariance of these signals is well captured in the multifractal characterisation using detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA). Analysis of long-range correlations is vital for understanding the dynamics of EEG signals. Correlation properties in the EEG signal are quantified by the calculation of a scaling exponent. We report the existence of two scaling behaviours in the epileptic EEG signals which quantify short and long-range correlations. To illustrate this, we perform DFA on extant ictal (seizure) and interictal (seizure free) datasets of different patients in different channels. We compute the short term and long scaling exponents and report a decrease in short range scaling exponent during seizure as compared to pre-seizure and a subsequent increase during post-seizure period, while the long-term scaling exponent shows an increase during seizure activity. Our calculation of long-term scaling exponent yields a value between 0.5 and 1, thus pointing to power law behaviour of long-range temporal correlations (LRTC). We perform this analysis for multiple channels and report similar behaviour. We find an increase in the long-term scaling exponent during seizure in all channels, which we attribute to an increase in persistent LRTC during seizure. The magnitude of the scaling exponent and its distribution in different channels can help in better identification of areas in brain most affected during seizure activity. The nature of epileptic seizures varies from patient-to-patient. To illustrate this, we report an increase in long-term scaling exponent for some patients which is also complemented by the recurrence plots (RP). RP is a graph that shows the time index of recurrence of a dynamical state. We perform Recurrence Quantitative analysis (RQA) and calculate RQA parameters like diagonal length, entropy, recurrence, determinism, etc. for ictal and interictal datasets. We find that the RQA parameters increase during seizure activity, indicating a transition. We observe that RQA parameters are higher during seizure period as compared to post seizure values, whereas for some patients post seizure values exceeded those during seizure. We attribute this to varying nature of seizure in different patients indicating a different route or mechanism during the transition. Our results can help in better understanding of the characterisation of epileptic EEG signals from a nonlinear analysis.

Keywords: detrended fluctuation, epilepsy, long range correlations, recurrence plots

Procedia PDF Downloads 48
156 Microstructure and Excess Conductivity of Bulk, Ag-Added FeSe Superconductors

Authors: Michael Koblischka, Yassine Slimani, Thomas Karwoth, Anjela Koblischka-Veneva, Essia Hannachi

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On bulk FeSe superconductors containing different additions of Ag, a thorough investigation of the microstructures was performed using optical microscopy, SEM and TEM. The electrical resistivity was measured using four-point measurements in the temperature range 2 K ≤ T ≤ 150 K. The data obtained are analyzed in the framework of the excess conductivity approach using the Aslamazov-Larkin (AL) model. The investigated samples comprised of five distinct fluctuation regimes, namely short-wave (SWF), onedimensional (1D), two-dimensional (2D), three-dimensional (3D), and critical (CR) fluctuation regimes. The coherence length along the c-axis at zero-temperature (ξc(0)), the lower and upper critical magnetic fields (Bc1 and Bc2), the critical current density (Jc) and numerous other superconducting parameters were estimated with respect to the Ag content in the samples. The data reveal a reduction of the resistivity and a strong decrease of ξc(0) when doping the 11-samples with silver. The optimum content of the Ag-addition is found at 4 wt.-% Ag, yielding the highest critical current density.

Keywords: iron-based superconductors, FeSe, Ag-addition, excess conductivity, microstructure

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155 Dimensionality and Superconducting Parameters of YBa2Cu3O7 Foams

Authors: Michael Koblischka, Anjela Koblischka-Veneva, XianLin Zeng, Essia Hannachi, Yassine Slimani

Abstract:

Superconducting foams of YBa2Cu3O7 (abbreviated Y-123) were produced using the infiltration growth (IG) technique from Y2BaCuO5 (Y-211) foams. The samples were investigated by SEM (scanning electron microscopy) and electrical resistivity measurements. SEM observations indicated the specific microstructure of the foam struts with numerous tiny Y-211 particles (50-100 nm diameter) embedded in channel-like structures between the Y-123 grains. The investigation of the excess conductivity of different prepared composites was analyzed using Aslamazov-Larkin (AL) model. The investigated samples comprised of five distinct fluctuation regimes, namely short-wave (SWF), one-dimensional (1D), two-dimensional (2D), three-dimensional (3D), and critical (CR) fluctuations regimes. The coherence length along the c-axis at zero-temperature (ξc(0)), lower and upper critical magnetic fields (Bc1 and Bc2), critical current density (Jc) and numerous other superconducting parameters were estimated from the data. The analysis reveals that the presence of the tiny Y-211 particles alters the excess conductivity and the fluctuation behavior observed in standard YBCO samples.

Keywords: Excess conductivity, Foam, Microstructure, Superconductor YBa2Cu3Oy

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154 Optimal Placement and Sizing of Energy Storage System in Distribution Network with Photovoltaic Based Distributed Generation Using Improved Firefly Algorithms

Authors: Ling Ai Wong, Hussain Shareef, Azah Mohamed, Ahmad Asrul Ibrahim

Abstract:

The installation of photovoltaic based distributed generation (PVDG) in active distribution system can lead to voltage fluctuation due to the intermittent and unpredictable PVDG output power. This paper presented a method in mitigating the voltage rise by optimally locating and sizing the battery energy storage system (BESS) in PVDG integrated distribution network. The improved firefly algorithm is used to perform optimal placement and sizing. Three objective functions are presented considering the voltage deviation and BESS off-time with state of charge as the constraint. The performance of the proposed method is compared with another optimization method such as the original firefly algorithm and gravitational search algorithm. Simulation results show that the proposed optimum BESS location and size improve the voltage stability.

Keywords: BESS, firefly algorithm, PVDG, voltage fluctuation

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
153 Investigation on Performance of Change Point Algorithm in Time Series Dynamical Regimes and Effect of Data Characteristics

Authors: Farhad Asadi, Mohammad Javad Mollakazemi

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In this paper, Bayesian online inference in models of data series are constructed by change-points algorithm, which separated the observed time series into independent series and study the change and variation of the regime of the data with related statistical characteristics. variation of statistical characteristics of time series data often represent separated phenomena in the some dynamical system, like a change in state of brain dynamical reflected in EEG signal data measurement or a change in important regime of data in many dynamical system. In this paper, prediction algorithm for studying change point location in some time series data is simulated. It is verified that pattern of proposed distribution of data has important factor on simpler and smother fluctuation of hazard rate parameter and also for better identification of change point locations. Finally, the conditions of how the time series distribution effect on factors in this approach are explained and validated with different time series databases for some dynamical system.

Keywords: time series, fluctuation in statistical characteristics, optimal learning, change-point algorithm

Procedia PDF Downloads 305
152 Fabrication of LiNbO₃ Based Conspicuous Nanomaterials for Renewable Energy Devices

Authors: Riffat Kalsoom, Qurat-Ul-Ain Javed

Abstract:

Optical and dielectric properties of lithium niobates have made them the fascinating materials to be used in optical industry for device formation such as Q and optical switching. Synthesis of lithium niobates was carried out by solvothermal process with and without temperature fluctuation at 200°C for 4 hrs, and behavior of properties for different durations was also examined. Prepared samples of LiNbO₃ were examined in a way as crystallographic phases by using XRD diffractometer, morphology by scanning electron microscope (SEM), absorption by UV-Visible Spectroscopy and dielectric measurement by impedance analyzer. A structural change from trigonal to spherical shape was observed by changing the time of reaction. Crystallite size decreases by the temperature fluctuation and increasing reaction time. Band gap decreases whereas dielectric constant and dielectric loss was increased with increasing time of reaction. Trend of AC conductivity is explained by Joschner’s power law. Due to these significant properties, it finds its applications in devices, such as cells, Q switching and optical switching for laser and gigahertz frequencies, respectively and these applications depend on the industrial demands.

Keywords: lithium niobates, renewable energy devices, controlled structure, temperature fluctuations

Procedia PDF Downloads 34
151 A Case Study of Rainfall Derived Inflow/Infiltration in a Separate Sewer System in Gwangju, Korea

Authors: Bumjo Kim, Hyun Jin Kim, Joon Ha Kim

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The separate sewer system is that collects the wastewater as a sewer pipe and rainfall as a stormwater pipe separately, and then sewage is treated in the wastewater treatment plant, the stormwater is discharged to rivers or lakes through stormwater drainage pipes. Unfortunately, even for separate sewer systems, it is not possible to prevent Rainfall Driven Inflow/Infiltration(RDII) completely to the sewer pipe. Even if the sewerage line is renovated, there is an ineluctable RDII due to the combined sewer system in the house or the difficulty of sewage maintenance in private areas. The basic statistical analysis was performed using environmental data including rainfall, sewage, water qualities and groundwater level in the strict of Gwangju in ​South Korea. During rainfall in the target area, RDII showed an increased rate of 13.4 ~ 53.0% compared to that of a clear day and showed a rapid hydrograph response of 0.3 ~ 3.0 hr. As a result of water quality analysis, BOD5 concentration decreased by 17.3 % and salinity concentration decreased by 8.8 % at the representative spot in the project area compared to the sunny day during rainfall. In contrast to the seasonal fluctuation range of 0.38 m ~ 0.55 m in groundwater in Gwangju area and 0.58 m ~ 0.78 m in monthly fluctuation range, while the difference between groundwater level and the depth of sewer pipe laying was 2.70 m on average, which is larger than the range of fluctuation. Comprehensively, it can be concluded that the increasing of flowrate at sewer line is due to not infiltration water caused by groundwater level rise, construction failure, cracking due to joint failure or conduit deterioration, rainfall was directly inflowed into the sewer line rapidly. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by the 'Climate Technology Development and Application' research project (#K07731) through a grant provided by GIST in 2017.

Keywords: ground water, rainfall, rainfall driven inflow/infiltration, separate sewer system

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
150 A Study on the Influence of Aswan High Dam Reservoir Loading on Earthquake Activity

Authors: Sayed Abdallah Mohamed Dahy

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Aswan High Dam Reservoir extends for 500 km along the Nile River; it is a vast reservoir in southern Egypt and northern Sudan. It was created as a result of the construction of the Aswan High Dam between 1958 and 1970; about 95% of the main water resources for Egypt are from it. The purpose of this study is to discuss and understand the effect of the fluctuation of the water level in the reservoir on natural and human-induced environmental like earthquakes in the Aswan area, Egypt. In summary, the correlation between the temporal variations of earthquake activity and water level changes in the Aswan reservoir from 1982 to 2014 are investigated and analyzed. This analysis confirms a weak relation between the fluctuation of the water level and earthquake activity in the area around Aswan reservoir. The result suggests that the seismicity in the area becomes active during a period when the water level is decreasing from the maximum to the minimum. Behavior of the water level in this reservoir characterized by a special manner that is the unloading season extends to July or August, and the loading season starts to reach its maximum in October or November every year. Finally, daily rate of change in the water level did not show any direct relation with the size of the earthquakes, hence, it is not possible to be used as a single tool for prediction.

Keywords: Aswan high dam reservoir, earthquake activity, environmental, Egypt

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
149 Exploring the Challenges to Usage of Building Construction Cost Indices in Ghana

Authors: Jerry Gyimah, Ernest Kissi, Safowaa Osei-Tutu, Charles Dela Adobor, Theophilus Adjei-Kumi, Ernest Osei-Tutu

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Price fluctuation contract is imperative and of paramount essence, in the construction industry as it provides adequate relief and cushioning for changes in the prices of input resources during construction. As a result, several methods have been devised to better help in arriving at fair recompense in the event of price changes. However, stakeholders often appear not to be satisfied with the existing methods of fluctuation evaluation, ostensibly because of the challenges associated with them. The aim of this study was to identify the challenges to the usage of building construction cost indices in Ghana. Data was gathered from contractors and quantity surveying firms. The study utilized a survey questionnaire approach to elicit responses from the contractors and the consultants. Data gathered was analyzed scientifically, using the relative importance index (RII) to rank the problems associated with the existing methods. The findings revealed the following, among others, late release of data, inadequate recovery of costs, and work items of interest not included in the published indices as the main challenges of the existing methods. Findings provide useful lessons for policymakers and practitioners in decision making towards the usage and improvement of available indices.

Keywords: building construction cost indices, challenges, usage, Ghana

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148 An Environmentally Friendly Approach towards the Conservation of Vernacular Architecture

Authors: Maria Philokyprou, Aimilios Michael

Abstract:

Contemporary theories of sustainability, concerning the natural and built environment, have recently introduced an environmental attitude towards the architectural design that, in turn, affects the practice of conservation and reuse of the existing building stock. This paper presents an environmentally friendly approach towards the conservation of vernacular architecture and it is based on the results of a research program which involved the investigation of sustainable design elements of traditional buildings in Cyprus. The research in question showed that Cypriot vernacular architecture gave more emphasis on cooling rather than heating strategies. Another notable finding of the investigation was the great importance given to courtyards as they enhance considerably, and in various ways, the microclimatic conditions of the immediate environment with favorable results throughout the year. Moreover, it was shown that the reduction in temperature fluctuation observed in the closed and semi-open spaces, compared to the respective temperature fluctuation of the external environment - due to the thermal inertia of the building envelope - helps towards the achievement of more comfortable living conditions within traditional dwellings. This paper concludes with a proposal of a sustainable approach towards the conservation of the existing environment and the introduction of new environmental criteria for the conservation of traditional buildings, beyond the aesthetic, morphological and structural ones that are generally applied.

Keywords: bioclimatic, conservation, environmental, traditional dwellings, vernacular architecture

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147 Investigation of Complexity Dynamics in a DC Glow Discharge Magnetized Plasma Using Recurrence Quantification Analysis

Authors: Vramori Mitra, Bornali Sarma, Arun K. Sarma

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Recurrence is a ubiquitous feature of any real dynamical system. The states in phase space trajectory of a system have an inherent tendency to return to the same state or its close state after certain time laps. Recurrence quantification analysis technique, based on this fundamental feature of a dynamical system, detects evaluation of state under variation of control parameter of the system. The paper presents the investigation of nonlinear dynamical behavior of plasma floating potential fluctuations obtained by using a Langmuir probe in different magnetic field under the variation of discharge voltages. The main measures of recurrence quantification analysis are considered as determinism, linemax and entropy. The increment of the DET and linemax variables asserts that the predictability and periodicity of the system is increasing. The variable linemax indicates that the chaoticity is being diminished with the slump of magnetic field while increase of magnetic field enhancing the chaotic behavior. Fractal property of the plasma time series estimated by DFA technique (Detrended fluctuation analysis) reflects that long-range correlation of plasma fluctuations is decreasing while fractal dimension is increasing with the enhancement of magnetic field which corroborates the RQA analysis.

Keywords: detrended fluctuation analysis, chaos, phase space, recurrence

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146 Precursors Signatures of Few Major Earthquakes in Italy Using Very Low Frequency Signal of 45.9kHz

Authors: Keshav Prasad Kandel, Balaram Khadka, Karan Bhatta, Basu Dev Ghimire

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Earthquakes still exist as a threating disaster. Being able to predict earthquakes will certainly help prevent substantial loss of life and property. Perhaps, Very Low Frequency/Low Frequency (VLF/LF) signal band (3-30 kHz), which is effectively reflected from D-layer of ionosphere, can be established as a tool to predict earthquake. On May 20 and May 29, 2012, earthquakes of magnitude 6.1 and 5.8 respectively struck Emilia-Romagna of Italy. A year back, on August 24, 2016, an earthquake of magnitude 6.2 struck Central Italy (42.7060 N and 13.2230 E) at 1:36 UT. We present the results obtained from the US Navy VLF Transmitter’s NSY signal of 45.9 kHz transmitted from Niscemi, in the province of Sicily, Italy and received at the Kiel Longwave Monitor, Germany for 2012 and 2016. We analyzed the terminator times, their individual differences and nighttime fluctuation counts. We also analyzed trends, dispersion and nighttime fluctuation which gave us a possible precursors to these earthquakes. Since perturbations in VLF amplitude could also be due to various other factors like lightning, geomagnetic activities (storms, auroras etc.) and solar activities (flares, UV flux, etc.), we filtered the possible perturbations due to these agents to guarantee that the perturbations seen in VLF/LF amplitudes were as a precursor to Earthquakes. As our TRGCP path is North-south, the sunrise and sunset time in transmitter and receiver places matches making pathway for VLF/LF smoother and therefore hoping to obtain more natural data. To our surprise, we found many clear anomalies (as precursors) in terminator times 5 days to 16 days before the earthquakes. Moreover, using night time fluctuation method, we found clear anomalies 5 days to 13 days prior to main earthquakes. This exactly correlates with the findings of previous authors that ionospheric perturbations are seen few days to one month before the seismic activity. In addition to this, we were amazed to observe unexpected decrease of dispersion on certain anomalies where it was supposed to increase, thereby not supporting our finding to some extent. To resolve this problem, we devised a new parameter called dispersion nighttime (dispersion). On analyzing, this parameter decreases significantly on days of nighttime anomalies thereby supporting our precursors to much extent.

Keywords: D-layer, TRGCP (Transmitter Receiver Great Circle Path), terminator times, VLF/LF

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145 The Effect of AMBs Number of a Dynamics Behavior of a Spur Gear Reducer in Non-Stationary Regime

Authors: Najib Belhadj Messaoud, Slim Souissi

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The non-linear dynamic behavior of a single stage spur gear reducer is studied in this paper in transient regime. Driving and driver rotors are, respectively, powered by a motor torque Cm and loaded by a resistive torque Cr. They are supported by two identical Active Magnetic Bearings (AMBs). Gear excitation is induced by the motor torque and load variation in addition to the fluctuation of meshing stiff-ness due to the variation of input rotational speed. Three models of AMBs were used with four, six and eight magnets. They are operated by P.D controller and powered by control and bias currents. The dynamic parameters of the AMBs are modeled by stiffness and damping matrices computed by the derivation of the electromagnetic forces. The equations of motion are solved iteratively using Newmark time integration method. In the first part of the study, the model is powered by an electric motor and by a four strokes four cylinders diesel engine in the second part. The numerical results of the dynamic responses of the system come to confirm the significant effect of the transient regime on the dynamic behavior of a gear set, particularly in the case of engine acyclism condition. Results also confirm the influence of the magnet number by AMBs on the dynamic behavior of the system. Indeed, vibrations were more important in the case of gear reducer supported by AMBs with four magnets.

Keywords: motor, stiffness, gear, acyclism, fluctuation, torque

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144 Relationship between Creative Market Actor and Traditional Market Vendor toward a Sustainable Market Model in Jakarta, Indonesia

Authors: Galuh Pramesti

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In Indonesia, the rise of the middle class and consumer purchasing power has created a trend of shifting the traditional into a modern retail market. Development of the creative economy as an impact of the global economy has invaded the traditional market, due to low rents and minimum innovation, raising the issue of sustainability and urban resilience for survival of the traditional market. The study aims to understand the current market conditions by examining the challenges, resiliency, and identify the relationship between the traditional market and creative market. Using a single-case study approach as the research methodology, Santa Market has been chosen as the case study. It is a pilot project of collaboration between a traditional market and creative economy in Jakarta, Indonesia. The research was conducted as a qualitative study through in-depth interviews with the market vendors and the market management, besides a desk-based study of the leasing data and spatial analysis. The findings indicate traffic fluctuation as the main challenge. It is related to the tenant’s presence, rental fluctuation, gentrification, infrastructure, and market competition. Thus, the findings on resilience show a different response for creative and traditional markets. The traditional market’s response remained stable with minimum innovation, whereas the creative market relies on technological development. Regarding the relationship, supply and demand have become the main relationship occurring in Santa Market. It is then developed into the context of society and regulation. The conclusion provides recommendations for more solid regulation to protect the market tenants from stakeholder interests that can disrupt market viability, and a critical discussion on the concept of collaboration between traditional and creative markets. There is also a suggestion for further study on relation with the surroundings, to create a holistic study on how the collaboration can work well in the traditional market.

Keywords: creative economy, market sustainability, traditional market, urban resilience

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143 Affect of Reservoir Fluctuations on an Active Landslide in the Xiangjiaba Reservoir Area, Southwest China

Authors: Javed Iqbal

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Filling of Xiangjiaba Reservoir Lake in Southwest China triggered and re-activated numerous landslides due to water fluctuation. In order to understand the relationship between reservoirs and slope instability, a typical reservoir landslide (Dasha landslide) at right bank of Jinsha River was selected as a case study for in-depth investigations. The detailed field investigations were carried out in order to identify the landslide with respect to its surroundings and to find out the slip-surface. Boreholes were drilled in order to find out the subsurface lithology and the depth of failure of Dasha landslide. The in-situ geotechnical tests were performed, and the soil samples from exposed slip surface were retrieved for geotechnical laboratory analysis. Finally, stability analysis was done using 3D strength reduction method under different conditions of reservoir water level fluctuations and rainfall conditions. The in-depth investigations show that the Dasha landslide is a bedding rockslide which was once activated in 1986. The topography of Dasha landslide is relatively flat, while the back scarp and local terrain are relatively steep. The landslide area is about 29 × 104 m², and the maximum thickness of the landslide deposits revealed by drilling is about 40 m with the average thickness being about 20 m, and the volume is thus estimated being about 580 × 10⁴ m³. Bedrock in the landslide area is composed of Suining Formation of Jurassic age. The main rock type is silty mudstone with sandstone, and bedding orientation is 300~310° ∠ 7~22°. The factor of safety (FOS) of Dasha landslide obtained by 3D strength reduction cannot meet the minimum safety requirement under the working condition of reservoir level fluctuation as designed, with effect of rainfall and rapid drawdown.

Keywords: Dasha landslide, Xiangjiaba reservoir, strength reduction method, bedding rockslide

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