Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6225

Search results for: phase correlation

6225 On Phase Based Stereo Matching and Its Related Issues

Authors: András Rövid, Takeshi Hashimoto

Abstract:

The paper focuses on the problem of the point correspondence matching in stereo images. The proposed matching algorithm is based on the combination of simpler methods such as normalized sum of squared differences (NSSD) and a more complex phase correlation based approach, by considering the noise and other factors, as well. The speed of NSSD and the preciseness of the phase correlation together yield an efficient approach to find the best candidate point with sub-pixel accuracy in stereo image pairs. The task of the NSSD in this case is to approach the candidate pixel roughly. Afterwards the location of the candidate is refined by an enhanced phase correlation based method which in contrast to the NSSD has to run only once for each selected pixel.

Keywords: stereo matching, sub-pixel accuracy, phase correlation, SVD, NSSD

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6224 Experimental Study on Flooding Phenomena in a Three-Phase Direct Contact Heat Exchanger for the Utilisation in Solar Pond Applications

Authors: Hameed B. Mahood, Ali Sh. Baqir, Alasdair N. Campbell

Abstract:

Experiments to study the limitation of flooding inception of three-phase direct contact condenser have been carried out in a counter-current small diameter vertical condenser. The total column height was 70 cm and 4 cm diameter. Only 48 cm has been used as an active three-phase direct contact condenser height. Vapour pentane with three different initial temperatures (40, 43.5 and 47.5 °C) and water with a constant temperature (19 °C) have been used as a dispersed phase and a continuous phase respectively. Five different continuous phase mass flow rate and four different dispersed phase mass flow rate have been tested throughout the experiments. Dimensionless correlation based on the previous common flooding correlation is proposed to calculate the up flow flooding inception of the three-phase direct contact condenser.

Keywords: Three-phase heat exchanger, condenser, solar energy, flooding phenomena

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6223 Epileptic Seizure Prediction Focusing on Relative Change in Consecutive Segments of EEG Signal

Authors: Mohammad Zavid Parvez, Manoranjan Paul

Abstract:

Epilepsy is a common neurological disorders characterized by sudden recurrent seizures. Electroencephalogram (EEG) is widely used to diagnose possible epileptic seizure. Many research works have been devoted to predict epileptic seizure by analyzing EEG signal. Seizure prediction by analyzing EEG signals are challenging task due to variations of brain signals of different patients. In this paper, we propose a new approach for feature extraction based on phase correlation in EEG signals. In phase correlation, we calculate relative change between two consecutive segments of an EEG signal and then combine the changes with neighboring signals to extract features. These features are then used to classify preictal/ictal and interictal EEG signals for seizure prediction. Experiment results show that the proposed method carries good prediction rate with greater consistence for the benchmark data set in different brain locations compared to the existing state-of-the-art methods.

Keywords: EEG, epilepsy, phase correlation, seizure

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6222 Gray Level Image Encryption

Authors: Roza Afarin, Saeed Mozaffari

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is image encryption using Genetic Algorithm (GA). The proposed encryption method consists of two phases. In modification phase, pixels locations are altered to reduce correlation among adjacent pixels. Then, pixels values are changed in the diffusion phase to encrypt the input image. Both phases are performed by GA with binary chromosomes. For modification phase, these binary patterns are generated by Local Binary Pattern (LBP) operator while for diffusion phase binary chromosomes are obtained by Bit Plane Slicing (BPS). Initial population in GA includes rows and columns of the input image. Instead of subjective selection of parents from this initial population, a random generator with predefined key is utilized. It is necessary to decrypt the coded image and reconstruct the initial input image. Fitness function is defined as average of transition from 0 to 1 in LBP image and histogram uniformity in modification and diffusion phases, respectively. Randomness of the encrypted image is measured by entropy, correlation coefficients and histogram analysis. Experimental results show that the proposed method is fast enough and can be used effectively for image encryption.

Keywords: correlation coefficients, genetic algorithm, image encryption, image entropy

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6221 Efficiency Improvement of REV-Method for Calibration of Phased Array Antennas

Authors: Daniel Hristov

Abstract:

The paper describes the principle of operation, simulation and physical validation of method for simultaneous acquisition of gain and phase states of multiple antenna elements and the corresponding feed lines across a Phased Array Antenna (PAA). The derived values for gain and phase are used for PAA-calibration. The method utilizes the Rotating-Element Electric- Field Vector (REV) principle currently used for gain and phase state estimation of single antenna element across an active antenna aperture. A significant reduction of procedure execution time is achieved with simultaneous setting of different phase delays to multiple phase shifters, followed by a single power measurement. The initial gain and phase states are calculated using spectral and correlation analysis of the measured power series.

Keywords: antenna, antenna arrays, calibration, phase measurement, power measurement

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6220 Modelling the Growth of σ-Phase in AISI 347H FG Steel

Authors: Yohanes Chekol Malede

Abstract:

σ-phase has negative effects on the corrosion responses and the mechanical properties of steels. The growth of σ-phase in the austenite matrix of AISI 347H FG steel was simulated using DICTRA software using CALPHAD method. The simulation work included the influence of both volume diffusion and grain boundary diffusion. The simulation results showed a good agreement with the experimental findings. The simulation results revealed a Cr-depleted and a Ni-enriched σ-phase/austenite interface. Effects of temperature, grain size, and composition of alloying elements on the growth kinetics of σ-phase were assessed. The simulated results were fitted to the JMAK equation and a good correlation was obtained.

Keywords: AISI 347H FG austenitic steel, CALPHAD, sigma phase, microstructure evolution

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6219 Epileptic Seizure Prediction by Exploiting Signal Transitions Phenomena

Authors: Mohammad Zavid Parvez, Manoranjan Paul

Abstract:

A seizure prediction method is proposed by extracting global features using phase correlation between adjacent epochs for detecting relative changes and local features using fluctuation/deviation within an epoch for determining fine changes of different EEG signals. A classifier and a regularization technique are applied for the reduction of false alarms and improvement of the overall prediction accuracy. The experiments show that the proposed method outperforms the state-of-the-art methods and provides high prediction accuracy (i.e., 97.70%) with low false alarm using EEG signals in different brain locations from a benchmark data set.

Keywords: Epilepsy, seizure, phase correlation, fluctuation, deviation.

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6218 Choosing between the Regression Correlation, the Rank Correlation, and the Correlation Curve

Authors: Roger L. Goodwin

Abstract:

This paper presents a rank correlation curve. The traditional correlation coefficient is valid for both continuous variables and for integer variables using rank statistics. Since the correlation coefficient has already been established in rank statistics by Spearman, such a calculation can be extended to the correlation curve. This paper presents two survey questions. The survey collected non-continuous variables. We will show weak to moderate correlation. Obviously, one question has a negative effect on the other. A review of the qualitative literature can answer which question and why. The rank correlation curve shows which collection of responses has a positive slope and which collection of responses has a negative slope. Such information is unavailable from the flat, "first-glance" correlation statistics.

Keywords: Bayesian estimation, regression model, rank statistics, correlation, correlation curve

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6217 Investigation of Martensitic Transformation Zone at the Crack Tip of NiTi under Mode-I Loading Using Microscopic Image Correlation

Authors: Nima Shafaghi, Gunay Anlaş, C. Can Aydiner

Abstract:

A realistic understanding of martensitic phase transition under complex stress states is key for accurately describing the mechanical behavior of shape memory alloys (SMAs). Particularly regarding the sharply changing stress fields at the tip of a crack, the size, nature and shape of transformed zones are of great interest. There is significant variation among various analytical models in their predictions of the size and shape of the transformation zone. As the fully transformed region remains inside a very small boundary at the tip of the crack, experimental validation requires microscopic resolution. Here, the crack tip vicinity of NiTi compact tension specimen has been monitored in situ with microscopic image correlation with 20x magnification. With nominal 15 micrometer grains and 0.2 micrometer per pixel optical resolution, the strains at the crack tip are mapped with intra-grain detail. The transformation regions are then deduced using an equivalent strain formulation.

Keywords: digital image correlation, fracture, martensitic phase transition, mode I, NiTi, transformation zone

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6216 Zero Cross-Correlation Codes Based on Balanced Incomplete Block Design: Performance Analysis and Applications

Authors: Garadi Ahmed, Boubakar S. Bouazza

Abstract:

The Zero Cross-Correlation (C, w) code is a family of binary sequences of length C and constant Hamming-weight, the cross correlation between any two sequences equal zero. In this paper, we evaluate the performance of ZCC code based on Balanced Incomplete Block Design (BIBD) for Spectral Amplitude Coding Optical Code Division Multiple Access (SAC-OCDMA) system using direct detection. The BER obtained is better than 10-9 for five simultaneous users.

Keywords: spectral amplitude coding-optical code-division-multiple-access (SAC-OCDMA), phase induced intensity noise (PIIN), balanced incomplete block design (BIBD), zero cross-correlation (ZCC)

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6215 Variations of Total Electron Content over High Latitude Region during the 24th Solar Cycle

Authors: Arun Kumar Singh, Rupesh M. Das, Shailendra Saini

Abstract:

The effect of solar cycle and seasons on the total electron content has been investigated over high latitude region during 24th solar cycle (2010-2014). The total electron content data has been observed with the help of Global Ionospheric Scintillation and TEC monitoring (GISTM) system installed at Indian permanent scientific 'Maitri station' [70˚46’00”S 11˚43’56” E]. The dependence of TEC over a solar cycle has been examined by the performing linear regression analysis between the vertical total electron content (VTEC) and daily total sunspot numbers (SSN). It has been found that the season and level of geomagnetic activity has a considerable effect on the VTEC. It is observed that the VTEC and SSN follow better agreement during summer seasons as compared to winter and equinox seasons and extraordinary agreement during minimum phase (during the year 2010) of the solar cycle. There is a significant correlation between VTEC and SSN during quiet days of the years as compared to overall days of the years (2010-2014). Further, saturation effect has been observed during maximum phase (during the year 2014) of the 24th solar cycle. It is also found that Ap index and SSN has a linear correlation (R=0.37) and the most of the geomagnetic activity occurs during the declining phase of the solar cycle.

Keywords: high latitude ionosphere, sunspot number, correlation, vertical total electron content

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6214 Phases of Marital Conflict among Married Kuwaiti Women

Authors: Hend Almaseb

Abstract:

Gottman proposed a model of marital conflict with three phases: Agenda-Building, Arguing, and Negotiation. Among a sample of 520 married Kuwaiti women, this study examined the relationship between these phases and the following demographic variables: Level of education, Family income, Health, Occupation, and Tribal affiliation. In addition, the study 1) investigated the marital conflict phases the participants reported having experienced or are currently experiencing and 2) identified the variables that predict one of these conflict phases. The results showed a significant relationship between the following: 1) the Agenda-Building phase and Health; 2) the Arguing phase and Family income, Occupation, and Tribal Affiliation; and 3) the Negotiation phase and Level of education. In addition, a linear regression shows a substantial correlation between the two predictor variables (Level of education and Health problems) and the Agenda Building and Negotiation phases and 5) another substantial correlation between Family income and Arguing.

Keywords: clinical social work, Kuwait, marital conflict, women

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6213 Estimation of Endogenous Brain Noise from Brain Response to Flickering Visual Stimulation Magnetoencephalography Visual Perception Speed

Authors: Alexander N. Pisarchik, Parth Chholak

Abstract:

Intrinsic brain noise was estimated via magneto-encephalograms (MEG) recorded during perception of flickering visual stimuli with frequencies of 6.67 and 8.57 Hz. First, we measured the mean phase difference between the flicker signal and steady-state event-related field (SSERF) in the occipital area where the brain response at the flicker frequencies and their harmonics appeared in the power spectrum. Then, we calculated the probability distribution of the phase fluctuations in the regions of frequency locking and computed its kurtosis. Since kurtosis is a measure of the distribution’s sharpness, we suppose that inverse kurtosis is related to intrinsic brain noise. In our experiments, the kurtosis value varied among subjects from K = 3 to K = 5 for 6.67 Hz and from 2.6 to 4 for 8.57 Hz. The majority of subjects demonstrated leptokurtic kurtosis (K < 3), i.e., the distribution tails approached zero more slowly than Gaussian. In addition, we found a strong correlation between kurtosis and brain complexity measured as the correlation dimension, so that the MEGs of subjects with higher kurtosis exhibited lower complexity. The obtained results are discussed in the framework of nonlinear dynamics and complex network theories. Specifically, in a network of coupled oscillators, phase synchronization is mainly determined by two antagonistic factors, noise, and the coupling strength. While noise worsens phase synchronization, the coupling improves it. If we assume that each neuron and each synapse contribute to brain noise, the larger neuronal network should have stronger noise, and therefore phase synchronization should be worse, that results in smaller kurtosis. The described method for brain noise estimation can be useful for diagnostics of some brain pathologies associated with abnormal brain noise.

Keywords: brain, flickering, magnetoencephalography, MEG, visual perception, perception time

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6212 Turbulent Forced Convection of Cu-Water Nanofluid: CFD Models Comparison

Authors: I. Behroyan, P. Ganesan, S. He, S. Sivasankaran

Abstract:

This study compares the predictions of five types of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models, including two single-phase models (i.e. Newtonian and non-Newtonian) and three two-phase models (Eulerian-Eulerian, mixture and Eulerian-Lagrangian), to investigate turbulent forced convection of Cu-water nanofluid in a tube with a constant heat flux on the tube wall. The Reynolds (Re) number of the flow is between 10,000 and 25,000, while the volume fraction of Cu particles used is in the range of 0 to 2%. The commercial CFD package of ANSYS-Fluent is used. The results from the CFD models are compared with results from experimental investigations from literature. According to the results of this study, non-Newtonian single-phase model, in general, does not show a good agreement with Xuan and Li correlation in prediction of Nu number. Eulerian-Eulerian model gives inaccurate results expect for φ=0.5%. Mixture model gives a maximum error of 15%. Newtonian single-phase model and Eulerian-Lagrangian model, in overall, are the recommended models. This work can be used as a reference for selecting an appreciate model for future investigation. The study also gives a proper insight about the important factors such as Brownian motion, fluid behavior parameters and effective nanoparticle conductivity which should be considered or changed by the each model.

Keywords: heat transfer, nanofluid, single-phase models, two-phase models

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6211 Optoelectronic Hardware Architecture for Recurrent Learning Algorithm in Image Processing

Authors: Abdullah Bal, Sevdenur Bal

Abstract:

This paper purposes a new type of hardware application for training of cellular neural networks (CNN) using optical joint transform correlation (JTC) architecture for image feature extraction. CNNs require much more computation during the training stage compare to test process. Since optoelectronic hardware applications offer possibility of parallel high speed processing capability for 2D data processing applications, CNN training algorithm can be realized using Fourier optics technique. JTC employs lens and CCD cameras with laser beam that realize 2D matrix multiplication and summation in the light speed. Therefore, in the each iteration of training, JTC carries more computation burden inherently and the rest of mathematical computation realized digitally. The bipolar data is encoded by phase and summation of correlation operations is realized using multi-object input joint images. Overlapping properties of JTC are then utilized for summation of two cross-correlations which provide less computation possibility for training stage. Phase-only JTC does not require data rearrangement, electronic pre-calculation and strict system alignment. The proposed system can be incorporated simultaneously with various optical image processing or optical pattern recognition techniques just in the same optical system.

Keywords: CNN training, image processing, joint transform correlation, optoelectronic hardware

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6210 Micro-Scale Digital Image Correlation-Driven Finite Element Simulations of Deformation and Damage Initiation in Advanced High Strength Steels

Authors: Asim Alsharif, Christophe Pinna, Hassan Ghadbeigi

Abstract:

The development of next-generation advanced high strength steels (AHSS) used in the automotive industry requires a better understanding of local deformation and damage development at the scale of their microstructures. This work is focused on dual-phase DP1000 steels and involves micro-mechanical tensile testing inside a scanning electron microscope (SEM) combined with digital image correlation (DIC) to quantify the heterogeneity of deformation in both ferrite and martensite and its evolution up to fracture. Natural features of the microstructure are used for the correlation carried out using Davis LaVision software. Strain localization is observed in both phases with tensile strain values up to 130% and 110% recorded in ferrite and martensite respectively just before final fracture. Damage initiation sites have been observed during deformation in martensite but could not be correlated to local strain values. A finite element (FE) model of the microstructure has then been developed using Abaqus to map stress distributions over representative areas of the microstructure by forcing the model to deform as in the experiment using DIC-measured displacement maps as boundary conditions. A MATLAB code has been developed to automatically mesh the microstructure from SEM images and to map displacement vectors from DIC onto the FE mesh. Results show a correlation of damage initiation at the interface between ferrite and martensite with local principal stress values of about 1700MPa in the martensite phase. Damage in ferrite is now being investigated, and results are expected to bring new insight into damage development in DP steels.

Keywords: advanced high strength steels, digital image correlation, finite element modelling, micro-mechanical testing

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6209 Monthly River Flow Prediction Using a Nonlinear Prediction Method

Authors: N. H. Adenan, M. S. M. Noorani

Abstract:

River flow prediction is an essential to ensure proper management of water resources can be optimally distribute water to consumers. This study presents an analysis and prediction by using nonlinear prediction method involving monthly river flow data in Tanjung Tualang from 1976 to 2006. Nonlinear prediction method involves the reconstruction of phase space and local linear approximation approach. The phase space reconstruction involves the reconstruction of one-dimensional (the observed 287 months of data) in a multidimensional phase space to reveal the dynamics of the system. Revenue of phase space reconstruction is used to predict the next 72 months. A comparison of prediction performance based on correlation coefficient (CC) and root mean square error (RMSE) have been employed to compare prediction performance for nonlinear prediction method, ARIMA and SVM. Prediction performance comparisons show the prediction results using nonlinear prediction method is better than ARIMA and SVM. Therefore, the result of this study could be used to developed an efficient water management system to optimize the allocation water resources.

Keywords: river flow, nonlinear prediction method, phase space, local linear approximation

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6208 Evaluation of the Adsorption Adaptability of Activated Carbon Using Dispersion Force

Authors: Masao Fujisawa, Hirohito Ikeda, Tomonori Ohata, Miho Yukawa, Hatsumi Aki, Takayoshi Kimura

Abstract:

We attempted to predict adsorption coefficients by utilizing dispersion energies. We performed liquid-phase free energy calculations based on gas-phase geometries of organic compounds using the DFT and studied the relationship between the adsorption of organic compounds by activated carbon and dispersion energies of the organic compounds. A linear correlation between absorption coefficients and dispersion energies was observed.

Keywords: activated carbon, adsorption, prediction, dispersion energy

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6207 Half-Metallic Ferromagnetism in CdCoTe and CdMnTe: Ab-Initio Study

Authors: A.Zitouni, S.Bentata, B.Bouadjemi, T.Lantri, W. Benstaali, Z.Aziz, S.Cherid, A. Sefir

Abstract:

Using the first-principles method, we investigate the structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of the diluted magnetic semiconductors CdCoTe and CdMnTe in the zinc blende phase with 12.5% of Cr. The calculations are performed by a developed full potential augmented plane wave (FP-L/APW) method within the spin density functional theory (DFT). As exchange–correlation potential, we used the new generalized gradient approximation GGA. Structural properties are determined from the total energy calculations and we found that these compounds are stable in the ferromagnetic phase. We discuss the electronic structures, total and partial densities of states and local moments. Finally, CdCoTe and CdMnTe in the zinc-blend phase show the half-metallic ferromagnetic nature and are expected to be potential materials for spintronic devices.

Keywords: DFT, GGA, band structures, half-metallic, spintronics

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6206 Frequency-Dependent and Full Range Tunable Phase Shifter

Authors: Yufu Yin, Tao Lin, Shanghong Zhao, Zihang Zhu, Xuan Li, Wei Jiang, Qiurong Zheng, Hui Wang

Abstract:

In this paper, a frequency-dependent and tunable phase shifter is proposed and numerically analyzed. The key devices are the dual-polarization binary phase shift keying modulator (DP-BPSK) and the fiber Bragg grating (FBG). The phase-frequency response of the FBG is employed to determine the frequency-dependent phase shift. The simulation results show that a linear phase shift of the recovered output microwave signal which depends on the frequency of the input RF signal is achieved. In addition, by adjusting the power of the RF signal, the full range phase shift from 0° to 360° can be realized. This structure shows the spurious free dynamic range (SFDR) of 70.90 dB·Hz2/3 and 72.11 dB·Hz2/3 under different RF powers.

Keywords: microwave photonics, phase shifter, spurious free dynamic range, frequency-dependent

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6205 A New Spell-Out Mechanism

Authors: Yusra Yahya

Abstract:

In this paper, a new spell-out mechanism is developed and defended. This mechanism builds on the role of phase heads as both the loci of spell-out features and the transfer triggers via either Phase Impenetrability Condition 1 (PIC1) and/or Phase Impenetrability Condition 2 (PIC2). The assumption here is that phase heads, mainly v*, can regulate the spell-out process by deciding both the type of spell-out applying and the timing of spell-out relevant. This paper also proposes a new form of the constraint Wrap call it Wrap-XP’ and it is assumed to apply to IP as a functional maximal projection. This extension is shown to fall as a natural result once we assume the new theory of phases and multiple spell-out. Moreover, it is proposed in this work that some forms of XP movement are not motivated by an EPP feature of a strong phase head mainly v*, but they are rather motivated by a last resort strategy to accomplish the spell-out instruction of this phase head.

Keywords: linguistics, syntax, phonology, phase theory, optimality theory

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6204 Generalized Mean-Field Theory of Phase Unwrapping via Multiple Interferograms

Authors: Yohei Saika

Abstract:

On the basis of Bayesian inference using the maximizer of the posterior marginal estimate, we carry out phase unwrapping using multiple interferograms via generalized mean-field theory. Numerical calculations for a typical wave-front in remote sensing using the synthetic aperture radar interferometry, phase diagram in hyper-parameter space clarifies that the present method succeeds in phase unwrapping perfectly under the constraint of surface- consistency condition, if the interferograms are not corrupted by any noises. Also, we find that prior is useful for extending a phase in which phase unwrapping under the constraint of the surface-consistency condition. These results are quantitatively confirmed by the Monte Carlo simulation.

Keywords: Bayesian inference, generalized mean-field theory, phase unwrapping, multiple interferograms, statistical mechanics

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6203 Estimation of Harmonics in Three-Phase and Six-Phase-Phase (Multi-Phase) Load Circuits

Authors: Zakir Husain, Deepak Kumar

Abstract:

The harmonics are very harmful within an electrical system and can have serious consequences such as reducing the life of apparatus, stress on cable and equipment etc. This paper cites extensive analytical study of harmonic characteristics of multiphase (six-phase) and three-phase system equipped with two and three level inverters for non-linear loads. Multilevel inverter has elevated voltage capability with voltage limited devices, low harmonic distortion, abridged switching losses. Multiphase technology also pays a promising role in harmonic reduction. Matlab simulation is carried out to compare the advantage of multi-phase over three phase systems equipped with two or three level inverters for non-linear load harmonic reduction. The extensive simulation results are presented based on case studies.

Keywords: fast Fourier transform (FFT), harmonics, inverter, ripples, total harmonic distortion (THD)

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6202 Physical Theory for One-Dimensional Correlated Electron Systems

Authors: Nelson Nenuwe

Abstract:

The behavior of interacting electrons in one dimension was studied by calculating correlation functions and critical exponents at zero and external magnetic fields for arbitrary band filling. The technique employed in this study is based on the conformal field theory (CFT). The charge and spin degrees of freedom are separated, and described by two independent conformal theories. A detailed comparison of the t-J model with the repulsive Hubbard model was then undertaken with emphasis on their Tomonaga-Luttinger (TL) liquid properties. Near half-filling the exponents of the t-J model take the values of the strong-correlation limit of the Hubbard model, and in the low-density limit the exponents are those of a non-interacting system. The critical exponents obtained in this study belong to the repulsive TL liquid (conducting phase) and attractive TL liquid (superconducting phase). The theoretical results from this study find applications in one-dimensional organic conductors (TTF-TCNQ), organic superconductors (Bechgaard salts) and carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs, DWCNTs and MWCNTs). For instance, the critical exponent at from this study is consistent with the experimental result from optical and photoemission evidence of TL liquid in one-dimensional metallic Bechgaard salt- (TMTSF)2PF6.

Keywords: critical exponents, conformal field theory, Hubbard model, t-J model

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6201 Some Accuracy Related Aspects in Two-Fluid Hydrodynamic Sub-Grid Modeling of Gas-Solid Riser Flows

Authors: Joseph Mouallem, Seyed Reza Amini Niaki, Norman Chavez-Cussy, Christian Costa Milioli, Fernando Eduardo Milioli

Abstract:

Sub-grid closures for filtered two-fluid models (fTFM) useful in large scale simulations (LSS) of riser flows can be derived from highly resolved simulations (HRS) with microscopic two-fluid modeling (mTFM). Accurate sub-grid closures require accurate mTFM formulations as well as accurate correlation of relevant filtered parameters to suitable independent variables. This article deals with both of those issues. The accuracy of mTFM is touched by assessing the impact of gas sub-grid turbulence over HRS filtered predictions. A gas turbulence alike effect is artificially inserted by means of a stochastic forcing procedure implemented in the physical space over the momentum conservation equation of the gas phase. The correlation issue is touched by introducing a three-filtered variable correlation analysis (three-marker analysis) performed under a variety of different macro-scale conditions typical or risers. While the more elaborated correlation procedure clearly improved accuracy, accounting for gas sub-grid turbulence had no significant impact over predictions.

Keywords: fluidization, gas-particle flow, two-fluid model, sub-grid models, filtered closures

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6200 Gas-Liquid Two Phase Flow Phenomenon in Near Horizontal Upward and Downward Inclined Pipe Orientations

Authors: Afshin J. Ghajar, Swanand M. Bhagwat

Abstract:

The main purpose of this work is to experimentally investigate the effect of pipe orientation on two phase flow phenomenon. Flow pattern, void fraction and two phase pressure drop is measured in a polycarbonate pipe with an inside diameter of 12.7mm for inclination angles ranging from -20° to +20° using air-water fluid combination. The experimental data covers all flow patterns and the entire range of void fraction typically observed in two phase flow. The effect of pipe orientation on void fraction and two phase pressure drop is justified with reference to the change in flow structure and two phase flow behavior. In addition to this, the top performing void fraction and two phase pressure drop correlations available in the literature are presented and their performance is assessed against the experimental data in the present study and that available in the literature.

Keywords: flow patterns, inclined two phase flow, pressure drop, void fraction

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6199 Modelling Phase Transformations in Zircaloy-4 Fuel Cladding under Transient Heating Rates

Authors: Jefri Draup, Antoine Ambard, Chi-Toan Nguyen

Abstract:

Zirconium alloys exhibit solid-state phase transformations under thermal loading. These can lead to a significant evolution of the microstructure and associated mechanical properties of materials used in nuclear fuel cladding structures. Therefore, the ability to capture effects of phase transformation on the material constitutive behavior is of interest during conditions of severe transient thermal loading. Whilst typical Avrami, or Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov (JMAK), type models for phase transformations have been shown to have a good correlation with the behavior of Zircaloy-4 under constant heating rates, the effects of variable and fast heating rates are not fully explored. The present study utilises the results of in-situ high energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction (SXRD) measurements in order to validate the phase transformation models for Zircaloy-4 under fast variable heating rates. These models are used to assess the performance of fuel cladding structures under loss of coolant accident (LOCA) scenarios. The results indicate that simple Avrami type models can provide a reasonable indication of the phase distribution in experimental test specimens under variable fast thermal loading. However, the accuracy of these models deteriorates under the faster heating regimes, i.e., 100Cs⁻¹. The studies highlight areas for improvement of simple Avrami type models, such as the inclusion of temperature rate dependence of the JMAK n-exponent.

Keywords: accident, fuel, modelling, zirconium

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6198 Statistical Tools for SFRA Diagnosis in Power Transformers

Authors: Rahul Srivastava, Priti Pundir, Y. R. Sood, Rajnish Shrivastava

Abstract:

For the interpretation of the signatures of sweep frequency response analysis(SFRA) of transformer different types of statistical techniques serves as an effective tool for doing either phase to phase comparison or sister unit comparison. In this paper with the discussion on SFRA several statistics techniques like cross correlation coefficient (CCF), root square error (RSQ), comparative standard deviation (CSD), Absolute difference, mean square error(MSE),Min-Max ratio(MM) are presented through several case studies. These methods require sample data size and spot frequencies of SFRA signatures that are being compared. The techniques used are based on power signal processing tools that can simplify result and limits can be created for the severity of the fault occurring in the transformer due to several short circuit forces or due to ageing. The advantages of using statistics techniques for analyzing of SFRA result are being indicated through several case studies and hence the results are obtained which determines the state of the transformer.

Keywords: absolute difference (DABS), cross correlation coefficient (CCF), mean square error (MSE), min-max ratio (MM-ratio), root square error (RSQ), standard deviation (CSD), sweep frequency response analysis (SFRA)

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6197 Damage in Cementitious Materials Exposed to Sodium Chloride Solution and Thermal Cycling: The Effect of Using Supplementary Cementitious Materials

Authors: Fadi Althoey, Yaghoob Farnam

Abstract:

Sodium chloride (NaCl) can interact with the tricalcium aluminate (C3A) and its hydrates in concrete matrix. This interaction can result in formation of a harmful chemical phase as the temperature changes. It is thought that this chemical phase is embroiled in the premature concrete deterioration in the cold regions. This work examines the potential formation of the harmful chemical phase in various pastes prepared by using different types of ordinary portland cement (OPC) and supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs). The quantification of the chemical phase was done by using a low temperature differential scanning calorimetry. The results showed that the chemical phase formation can be reduced by using Type V cement (low content of C3A). The use of SCMs showed different behaviors on the formation of the chemical phase. Slag and Class F fly ash can reduce the chemical phase by the dilution of cement whereas silica fume can reduce the amount of the chemical phase by dilution and pozzolanic activates. Interestingly, the use of Class C fly ash has a negative effect on concrete exposed to NaCl through increasing the formation of the chemical phase.

Keywords: concrete, damage, chemcial phase, NaCl, SCMs

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6196 Design and Simulation a Low Phase Noise CMOS LC VCO for IEEE802.11a WLAN Applications

Authors: Hooman Kaabi, Raziyeh Karkoub

Abstract:

This work proposes a structure of AMOS-varactors. A 5GHz LC-VCO designed in TSMC 0.18μm CMOS to improve phase noise and tuning range performance. The tuning range is from 5.05GHZ to 5.88GHz.The phase noise is -154.9dBc/Hz at 1MHz offset from the carrier. It meets the requirements for IEEE 802.11a WLAN standard.

Keywords: CMOS LC VCO, spiral inductor, varactor, phase noise, tuning range

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