Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 515

Search results for: psychopathy traits

515 Exploring Gender Bias in Self-Report Measures of Psychopathy

Authors: Katie Strong, Brian P. O'Connor, Jacqueline M. Kanippayoor

Abstract:

To date, self-report measures of psychopathy have largely been conceptualized with a male-focused understanding of the disorder, with the presumption that psychopathy expression is uniform across genders. However, generalizing this understanding to the female population may be misleading. The objective of this research was to explore gender differences in the expression of psychopathy and to assess current self-report psychopathy measures for gender bias. It was hypothesized that some items in commonly used measures of psychopathy may show gender bias and that existing measures may not contain enough items that are relevant to the manifestation of psychopathy in women. An exploratory investigation was conducted on statistical bias in common measures of psychopathy, and novel, relevant, but previously neglected items and measures were included in a new data collection. The participant pool included a sample of 403 university students and 354 participants recruited using Amazon Mechanical Turk. Item Response Theory methods - including Differential Item Functioning - were used to assess for the item- and test- level bias across several common self-report measures of psychopathy. Analyses indicated occasional and modest levels of item-level bias, and that some additional female-relevant items merit consideration for inclusion in measures of psychopathy. These findings suggest that current self-report measures of psychopathy may be demonstrating gender-bias and warrant further examination.

Keywords: gender, measurement bias, personality, psychopathy

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514 Psychopathic Disorders and Judges Sentencing: Can Neurosciences Change this Aggravating Factor in a Mitigating Factor?

Authors: Kevin Moustapha

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Psychopathy is perceived today as being «the most important concept in the criminal justice system» and as «the most important legal notion of the early 21 th century». The explosion of research related to psychopathy seems to perfectly illustrate this trend. Traditionally, many studies tend to focus on links between insanity defense and psychopathy. That is why our purpose in this article is to analyze psychopathic disorders in the scope of judges sentencing in Canada. Indeed, in every Canadian case related to dangerous offenders, judges must balance between fairness and protection of the individuals rights of the accused and protection of society from dangerous predators who may commit future acts of physical or sexual violence. Increasingly, psychopathic disorders are taking an important part in judge sentencing, especially in Canada. This phenomenon can be illustrated by the high proportion of psychopath offenders incarcerated in North American prisons. Many decisions in Canadians courtrooms seem to point out that psychopathy is often used as a strong argument by the judges to preserve public safety. The fact that psychopathy is often associated with violence, recklessness and recidivism, it could explain why many judges consider psychopathic disorders as an aggravating factor. Generally, the judge reasoning is based on article 753 of Canadian Criminal Code related to dangerous offenders, which is used for individuals who show a pattern of repetitive and persistent aggressive behaviour. However, with cognitive neurosciences, the psychopath’s situation in courtrooms would probably change. Cerebral imaging and news data provided by the neurosciences show that emotional and volitional functions in psychopath’s brains are impaired. Understanding these new issues could enable some judges to recognize psychopathic disorders as a mitigating factor. Two important questions ought to be raised in this article: can exploring psychopaths ‘brains really change the judge sentencing in Canadian courtrooms? If yes, can judges consider psychopathy more as a mitigating factor than an aggravating factor?

Keywords: criminal law, judges sentencing, neurosciences, psychopathy

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513 The Consequences of Cyberbullying and School Violence: Risk and Protective Factors

Authors: Ifigenia Stylianou

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As more than three-quarters of students going online daily via computers, tablets, and smartphones, the phenomenon of cyberbullying is growing rapidly. Knowing that victims of online bullying are often also victims of traditional bullying and that traditional bullying is considered as an extension of cyberbullying. In this study, we aim to identify (1) whether cyberbullying lead to more intense forms of school bullying, and (2) whether some biological and environmental factors mediate between this relation, and act protectively to bullying and inappropriate behaviour in school. To answer this questions, a sample of X students, aged X, were asked to complete eight questionnaires (Personal Experiences Checklist, Inventory of Peers Attachment, Questionnaire on Teacher Interaction, School Climate Survey for Bullying, Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory-Short Form, Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11) in X time periods. Results can provide us important information to improve understanding the factors that are related to bullying. In addition, the results can assist in developing intervention programs to tangle the issue of bullying at schools. All data have been collected and are currently being processed for statistical analyses.

Keywords: cyberbullying, bullying, school climate, psychopathy traits, attachment, mediation factors

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512 Callous-Unemotional Traits in Preschoolers: Distinct Associations with Empathy Subcomponents

Authors: E. Stylianopoulou, A. K. Fanti

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Object: Children scoring high on Callous-Unemotional traits (CU traits) exhibit lack of empathy. More specifically, children scoring high on CU traits appear to exhibit deficits on affective empathy or deficits in other constructs. However, little is known about cognitive empathy, and it's relation with CU traits in preschoolers. Despite the fact that empathy is measurable at a very young age, relatively less study has focused on empathy in preschoolers than older children with CU traits. The present study examines the cognitive and affective empathy in preschoolers with CU traits. The aim was to examine the differences between cognitive and affective empathy in those individuals. Based on previous research in children with CU traits, it was hypothesized that preschoolers scoring high in CU traits will show deficits in both cognitive and affective empathy; however, more deficits will be detected in affective empathy rather than cognitive empathy. Method: The sample size was 209 children, of which 109 were male, and 100 were female between the ages of 3 and 7 (M=4.73, SD=0.71). From those participants, only 175 completed all the items. The Inventory of Callous-Unemotional traits was used to measure CU traits. Moreover, the Griffith Empathy Measure (GEM) Affective Scale and the Griffith Empathy Measure (GEM) Cognitive Scale was used to measure Affective and Cognitive empathy, respectively. Results: Linear Regression was applied to examine the preceding hypotheses. The results showed that generally, there was a moderate negative association between CU traits and empathy, which was significant. More specifically, it has been found that there was a significant and negative moderate relation between CU traits and cognitive empathy. Surprisingly, results indicated that there was no significant relation between CU traits and affective empathy. Conclusion: The current findings support that preschoolers show deficits in understanding others emotions, indicating a significant association between CU traits and cognitive empathy. However, such a relation was not found between CU traits and affective empathy. The current results raised the importance that there is a need for focusing more on cognitive empathy in preschoolers with CU traits, a component that seems to be underestimated till now.

Keywords: affective empathy, callous-unemotional traits, cognitive empathy, preschoolers

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511 The Result of Personality and Mechanism Defiance on Marital Conflict

Authors: Hajar Mohafezatkareabadi

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The present study was conducted with the aim of determining the mediating variable of defense mechanisms in the relationship between personality traits and marital conflicts. The research method was a correlation. This survey was done by analytical and questionnaire method and sampling method in Minded Organic Center and Clinic during 2 years. The data were collected by Andrews et al.'s (1993) defense style questionnaires, Sanai and Brati's (2010) marital conflicts, and Costa and McCree's (1992) personality traits and analyzed with Pearson's correlation coefficient and multiple regression analysis. The research findings showed that there is a significant relationship between personality traits and marital conflicts, and defense mechanisms play a mediating role in the relationship between personality traits and marital conflicts (p > 0.05). Personality traits predict marital conflicts through developed, neurotic, and underdeveloped defense mechanisms. Conclusion: The mediating role of defense mechanisms in the relationship between personality traits and marital conflicts is minor. Defense mechanisms reduce the impact of personality traits on marital conflicts, but this effect is not complete; that is, the relationship between personality traits and marital conflicts remains significant. Therefore, in order to reduce marital conflicts, in addition to personality traits, it is necessary to provide the basis for the use of developed defense mechanisms.

Keywords: marital conflicts, personality traits, defense mechanisms, mediating variable

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510 A Correlational Study: Dark Triad and Self-Restraint among Criminology Students

Authors: Mary Heather Lee T. Walker, Audilon Benjamin Madamba, Mizheal Vstrechnny Vidal, Rogelio Angeles, John Rhey Banag, Lorraine Martin

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Criminology students are the future police officers of the country that plays a major role in protecting the citizens. Their behavior must be thoroughly assessed before given a badge of responsibility. Therefore, it is important to highlight their Dark Triad that is composed of Machiavellianism, Narcissism, and Psychopathy which are considered to be controversial variables in the present while self-restraint is considered to be their way of controlling themselves especially in their line of work. The researchers used convenience and random sampling and found the respondents from a private school. Thus, the study’s aim is to determine whether there is a relationship among these variables. Machiavellianism and Psychopathy is linked to Self-Restraint except Narcissism. There are lots of factors that resulted into this.

Keywords: criminology, dark triad, self-restraint, students

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509 Variations in Wood Traits across Major Gymnosperm and Angiosperm Tree Species and the Driving Factors in China

Authors: Meixia Zhang, Chengjun Ji, Wenxuan Han

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Many wood traits are important functional attributes for tree species, connected with resource competition among species, community dynamics, and ecosystem functions. Large variations in these traits exist among taxonomic categories, but variation in these traits between gymnosperms and angiosperms is still poorly documented. This paper explores the systematic differences in 12 traits between the two tree categories and the potential effects of environmental factors and life form. Based on a database of wood traits for major gymnosperm and angiosperm tree species across China, the values of 12 wood traits and their driving factors in gymnosperms vs. angiosperms were compared. The results are summarized below: i) Means of wood traits were all significantly lower in gymnosperms than in angiosperms. ii) Air-dried density (ADD) and tangential shrinkage coefficient (TSC) reflect the basic information of wood traits for gymnosperms, while ADD and radial shrinkage coefficient (RSC) represent those for angiosperms, providing higher explanation power when used as the evaluation index of wood traits. iii) For both gymnosperm and angiosperm species, life form exhibits the largest explanation rate for large-scale spatial patterns of ADD, TSC (RSC), climatic factors the next, and edaphic factors have the least effect, suggesting that life form is the dominant factor controlling spatial patterns of wood traits. Variations in the magnitude and key traits between gymnosperms and angiosperms and the same dominant factors might indicate the evolutionary divergence and convergence in key functional traits among woody plants.

Keywords: allometry, functional traits, phylogeny, shrinkage coefficient, wood density

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508 Improvement of the Melon (Cucumis melo L.) through Genetic Gain and Discriminant Function

Authors: M. R. Naroui Rad, H. Fanaei, A. Ghalandarzehi

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To find out the yield of melon, the traits are vital. This research was performed with the objective to assess the impact of nine different morphological traits on the production of 20 melon landraces in the sistan weather region. For all the traits genetic variation was noted. Minimum genetical variance (9.66) along with high genetic interaction with the environment led to low heritability (0.24) of the yield. The broad sense heritability of the traits that were included into the differentiating model was more than it was in the production. In this study, the five selected traits, number of fruit, fruit weight, fruit width, flesh diameter and plant yield can differentiate the genotypes with high or low production. This demonstrated the significance of these 5 traits in plant breeding programs. Discriminant function of these 5 traits, particularly, the weight of the fruit, in case of the current outputs was employed as an all-inclusive parameter for pointing out landraces with the highest yield. 75% of variation in yield can be explained with this index, and the weight of fruit also has substantial relation with the total production (r=0.72**). This factor can be highly beneficial in case of future breeding program selections.

Keywords: melon, discriminant analysis, genetic components, yield, selection

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507 Primary and Secondary Psychopathic Traits: Assessing Differences in Interpersonal Relationships through Friendship, Emotional Contagion, and Social Rewards

Authors: Silene Ten Seldam, Kiara Margarita Lu, Melina Nicole Kyranides

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Psychopathic traits are marked by a lack of empathy and an inability to maintain meaningful relationships. Yet little research has investigated differences in interpersonal relationships between primary and secondary psychopathic traits. Emotional contagion, the tendency to automatically mimic others’ facial expressions and movements, is a type of empathy contributing to relationship quality. Additionally, the motivating and pleasurable aspects of social interaction, social reward is integral to understanding relationships. Therefore, the current research investigated interpersonal relationships through relationship status, the quality of friendships, the susceptibility to positive (happiness, love) and negative (sadness, fear, anger) emotional contagion, and social reward. Recruited online, 389 participants between 18 and 76 years old (M = 33.61; of which 241 were female) completed self-report questionnaires assessing primary and secondary psychopathic traits, friendship, emotional contagion, and social rewards. Hierarchical multiple regression showed relationship status as a protective factor and that individuals with secondary psychopathic traits are less likely to be in a relationship. This study is the first to investigate emotional contagion with primary and secondary psychopathic traits. Emotional contagion for sadness predicted secondary psychopathic traits. Negative social potency (enjoying being cruel and antagonistic to others) predicted both primary and secondary traits. However, admiration and prosocial interactions only predicted primary psychopathic traits. Findings infer differences in maintaining relationships, regulating emotions, empathising with others through emotional contagion, and motivation to socially engage, perhaps due to each dimensions’distinct origins and manifestations.

Keywords: primary psychopathic traits, secondary psychopathic traits, interpersonal relationships, friendship, emotional contagion, social reward

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506 Relationships between the Components of Love by Stenberg and Personality Disorder Traits

Authors: Barbara Gawda

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The study attempts to show the relationship between the structure of love by Sternberg and personality disorder traits. People with personality disorders experience dysfunctional emotionality. They manifest difficulties in experiencing love and closeness. Their relationships are marked by ambivalence and conflicts, e.g., as in borderline and narcissistic personality disorders. Considering love as a crucial human feeling, the study was planned to describe the associations between intimacy, passion, commitment, and personality disorder traits in a community sample. A sample of 194 participants was investigated (men and women in similar age and education levels). The following techniques were used: the SCID-II to assess personality disorders’ traits and the Triangular Love Scale by Sternberg to assess the components of love. Results show there are significant negative correlations between intimacy, commitment and personality disorders traits. Many personality disorders are associated with decreasing of intimacy and commitment, whereas passion was not associated with personality disorders’ traits. Results confirm that emotional impairments in personality disorders elicit conflicts and problems in relationships based on love and closeness.

Keywords: intimacy, commitment, love, passion, personality disorders

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505 Effectiveness of a Traits Cooperative Learning on Developing Writing Achievement and Composition among Teacher Candidates

Authors: Abdelaziz Hussien

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This article reports investigations of a study into the effectiveness of a traits cooperative learning (TCL) on teacher candidates’ writing achievement, composition, and attitudes towards traits of writing approach and small group learning. Mixed methodologies were used with the participants in a repeated measures quasi-experimental design. Forty-two class teacher candidates, enrolled in the Bahrain Teachers College, completed the pre and post author-developed measures. The results suggest that TCL has a positive effect on the participants’ writing achievement, composition, and attitudes towards traits of writing approach, but not on the attitudes towards small group learning. Further implications to teacher education are presented.

Keywords: trait-based language education, cooperative learning, writing achievement, writing composition, traits of writing, teacher education

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504 Interior Design Pedagogy in the 21st Century: Personalised Design Process

Authors: Roba Zakariah Shaheen

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In the 21st-century Interior, design pedagogy has developed rapidly due to social and economical factors. Socially, this paper presents research findings that shows a significant relationship between educators and students in interior design education. It shows that students’ personal traits, design process, and thinking process are significantly interrelated. Constructively, this paper presented how personal traits can guide educators in the interior design education domain to develop students’ thinking process. In the same time, it demonstrated how students should use their own personal traits to create their own design process. Constructivism was the theory underneath this research, as it supports the grounded theory, which is the methodological approach of this research. Moreover, Mayer’s Briggs Type Indicator strategy was used to investigate the personality traits scientifically, as a psychological strategy that related to cognitive ability. Conclusions from this research strongly recommends that educators and students should utilize their personal traits to foster interior design education.

Keywords: interior design, pedagogy, constructivism, grounded theory, personality traits, creativity

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503 Personality Traits and Physical Activity among Staff Personnel of University of Southern Mindanao

Authors: Cheeze Janito, Crisly Dawang

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It is important to determine the personality traits that exist in the workplace and the contribution of these personality traits in the staff’s daily work routines; a sedentary lifestyle is harmful to one’s health. This study reports the personality traits of the University of Southern Mindanao, Kabacan, Philippines, non-teaching staff, the physical activity involvement of the non-teaching staff, and the big five personality traits that shape the relationship of university non-teaching staff in engaging physical activities. A quantitative method approach, which comprised a three-part questionnaire, was used to collect the data. The fifty non-teaching staff complete the survey. The results revealed that among the big five personality traits, the university non-teaching staff scored higher in agreeableness as revealed, that there was a commonality among the respondents’ traits of consideration to the feelings of the co-workers in observance to not being rude and vividly display of respect to co-workers and workplace and scored least in the personality trait of neuroticism. The study also reported that the university non-teaching staff's main physical activity was house chores as a prime physical exercise in which respondents reported a physical activity frequency of once to twice a week; thus, this study reported that the respondents are less engaged in doing physical activities. Further, the relationship of personality traits and the physical activity of the non-teaching staff gained a p-value of .596 that indicates there is no significant relationship between the two variables, the personality trait and physical activities. This study recommends the tight promotion of staff in engaging in physical activity of at least one hundred fifty minutes of moderate-intensity activity each week. Added to this, the use of different platforms containing physical exercise literacy and the benefits of physical exercise for the holistic development of the university community.

Keywords: university staff, physical fitness, personality traits, physical activity

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502 A Multimodal Approach to Improve the Performance of Biometric System

Authors: Chander Kant, Arun Kumar

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Biometric systems automatically recognize an individual based on his/her physiological and behavioral characteristics. There are also some traits like weight, age, height etc. that may not provide reliable user recognition because of there common and temporary nature. These traits are called soft bio metric traits. Although soft bio metric traits are lack of permanence to uniquely and reliably identify an individual, yet they provide some beneficial evidence about the user identity and may improve the system performance. Here in this paper, we have proposed an approach for integrating the soft bio metrics with fingerprint and face to improve the performance of personal authentication system. In our approach we have proposed a combined architecture of three different sensors to elevate the system performance. The approach includes, soft bio metrics, fingerprint and face traits. We have also proven the efficiency of proposed system regarding FAR (False Acceptance Ratio) and total response time, with the help of MUBI (Multimodal Bio metrics Integration) software.

Keywords: FAR, minutiae point, multimodal bio metrics, primary bio metric, soft bio metric

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501 The Relationship between the Personality Traits and Self-Compassion with Psychological Well-Being in Iranian College Students

Authors: Abdolamir Gatezadeh, Rezvan K. A. Mohamamdi, Arash Jelodari

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It has been well established that personality traits and self-compassion are associated with psychological well-being. Thus, the current research aimed to investigate the underlying mechanisms in a collectivist culture. Method: One hundred and fifty college students were chosen and filled out Ryff's Psychological Well-Being Scale, the NEO Personality Inventory, and Neff's Self-Compassion Scale. Results: The results of correlation analysis showed that there were significant relationships between the personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness) and self-compassion (self-kindness, isolation, mindfulness, and the total score of self-compassion) with psychological well-being. The regression analysis showed that neuroticism, extraversion, and conscientiousness significantly predicted psychological well-being. Discussion and conclusion: The cultural implications and future orientations have been discussed.

Keywords: college students, personality traits, psychological well-being, self-compassion

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500 The Role of Maladaptive Personality Traits in Obesity Treatment – Quantitative Study

Authors: Judita Konečná, Dagmar Halo, Martin Matoulek

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Background: Personality pathology does not have to be a contraindication nor an obstacle in obesity treatment, or eventually, surgical treatment. Detection of specific maladaptive personality traits can help us understand the manner of behavior leading to obesity as well as to address the treatment better. Objective: Using The Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) in combination with clinical interviews with the goal of gaining a psychological evaluation to set the treatment procedure. Data was collected from more than 400 patients to detect differences in constellations of maladaptive personality traits based on BMI, DM2 and gender. Conclusions: Besides the fact that a psychological evaluation can help address the treatment better, analyses showed that it is also useful to detect specific groups of patients. Implications for clinical practice are discussed, as well as recommendations for group education programs based on quantitative research.

Keywords: bariatric surgery, obesity, personality traits, PID-5, treatment

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499 Assessing Narcissism in Students of Psychology: An Administered Study

Authors: Sahiti Ganduri, Kavya Sreenivasan, Venya Lankala

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The narcissistic personality is a condition that causes individuals to have an inflated perception of self, giving themselves higher self-importance. It is necessary and interesting to study narcissistic traits in students of different majors. This can be a crucial environmental or psychosocial marker/indicator of narcissism which can also be of substantial importance in the field of education. This study focuses on identifying narcissism in students of psychology background. The narcissistic personality inventory was administered to 114 psychology students of different universities (public and private) in India. The results of our study provided evidence of the fact that narcissistic traits are higher in male psychology students as compared to female psychology students. Further, this paper has provided evidence that narcissistic traits are higher in leaders as compared to non-leaders.

Keywords: college students, disorder, gender, leadership, narcissistic personality, personality, students, traits

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498 Estimates of (Co)Variance Components and Genetic Parameters for Body Weights and Growth Efficiency Traits in the New Zealand White Rabbits

Authors: M. Sakthivel, A. Devaki, D. Balasubramanyam, P. Kumarasamy, A. Raja, R. Anilkumar, H. Gopi

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The genetic parameters of growth traits in the New Zealand White rabbits maintained at Sheep Breeding and Research Station, Sandynallah, The Nilgiris, India were estimated by partitioning the variance and covariance components. The (co)variance components of body weights at weaning (W42), post-weaning (W70) and marketing (W135) age and growth efficiency traits viz., average daily gain (ADG), relative growth rate (RGR) and Kleiber ratio (KR) estimated on a daily basis at different age intervals (1=42 to 70 days; 2=70 to 135 days and 3=42 to 135 days) from weaning to marketing were estimated by restricted maximum likelihood, fitting six animal models with various combinations of direct and maternal effects. Data were collected over a period of 15 years (1998 to 2012). A log-likelihood ratio test was used to select the most appropriate univariate model for each trait, which was subsequently used in bivariate analysis. Heritability estimates for W42, W70 and W135 were 0.42 ± 0.07, 0.40 ± 0.08 and 0.27 ± 0.07, respectively. Heritability estimates of growth efficiency traits were moderate to high (0.18 to 0.42). Of the total phenotypic variation, maternal genetic effect contributed 14 to 32% for early body weight traits (W42 and W70) and ADG1. The contribution of maternal permanent environmental effect varied from 6 to 18% for W42 and for all the growth efficiency traits except for KR2. Maternal permanent environmental effect on most of the growth efficiency traits was a carryover effect of maternal care during weaning. Direct maternal genetic correlations, for the traits in which maternal genetic effect was significant, were moderate to high in magnitude and negative in direction. Maternal effect declined as the age of the animal increased. The estimates of total heritability and maternal across year repeatability for growth traits were moderate and an optimum rate of genetic progress seems possible in the herd by mass selection. The estimates of genetic and phenotypic correlations among body weight traits were moderate to high and positive; among growth efficiency traits were low to high with varying directions; between body weights and growth efficiency traits were very low to high in magnitude and mostly negative in direction. Moderate to high heritability and higher genetic correlation in body weight traits promise good scope for genetic improvement provided measures are taken to keep the inbreeding at the lowest level.

Keywords: genetic parameters, growth traits, maternal effects, rabbit genetics

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497 Genetic Divergence Study of Rice on the Basis of Various Morphological Traits

Authors: Muhammad Ashfaq, Muhammad Saleem Haider, Muhammad Ali, Muhammad Sajjad, Amna Ali, Urooj Mubashar

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Phenotypic diversity was confirmed by measuring different morphological traits i.e. seed traits (seed length, seed width, seed thickness, seed length-width ratio, 1000 grain weight) and root-shoot traits (shoot length, root length, shoot fresh weight, root fresh weight, root-shoot ratio, root numbers and root thickness). Variance and association study of desirable traits determine the genotypic differences among the rice germplasm. All the traits showed significant differences among the genotypes. The traits were studied in Randomized complete block design (RCBD) at different water levels. Some traits showed positive correlation with each other and beneficial for increasing the yield and production of the crop. Seed thickness has positive correlation with seed length and seed width (r= 0.104**, r=0.246**). On the other hand, various root shoot traits showed positive highly significant association at different water levels i.e. root length, fresh root weight, root thickness, shoot thickness and root numbers. Our main focus to study the performance/correlation of root shoots traits under stress condition. Fresh root weight, shoot thickness and root numbers showed positive significant association with shoot length, root length, fresh root and shoot weight (r=0.2530**, r=0.2891**, r=0.4626**, r=0.4515**, r=0.5781**, r=0.7164**, r=0.0603**, r= 0.5570**, r=0.5824**). Long root length genotypes favors and suitable for drought stress conditions and screening of diverse genotypes for the further development of new plant material that performing well under different environmental conditions. After screening genetic diversity of potential rice, lines were studied to check the polymorphism by using some SSR markers. DNA was extracted, and PCR analyses were done to study PIC values and allelic diversity of the genotypes. The main objective of this study is to screen out the genotypes on the basis of various genotypic and phenotypic traits.

Keywords: rice, morphological traits, association, germplasm, genetic diversity, water levels, variation

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496 Perceiving Interpersonal Conflict and the Big Five Personality Traits

Authors: Emily Rivera, Toni DiDona

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The Big Five personality traits is a hierarchical classification of personality traits that applies factor analysis to a personality survey data in order to describe human personality using five broad dimensions: Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, and Openness (Fetvadjiev & Van de Vijer, 2015). Research shows that personality constructs underline individual differences in processing conflict and interpersonal relations. (Graziano et al., 1996). This research explores the understudied correlation between the Big Five personality traits and perceived interpersonal conflict in the workplace. It revises social psychological literature on Big Five personality traits within a social context and discusses organizational development journal articles on the perceived efficacy of conflict tactics and approach to interpersonal relationships. The study also presents research undertaken on a survey group of 867 subjects over the age of 18 that were recruited by means of convenience sampling through social media, email, and text messaging. The central finding of this study is that only two of the Big Five personality traits had a significant correlation with perceiving interpersonal conflict in the workplace. Individuals who score higher on agreeableness and neuroticism, perceive more interpersonal conflict in the workplace compared to those that score lower on each dimension. The relationship between both constructs is worthy of research due to its everyday frequency and unique individual psycho-social consequences. This multimethod research associated the Big Five personality dimensions to interpersonal conflict. Its findings that can be utilized to further understand social cognition, person perception, complex social behavior and social relationships in the work environment.

Keywords: five-factor model, interpersonal conflict, personality, The Big Five personality traits

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495 The Concurrent Effect of Autistic and Schizotypal Traits on Convergent and Divergent Thinking

Authors: Ahmad Abu-Akel, Emilie De Montpellier, Sophie Von Bentivegni, Lyn Luechinger, Alessandro Ishii, Christine Mohr

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Convergent and divergent thinking are two main components of creativity that have been viewed as complementary. While divergent thinking refers to the fluency and flexibility of generating new ideas, convergent thinking refers to the ability to systematically apply rules and knowledge to arrive at the optimal solution or idea. These creativity components have been shown to be susceptible to variation in subclinical expressions of autistic and schizotypal traits within the general population. Research, albeit inconclusively, mainly linked positive schizotypal traits with divergent thinking and autistic traits with convergent thinking. However, cumulative evidence suggests that these trait dimensions can co-occur in the same individual more than would be expected by chance and that their concurrent effect can be diametric and even interactive. The current study aimed at investigating the concurrent effect of these trait dimensions on tasks assessing convergent and divergent thinking abilities. We predicted that individuals with high positive schizotypal traits alone would perform particularly well on the divergent thinking task, whilst those with high autistic traits alone would perform particularly well on the convergent thinking task. Crucially, we also predicted that individuals who are high on both autistic and positive schizotypal traits would perform particularly well on both the divergent and convergent thinking tasks. This was investigated in a non-clinical sample of 142 individuals (Males = 45%; Mean age = 21.45, SD = 2.30), sufficient to minimally observe an effect size f² ≥ .10. Divergent thinking was evaluated using the Alternative Uses Task, and convergent thinking with the Anagrams Task. Autistic and schizotypal traits were respectively assessed with the Autism Quotient Questionnaire (AQ) and the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences (O-LIFE). Regression analyses revealed that the positive association of autistic traits with convergent thinking scores was qualified with an interaction with positive schizotypal traits. Specifically, positive schizotypal traits were negatively associated with convergent thinking scores when AQ scores were relatively low, but this trend was reversed when AQ scores were high. Conversely, the positive effect of AQ scores on convergent thinking progressively increased with increasing positive schizotypal traits. The results of divergent thinking task are currently being analyzed and will be reported at the conference. The association of elevated autistic and positive schizotypal traits with convergent thinking may represent a unique profile of creative thinkers who are able to simultaneously draw on trait-specific advantages conferred by autistic and positively schizotypal traits such as local and global processing. This suggests that main-effect models can tell an incomplete story regarding the effect of autistic and positive schizotypal traits on creativity-related processes. Future creativity research should consider their interaction and the benefits conferred by their co-presence.

Keywords: autism, schizotypy, convergent thinking, divergent thinking, comorbidity

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494 Relationship between Teachers' Empowerment and Personality Traits, Case Study: Tehran Public Schools of Region 5

Authors: Alireza Ladan Moghaddam, Hadi Rezghi Shirsavar, Panteha Pirayandeh

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This study aimed to investigate the Relationship between Teachers' Empowerment and Personality Traits (Case Study: Tehran Public Schools of region 5). To achieve this objective, a descriptive research in correlation type has been used. The statistical population of this research includes all teachers and administrators in Tehran Public Schools of region 5. In this study, a five factor model of personality and a 49-item questionnaire to measure empowerment of teachers have been used to assess personality traits of administrators and the teachers' empowerment, respectively. The research hypotheses test has been done using SPSS and LISREL software. The results show that in general there is no significant relationship between personality traits of administrators and teachers' empowerment, and among the 5 dimensions of personality, there is only significant relationship between the characteristic of administrators' agreeableness and teachers' empowerment. The results suggested a way to improve knowledge and skills of teachers a top priority administrator consider. In addition, the performance of teachers affected by the performance of the executive directors, so it is necessary to improve their yield towering notice.

Keywords: personality traits, five factor model of personality, teacher, empowerment

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493 Effect of Personality Traits on Classification of Political Orientation

Authors: Vesile Evrim, Aliyu Awwal

Abstract:

Today as in the other domains, there are an enormous number of political transcripts available in the Web which is waiting to be mined and used for various purposes such as statistics and recommendations. Therefore, automatically determining the political orientation on these transcripts becomes crucial. The methodologies used by machine learning algorithms to do the automatic classification are based on different features such as Linguistic. Considering the ideology differences between Liberals and Conservatives, in this paper, the effect of Personality Traits on political orientation classification is studied. This is done by considering the correlation between LIWC features and the BIG Five Personality Traits. Several experiments are conducted on Convote U.S. Congressional-Speech dataset with seven benchmark classification algorithms. The different methodologies are applied on selecting different feature sets that constituted by 8 to 64 varying number of features. While Neuroticism is obtained to be the most differentiating personality trait on classification of political polarity, when its top 10 representative features are combined with several classification algorithms, it outperformed the results presented in previous research.

Keywords: politics, personality traits, LIWC, machine learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 425
492 Personality Traits of NEO Five Factors and Statistics Anxiety among Social Sciences University Students

Authors: Oluyinka Ojedokun, S. E. Idemudia

Abstract:

In Nigeria, statistics is a compulsory course required from all social sciences students as part of their academic training. However, a rising number of social sciences undergraduates usually express statistics anxiety. The prevalence of statistics anxiety among undergraduates in social sciences has created a growing concern for educators and researchers in the higher education institutions, mainly because this statistics anxiety adversely affects their performance in statistics and research methods courses. From a societal perspective it is important to reverse this trend. Although scholars and researchers have highlighted some psychosocial factors that influence statistics anxiety in students but few empirical studies exist on the association between personality traits of NEO five factors and statistics anxiety. It is in the light of this situation that this study was designed to assess the extent to which the personality traits of NEO five factors influence statistics anxiety of students in social sciences courses. The participants were 282 undergraduates in the faculty of social sciences at a state owned public university in Nigeria. The findings demonstrate that the personality traits contributing to statistics anxiety include openness to experience, conscientious, extraversion, and neuroticism. These results imply that statistics anxiety is related to individual differences in personality traits and suggest that certain aspects of statistics anxiety may be relatively stable and resistant to change. An effective and simple method to reduce statistics anxiety among social sciences students is to create awareness of the statistical and methodological requirements of the social sciences courses before commencement of their programmes.

Keywords: personality traits, statistics anxiety, social sciences, students

Procedia PDF Downloads 450
491 Impact of Personality on Vengeance and Forgiveness in Young Adults

Authors: Marium Javaid Bajwa, Ruhi Khalid

Abstract:

This study aimed to identify personality traits that affect vengeful and forgiving behavior among people. Big Five Personality Inventory, Vengeance Scale and Trait Forgiveness Scale were administered to 159 male and female students to have a base-line data for the study. Overall, agreeableness trait predicted forgiveness. Vengeance showed significant negative relation with agreeableness, conscientiousness and openness. Whereas Independent T-test indicated that personality traits plays crucial role in determining vengeful and forgiving behaviors in contrast to gender in young adults.

Keywords: personality, traits, vengeance, forgiveness

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
490 Evaluation of Different Cowpea Genotypes Using Grain Yield and Canning Quality Traits

Authors: Magdeline Pakeng Mohlala, R. L. Molatudi, M. A. Mofokeng

Abstract:

Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) is an important annual leguminous crop in semi-arid and tropics. Most of cowpea grain production in South Africa is mainly used for domestic consumption, as seed planting and little or none gets to be used in industrial processing; thus, there is a need to expand the utilization of cowpea through industrial processing. Agronomic traits contribute to the understanding of the association between yield and its component traits to facilitate effective selection for yield improvement. The aim of this study was to evaluate cowpea genotypes using grain yield and canning quality traits. The field experiment was conducted in two locations in Limpopo Province, namely Syferkuil Agricultural Experimental farm and Ga-Molepo village during 2017/2018 growing season and canning took place at ARC-Grain Crops Potchefstroom. The experiment comprised of 100 cowpea genotypes laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Designs (RCBD). The grain yield, yield components, and canning quality traits were analysed using Genstat software. About 62 genotypes were suitable for canning, 38 were not due to their seed coat texture, and water uptake was less than 80% resulting in too soft (mushy) seeds. Grain yield for RV115, 99k-494-6, ITOOK1263, RV111, RV353 and 53 other genotypes recorded high positive association with number of branches, pods per plant, and number of seeds per pod, unshelled weight and shelled weight for Syferkuil than at Ga-Molepo are therefore recommended for canning quality.

Keywords: agronomic traits, canning quality, genotypes, yield

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489 Effect of Genotype and Sex on Morphometric Traits of Turkey

Authors: I. O. Dudusola, I. Ogunjimi

Abstract:

This study was carried out to determine the effect of sex and genotype on morphometric traits of turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) in a turkey population. Linear body measurements were taken on 150 turkeys. 70 exotic turkeys which include both males (20) and Females (50) and 80 locally adapted turkeys which include males (30) and females (50). The study was conducted at the Turkey Unit of the Teaching and Research Farm, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria. The linear body measurements taken and recorded were the beak length, head length, neck length, body length, keel length, wingspan, wing length, drumstick, Shank length, toe length, tail length and body girth all taken in centimetres (cm). The recorded variables were analyzed with SAS (2008). Duncan multiple range test was used to detect differences among means. Variation was noted between male and female turkeys in favour of the male turkeys as an expression of sexual dimorphism for all studied traits. The male is found to be significantly higher (p <0.05) than the females for all the morphometric traits measured both for the local and exotic type. The exotic type is found to be significantly higher (p <0.05) than the local type for all the morphometric traits measured. The interaction is higher significantly (p <0.05) in the exotic genotype and in the male sex in relation with the morphometric trait especially in the beak length, neck length, body length, keel length, drumstick, shank length and the toe length.

Keywords: exotic type, linear measurement, local type, morphometric traits, Meleagris gallopavo

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
488 Mapping QTLs Associated with Salinity Tolerance in Maize at Seedling Stage

Authors: Mohammad Muhebbullah Ibne Hoque, Zheng Jun, Wang Guoying

Abstract:

Salinity stress is one of the most important abiotic factors contributing to crop growth and yield loss. Exploring the genetic basis is necessary to develop maize varieties with salinity tolerance. In order to discover the inherent basis for salinity tolerance traits in maize, 121 polymorphic SSR markers were used to analyze 163 F2 individuals derived from a single cross of inbred line B73 (a salt susceptible inbred line) and CZ-7 (a salt tolerant inbred line). A linkage map was constructed and the map covered 1195.2 cM of maize genome with an average distance of 9.88 cM between marker loci. Ten salt tolerance traits at seedling stage were evaluated for QTL analysis in maize seedlings. A total of 41 QTLs associated with seedling shoot and root traits were detected, with 16 and 25 QTLs under non-salinity and salinity condition, respectively. And only 4 major stable QTLs were detected in two environments. The detected QTLs were distributed on chromosomes 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and chromosome 10. Phenotypic variability for the identified QTLs for all the traits was in the range from 6.27 to 21.97%. Fourteen QTLs with more than 10% contributions were observed. Our results and the markers associated with the major QTL detected in this study have the potential application for genetic improvement of salt tolerance in maize through marker-assisted selection.

Keywords: salt tolerance, seedling stage, root shoot traits, quantitative trait loci, simple sequence repeat, maize

Procedia PDF Downloads 205
487 Assessment the Correlation of Rice Yield Traits by Simulation and Modelling Methods

Authors: Davood Barari Tari

Abstract:

In order to investigate the correlation of rice traits in different nitrogen management methods by modeling programming, an experiment was laid out in rice paddy field in an experimental field at Caspian Coastal Sea region from 2013 to 2014. Variety used was Shiroudi as a high yielding variety. Nitrogen management was in two methods. Amount of nitrogen at four levels (30, 60, 90, and 120 Kg N ha-1 and control) and nitrogen-splitting at four levels (T1: 50% in base + 50% in maximum tillering stage, T2= 33.33% basal +33.33% in maximum tillering stage +33.33% in panicle initiation stage, T3=25% basal+37.5% in maximum tillering stage +37.5% in panicle initiation stage, T4: 25% in basal + 25% in maximum tillering stage + 50% in panicle initiation stage). Results showed that nitrogen traits, total grain number, filled spikelets, panicle number per m2 had a significant correlation with grain yield. Results related to calibrated and validation of rice model methods indicated that correlation between rice yield and yield components was accurate. The correlation between panicle length and grain yield was minimum. Physiological indices was simulated with low accuracy. According to results, investigation of the correlation between rice traits in physiological, morphological and phenological characters and yield by modeling and simulation methods are very useful.

Keywords: rice, physiology, modelling, simulation, yield traits

Procedia PDF Downloads 282
486 Addictive Use Due to Personality: Focused on Big Five Personality Traits and Game Addiction

Authors: Eui Jun Jeong, Hye Rim Lee, Ji Hye Yoo

Abstract:

Recent studies have verified the significant relationship of user personality with Internet use. However, in game studies, little research has emphasized on the effects of personality traits on game addiction. This study examined whether big five personality traits affect game addiction with control of psychological, social, and demographic factors. Specifically, using data from a survey of 789 game users in Korea, we conducted a regression analysis to see the associations of psychological (loneliness/depression), social (activities with family/friends), self-efficacy (game/general), gaming (daily gaming time/perception), demographic (age/gender), and personality traits (extraversion, neuroticism conscientiousness, agreeableness, & openness) with the degree of game addiction. Results showed that neuroticism increase game addiction with no effect of extraversion on the addiction. General self-efficacy negatively affected game addiction, whereas game self-efficacy increased the degree of game addiction. Loneliness enhanced game addiction while depression showed a negative effect on the addiction. Results and implications are discussed.

Keywords: game addiction, big five personality, social activities, self-efficacy, loneliness, depression

Procedia PDF Downloads 468