Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1517

Search results for: smoothed particle hydrodynamics

1517 Nonlinear Free Surface Flow Simulations Using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics

Authors: Abdelraheem M. Aly, Minh Tuan Nguyen, Sang-Wook Lee

Abstract:

The incompressible smoothed particle hydrodynamics (ISPH) is used to simulate impact free surface flows. In the ISPH, pressure is evaluated by solving pressure Poisson equation using a semi-implicit algorithm based on the projection method. The current ISPH method is applied to simulate dam break flow over an inclined plane with different inclination angles. The effects of inclination angle in the velocity of wave front and pressure distribution is discussed. The impact of circular cylinder over water in tank has also been simulated using ISPH method. The computed pressures on the solid boundaries is studied and compared with the experimental results.

Keywords: incompressible smoothed particle hydrodynamics, free surface flow, inclined plane, water entry impact

Procedia PDF Downloads 322
1516 Modeling Continuous Flow in a Curved Channel Using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics

Authors: Indri Mahadiraka Rumamby, R. R. Dwinanti Rika Marthanty, Jessica Sjah

Abstract:

Smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) was originally created to simulate nonaxisymmetric phenomena in astrophysics. However, this method still has several shortcomings, namely the high computational cost required to model values with high resolution and problems with boundary conditions. The difficulty of modeling boundary conditions occurs because the SPH method is influenced by particle deficiency due to the integral of the kernel function being truncated by boundary conditions. This research aims to answer if SPH modeling with a focus on boundary layer interactions and continuous flow can produce quantifiably accurate values with low computational cost. This research will combine algorithms and coding in the main program of meandering river, continuous flow algorithm, and solid-fluid algorithm with the aim of obtaining quantitatively accurate results on solid-fluid interactions with the continuous flow on a meandering channel using the SPH method. This study uses the Fortran programming language for modeling the SPH (Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics) numerical method; the model is conducted in the form of a U-shaped meandering open channel in 3D, where the channel walls are soil particles and uses a continuous flow with a limited number of particles.

Keywords: smoothed particle hydrodynamics, computational fluid dynamics, numerical simulation, fluid mechanics

Procedia PDF Downloads 11
1515 Simulation of the Reactive Rotational Molding Using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics

Authors: A. Hamidi, S. Khelladi, L. Illoul, A. Tcharkhtchi

Abstract:

Reactive rotational molding (RRM) is a process to manufacture hollow plastic parts with reactive material has several advantages compared to conventional roto molding of thermoplastic powders: process cycle time is shorter; raw material is less expensive because polymerization occurs during processing and high-performance polymers may be used such as thermosets, thermoplastics or blends. However, several phenomena occur during this process which makes the optimization of the process quite complex. In this study, we have used a mixture of isocyanate and polyol as a reactive system. The chemical transformation of this system to polyurethane has been studied by thermal analysis and rheology tests. Thanks to these results of the curing process and rheological measurements, the kinetic and rheokinetik of polyurethane was identified. Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics, a Lagrangian meshless method, was chosen to simulate reactive fluid flow in 2 and 3D configurations of the polyurethane during the process taking into account the chemical, and chemiorehological results obtained experimentally in this study.

Keywords: reactive rotational molding, simulation, smoothed particle hydrodynamics, surface tension, rheology, free surface flows, viscoelastic, interpolation

Procedia PDF Downloads 210
1514 Numerical Simulation of Unsteady Cases of Fluid Flow Using Modified Dynamic Boundary Condition (mDBC) in Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics Models

Authors: Exa Heydemans, Jessica Sjah, Dwinanti Rika Marthanty

Abstract:

This paper presents numerical simulations using an open boundary algorithm with modified dynamic boundary condition (mDBC) for weakly compressible smoothed particle hydrodynamics models from particle-based code Dualsphysics. The problems of piping erosion in dams and dikes are aimed for studying the algorithm. The case 2D model of unsteady fluid flow past around a fixed cylinder is simulated, where various values of Reynold’s numbers (Re40, Re60, Re80, and Re100) and different model’s resolution are considered. A constant velocity with different values of viscosity for generating various Reynold’s numbers and different numbers of particles over a cylinder for the resolution are modeled. The interaction between solid particles of the cylinder and fluid particles is concerned. The cylinder is affected by the hydrodynamics force caused by the flow of fluid particles. The solid particles of the cylinder are the observation points to obtain force and pressure due to the hydrodynamics forces. As results of the simulation, which is to show the capability to model 2D unsteady with various Reynold’s numbers, the pressure coefficient, drag coefficient, lift coefficient, and Strouhal number are compared to the previous work from literature.

Keywords: hydrodynamics, internal erosion, dualsphysics, viscous fluid flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 80
1513 Investigations of Bergy Bits and Ship Interactions in Extreme Waves Using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics

Authors: Mohammed Islam, Jungyong Wang, Dong Cheol Seo

Abstract:

The Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method is a novel, meshless, and Lagrangian technique based numerical method that has shown promises to accurately predict the hydrodynamics of water and structure interactions in violent flow conditions. The main goal of this study is to build confidence on the versatility of the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) based tool, to use it as a complementary tool to the physical model testing capabilities and support research need for the performance evaluation of ships and offshore platforms exposed to an extreme and harsh environment. In the current endeavor, an open-sourced SPH-based tool was used and validated for modeling and predictions of the hydrodynamic interactions of a 6-DOF ship and bergy bits. The study involved the modeling of a modern generic drillship and simplified bergy bits in floating and towing scenarios and in regular and irregular wave conditions. The predictions were validated using the model-scale measurements on a moored ship towed at multiple oblique angles approaching a floating bergy bit in waves. Overall, this study results in a thorough comparison between the model scale measurements and the prediction outcomes from the SPH tool for performance and accuracy. The SPH predicted ship motions and forces were primarily within ±5% of the measurements. The velocity and pressure distribution and wave characteristics over the free surface depicts realistic interactions of the wave, ship, and the bergy bit. This work identifies and presents several challenges in preparing the input file, particularly while defining the mass properties of complex geometry, the computational requirements, and the post-processing of the outcomes.

Keywords: SPH, ship and bergy bit, hydrodynamic interactions, model validation, physical model testing

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
1512 Virtual Approach to Simulating Geotechnical Problems under Both Static and Dynamic Conditions

Authors: Varvara Roubtsova, Mohamed Chekired

Abstract:

Recent studies on the numerical simulation of geotechnical problems show the importance of considering the soil micro-structure. At this scale, soil is a discrete particle medium where the particles can interact with each other and with water flow under external forces, structure loads or natural events. This paper presents research conducted in a virtual laboratory named SiGran, developed at IREQ (Institut de recherche d’Hydro-Quebec) for the purpose of investigating a broad range of problems encountered in geotechnics. Using Discrete Element Method (DEM), SiGran simulated granular materials directly by applying Newton’s laws to each particle. The water flow was simulated by using Marker and Cell method (MAC) to solve the full form of Navier-Stokes’s equation for non-compressible viscous liquid. In this paper, examples of numerical simulation and their comparisons with real experiments have been selected to show the complexity of geotechnical research at the micro level. These examples describe transient flows into a porous medium, interaction of particles in a viscous flow, compacting of saturated and unsaturated soils and the phenomenon of liquefaction under seismic load. They also provide an opportunity to present SiGran’s capacity to compute the distribution and evolution of energy by type (particle kinetic energy, particle internal elastic energy, energy dissipated by friction or as a result of viscous interaction into flow, and so on). This work also includes the first attempts to apply micro discrete results on a macro continuum level where the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method was used to resolve the system of governing equations. The material behavior equation is based on the results of simulations carried out at a micro level. The possibility of combining three methods (DEM, MAC and SPH) is discussed.

Keywords: discrete element method, marker and cell method, numerical simulation, multi-scale simulations, smoothed particle hydrodynamics

Procedia PDF Downloads 229
1511 Orthogonal Metal Cutting Simulation of Steel AISI 1045 via Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamic Method

Authors: Seyed Hamed Hashemi Sohi, Gerald Jo Denoga

Abstract:

Machining or metal cutting is one of the most widely used production processes in industry. The quality of the process and the resulting machined product depends on parameters like tool geometry, material, and cutting conditions. However, the relationships of these parameters to the cutting process are often based mostly on empirical knowledge. In this study, computer modeling and simulation using LS-DYNA software and a Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamic (SPH) methodology, was performed on the orthogonal metal cutting process to analyze three-dimensional deformation of AISI 1045 medium carbon steel during machining. The simulation was performed using the following constitutive models: the Power Law model, the Johnson-Cook model, and the Zerilli-Armstrong models (Z-A). The outcomes were compared against the simulated results obtained by Cenk Kiliçaslan using the Finite Element Method (FEM) and the empirical results of Jaspers and Filice. The analysis shows that the SPH method combined with the Zerilli-Armstrong constitutive model is a viable alternative to simulating the metal cutting process. The tangential force was overestimated by 7%, and the normal force was underestimated by 16% when compared with empirical values. The simulation values for flow stress versus strain at various temperatures were also validated against empirical values. The SPH method using the Z-A model has also proven to be robust against issues of time-scaling. Experimental work was also done to investigate the effects of friction, rake angle and tool tip radius on the simulation.

Keywords: metal cutting, smoothed particle hydrodynamics, constitutive models, experimental, cutting forces analyses

Procedia PDF Downloads 179
1510 Simulation of Red Blood Cells in Complex Micro-Tubes

Authors: Ting Ye, Nhan Phan-Thien, Chwee Teck Lim, Lina Peng, Huixin Shi

Abstract:

In biofluid flow systems, often the flow problems of fluids of complex structures, such as the flow of red blood cells (RBCs) through complex capillary vessels, need to be considered. In this paper, we aim to apply a particle-based method, Smoothed Dissipative Particle Dynamics (SDPD), to simulate the motion and deformation of RBCs in complex micro-tubes. We first present the theoretical models, including SDPD model, RBC-fluid interaction model, RBC deformation model, RBC aggregation model, and boundary treatment model. After that, we show the verification and validation of these models, by comparing our numerical results with the theoretical, experimental and previously-published numerical results. Finally, we provide some simulation cases, such as the motion and deformation of RBCs in rectangular, cylinder, curved, bifurcated, and constricted micro-tubes, respectively.

Keywords: aggregation, deformation, red blood cell, smoothed dissipative particle dynamics

Procedia PDF Downloads 96
1509 Assessment of Fluid Flow Hydrodynamics for Cylindrical and Conical Fluidized Bed Reactor

Authors: N. G. Thangan, A. B. Deoghare, P. M. Padole

Abstract:

Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) aids in modeling the prototype of a real world processes. CFD approach is useful in predicting the fluid flow, heat transfer mass transfer and other flow related phenomenon. In present study, hydrodynamic characteristics of gas-solid cylindrical fluidized bed is compared with conical fluidized beds. A 2D fluidized bed consists of different configurations of particle size of iron oxide, bed height and superficial velocities of nitrogen. Simulations are performed to capture the complex physics associated with it. The Eulerian multiphase model is prepared in ANSYS FLUENT v.14 which is used to simulate fluidization process. It is analyzed with nitrogen as primary phase and iron oxide as secondary phase. The bed hydrodynamics is assessed prominently to examine effect on fluidization time, pressure drop, minimum fluidization velocity, and gas holdup in the system.

Keywords: fluidized bed, bed hydrodynamics, Eulerian multiphase approach, computational fluid dynamics

Procedia PDF Downloads 376
1508 Mobile Platform’s Attitude Determination Based on Smoothed GPS Code Data and Carrier-Phase Measurements

Authors: Mohamed Ramdani, Hassen Abdellaoui, Abdenour Boudrassen

Abstract:

Mobile platform’s attitude estimation approaches mainly based on combined positioning techniques and developed algorithms; which aim to reach a fast and accurate solution. In this work, we describe the design and the implementation of an attitude determination (AD) process, using only measurements from GPS sensors. The major issue is based on smoothed GPS code data using Hatch filter and raw carrier-phase measurements integrated into attitude algorithm based on vectors measurement using least squares (LSQ) estimation method. GPS dataset from a static experiment is used to investigate the effectiveness of the presented approach and consequently to check the accuracy of the attitude estimation algorithm. Attitude results from GPS multi-antenna over short baselines are introduced and analyzed. The 3D accuracy of estimated attitude parameters using smoothed measurements is over 0.27°.

Keywords: attitude determination, GPS code data smoothing, hatch filter, carrier-phase measurements, least-squares attitude estimation

Procedia PDF Downloads 83
1507 Analysis of Two Phase Hydrodynamics in a Column Flotation by Particle Image Velocimetry

Authors: Balraju Vadlakonda, Narasimha Mangadoddy

Abstract:

The hydrodynamic behavior in a laboratory column flotation was analyzed using particle image velocimetry. For complete characterization of column flotation, it is necessary to determine the flow velocity induced by bubbles in the liquid phase, the bubble velocity and bubble characteristics:diameter,shape and bubble size distribution. An experimental procedure for analyzing simultaneous, phase-separated velocity measurements in two-phase flows was introduced. The non-invasive PIV technique has used to quantify the instantaneous flow field, as well as the time averaged flow patterns in selected planes of the column. Using the novel particle velocimetry (PIV) technique by the combination of fluorescent tracer particles, shadowgraphy and digital phase separation with masking technique measured the bubble velocity as well as the Reynolds stresses in the column. Axial and radial mean velocities as well as fluctuating components were determined for both phases by averaging the sufficient number of double images. Bubble size distribution was cross validated with high speed video camera. Average turbulent kinetic energy of bubble were analyzed. Different air flow rates were considered in the experiments.

Keywords: particle image velocimetry (PIV), bubble velocity, bubble diameter, turbulent kinetic energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 420
1506 Growth Performance and Critical Supersaturation of Heterogeneous Condensation for High Concentration of Insoluble Sub-Micron Particles

Authors: Jie Yin, Jun Zhang

Abstract:

Measuring the growth performance and critical supersaturation of particle group have a high reference value for constructing a supersaturated water vapor environment that can improve the removal efficiency of the high-concentration particle group. The critical supersaturation and the variation of the growth performance with supersaturation for high-concentration particles were measured by a flow cloud chamber. Findings suggest that the influence of particle concentration on the growth performance will reduce with the increase of supersaturation. Reducing residence time and increasing particle concentration have similar effects on the growth performance of the high-concentration particle group. Increasing particle concentration and shortening residence time will increase the critical supersaturation of the particle group. The critical supersaturation required to activate a high-concentration particle group is lower than that of the single-particle when the minimum particle size in the particle group is the same as that of a single particle.

Keywords: sub-micron particles, heterogeneous condensation, critical supersaturation, nucleation

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
1505 Particle Concentration Distribution under Idling Conditions in a Residential Underground Garage

Authors: Yu Zhao, Shinsuke Kato, Jianing Zhao

Abstract:

Particles exhausted from cars have an adverse impacts on human health. The study developed a three-dimensional particle dispersion numerical model including particle coagulation to simulate the particle concentration distribution under idling conditions in a residential underground garage. The simulation results demonstrate that particle disperses much faster in the vertical direction than that in horizontal direction. The enhancement of particle dispersion in the vertical direction due to the increase of cars with engine running is much stronger than that in the car exhaust direction. Particle dispersion from each pair of adjacent cars has little influence on each other in the study. Average particle concentration after 120 seconds exhaust is 1.8-4.5 times higher than the initial total particles at ambient environment. Particle pollution in the residential underground garage is severe.

Keywords: dispersion, idling conditions, particle concentration, residential underground garage

Procedia PDF Downloads 430
1504 Simulation of Bird Strike on Airplane Wings by Using SPH Methodology

Authors: Tuğçe Kiper Elibol, İbrahim Uslan, Mehmet Ali Guler, Murat Buyuk, Uğur Yolum

Abstract:

According to the FAA report, 142603 bird strikes were reported for a period of 24 years, between 1990 – 2013. Bird strike with aerospace structures not only threaten the flight security but also cause financial loss and puts life in danger. The statistics show that most of the bird strikes are happening with the nose and the leading edge of the wings. Also, a substantial amount of bird strikes is absorbed by the jet engines and causes damage on blades and engine body. Crash proof designs are required to overcome the possibility of catastrophic failure of the airplane. Using computational methods for bird strike analysis during the product development phase has considerable importance in terms of cost saving. Clearly, using simulation techniques to reduce the number of reference tests can dramatically affect the total cost of an aircraft, where for bird strike often full-scale tests are considered. Therefore, development of validated numerical models is required that can replace preliminary tests and accelerate the design cycle. In this study, to verify the simulation parameters for a bird strike analysis, several different numerical options are studied for an impact case against a primitive structure. Then, a representative bird mode is generated with the verified parameters and collided against the leading edge of a training aircraft wing, where each structural member of the wing was explicitly modeled. A nonlinear explicit dynamics finite element code, LS-DYNA was used for the bird impact simulations. SPH methodology was used to model the behavior of the bird. Dynamic behavior of the wing superstructure was observed and will be used for further design optimization purposes.

Keywords: bird impact, bird strike, finite element modeling, smoothed particle hydrodynamics

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
1503 The Physical Impact of Nano-Layer Due to Dispersions of Carbon Nano-Tubes through an Absorbent Channel: A Numerical Nano-Fluid Flow Model

Authors: Muhammad Zubair Akbar Qureshi, Abdul Bari Farooq

Abstract:

The intention of the current study to analyze the significance of nano-layer in incompressible magneto-hydrodynamics (MHD) flow of a Newtonian nano-fluid consisting of carbon nano-materials has been considered through an absorbent channel with moving porous walls. Using applicable similarity transforms, the governing equations are converted into a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations which are solved by using the 4th-order Runge-Kutta technique together with shooting methodology. The phenomena of nano-layer have also been modeled mathematically. The inspiration behind this segment is to reveal the behavior of involved parameters on velocity and temperature profiles. A detailed table is presented in which the effects of involved parameters on shear stress and heat transfer rate are discussed. Specially presented the impact of the thickness of the nano-layer and radius of the particle on the temperature profile. We observed that due to an increase in the thickness of the nano-layer, the heat transfer rate increases rapidly. The consequences of this research may be advantageous to the applications of biotechnology and industrial motive.

Keywords: carbon nano-tubes, magneto-hydrodynamics, nano-layer, thermal conductivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 41
1502 Development of 3D Particle Method for Calculating Large Deformation of Soils

Authors: Sung-Sik Park, Han Chang, Kyung-Hun Chae, Sae-Byeok Lee

Abstract:

In this study, a three-dimensional (3D) Particle method without using grid was developed for analyzing large deformation of soils instead of using ordinary finite element method (FEM) or finite difference method (FDM). In the 3D Particle method, the governing equations were discretized by various particle interaction models corresponding to differential operators such as gradient, divergence, and Laplacian. The Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion was incorporated into the 3D Particle method to determine soil failure. The yielding and hardening behavior of soil before failure was also considered by varying viscosity of soil. First of all, an unconfined compression test was carried out and the large deformation following soil yielding or failure was simulated by the developed 3D Particle method. The results were also compared with those of a commercial FEM software PLAXIS 3D. The developed 3D Particle method was able to simulate the 3D large deformation of soils due to soil yielding and calculate the variation of normal and shear stresses following clay deformation.

Keywords: particle method, large deformation, soil column, confined compressive stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 473
1501 Simulation and Experimental Study on Dual Dense Medium Fluidization Features of Air Dense Medium Fluidized Bed

Authors: Cheng Sheng, Yuemin Zhao, Chenlong Duan

Abstract:

Air dense medium fluidized bed is a typical application of fluidization techniques for coal particle separation in arid areas, where it is costly to implement wet coal preparation technologies. In the last three decades, air dense medium fluidized bed, as an efficient dry coal separation technique, has been studied in many aspects, including energy and mass transfer, hydrodynamics, bubbling behaviors, etc. Despite numerous researches have been published, the fluidization features, especially dual dense medium fluidization features have been rarely reported. In dual dense medium fluidized beds, different combinations of different dense mediums play a significant role in fluidization quality variation, thus influencing coal separation efficiency. Moreover, to what extent different dense mediums mix and to what extent the two-component particulate mixture affects the fluidization performance and quality have been in suspense. The proposed work attempts to reveal underlying mechanisms of generation and evolution of two-component particulate mixture in the fluidization process. Based on computational fluid dynamics methods and discrete particle modelling, movement and evolution of dual dense mediums in air dense medium fluidized bed have been simulated. Dual dense medium fluidization experiments have been conducted. Electrical capacitance tomography was employed to investigate the distribution of two-component mixture in experiments. Underlying mechanisms involving two-component particulate fluidization are projected to be demonstrated with the analysis and comparison of simulation and experimental results.

Keywords: air dense medium fluidized bed, particle separation, computational fluid dynamics, discrete particle modelling

Procedia PDF Downloads 306
1500 Lateral Buckling of Nanoparticle Additive Composite Beams

Authors: Gürkan Şakar, Akgün Alsaran, Emrah E. Özbaldan

Abstract:

In this study, lateral buckling analysis of composite beams with particle additive was carried out experimentally and numerically. The effects of particle type, particle addition ratio on buckling loads of composite beams were determined. The numerical studies were performed with ANSYS package. In the analyses, clamped-free boundary condition was assumed. The load carrying capabilities of composite beams were influenced by different particle types and particle addition ratios.

Keywords: lateral buckling, nanoparticle, composite beam, numeric analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 209
1499 Hydrodynamics of Shear Layers at River Confluences by Formation of Secondary Circulation

Authors: Ali Aghazadegan, Ali Shokri, Julia Mullarney

Abstract:

River confluences are areas where there is a lot of mixing, which is often caused by the formation of shear layers and helical motions. The hydrodynamics of secondary circulation at river confluences with low flow discharge ratios and a 90° junction angle are investigated in this study. The analysis is based on Delft 3D modelling, which includes a three-dimensional time-averaged velocity field, turbulence, and water surface levels that have been validated using laboratory data. Confluence structure was characterized by shear layer, secondary circulation, and mixing at the junction and post confluence channel. This study analysis formation of the shear layer by generation of secondary circulations in variation discharge ratios. The values of streamwise, cross-wise, and vertical components are used to estimate the secondary circulation observed within and downstream of the tributary mouth. These variables are estimated for three horizontal planes at Z = [0.14; 0.07; 0.02] and for eight cross-sections at X = [-0.1; 0.00; 0.10; 0.2; 0.30; 0.4; 0.5; 0.6] within a range of 0.05 Y 0.30.

Keywords: river confluence, shear layer, secondary circulation, hydrodynamics

Procedia PDF Downloads 13
1498 Basic Properties of a Fundamental Particle: Behavioral-Physical and Visual Methods for the Study of Fundamental Particle

Authors: Shukran M. Dadayev

Abstract:

To author's best knowledge, in this paper, the Basic Properties and Research methods of a Fundamental Particle is studied for the first time. That's to say, Fundamental Particle has not been discovered in the Nature yet. Because Fundamental Particle consists of specific Physical, Geometrical and Internal bases. Geometrical and Internal characteristics that are considered significant for the elementary and fundamental particles aren’t basic properties, characteristics or criteria of a Fundamental Particle. Of course, completely new Physical and Visual experimental methods of Quantum mechanics and Behavioral-Physical investigations of Particles are needed to study and discover the Fundamental Particle. These are new Physical, Visual and Behavioral-Physical experimental methods for describing and discovering the Fundamental Particle in the Nature and Microworld. Fundamental Particle consists of the same Energy-Mass-Motion system and a symmetry of Energy-Mass-Motion. Fundamental Particle supplies each of the elementary particles with the same Energy-Mass-Motion system at the same time and regulates each of the particles. Fundamental Particle gives Energy, Mass and Motion to each particles at the same time, each of the Particles consists of acquired Energy-Mass-Motion system and symmetry. Energy, Mass, Motion given by the Fundamental Particle to the particles are Symmetrical Equivalent and they remain in their primary shapes in all cases. Fundamental Particle gives Energy-Mass-Motion system and symmetry consisting of different measures and functions to each of the particles. The Motion given by the Fundamental Particle to the particles is Gravitation, Gravitational Interaction not only gives Motion, but also cause Motion by attracting. All Substances, Fields and Cosmic objects consist of Energy-Mass-Motion. The Field also includes specific Mass. They are always Energetic, Massive and Active. Fundamental Particle establishes the bases of the Nature. Supplement and Regulating of all the particles existing in the Nature belongs to Fundamental Particle.

Keywords: basic properties of a fundamental particle, behavioral-physical and visual methods, energy-mass-motion system and symmetrical equivalence, fundamental particle

Procedia PDF Downloads 2172
1497 Comparative Numerical Simulations of Reaction-Coupled Annular and Free-Bubbling Fluidized Beds Performance

Authors: Adefarati Oloruntoba, Yongmin Zhang, Hongliang Xiao

Abstract:

An annular fluidized bed (AFB) is gaining extensive application in the process industry due to its efficient gas-solids contacting. But a direct evaluation of its reaction performance is still lacking. In this paper, comparative 3D Euler–Lagrange multiphase-particle-in-cell (MP-PIC) computations are performed to assess the reaction performance of AFB relative to a bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) in an FCC regeneration process. By using the energy-minimization multi-scale (EMMS) drag model with a suitable heterogeneity index, the MP-PIC simulation predicts the typical fountain region in AFB and solids holdup of BFB, which is consistent with an experiment. Coke combustion rate, flue gas and temperature profile are utilized as the performance indicators, while related bed hydrodynamics are explored to account for the different performance under varying superficial gas velocities (0.5 m/s, 0.6 m/s, and 0.7 m/s). Simulation results indicate that the burning rates of coke and its species are relatively the same in both beds, albeit marginal increase in BFB. Similarly, the shape and evolution time of flue gas (CO, CO₂, H₂O and O₂) curves are indistinguishable but match the coke combustion rates. However, AFB has high proclivity to high temperature-gradient as higher gas and solids temperatures are predicted in the freeboard. Moreover, for both beds, the effect of superficial gas velocity is only conspicuous on the temperature but negligible on combustion efficiency and effluent gas emissions due to constant gas volumetric flow rate and bed loading criteria. Cross-flow of solids from the annulus to the spout region as well as the high primary gas in the AFB directly assume the underlying mechanisms for its unique gas-solids hydrodynamics (pressure, solids holdup, velocity, mass flux) and local spatial homogeneity, which in turn influence the reactor performance. Overall, the study portrays AFB as a cheap alternative reactor to BFB for catalyst regeneration.

Keywords: annular fluidized bed, bubbling fluidized bed, coke combustion, flue gas, fountaining, CFD, MP-PIC, hydrodynamics, FCC regeneration

Procedia PDF Downloads 78
1496 Effect of Bi-Dispersity on Particle Clustering in Sedimentation

Authors: Ali Abbas Zaidi

Abstract:

In free settling or sedimentation, particles form clusters at high Reynolds number and dilute suspensions. It is due to the entrapment of particles in the wakes of upstream particles. In this paper, the effect of bi-dispersity of settling particles on particle clustering is investigated using particle-resolved direct numerical simulation. Immersed boundary method is used for particle fluid interactions and discrete element method is used for particle-particle interactions. The solid volume fraction used in the simulation is 1% and the Reynolds number based on Sauter mean diameter is 350. Both solid volume fraction and Reynolds number lie in the clustering regime of sedimentation. In simulations, the particle diameter ratio (i.e. diameter of larger particle to smaller particle (d₁/d₂)) is varied from 2:1, 3:1 and 4:1. For each case of particle diameter ratio, solid volume fraction for each particle size (φ₁/φ₂) is varied from 1:1, 1:2 and 2:1. For comparison, simulations are also performed for monodisperse particles. For studying particles clustering, radial distribution function and instantaneous location of particles in the computational domain are studied. It is observed that the degree of particle clustering decreases with the increase in the bi-dispersity of settling particles. The smallest degree of particle clustering or dispersion of particles is observed for particles with d₁/d₂ equal to 4:1 and φ₁/φ₂ equal to 1:2. Simulations showed that the reduction in particle clustering by increasing bi-dispersity is due to the difference in settling velocity of particles. Particles with larger size settle faster and knockout the smaller particles from clustered regions of particles in the computational domain.

Keywords: dispersion in bi-disperse settling particles, particle microstructures in bi-disperse suspensions, particle resolved direct numerical simulations, settling of bi-disperse particles

Procedia PDF Downloads 122
1495 Unified Gas-Kinetic Scheme for Gas-Particle Flow in Shock-Induced Fluidization of Particles Bed

Authors: Zhao Wang, Hong Yan

Abstract:

In this paper, a unified-gas kinetic scheme (UGKS) for the gas-particle flow is constructed. UGKS is a direct modeling method for both continuum and rarefied flow computations. The dynamics of particle and gas are described as rarefied and continuum flow, respectively. Therefore, we use the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) equation for the particle distribution function. For the gas phase, the gas kinetic scheme for Navier-Stokes equation is solved. The momentum transfer between gas and particle is achieved by the acceleration term added to the BGK equation. The new scheme is tested by a 2cm-in-thickness dense bed comprised of glass particles with 1.5mm in diameter, and reasonable agreement is achieved.

Keywords: gas-particle flow, unified gas-kinetic scheme, momentum transfer, shock-induced fluidization

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
1494 Hydrodynamics and Heat Transfer Characteristics of a Solar Thermochemical Fluidized Bed Reactor

Authors: Selvan Bellan, Koji Matsubara, Nobuyuki Gokon, Tatsuya Kodama, Hyun Seok-Cho

Abstract:

In concentrated solar thermal industry, fluidized-bed technology has been used to produce hydrogen by thermochemical two step water splitting cycles, and synthetic gas by gasification of coal coke. Recently, couple of fluidized bed reactors have been developed and tested at Niigata University, Japan, for two-step thermochemical water splitting cycles and coal coke gasification using Xe light, solar simulator. The hydrodynamic behavior of the gas-solid flow plays a vital role in the aforementioned fluidized bed reactors. Thus, in order to study the dynamics of dense gas-solid flow, a CFD-DEM model has been developed; in which the contact forces between the particles have been calculated by the spring-dashpot model, based on the soft-sphere method. Heat transfer and hydrodynamics of a solar thermochemical fluidized bed reactor filled with ceria particles have been studied numerically and experimentally for beam-down solar concentrating system. An experimental visualization of particles circulation pattern and mixing of two-tower fluidized bed system has been presented. Simulation results have been compared with experimental data to validate the CFD-DEM model. Results indicate that the model can predict the particle-fluid flow of the two-tower fluidized bed reactor. Using this model, the key operating parameters can be optimized.

Keywords: solar reactor, CFD-DEM modeling, fluidized bed, beam-down solar concentrating system

Procedia PDF Downloads 121
1493 The Influence of the Form of Grain on the Mechanical Behaviour of Sand

Authors: Mohamed Boualem Salah

Abstract:

The size and shape of soil particles reflect the formation history of the grains. In turn, the macro scale behavior of the soil mass results from particle level interactions which are affected by particle shape. Sphericity, roundness and smoothness characterize different scales associated to particle shape. New experimental data and data from previously published studies are gathered into two databases to explore the effects of particle shape on packing as well as small and large-strain properties of sandy soils. Data analysis shows that increased particle irregularity (angularity and/or eccentricity) leads to: an increase in emax and emin, a decrease in stiffness yet with increased sensitivity to the state of stress, an increase in compressibility under zero-lateral strain loading, and an increase in critical state friction angle φcs and intercept Γ with a weak effect on slope λ. Therefore, particle shape emerges as a significant soil index property that needs to be properly characterized and documented, particularly in clean sands and gravels. The systematic assessment of particle shape will lead to a better understanding of sand behavior.

Keywords: angularity, eccentricity, shape particle, behavior of soil

Procedia PDF Downloads 334
1492 Simulation of Stress in Graphite Anode of Lithium-Ion Battery: Intra and Inter-Particle

Authors: Wenxin Mei, Jinhua Sun, Qingsong Wang

Abstract:

The volume expansion of lithium-ion batteries is mainly induced by intercalation induced stress within the negative electrode, resulting in capacity degradation and even battery failure. Stress generation due to lithium intercalation into graphite particles is investigated based on an electrochemical-mechanical model in this work. The two-dimensional model presented is fully coupled, inclusive of the impacts of intercalation-induced stress, stress-induced intercalation, to evaluate the lithium concentration, stress generation, and displacement intra and inter-particle. The results show that the distribution of lithium concentration and stress exhibits an analogous pattern, which reflects the relation between lithium diffusion and stress. The results of inter-particle stress indicate that larger Von-Mises stress is displayed where the two particles are in contact with each other, and deformation at the edge of particles is also observed, predicting fracture. Additionally, the maximum inter-particle stress at the end of lithium intercalation is nearly ten times the intraparticle stress. And the maximum inter-particle displacement is increased by 24% compared to the single-particle. Finally, the effect of graphite particle arrangement on inter-particle stress is studied. It is found that inter-particle stress with tighter arrangement exhibits lower stress. This work can provide guidance for predicting the intra and inter-particle stress to take measures to avoid cracking of electrode material.

Keywords: electrochemical-mechanical model, graphite particle, lithium concentration, lithium ion battery, stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 70
1491 CFD-DEM Modelling of Liquid Fluidizations of Ellipsoidal Particles

Authors: Esmaeil Abbaszadeh Molaei, Zongyan Zhou, Aibing Yu

Abstract:

The applications of liquid fluidizations have been increased in many parts of industries such as particle classification, backwashing of granular filters, crystal growth, leaching and washing, and bioreactors due to high-efficient liquid–solid contact, favorable mass and heat transfer, high operation flexibilities, and reduced back mixing of phases. In most of these multiphase operations the particles properties, i.e. size, density, and shape, may change during the process because of attrition, coalescence or chemical reactions. Previous studies, either experimentally or numerically, mainly have focused on studies of liquid-solid fluidized beds containing spherical particles; however, the role of particle shape on the hydrodynamics of liquid fluidized beds is still not well-known. A three-dimensional Discrete Element Model (DEM) and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) are coupled to study the influence of particles shape on particles and liquid flow patterns in liquid-solid fluidized beds. In the simulations, ellipsoid particles are used to study the shape factor since they can represent a wide range of particles shape from oblate and sphere to prolate shape particles. Different particle shapes from oblate (disk shape) to elongated particles (rod shape) are selected to investigate the effect of aspect ratio on different flow characteristics such as general particles and liquid flow pattern, pressure drop, and particles orientation. First, the model is verified based on experimental observations, then further detail analyses are made. It was found that spherical particles showed a uniform particle distribution in the bed, which resulted in uniform pressure drop along the bed height. However for particles with aspect ratios less than one (disk-shape), some particles were carried into the freeboard region, and the interface between the bed and freeboard was not easy to be determined. A few particle also intended to leave the bed. On the other hand, prolate particles showed different behaviour in the bed. They caused unstable interface and some flow channeling was observed for low liquid velocities. Because of the non-uniform particles flow pattern for particles with aspect ratios lower (oblate) and more (prolate) than one, the pressure drop distribution in the bed was not observed as uniform as what was found for spherical particles.

Keywords: CFD, DEM, ellipsoid, fluidization, multiphase flow, non-spherical, simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
1490 Modeling of Polyethylene Particle Size Distribution in Fluidized Bed Reactors

Authors: R. Marandi, H. Shahrir, T. Nejad Ghaffar Borhani, M. Kamaruddin

Abstract:

In the present study, a steady state population balance model was developed to predict the polymer particle size distribution (PSD) in ethylene gas phase fluidized bed olefin polymerization reactors. The multilayer polymeric flow model (MPFM) was used to calculate the growth rate of a single polymer particle under intra-heat and mass transfer resistance. The industrial plant data were used to calculate the growth rate of polymer particle and the polymer PSD. Numerical simulations carried out to describe the influence of effective monomer diffusion coefficient, polymerization rate and initial catalyst size on the catalyst particle growth and final polymer PSD. The results present that the intra-heat and mass limitation is important for the ethylene polymerization, the growth rate of particle and the polymer PSD in the fluidized bed reactor. The effect of the agglomeration on the PSD is also considered. The result presents that the polymer particle size distribution becomes broader as the agglomeration exits.

Keywords: population balance, olefin polymerization, fluidized bed reactor, particle size distribution, agglomeration

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
1489 Particle Deflection in a PDMS Microchannel Caused by a Plane Travelling Surface Acoustic Wave

Authors: Florian Keipert, Hagen Schmitd

Abstract:

The size selective separation of different species in a microfluidic system is an actual task in biological or medical research. Former works dealt with the utilisation of the acoustic radiation force (ARF) caused by a plane travelling Surface Acoustic Wave (tSAW). In literature the ARF is described by a dimensionless parameter κ, depending on the wavelength and the particle diameter. To our knowledge research was done for values 0.2 < κ < 5.8 showing that the ARF is dominating the acoustic streaming force (ASF) for κ > 1.2. As a consequence the particle separation is limited by κ. In addition the dependence on the electrical power level was examined but only for κ > 1 pointing out an increased particle deflection for higher electrical power levels. Nevertheless a detailed study on the ASF and ARF especially for κ < 1 is still missing. In our setup we used a tSAW with a wavelength λ = 90 µm and 3 µm PS particles corresponding to κ = 0.3. Herewith the influence of the applied electrical power level on the particle deflection in a polydimethylsiloxan micro channel was investigated. Our results show an increased particle deflection for an increased electrical power level, which coincides with the reported results for κ > 1. Therefore particle separation is in contrast to literature also possible for lower κ values. Thereby the experimental setup can be generally simplified by a coordinated electrical power level for the specific particle size. Furthermore this raises the question of whether this particle deflection is caused only by the ARF as adopted so far or by the ASF or the sum of both forces. To investigate this fact a 0% - 24% saline solution was used and thus the mismatch between the compressibility of the PS particle and the working fluid could be changed. Therefore it is possible to change the relative strength between ARF and ASF and consequently the particle deflection. We observed a decreasing in the particle deflection for an increased NaCl content up to a 12% saline solution and subsequently an increasing of the particle deflection. Our observation could be explained by the acoustic contrast factor Φ, which depends on the compressibility mismatch. The compressibility of water is increased by the NaCl and the range of a 0% - 24% saline solution covers the PS particle compressibility. Hence the particle deflection reaches a minimum value for the accordance between compressibility of PS particle and saline solution. This minimum value can be estimated as the particle deflection only caused by the ASF. Knowing the particle deflection due to the ASF the particle deflection caused by the ARF can be calculated and thus finally the relation between both forces. Concluding, the particle deflection and therefore the size selective particle separation generated by a tSAW can be achieved for values κ < 1, simplifying actual setups by adjusting the electrical power level. Beyond we studied for the first time the relative strength between ARF and ASF to characterise the particle deflection in a microchannel.

Keywords: ARF, ASF, particle separation, saline solution, tSAW

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
1488 Improved Particle Swarm Optimization with Cellular Automata and Fuzzy Cellular Automata

Authors: Ramin Javadzadeh

Abstract:

The particle swarm optimization are Meta heuristic optimization method, which are used for clustering and pattern recognition applications are abundantly. These algorithms in multimodal optimization problems are more efficient than genetic algorithms. A major drawback in these algorithms is their slow convergence to global optimum and their weak stability can be considered in various running of these algorithms. In this paper, improved Particle swarm optimization is introduced for the first time to overcome its problems. The fuzzy cellular automata is used for improving the algorithm efficiently. The credibility of the proposed approach is evaluated by simulations, and it is shown that the proposed approach achieves better results can be achieved compared to the Particle swarm optimization algorithms.

Keywords: cellular automata, cellular learning automata, local search, optimization, particle swarm optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 490