Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4565

Search results for: critical phenomena

4565 The Spectral Power Amplification on the Regular Lattices

Authors: Kotbi Lakhdar, Hachi Mostefa

Abstract:

We show that a simple transformation between the regular lattices (the square, the triangular, and the honeycomb) belonging to the same dimensionality can explain in a natural way the universality of the critical exponents found in phase transitions and critical phenomena. It suffices that the Hamiltonian and the lattice present similar writing forms. In addition, it appears that if a property can be calculated for a given lattice then it can be extrapolated simply to any other lattice belonging to the same dimensionality. In this study, we have restricted ourselves on the spectral power amplification (SPA), we note that the SPA does not have an effect on the critical exponents but does have an effect by the criticality temperature of the lattice; the generalisation to other lattice could be shown according to the containment principle.

Keywords: ising model, phase transitions, critical temperature, critical exponent, spectral power amplification

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
4564 Yang-Lee Edge Singularity of the Infinite-Range Ising Model

Authors: Seung-Yeon Kim

Abstract:

The Ising model, consisting magnetic spins, is the simplest system showing phase transitions and critical phenomena at finite temperatures. The Ising model has played a central role in our understanding of phase transitions and critical phenomena. Also, the Ising model explains the gas-liquid phase transitions accurately. However, the Ising model in a nonzero magnetic field has been one of the most intriguing and outstanding unsolved problems. We study analytically the partition function zeros in the complex magnetic-field plane and the Yang-Lee edge singularity of the infinite-range Ising model in an external magnetic field. In addition, we compare the Yang-Lee edge singularity of the infinite-range Ising model with that of the square-lattice Ising model in an external magnetic field.

Keywords: Ising ferromagnet, magnetic field, partition function zeros, Yang-Lee edge singularity

Procedia PDF Downloads 591
4563 Climate Change and Land Grabbing

Authors: Akachi Odoemene

Abstract:

Climate change and land grabbing are tightly interconnected in ways that are both diverse and complex. They have impacted each other in significant ways too. Both phenomena are not only a political reality, but have diverse dire implications, especially for food and livelihood security of vulnerable populations in developing economies. The critical nexus and interactions of climate change and land grabbing remain one of the challenges of sustainable development in modern times. The nuanced understanding of the nexus, importance and implications of climate change and land grabbing are the primary focus of this chapter. It begins with conceptual clarifications, particularly arguing that the absence of some important principles of engagement underline and define a land grab. It also analyses and notes a good number of contemporary land deals as 'one-sided', in which wealthy entities connive with local elites to exploit and disposes rural poor populations. The paper not only examines both global and local factors that drive land grabbing and, in some cases, their connections with the incidence of climate change, but also explores their crucial links with such sector as agriculture. It is argued and exhibited in the paper why certain societies are susceptible to the incidence of climate change and land grabbing, while the overall consequences of these phenomena on the affected societies are further interrogated. The paper concludes that the lack of political will by global political leaders to effectively combat and resolve critical issues associated with both climate change and land grabbing remains a daunting challenge. It notes that these phenomena – climate change and land grabbing – if not abated, will certainly become another set of global tragic episodes to be regretted in the future.

Keywords: climate change, land grabbing, global governance, developing economies

Procedia PDF Downloads 201
4562 Evaluating the Prominence of Chemical Phenomena in Chemistry Courses

Authors: Vanessa R. Ralph, Leah J. Scharlott, Megan Y. Deshaye, Ryan L. Stowe

Abstract:

Given the traditions of chemistry teaching, one may not question whether chemical phenomena play a prominent role. Yet, the role of chemical phenomena in an introductory chemistry course may define the extent to which the course is introductory, chemistry, and equitable. Picture, for example, the classic Ideal Gas Law problem. If one envisions a prompt wherein students are tasked with calculating a missing variable, then one envisions a prompt that relies on chemical phenomena as a context rather than as a model to understand the natural world. Consider a prompt wherein students are tasked with applying molecular models of gases to explain why the vapor pressure of a gaseous solution of water differs from that of carbon dioxide. Here, the chemical phenomenon is not only the context but also the subject of the prompt. Deliveries of general and organic chemistry were identified as ranging wildly in the integration of chemical phenomena. The more incorporated the phenomena, the more equitable the assessment task was for students of varying access to pre-college math and science preparation. How chemical phenomena are integrated may very well define whether courses are chemistry, are introductory, and are equitable. Educators of chemistry are invited colleagues to discuss the role of chemical phenomena in their courses and consider the long-lasting impacts of replicating tradition for tradition’s sake.

Keywords: equitable educational practices, chemistry curriculum, content organization, assessment design

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4561 Protection of the Object of the Critical Infrastructure in the Czech Republic

Authors: Michaela Vašková

Abstract:

With the increasing dependence of countries on the critical infrastructure, it increases their vulnerability. Big threat is primarily in the human factor (personnel of the critical infrastructure) and in terrorist attacks. It emphasizes the development of methodology for searching of weak points and their subsequent elimination. This article discusses methods for the analysis of safety in the objects of critical infrastructure. It also contains proposal for methodology for training employees of security services in the objects of the critical infrastructure and developing scenarios of attacks on selected objects of the critical infrastructure.

Keywords: critical infrastructure, object of critical infrastructure, protection, safety, security, security audit

Procedia PDF Downloads 252
4560 Analyzing the Emergence of Conscious Phenomena by the Process-Based Metaphysics

Authors: Chia-Lin Tu

Abstract:

Towards the end of the 20th century, a reductive picture has dominated in philosophy of science and philosophy of mind. Reductive physicalism claims that all entities and properties in this world are eventually able to be reduced to the physical level. It means that all phenomena in the world are able to be explained by laws of physics. However, quantum physics provides another picture. It says that the world is undergoing change and the energy of change is, in fact, the most important part to constitute world phenomena. Quantum physics provides us another point of view to reconsider the reality of the world. Throughout the history of philosophy of mind, reductive physicalism tries to reduce the conscious phenomena to physical particles as well, meaning that the reality of consciousness is composed by physical particles. However, reductive physicalism is unable to explain conscious phenomena and mind-body causation. Conscious phenomena, e.g., qualia, is not composed by physical particles. The current popular theory for consciousness is emergentism. Emergentism is an ambiguous concept which has not had clear idea of how conscious phenomena are emerged by physical particles. In order to understand the emergence of conscious phenomena, it seems that quantum physics is an appropriate analogy. Quantum physics claims that physical particles and processes together construct the most fundamental field of world phenomena, and thus all natural processes, i.e., wave functions, have occurred within. The traditional space-time description of classical physics is overtaken by the wave-function story. If this methodology of quantum physics works well to explain world phenomena, then it is not necessary to describe the world by the idea of physical particles like classical physics did. Conscious phenomena are one kind of world phenomena. Scientists and philosophers have tried to explain the reality of them, but it has not come out any conclusion. Quantum physics tells us that the fundamental field of the natural world is processed metaphysics. The emergence of conscious phenomena is only possible within this process metaphysics and has clearly occurred. By the framework of quantum physics, we are able to take emergence more seriously, and thus we can account for such emergent phenomena as consciousness. By questioning the particle-mechanistic concept of the world, the new metaphysics offers an opportunity to reconsider the reality of conscious phenomena.

Keywords: quantum physics, reduction, emergence, qualia

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
4559 Critical Activity Effect on Project Duration in Precedence Diagram Method

Authors: Salman Ali Nisar, Koshi Suzuki

Abstract:

Precedence Diagram Method (PDM) with its additional relationships i.e., start-to-start, finish-to-finish, and start-to-finish, between activities provides more flexible schedule than traditional Critical Path Method (CPM). But, changing the duration of critical activities in PDM network will have anomalous effect on critical path. Researchers have proposed some classification of critical activity effects. In this paper, we do further study on classifications of critical activity effect and provide more information in detailed. Furthermore, we determine the maximum amount of time for each class of critical activity effect by which the project managers can control the dynamic feature (shortening/lengthening) of critical activities and project duration more efficiently.

Keywords: construction project management, critical path method, project scheduling, precedence diagram method

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4558 The Effect of the Crystal Field Interaction on the Critical Temperatures and the Sublattice Magnetizations of a Mixedspin-3/2 and Spin-5/2 Ferromagnetic System

Authors: Fathi Abubrig, Mohamed Delfag, Suad Abuzariba

Abstract:

The influence of the crystal field interactions on the mixed spin-3/2 and spin-5/2 ferromagnetic Ising system is considered by using the mean field theory based on Bogoliubov inequality for the Gibbs free energy. The ground-state phase diagram is constructed, the phase diagrams of the second-order critical temperatures are obtained, and the thermal variation of the sublattice magnetizations is investigated in detail. We find some interesting phenomena for the sublattice magnetizations at particular values of the crystal field interactions.

Keywords: crystal field, Ising system, ferromagnetic, magnetization, phase diagrams

Procedia PDF Downloads 380
4557 The Effect of Critical Activity on Critical Path and Project Duration in Precedence Diagram Method

Authors: J. Nisar, S. Halim

Abstract:

The additional relationships i.e., start-to-start, finish-to-finish, and start-to-finish, between activity in Precedence Diagram Method (PDM) provides a more flexible schedule than traditional Critical Path Method (CPM). But, changing the duration of critical activities in the PDM network will have an anomalous effect on the critical path and the project completion date. In this study, we classified the critical activities in two groups i.e., 1. activity on single critical path and 2. activity on multi-critical paths, and six classes i.e., normal, reverse, neutral, perverse, decrease-reverse and increase-normal, based on their effects on project duration in PDM. Furthermore, we determined the maximum float of time by which the duration each type of critical activities can be changed without effecting the project duration. This study would help the project manager to clearly understand the behavior of each critical activity on critical path, and he/she would be able to change the project duration by shortening or lengthening activities based on project budget and project deadline.

Keywords: construction management, critical path method, project scheduling network, precedence diagram method

Procedia PDF Downloads 94
4556 Numerical Solution of 1-D Shallow Water Equations at Junction for Sub-Critical and Super-Critical Flow

Authors: Mohamed Elshobaki, Alessandro Valiani, Valerio Caleffi

Abstract:

In this paper, we solve 1-D shallow water equation for sub-critical and super-critical water flow at junction. The water flow at junction has been studied for the last 50 years from the physical-hydraulic point of views and for numerical computations need more attention. For numerical simulation, we need to establish an inner boundary condition at the junction to avoid an oscillation which rise from the waves interactions at the junction. Indeed, we introduce a new boundary condition at the junction based on the mass conservation, total head, and the admissible wave relations between the flow parameters in the three branches to predict the water depths and discharges at the junction. These boundary conditions are valid for sub-critical flow and super-critical flow.

Keywords: numerical simulation, junction flow, sub-critical flow, super-critical flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 371
4555 The Application of the Security Audit Method on the Selected Objects of Critical Infrastructure

Authors: Michaela Vašková

Abstract:

The paper is focused on the application of the security audit method on the selected objects of the critical infrastructure. The emphasis is put on security audit method to find gaps in the critical infrastructure security. The theoretical part describes objects of the critical infrastructure. The practical part describes using the security audit method. The main emphasis was put on the protection of the critical infrastructure in the Czech Republic.

Keywords: crisis management, critical infrastructure, object of critical infrastructure, security audit, extraordinary event

Procedia PDF Downloads 328
4554 Critical Realism as a Bridge between Critical Pedagogy and Queer Theory

Authors: Mike Seal

Abstract:

This paper explores the traditions of critical and queer pedagogy, its intersections, tensions and paradoxes. Critical pedagogy, with a materialist realist ontology, and queer theory, which is often post-modern, post-structural and anti-essential, may not seem compatible. Similarly, there are tensions between activist orientations, often enacted through essential sexual identities, and a queer approach that questions such identities and subjectivities. It will argue that critical realism gives us a bridge between critical and queer pedagogy in preserving a realist materialist ontology, where economic forces are real, and independent of consciousness and hermeneutic constructions of them. At the same time, it offers an epistemology that does not necessitate a binary view of the roles of the oppressed, liberator, or even oppressor. It accepts that our knowledge is contingent, partial and contestable, but has the potential, and enough validity, to demand action and potentially inform the actions of others.

Keywords: critical pedagogy, queer pedagogy, critical realsim, heteronormativity

Procedia PDF Downloads 94
4553 Improving Students' Critical Thinking in Understanding Reading Material Through Bloom's Critical Thinking Questioning Strategy in English for Specific Purposes (ESP) Class

Authors: Hevriani Sevrika Mayuasti

Abstract:

This research deals in improving college students’ critical thinking at English for Specific Purposes Subject. The strategy that is applied is Bloom’s Critical Thinking Questioning Strategy. The positive side of this strategy is that the given questions are developed based on Bloom’s taxonomy level. It is an action research because the researcher uses own class in doing this research. The processes of this research have been done from April to Mei 2014. There are two cycles and each cycle consists of two meetings. After doing the research, it is gotten that Bloom’s Critical Thinking Questioning Strategy improves college students’ critical thinking. It helps the students to build and elaborate their ideas. Hence, it increases students’ reading comprehension.

Keywords: critical thinking, blooms’ critical thinking, questioning, strategy

Procedia PDF Downloads 399
4552 Scaling Analysis for the Liquefaction Phenomena Generated by Water Waves

Authors: E. Arcos, E. Bautista, F. Méndez

Abstract:

In this work, a scaling analysis of the liquefaction phenomena is presented. The characteristic scales are obtained by balancing term by term of the well-known partial dynamics governing equations, (U − P). From the above, the order of magnitude of the horizontal displacement is very smaller compared with the vertical displacement and therefore the governing equation is only a function of the dependent vertical variables. The U − P approximation is reduced and presented in its dimensionless version. This scaling analysis can be used to obtain analytical solutions of the liquefaction phenomena under the action of the water waves.

Keywords: approximation U-P, porous seabed, scaling analysis, water waves

Procedia PDF Downloads 277
4551 Promoting Critical Thinking in a Robotics Class

Authors: Ian D. Walker

Abstract:

This paper describes the creation and teaching of an undergraduate course aimed at promoting critical thinking among the students in the course. The class, Robots in Business and Society, taught at Clemson University, is open to all undergraduate students of any discipline. It is taught as part of Clemson’s online class program and is structured to promote critical thinking via a series of interactive discussion boards and assignments. Critical thinking is measured via pre- and post-testing using a benchmark standardized test. The paper will detail the class organization, and describe and discuss the results and lessons learned with respect to improvement of student critical thinking from three offerings of the class.

Keywords: critical thinking, pedagogy, robotics, undergraduate teaching

Procedia PDF Downloads 210
4550 Moderate Holism as an Explanation for Linguistic Phenomena

Authors: Kênio Angelo Dantas Freitas Estrela

Abstract:

Traditionally meaning holism is a theory that is related to the meaning attributed to words and their relationships to other words in a language. This theory can be more specifically defined as a defense of the mutual interdependence of all items of linguistic knowledge, so that, for example, to understand the meaning of a given expression, it is necessary to understand a large sector of the language in question or, even the complete language. The aim of this paper is to present a moderate version of meaning holism, which argues that, among other things, meaning holism does not imply the thesis of instability - if there is the change of belief about an object, there is a change of meaning - and, in this way, it is possible to attribute meanings to objects admitting changes of opinions and then beliefs. It will be shown how this version of holism gives an account of the main criticisms made of meaning holism in the last decades and also show how this theory can justify linguistic phenomena (like vagueness and polysemy) that are often treated as problems of language. Finally, it will also be argued that these linguistic phenomena are intrinsic to languages and that the moderate version of meaning holism can justify the occurrence of these phenomena.

Keywords: linguistics, meaning holism, philosophy of language, semantics

Procedia PDF Downloads 126
4549 Women Characters in Pakistani Films: A Critical Evaluation

Authors: Ali Arshad

Abstract:

The study examines the depiction of women characters in Urdu and Punjabi films. It is a critical evaluation of forty-eight Pakistani films. It explores the characters of women portrays in Urdu and Punjabi film of Pakistan. Using content analysis as methodology with feminist research that helps to investigate the phenomena and supports the study. Finding of the study shows that women characters in Urdu and Punjabi films are not the reflection of true Pakistani women rather this picture represents a negative image of Pakistani women in viewers mind. These characters don’t address the women’s issues nor do they present the solutions to these problems faced by Pakistani women. The characters of Pakistani women are not free from male prejudice, and these films do not portray the social and political role perform by actual Pakistani women. The analysis shows that the characters of women in Urdu and Punjabi films are based on the assumptions.

Keywords: women, Pakistani, film, characters

Procedia PDF Downloads 203
4548 Application Potential of Selected Tools in Context of Critical Infrastructure Protection and Risk Analysis

Authors: Hromada Martin

Abstract:

Risk analysis is considered as a fundamental aspect relevant for ensuring the level of critical infrastructure protection, where the critical infrastructure is seen as system, asset or its part which is important for maintaining the vital societal functions. Article actually discusses and analyzes the potential application of selected tools of information support for the implementation and within the framework of risk analysis and critical infrastructure protection. Use of the information in relation to their risk analysis can be viewed as a form of simplifying the analytical process. It is clear that these instruments (information support) for these purposes are countless, so they were selected representatives who have already been applied in the selected area of critical infrastructure, or they can be used. All presented fact were the basis for critical infrastructure resilience evaluation methodology development.

Keywords: critical infrastructure, protection, resilience, risk analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 540
4547 Alvaro Siza’s Design Strategy: An Insight into Critical Regionalism

Authors: Rahmatollah Amirjani

Abstract:

By the emergence of the debate over the failure of Regionalism in the late 1970s, Critical Regional­ism was introduced as a different way to respond to the state of architecture in the post-war era. Critical Regionalism is most often understood as a discourse that not only mediates the language of modern architecture with the local cultures but also revives the relation between architecture and spectator as indexed by capitalism. Since the inception of Critical Regionalism, a large number of architectural practices have emerged around the globe; however, the work of the well-known Portuguese architect, Álvaro Siza, is considered as a unique case amongst works associated with the discourse of Critical Regionalism. This paper intends to respond to a number of questions, including; what are the origins of Critical Regionalism? How does Siza’s design strategy correspond to the thematic of Critical Regionalism? How does Siza recover the relation between object and subject in most of his projects? Using Siza’s housing project for the Malagueira district in Évora, Portugal, this article will attempt to answer these questions, and highlight Alvaro Siza’s design procedure which goes beyond the existing discourse of Critical Regionalism and contributes to our understanding of this practice.

Keywords: Alvaro Siza, critical regionalism, Malagueira housing, placelessness

Procedia PDF Downloads 94
4546 Study on Stability and Wear in a Total Hip Prostheses

Authors: Virgil Florescu, Lucian Capitanu

Abstract:

The studies performed by the author and presented here focus mainly on the FE simulation of some relevant phenomena related to stability of orthopedic implants, especially those components of Total Hip Prostheses. The objectives are to study the mechanisms of achieving stability of acetabular prosthetic components and the influence of some characteristic parameters, to evaluate the effect of femoral stem fixation modality on the stability of prosthetic component and to predict long-term behavior, to analyze a critical phenomena which influence the loading transfer mechanism through artificial joints and could lead to aseptic loosening – the wear of joint frictional surfaces. After a theoretical background an application is made considering only three activities: normal walking, stair ascending and stair descending. For each activity, this function is maximized in a different locations: if for normal walking the maxima is in the superior-posterior part of the acetabular cup, for stair descending this maxim value could be located rather in the superior-anterior part, for stair ascending being even closer to the central area of the cup.

Keywords: THA, acetabular stability, FEM simulation, stresses and displacements, wear tests, wear simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 180
4545 Critical Pedagogy in the Philippine K-12 Grade 8 Values Education Curriculum and Textbook

Authors: Raymon Maac, Michael Arthus Muega, Joyce Ann Calingasan, Elva Maureen Gorospe

Abstract:

Critical pedagogy is known for its advocacy of humanistic and liberating education. Its far-reaching approach helps students to understand and analyze their own situations and the realities happening in their society. However, this pedagogy together with its promising features is not well-known in the Philippines. This paper determines the place of critical pedagogy in the new values education curriculum and analyzes its features in the K-12 Values Education curriculum and textbook. The study examines the position of critical pedagogy in the Philippine K-12 Values Education curriculum by closely studying and comparing their features; and scrutinizes the Grade 8 Values Education textbook specifically modules 4, 8, 10 and 13 which comprises 25% of the total 16 modules. The said modules are concerned with the role of the family in the preservation of social justice, which is one of the objectives of critical pedagogy. The findings in this research were based on the pieces of evidence gathered from the curriculum and textbook itself. Based on the evaluation done, the study found out that the ideas of critical pedagogy were the same with that of the objectives of K-12 Values Education Curriculum. Due to this, values education teachers can utilize critical pedagogy in their subject. In addition, the K-12 Values Education curriculum exhibits some of the features of critical pedagogy such as authentic student empowerment and critical thinking. Lastly, some features of critical pedagogy are also evident in some of the general parts and recommended activities in the K-12 Values Education textbook while other activities need to be fully developed by both teacher and students to reflect the genuine critical pedagogy.

Keywords: authentic student empowerment, critical pedagogy, critical thinking, liberating education

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4544 Man-Nature relationship in Bishop’s Poetry: An Eco-Critical Reading of the Selected Poems

Authors: Khaled Abkar Alkodimi

Abstract:

This paper attempts to explore Bishop’s eco-poetics and environmental consciousness from an ecocritical perspective. It focuses on her representations of animals, environments, and natural phenomena and the connection between a broad range of human activities and flora, fauna habitats. Indeed, Bishop shows a sense of human responsibility towards the earth in her peculiar treatment of place and livestock, which appears to be more than a static growth process. Her poetry is totally contrary to egoism and egotism, and this can be easily noticed in her subjective understanding of nature and creatures. The findings show Bishop as an eco-poet who committed herself and her poetry to highlight the significance of nature and world life at large. This is obvious through her representation of natural phenomena such as seasonal cycles, weather, and physical and ecological elements, including air, earth, and water, which essentially constitute and inform the poet’s environmental thoughts. Examining Bishop’s conception of a human relationship with ‘external nature through the examination of her poetic language, this study shows how the environmental imagination can suggest social responsibility to readers.

Keywords: elizabeth bishop, eco-criticism, eco-poetry, environmental consciousness, man-nature relationship

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4543 Nature of a Supercritical Mesophase

Authors: Hamza Javar Magnier, Leslie V. Woodcock

Abstract:

It has been reported that at temperatures above the critical there is no “continuity of liquid and gas”, as originally hypothesized by van der Waals. Rather, both gas and liquid phases, with characteristic properties as such, extend to supercritical temperatures. Each phase is bounded by the locus of a percolation transition, i.e. a higher-order thermodynamic phase change associated with percolation of gas clusters in a large void, or liquid interstitial vacancies in a large cluster. Between these two-phase bounds, it is reported there exists a mesophase that resembles an otherwise homogeneous dispersion of gas micro-bubbles in liquid (foam) and a dispersion of liquid micro-droplets in gas (mist). Such a colloidal-like state of a pure one-component fluid represents a hitherto unchartered equilibrium state of matter besides pure solid, liquid or gas. Here we provide compelling evidence, from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, for the existence of this supercritical mesophase and its colloidal nature. We report preliminary results of computer simulations for a model fluid using a simplistic representation of atoms or molecules, i.e. a hard-core repulsion with an attraction so short that the atoms are referred to as “adhesive spheres”. Molecular clusters, and hence percolation transitions, are unambiguously defined. Graphics of color-coded clusters show colloidal characteristics of the supercritical mesophase.

Keywords: critical phenomena, mesophase, supercritical, square-well, critical parameters

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4542 The Process of Critical Care Nursing Resilience in Workplace Adversity

Authors: Jennifer Jackson

Abstract:

Critical care nurses are at risk for burnout when confronted with sustained workplace adversity, which stems from a variety of social, structural, and environmental factors. Researchers have suggested that nurses can become resilient and overcome workplace adversity to achieve positive outcomes. The purpose of this study is to learn more about critical care nurses’ experiences with workplace adversity, and their process of becoming resilient. The research question will be: what is the process of critical care nursing resilience in workplace adversity? In-depth interviews with critical care nurses will provide the data to inductively generate the grounded theory. The resultant grounded theory will provide a framework to inform nurses and managers in developing interventions to support critical care nurses in their workplace. By enhancing nursing resilience, burnout may be avoided, and nurse satisfaction and overall quality of care may be improved.

Keywords: nursing, resilience, burnout, critical care

Procedia PDF Downloads 394
4541 Radionuclides Transport Phenomena in Vadose Zone

Authors: R. Testoni, R. Levizzari, M. De Salve

Abstract:

Radioactive waste management is fundamental to safeguard population and environment by radiological risks. Environmental assessment of a site, where nuclear activities are located, allows understanding the hydro geological system and the radionuclides transport in groundwater and subsoil. Use of dedicated software is the basis of transport phenomena investigation and for dynamic scenarios prediction; this permits to understand the evolution of accidental contamination events, but at the same time the potentiality of the software itself can be verified. The aim of this paper is to perform a numerical analysis by means of HYDRUS 1D code, so as to evaluate radionuclides transport in a nuclear site in Piedmont region (Italy). In particular, the behaviour in vadose zone was investigated. An iterative assessment process was performed for risk assessment of radioactive contamination. The analysis therein developed considers the following aspects: i) hydro geological site characterization; ii) individuation of the main intrinsic and external site factors influencing water flow and radionuclides transport phenomena; iii) software potential for radionuclides leakage simulation purposes.

Keywords: HYDRUS 1D, radionuclides transport phenomena, site characterization, radiation protection

Procedia PDF Downloads 327
4540 Phenomena-Based Approach for Automated Generation of Process Options and Process Models

Authors: Parminder Kaur Heer, Alexei Lapkin

Abstract:

Due to global challenges of increased competition and demand for more sustainable products/processes, there is a rising pressure on the industry to develop innovative processes. Through Process Intensification (PI) the existing and new processes may be able to attain higher efficiency. However, very few PI options are generally considered. This is because processes are typically analysed at a unit operation level, thus limiting the search space for potential process options. PI performed at more detailed levels of a process can increase the size of the search space. The different levels at which PI can be achieved is unit operations, functional and phenomena level. Physical/chemical phenomena form the lowest level of aggregation and thus, are expected to give the highest impact because all the intensification options can be described by their enhancement. The objective of the current work is thus, generation of numerous process alternatives based on phenomena, and development of their corresponding computer aided models. The methodology comprises: a) automated generation of process options, and b) automated generation of process models. The process under investigation is disintegrated into functions viz. reaction, separation etc., and these functions are further broken down into the phenomena required to perform them. E.g., separation may be performed via vapour-liquid or liquid-liquid equilibrium. A list of phenomena for the process is formed and new phenomena, which can overcome the difficulties/drawbacks of the current process or can enhance the effectiveness of the process, are added to the list. For instance, catalyst separation issue can be handled by using solid catalysts; the corresponding phenomena are identified and added. The phenomena are then combined to generate all possible combinations. However, not all combinations make sense and, hence, screening is carried out to discard the combinations that are meaningless. For example, phase change phenomena need the co-presence of the energy transfer phenomena. Feasible combinations of phenomena are then assigned to the functions they execute. A combination may accomplish a single or multiple functions, i.e. it might perform reaction or reaction with separation. The combinations are then allotted to the functions needed for the process. This creates a series of options for carrying out each function. Combination of these options for different functions in the process leads to the generation of superstructure of process options. These process options, which are formed by a list of phenomena for each function, are passed to the model generation algorithm in the form of binaries (1, 0). The algorithm gathers the active phenomena and couples them to generate the model. A series of models is generated for the functions, which are combined to get the process model. The most promising process options are then chosen subjected to a performance criterion, for example purity of product, or via a multi-objective Pareto optimisation. The methodology was applied to a two-step process and the best route was determined based on the higher product yield. The current methodology can identify, produce and evaluate process intensification options from which the optimal process can be determined. It can be applied to any chemical/biochemical process because of its generic nature.

Keywords: Phenomena, Process intensification, Process models , Process options

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4539 Improving Students' Critical Thinking in Understanding Reading Material Through Bloom's Taxonomy Questioning Strategy in English for Specific Purposes (ESP) Class

Authors: M. Mayuasti, Hevriani Sevrika, Armilia Riza

Abstract:

This research deals in improving college students’ critical thinking at English for Specific Purposes Subject. The strategy that is applied is Bloom’s Critical Thinking Questioning Strategy. The positive side of this strategy is that the given questions are developed based on Bloom’s taxonomy level. It is an action research because the researcher uses own class in doing this research. The processes of this research have been done from April to Mei 2014. There are two cycles and each cycle consists of two meetings. After doing the research, it is gotten that Bloom’s Critical Thinking Questioning Strategy improves college students’ critical thinking. It helps the students to build and elaborate their ideas. Hence, it increases students’ reading comprehension

Keywords: critical thinking, blooms’ critical thinking questioning strategy, specific purposes class, English

Procedia PDF Downloads 405
4538 Critical Thinking Index of College Students

Authors: Helen Frialde-Dupale

Abstract:

Critical thinking Index (CTI) of 150 third year college students from five State Colleges and Universities (SUCs) in Region I were determined. Only students with Grade Point Average (GPA) of at least 2.0 from four general classification of degree courses, namely: Education, Arts and Sciences, Engineering and Agriculture were included. Specific problem No.1 dealt with the profile variables, namely: age, sex, degree course, monthly family income, number of siblings, high school graduated from, grade point average, personality type, highest educational attainment of parents, and occupation of parents. Problem No. 2 determined the critical thinking index among the respondents. Problem No. 3 investigated whether or not there are significant differences in the critical thinking index among the respondents across the profile variables. While problem No.4 determined whether or not there are significant relationship between the critical thinking index and selected profile variables, namely: age, monthly family income, number of siblings, and grade point average of the respondents. Finally, on problem No. 5, the critical thinking instrument which obtained the lowest rates, were used as basis for outlining an intervention program for enhancing critical thinking index (CTI) of students. The following null hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance: there are no significant differences in the critical thinking index of the third college students across the profile variables; there are no significant relationships between the critical thinking index of the respondents and selected variables, namely: age, monthly family income, number of siblings, and grade point average.

Keywords: attitude as critical thinker, critical thinking applied, critical thinking index, self-perception as critical thinker

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4537 The Investigation on Pre-Service Teachers' Critical Thinking Dispositions in Terms of Several Variables

Authors: Cüneyit Akar, Mustafa Başaran, Ufuk Uluçınar

Abstract:

The purpose of this research is to examine the critical thinking dispositions of pre-service teachers in terms of several variables. In the line of this aim, we have investigated what their levels of critical thinking dispositions and whether there is any significant different in their critical thinking dispositions. Also, we have examined the relations between their critical thinking dispositions and their parents’ education statues, the number of their siblings, family income levels, and their religiosity level. 202 pre-service teachers who are studying at different departments at faculty of education at Uşak University participated in this research. In study, critical thinking dispositions scale by one of researchers was utilized and its validity and reliability was performed. The findings indicate that the level of their critical thinking dispositions was found to be .376 (arithmetic mean). On the other hand, we found that there is no significant difference in terms of their gender and the department at which they are studying. Furthermore, although there aren’t significant relationships between critical thinking dispositions and their mother education statues, their income levels, their religiosity levels and the number of their siblings; there is any significant positively at low level the relation between thinking dispositions and father educational statues. The findings obtained will be discussed together with literature and other research’ results.

Keywords: preservice teachers, critical thinking dispositions, pedagogy, education

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4536 Analytical and Numerical Investigation of Friction-Restricted Growth and Buckling of Elastic Fibers

Authors: Peter L. Varkonyi, Andras A. Sipos

Abstract:

The quasi-static growth of elastic fibers is studied in the presence of distributed contact with an immobile surface, subject to isotropic dry or viscous friction. Unlike classical problems of elastic stability modelled by autonomous dynamical systems with multiple time scales (slowly varying bifurcation parameter, and fast system dynamics), this problem can only be formulated as a non-autonomous system without time scale separation. It is found that the fibers initially converge to a trivial, straight configuration, which is later replaced by divergence reminiscent of buckling phenomena. In order to capture the loss of stability, a new definition of exponential stability against infinitesimal perturbations for systems defined over finite time intervals is developed. A semi-analytical method for the determination of the critical length based on eigenvalue analysis is proposed. The post-critical behavior of the fibers is studied numerically by using variational methods. The emerging post-critical shapes and the asymptotic behavior as length goes to infinity are identified for simple spatial distributions of growth. Comparison with physical experiments indicates reasonable accuracy of the theoretical model. Some applications from modeling plant root growth to the design of soft manipulators in robotics are briefly discussed.

Keywords: buckling, elastica, friction, growth

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