Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6881

Search results for: cost methodology

6791 Impact of Wind Energy on Cost and Balancing Reserves

Authors: Ali Osareh, Anil Khanal, Gary Lebby

Abstract:

Wind energy offers a significant advantage such as no fuel costs and no emissions from generation. However, wind energy sources are variable and non-dispatchable. The utility grid is able to accommodate the variability of wind in smaller proportion along with the daily load. However, at high penetration levels, the variability can severely impact the utility reserve requirements and the cost associated with it. In this paper, the impact of wind energy is evaluated in detail in formulating the total utility cost. The objective is to minimize the overall cost of generation while ensuring the proper management of the load. Overall cost includes the curtailment cost, reserve cost and the reliability cost as well as any other penalty imposed by the regulatory authority. Different levels of wind penetrations are explored and the cost impacts are evaluated. As the penetration level increases significantly, the reliability becomes a critical question to be answered. Here, we increase the penetration from the wind yet keep the reliability factor within the acceptable limit provided by NERC. This paper uses an economic dispatch (ED) model to incorporate wind generation into the power grid. Power system costs are analyzed at various wind penetration levels using Linear Programming. The goal of this study shows how the increases in wind generation will affect power system economics.

Keywords: Cost Analysis, Wind power generation, wind power penetration, economic dispatch (ED) model

Procedia PDF Downloads 436
6790 The Relationship of the Marketing Mix, Brand Image and Consumer Behavior of the Low-Cost Airline Service

Authors: Bundit Pungnirund

Abstract:

This research aimed to investigate the relationship between attitude towards marketing mix, brand image and consumer behavior of the passengers of low-cost airlines service. This study employed by quantitative research and the questionnaire was used to collect the data from 400 sampled of the passengers who have ever used the low-cost airline services based in Bangkok, Thailand. The descriptive statistics and Pearson’s correlation analysis were used to analyze data. The research results revealed that the attitude of the marketing mix of the low-cost airline services including product, price, place, promotion and process had related to the consumer behavior on the aspects of duration of service and frequency of service. While, the brand image of the low cost airline including the characteristics of organization, service quality and company identity had related to the consumer behavior on duration of service, frequency of service and cost of service at the significant statistically acceptable levels.

Keywords: Brand Image, Consumer behavior, marketing mix, low-cost airline

Procedia PDF Downloads 168
6789 Activity-Based Costing in the Hospitality Industry: A Case Study in a Hotel

Authors: Bita Mashayekhi, Mohammad Ara

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to provide some empirical evidence about implementing Activity-Based Costing (ABC) in the hospitality industry in Iran. For this purpose, we consider the Tabriz International Hotel as our sample hotel and then gather the relevant data from its cost accounting system in 2012. Then, we use ABC as our costing method and compare the cost of each service unit with that cost which had been extracted for the traditional costing method. The results show a different cost per unit for two methods. Also, because of its more precise and detailed provided information, an ABC system facilitates the decision-making process for managers on decisions related to profitability analysis, budgeting, pricing, and so on.

Keywords: Activity, Hospitality Industry, activity-based costing (ABC), cost driver

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
6788 Influence of Radio Frequency Identification Technology at Cost of Supply Chain as a Driver for the Generation of Competitive Advantage

Authors: Mona Baniahmadi, Saied Haghanifar

Abstract:

Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is regarded as a promising technology for the optimization of supply chain processes since it improves manufacturing and retail operations from forecasting demand for planning, managing inventory, and distribution. This study precisely aims at learning to know the RFID technology and at explaining how it can concretely be used for supply chain management and how it can help improving it in the case of Hejrat Company which is located in Iran and works on the distribution of medical drugs and cosmetics. This study uses some statistical analysis to calculate the expected benefits of an integrated RFID system on supply chain obtained through competitive advantages increases with decreasing cost factor. The study investigates how the cost of storage process, labor cost, the cost of missing goods, inventory management optimization, on-time delivery, order cost, lost sales and supply process optimization affect the performance of the integrated RFID supply chain regarding cost factors and provides a competitive advantage.

Keywords: Supply Chain, Radio Frequency Identification, Cost, competitive advantage

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6787 Off-Farm Work and Cost Efficiency in Staple Food Production among Small-Scale Farmers in North Central Nigeria

Authors: C. E. Ogbanje, S. A. N. D. Chidebelu, N. J. Nweze

Abstract:

The study evaluated off-farm work and cost efficiency in staple food production among small-scale farmers in North Central Nigeria. Multistage sampling technique was used to select 360 respondents (participants and non-participants in off-farm work). Primary data obtained were analysed using stochastic cost frontier and test of means’ difference. Capital input was lower for participants (N2,596.58) than non-participants (N11,099.14). Gamma (γ) was statistically significant. Farm size significantly (p<0.01) increased cost outlay for participants and non-participants. Average input prices of enterprises one and two significantly (p<0.01) increased cost. Sex, household size, credit obtained, formal education, farming experience, and farm income significantly (p<0.05) reduced cost inefficiency for non-participants. Average cost efficiency was 11%. Farm capital was wasted. Participants’ substitution of capital for labour did not put them at a disadvantage. Extension agents should encourage farmers to obtain financial relief from off-farm work but not to the extent of endangering farm cost efficiency.

Keywords: small-scale farmers, cost efficiency, mean difference, North Central Nigeria, off-farm work, participants and non-participants

Procedia PDF Downloads 203
6786 An Efficient Resource Management Algorithm for Mobility Management in Wireless Mesh Networks

Authors: Mallikarjuna Rao Yamarthy, Subramanyam Makam Venkata, Satya Prasad Kodati

Abstract:

The main objective of the proposed work is to reduce the overall network traffic incurred by mobility management, packet delivery cost and to increase the resource utilization. The proposed algorithm, An Efficient Resource Management Algorithm (ERMA) for mobility management in wireless mesh networks, relies on pointer based mobility management scheme. Whenever a mesh client moves from one mesh router to another, the pointer is set up dynamically between the previous mesh router and current mesh router based on the distance constraints. The algorithm evaluated for signaling cost, data delivery cost and total communication cost performance metrics. The proposed algorithm is demonstrated for both internet sessions and intranet sessions. The proposed algorithm yields significantly better performance in terms of signaling cost, data delivery cost, and total communication cost.

Keywords: Resource Management, Wireless Mesh Networks, mobility management, data delivery cost, pointer forwarding

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6785 Possibilistic Aggregations in the Investment Decision Making

Authors: G. Sirbiladze, I. Khutsishvili, B. Ghvaberidze

Abstract:

This work proposes a fuzzy methodology to support the investment decisions. While choosing among competitive investment projects, the methodology makes ranking of projects using the new aggregation OWA operator – AsPOWA, presented in the environment of possibility uncertainty. For numerical evaluation of the weighting vector associated with the AsPOWA operator the mathematical programming problem is constructed. On the basis of the AsPOWA operator the projects’ group ranking maximum criteria is constructed. The methodology also allows making the most profitable investments into several of the project using the method developed by the authors for discrete possibilistic bicriteria problems. The article provides an example of the investment decision-making that explains the work of the proposed methodology.

Keywords: expert evaluations, investment decision making, OWA operator, possibility uncertainty

Procedia PDF Downloads 428
6784 Construction Unit Rate Factor Modelling Using Neural Networks

Authors: Balimu Mwiya, Mundia Muya, Chabota Kaliba, Peter Mukalula

Abstract:

Factors affecting construction unit cost vary depending on a country’s political, economic, social and technological inclinations. Factors affecting construction costs have been studied from various perspectives. Analysis of cost factors requires an appreciation of a country’s practices. Identified cost factors provide an indication of a country’s construction economic strata. The purpose of this paper is to identify the essential factors that affect unit cost estimation and their breakdown using artificial neural networks. Twenty-five (25) identified cost factors in road construction were subjected to a questionnaire survey and employing SPSS factor analysis the factors were reduced to eight. The 8 factors were analysed using the neural network (NN) to determine the proportionate breakdown of the cost factors in a given construction unit rate. NN predicted that political environment accounted 44% of the unit rate followed by contractor capacity at 22% and financial delays, project feasibility, overhead and profit each at 11%. Project location, material availability and corruption perception index had minimal impact on the unit cost from the training data provided. Quantified cost factors can be incorporated in unit cost estimation models (UCEM) to produce more accurate estimates. This can create improvements in the cost estimation of infrastructure projects and establish a benchmark standard to assist the process of alignment of work practises and training of new staff, permitting the on-going development of best practises in cost estimation to become more effective.

Keywords: Neural Networks, construction cost factors, roadworks, Zambian construction industry

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
6783 Effect of Cloud Computing on Enterprises

Authors: Amir Rashid

Abstract:

Today is the world of innovations where everyone is looking for a change. Organizations are now looking toward virtualization in order to minimize their computing cost. Cloud Computing has also introduced itself by the means of reducing computing cost. It offers different approach to make computing better by improving utilization and reducing infrastructure and administrative costs. Cloud Computing is basically the amalgamation of Utility Computing and SaaS (Software as a Service). Cloud Computing is quite new to organizations as it is still at its deploying stage. Due to this reason, organizations are not confident whether to adopt it or not. This thesis investigates the problem for organization concerning the security and cost issues. Benefits and drawbacks are being highlighted which organizations can have or suffer in order to adopt Cloud Computing. In Conclusion, Cloud Computing is a better option available for small and medium organizations with a comparison to large companies both in terms of data security and cost.

Keywords: Security, Cloud Computing, Elasticity, Cost, SAAS, PAAS, IAAS

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
6782 An Introduction to Critical Chain Project Management Methodology

Authors: Ranjini Ramanath, Nanjunda P. Swamy

Abstract:

Construction has existed in our lives since time immemorial. However, unlike any other industry, construction projects have their own unique challenges – project type, purpose and end use of the project, geographical conditions, logistic arrangements, largely unorganized manpower and requirement of diverse skill sets, etc. These unique characteristics bring in their own level of risk and uncertainties to the project, which cause the project to deviate from its planned objectives of time, cost, quality, etc. over the many years, there have been significant developments in the way construction projects are conceptualized, planned, and managed. With the rapid increase in the population, increased rate of urbanization, there is a growing demand for infrastructure development, and it is required that the projects are delivered timely, and efficiently. In an age where ‘Time is Money,' implementation of new techniques of project management is required in leading to successful projects. This paper proposes a different approach to project management, which if applied in construction projects, can help in the accomplishment of the project objectives in a faster manner.

Keywords: Construction Management, Project Management, critical chain project management methodology, critical chain

Procedia PDF Downloads 296
6781 An Approach to Make Low-Cost Self-Compacting Geo-Polymer Concrete

Authors: Ankit Chakraborty, Raj Shah, Prayas Variya

Abstract:

Self-compacting geo-polymer concrete is a blended version of self-compacting concrete developed in Japan by Okamura. H. in 1986 and geo-polymer concrete proposed by Davidovits in 1999. This method is eco-friendly as there is low CO₂ emission and reduces labor cost due to its self-compacting property and zero percent cement content. We are making an approach to reduce concreting cost and make concreting eco-friendly by replacing cement fully and sand by a certain amount of industrial waste. It will reduce overall concreting cost due to its self-compatibility and replacement of materials, forms eco-friendly concreting technique and gives better fresh property and hardened property results compared to self-compacting concrete and geo-polymer concrete.

Keywords: Geopolymer Concrete, low carbon emission, low cost concreting, self compactability

Procedia PDF Downloads 99
6780 Chairussyuhur Arman, Totti Tjiptosumirat, Muhammad Gunawan, Mastur, Joko Priyono, Baiq Tri Ratna Erawati

Authors: Maria M. Giannakou, Athanasios K. Ziliaskopoulos

Abstract:

Transmission pipelines carrying natural gas are often routed through populated cities, industrial and environmentally sensitive areas. While the need for these networks is unquestionable, there are serious concerns about the risk these lifeline networks pose to the people, to their habitat and to the critical infrastructures, especially in view of natural disasters such as earthquakes. This work presents an Integrated Pipeline Risk Management methodology (IPRM) for assessing the hazard associated with a natural gas pipeline failure due to natural or manmade disasters. IPRM aims to optimize the allocation of the available resources to countermeasures in order to minimize the impacts of pipeline failure to humans, the environment, the infrastructure and the economic activity. A proposed knapsack mathematical programming formulation is introduced that optimally selects the proper mitigation policies based on the estimated cost – benefit ratios. The proposed model is demonstrated with a small numerical example. The vulnerability analysis of these pipelines and the quantification of consequences from such failures can be useful for natural gas industries on deciding which mitigation measures to implement on the existing pipeline networks with the minimum cost in an acceptable level of hazard.

Keywords: Risk management, Cost Benefit Analysis, risk mitigation, knapsack problem, natural gas distribution network

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6779 A Feasibility and Implementation Model of Small-Scale Hydropower Development for Rural Electrification in South Africa: Design Chart Development

Authors: Gideon J. Bonthuys, Marco van Dijk, Jay N. Bhagwan

Abstract:

Small scale hydropower used to play a very important role in the provision of energy to urban and rural areas of South Africa. The national electricity grid, however, expanded and offered cheap, coal generated electricity and a large number of hydropower systems were decommissioned. Unfortunately, large numbers of households and communities will not be connected to the national electricity grid for the foreseeable future due to high cost of transmission and distribution systems to remote communities due to the relatively low electricity demand within rural communities and the allocation of current expenditure on upgrading and constructing of new coal fired power stations. This necessitates the development of feasible alternative power generation technologies. A feasibility and implementation model was developed to assist in designing and financially evaluating small-scale hydropower (SSHP) plants. Several sites were identified using the model. The SSHP plants were designed for the selected sites and the designs for the different selected sites were priced using pricing models (civil, mechanical and electrical aspects). Following feasibility studies done on the designed and priced SSHP plants, a feasibility analysis was done and a design chart developed for future similar potential SSHP plant projects. The methodology followed in conducting the feasibility analysis for other potential sites consisted of developing cost and income/saving formulae, developing net present value (NPV) formulae, Capital Cost Comparison Ratio (CCCR) and levelised cost formulae for SSHP projects for the different types of plant installations. It included setting up a model for the development of a design chart for a SSHP, calculating the NPV, CCCR and levelised cost for the different scenarios within the model by varying different parameters within the developed formulae, setting up the design chart for the different scenarios within the model and analyzing and interpreting results. From the interpretation of the develop design charts for feasible SSHP in can be seen that turbine and distribution line cost are the major influences on the cost and feasibility of SSHP. High head, short transmission line and islanded mini-grid SSHP installations are the most feasible and that the levelised cost of SSHP is high for low power generation sites. The main conclusion from the study is that the levelised cost of SSHP projects indicate that the cost of SSHP for low energy generation is high compared to the levelised cost of grid connected electricity supply; however, the remoteness of SSHP for rural electrification and the cost of infrastructure to connect remote rural communities to the local or national electricity grid provides a low CCCR and renders SSHP for rural electrification feasible on this basis.

Keywords: Cost, Rural Electrification, feasibility, small-scale hydropower

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6778 Methodology for Obtaining Static Alignment Model

Authors: Lely A. Luengas, Pedro R. Vizcaya, Giovanni Sánchez

Abstract:

In this paper, a methodology is presented to obtain the Static Alignment Model for any transtibial amputee person. The proposed methodology starts from experimental data collected on the Hospital Militar Central, Bogotá, Colombia. The effects of transtibial prosthesis malalignment on amputees were measured in terms of joint angles, center of pressure (COP) and weight distribution. Some statistical tools are used to obtain the model parameters. Mathematical predictive models of prosthetic alignment were created. The proposed models are validated in amputees and finding promising results for the prosthesis Static Alignment. Static alignment process is unique to each subject; nevertheless the proposed methodology can be used in each transtibial amputee.

Keywords: Information Theory, prediction model, prosthetic alignment, transtibial prosthesis

Procedia PDF Downloads 76
6777 The Methodology of Flip Chip Using Astro Place and Route Tool

Authors: Rohaya Abdul Wahab, Raja Mohd Fuad Tengku Aziz, Nazaliza Othman, Sharifah Saleh, Nabihah Razali, Rozaimah Baharim, Md Hanif Md Nasir

Abstract:

This paper will discuss flip chip methodology, in which I/O pads, standard cells, macros and bump cells array are placed in the floorplan, then routed using Astro place and route tool. Final DRC and LVS checking is done using Calibre verification tool. The design vehicle to run this methodology is an OpenRISC design targeted to Silterra 0.18 micrometer technology with 6 metal layers for routing. Astro has extensive support for flip chip placement and routing. Astro tool commands for flip chip are straightforward approach like the conventional standard wire bond packaging. However since we do not have flip chip commands in our Astro tool, no LEF file for bump cell and no LEF file for flip chip I/O pad, we create our own methodology to prepare for future flip chip tapeout. 

Keywords: Methodology, flip chip, bump cell, LEF, astro, calibre, SCHEME, TCL

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6776 Automated Resin Transfer Moulding of Carbon Phenolic Composites

Authors: Zhenyu Du, Ed Collings, James Meredith

Abstract:

The high cost of composite materials versus conventional materials remains a major barrier to uptake in the transport sector. This is exacerbated by a shortage of skilled labour which makes the labour content of a hand laid composite component (~40 % of total cost) an obvious target for reduction. Automation is a method to remove labour cost and improve quality. This work focuses on the challenges and benefits to automating the manufacturing process from raw fibre to trimmed component. It will detail the experimental work required to complete an automation cell, the control strategy used to integrate all machines and the final benefits in terms of throughput and cost.

Keywords: Automation, low cost technologies, processing and manufacturing technologies, resin transfer moulding

Procedia PDF Downloads 162
6775 Application of Costing System in the Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SME) in Turkey

Authors: Hamide Özyürek, Metin Yılmaz

Abstract:

Standard processes, similar and limited production lines, the production of high direct costs will be more accurate than the use of parts of the traditional cost systems in the literature. However, direct costs, overhead expenses, in turn, decreases the burden of increasingly sophisticated production facilities, a situation that led the researchers to look for the cost of traditional systems of alternative techniques. Variety cost management approaches for example Total quality management (TQM), just-in-time (JIT), benchmarking, kaizen costing, targeting cost, life cycle costs (LLC), activity-based costing (ABC) value engineering have been introduced. Management and cost applications have changed over the past decade and will continue to change. Modern cost systems can provide relevant and accurate cost information. These methods provide the decisions about customer, product and process improvement. The aim of study is to describe and explain the adoption and application of costing systems in SME. This purpose reports on a survey conducted during 2014 small and medium sized enterprises (SME) in Ankara. The survey results were evaluated using SPSS package program.

Keywords: Managerial Accounting, Cost Accounting, modern costing systems, costing

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6774 Aircraft Line Maintenance Equipped with Decision Support System

Authors: B. Sudarsan Baskar, S. Pooja Pragati, S. Raj Kumar

Abstract:

The cost effectiveness in aircraft maintenance is of high privilege in the recent days. The cost effectiveness can be effectively made when line maintenance activities are incorporated at airports during Turn around time (TAT). The present work outcomes the shortcomings that affect the dispatching of the aircrafts, aiming at high fleet operability and low maintenance cost. The operational and cost constraints have been discussed and a suggestive alternative mechanism is proposed. The possible allocation of all deferred maintenance tasks to a set of all deferred maintenance tasks to a set of suitable airport resources have termed as alternative and is discussed in this paper from the data’s collected from the kingfisher airlines.

Keywords: Supply Chain Management, Logistics, Decision Support System, aircraft maintenance planning, maintenance-cost, RUL(remaining useful life)

Procedia PDF Downloads 345
6773 Integrating Cost-Benefit Assessment and Contract Design to Support Industrial Symbiosis Deployment

Authors: Robin Molinier

Abstract:

Industrial symbiosis (I.S) is the realization of Industrial Ecology (I.E) principles in production systems in function. I.S consists in the use of waste materials, fatal energy, recirculated utilities and infrastructure/service sharing as resources for production. Environmental benefits can be achieved from resource conservation but economic profitability is required by the participating actors. I.S indeed involves several actors with their own objectives and resources so that each one must be satisfied by ex-ante arrangements to commit toward I.S execution (investments and transactions). Following the Resource-Based View of transactions we build a modular framework to assess global I.S profitability and to specify each actor’s contributions to costs and benefits in line with their resource endowments and performance requirements formulations. I.S projects specificities implied by the need for customization (asset specificity, non-homogeneity) induce the use of long-term contracts for transactions following Transaction costs economics arguments. Thus we propose first a taxonomy of costs and value drivers for I.S and an assignment to each actor of I.S specific risks that we identified as load profiles mismatch, quality problems and value fluctuations. Then appropriate contractual guidelines (pricing, cost sharing and warranties) that support mutual profitability are derived from the detailed identification of contributions by the cost-benefits model. This analytical framework helps identifying what points to focus on when bargaining over contracting for transactions and investments. Our methodology is applied to I.S archetypes raised from a literature survey on eco-industrial parks initiatives and practitioners interviews.

Keywords: Contracts, Cost-benefit analysis, Industrial Symbiosis, risks

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6772 Apply Commitment Method in Power System to Minimize the Fuel Cost

Authors: Mohamed Shaban, Adel Yahya

Abstract:

The goal of this paper study is to schedule the power generation units to minimize fuel consumption cost based on a model that solves unit commitment problems. This can be done by utilizing forward dynamic programming method to determine the most economic scheduling of generating units. The model was applied to a power station, which consists of four generating units. The obtained results show that the applications of forward dynamic programming method offer a substantial reduction in fuel consumption cost. The fuel consumption cost has been reduced from $116,326 to $102,181 within a 24-hour period. This means saving about 12.16 % of fuel consumption cost. The study emphasizes the importance of applying modeling schedule programs to the operation of power generation units. As a consequence less consumption of fuel, less loss of power and less pollution

Keywords: Power System, Programming, generation scheduling, unit commitment, forward dynamic, fuel cost, operation cost, generating units

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6771 Policy Recommendations for Reducing CO2 Emissions in Kenya's Electricity Generation, 2015-2030

Authors: Paul Kipchumba

Abstract:

Kenya is an East African Country lying at the Equator. It had a population of 46 million in 2015 with an annual growth rate of 2.7%, making a population of at least 65 million in 2030. Kenya’s GDP in 2015 was about 63 billion USD with per capita GDP of about 1400 USD. The rural population is 74%, whereas urban population is 26%. Kenya grapples with not only access to energy but also with energy security. There is direct correlation between economic growth, population growth, and energy consumption. Kenya’s energy composition is at least 74.5% from renewable energy with hydro power and geothermal forming the bulk of it; 68% from wood fuel; 22% from petroleum; 9% from electricity; and 1% from coal and other sources. Wood fuel is used by majority of rural and poor urban population. Electricity is mostly used for lighting. As of March 2015 Kenya had installed electricity capacity of 2295 MW, making a per capital electricity consumption of 0.0499 KW. The overall retail cost of electricity in 2015 was 0.009915 USD/ KWh (KES 19.85/ KWh), for installed capacity over 10MW. The actual demand for electricity in 2015 was 3400 MW and the projected demand in 2030 is 18000 MW. Kenya is working on vision 2030 that aims at making it a prosperous middle income economy and targets 23 GW of generated electricity. However, cost and non-cost factors affect generation and consumption of electricity in Kenya. Kenya does not care more about CO2 emissions than on economic growth. Carbon emissions are most likely to be paid by future costs of carbon emissions and penalties imposed on local generating companies by sheer disregard of international law on C02 emissions and climate change. The study methodology was a simulated application of carbon tax on all carbon emitting sources of electricity generation. It should cost only USD 30/tCO2 tax on all emitting sources of electricity generation to have solar as the only source of electricity generation in Kenya. The country has the best evenly distributed global horizontal irradiation. Solar potential after accounting for technology efficiencies such as 14-16% for solar PV and 15-22% for solar thermal is 143.94 GW. Therefore, the paper recommends adoption of solar power for generating all electricity in Kenya in order to attain zero carbon electricity generation in the country.

Keywords: Co2 Emissions, Electricity Generation, cost factors, non-cost factors

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6770 Empirical Study of Correlation between the Cost Performance Index Stability and the Project Cost Forecast Accuracy in Construction Projects

Authors: Amin AminiKhafri, James M. Dawson-Edwards, Ryan M. Simpson, Simaan M. AbouRizk

Abstract:

Earned value management (EVM) has been introduced as an integrated method to combine schedule, budget, and work breakdown structure (WBS). EVM provides various indices to demonstrate project performance including the cost performance index (CPI). CPI is also used to forecast final project cost at completion based on the cost performance during the project execution. Knowing the final project cost during execution can initiate corrective actions, which can enhance project outputs. CPI, however, is not constant during the project, and calculating the final project cost using a variable index is an inaccurate and challenging task for practitioners. Since CPI is based on the cumulative progress values and because of the learning curve effect, CPI variation dampens and stabilizes as project progress. Although various definitions for the CPI stability have been proposed in literature, many scholars have agreed upon the definition that considers a project as stable if the CPI at 20% completion varies less than 0.1 from the final CPI. While 20% completion point is recognized as the stability point for military development projects, construction projects stability have not been studied. In the current study, an empirical study was first conducted using construction project data to determine the stability point for construction projects. Early findings have demonstrated that a majority of construction projects stabilize towards completion (i.e., after 70% completion point). To investigate the effect of CPI stability on cost forecast accuracy, the correlation between CPI stability and project cost at completion forecast accuracy was also investigated. It was determined that as projects progress closer towards completion, variation of the CPI decreases and final project cost forecast accuracy increases. Most projects were found to have 90% accuracy in the final cost forecast at 70% completion point, which is inlined with findings from the CPI stability findings. It can be concluded that early stabilization of the project CPI results in more accurate cost at completion forecasts.

Keywords: Earned Value Management, empirical study, cost performance index, final project cost

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6769 Time and Cost Efficiency Analysis of Quick Die Change System on Metal Stamping Industry

Authors: Rudi Kurniawan Arief

Abstract:

Manufacturing cost and setup time are the hot topics to improve in Metal Stamping industry because material and components price are always rising up while costumer requires to cut down the component price year by year. The Single Minute Exchange of Die (SMED) is one of many methods to reduce waste in stamping industry. The Japanese Quick Die Change (QDC) dies system is one of SMED systems that could reduce both of setup time and manufacturing cost. However, this system is rarely used in stamping industries. This paper will analyze how deep the QDC dies system could reduce setup time and the manufacturing cost. The research is conducted by direct observation, simulating and comparing of QDC dies system with conventional dies system. In this research, we found that the QDC dies system could save up to 35% of manufacturing cost and reduce 70% of setup times. This simulation proved that the QDC die system is effective for cost reduction but must be applied in several parallel production processes.

Keywords: press die, metal stamping, QDC system, single minute exchange die, manufacturing cost saving, SMED

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6768 Knowledge Representation and Inconsistency Reasoning of Class Diagram Maintenance in Big Data

Authors: Chi-Lun Liu

Abstract:

Requirements modeling and analysis are important in successful information systems' maintenance. Unified Modeling Language (UML) class diagrams are useful standards for modeling information systems. To our best knowledge, there is a lack of a systems development methodology described by the organism metaphor. The core concept of this metaphor is adaptation. Using the knowledge representation and reasoning approach and ontologies to adopt new requirements are emergent in recent years. This paper proposes an organic methodology which is based on constructivism theory. This methodology is a knowledge representation and reasoning approach to analyze new requirements in the class diagrams maintenance. The process and rules in the proposed methodology automatically analyze inconsistencies in the class diagram. In the big data era, developing an automatic tool based on the proposed methodology to analyze large amounts of class diagram data is an important research topic in the future.

Keywords: Software Engineering, Ontology, Knowledge Representation, Reasoning, class diagram

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6767 Seismic Performance of Isolated Bridge Configurations with Soil Structure Interaction

Authors: Davide Forcellini

Abstract:

The most recent development of earthquake engineering is based on concept of design consisting in prescribed performance rather than the more traditional prescriptive approaches. The paper aims to assess the effects of isolation devices and soil structure interaction on a benchmark bridge adopting a Performance-Based Earthquake Engineering methodology. Several isolated configurations of abutments and pier connections are compared performing the most representative isolation devices. Isolation systems suitability depends on many factors, mainly connected with ground effects. In this regard, the second purpose of this paper is to assess the effects of soil-structure interaction (SSI) on the studied bridge configurations. Contributions of isolation technique and soil structure interaction are assessed evaluating the resistance effects applied to Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) levels in terms of cost and time repair quantities.

Keywords: Earthquake Engineering, Bridge, Soil Structure Interaction, Seismic Assessment, base isolation, non linearity, PBEE methodology

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6766 A Comparative Analysis of Residential Quality of Public and Private Estates in Lagos

Authors: S. Akinde, Jubril Olatunbosun

Abstract:

In recent years, most of the urban centers in Nigeria are fast experiencing housing problems such as unaffordable housing and environmental challenges, all of which determine the nature of housing quality. The population continues to increase and the demand for quality housing increases probably at the same rate. Several kinds of houses serve various purposes; the objectives of the low cost housing schemes as the name suggests is to make houses quality to both the middle and lower classes of people in Lagos. A casual look into the study area of Iba Low Cost Housing Estate and the Unity Low Cost Housing Estate, Ojo and Alimosho respectively in Lagos State have shown a huge demands for houses. The study area boasts of a large population all engaged in various commercial activities with income at various levels. It would be fair to say that these people are mainly of the middle class and lower class. This means the low cost housing scheme truly serves these purposes. A Low Cost Housing Scheme of Iba which is publicly owned and Low Cost Housing Scheme of Unity Estate (UE) is privately owned.  

Keywords: Housing, Public, residential quality, low cost housing scheme, private estates

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6765 Impact on Cost of Equity of Accounting and Disclosures

Authors: Abhishek Ranga

Abstract:

The study examined the effect of accounting choice and level of disclosure on the firm’s implied cost of equity in Indian environment. For the study accounting choice was classified as aggressive or conservative depending upon the firm’s choice of accounting methods, accounting policies and accounting estimates. Level of disclosure is the quantum of financial and non-financial information disclosed in firm’s annual report, essentially in note to accounts section, schedules forming part of financial statements and Management Discussion and Analysis report. Regression models were developed with cost of equity as a dependent variable and accounting choice, level of disclosure as an independent variable along with selected control variables. Cost of equity was measured using Edward-Bell-Ohlson (EBO) valuation model, to measure accounting choice Modified-Jones-Model (MJM) was used and level of disclosure was measured using a disclosure index essentially drawn from Botosan study. Results indicated a negative association between the implied cost of equity and conservative accounting choice and also between level of disclosure and cost of equity.

Keywords: disclosure, aggressive accounting choice, conservative accounting choice, implied cost of equity

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6764 Sustainable Manufacturing of Concentrated Latex and Ribbed Smoked Sheets in Sri Lanka

Authors: Pasan Dunuwila, V. H. L. Rodrigo, Naohiro Goto

Abstract:

Sri Lanka is one the largest natural rubber (NR) producers of the world, where the NR industry is a major foreign exchange earner. Among the locally manufactured NR products, concentrated latex (CL) and ribbed smoked sheets (RSS) hold a significant position. Furthermore, these products become the foundation for many products utilized by the people all over the world (e.g. gloves, condoms, tires, etc.). Processing of CL and RSS costs a significant amount of material, energy, and workforce. With this background, both manufacturing lines have immensely challenged by waste, low productivity, lack of cost efficiency, rising cost of production, and many environmental issues. To face the above challenges, the adaptation of sustainable manufacturing measures that use less energy, water, materials, and produce less waste is imperative. However, these sectors lack comprehensive studies that shed light on such measures and thoroughly discuss their improvement potentials from both environmental and economic points of view. Therefore, based on a study of three CL and three RSS mills in Sri Lanka, this study deploys sustainable manufacturing techniques and tools to uncover the underlying potentials to improve performances in CL and RSS processing sectors. This study is comprised of three steps: 1. quantification of average material waste, economic losses, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions via material flow analysis (MFA), material flow cost accounting (MFCA), and life cycle assessment (LCA) in each manufacturing process, 2. identification of improvement options with the help of Pareto and What-if analyses, field interviews, and the existing literature; and 3. validation of the identified improvement options via the re-execution of MFA, MFCA, and LCA. With the help of this methodology, the economic and environmental hotspots, and the degrees of improvement in both systems could be identified. Results highlighted that each process could be improved to have less waste, monetary losses, manufacturing costs, and GHG emissions. Conclusively, study`s methodology and findings are believed to be beneficial for assuring the sustainable growth not only in Sri Lankan NR processing sector itself but also in NR or any other industry rooted in other developing countries.

Keywords: Sri Lanka, natural rubber, concentrated latex, ribbed smoked sheets

Procedia PDF Downloads 128
6763 The Study of Cost Accounting in S Company Based on TDABC

Authors: Heng Ma

Abstract:

Third-party warehousing logistics has an important role in the development of external logistics. At present, the third-party logistics in our country is still a new industry, the accounting system has not yet been established, the current financial accounting system of third-party warehousing logistics is mainly in the traditional way of thinking, and only able to provide the total cost information of the entire enterprise during the accounting period, unable to reflect operating indirect cost information. In order to solve the problem of third-party logistics industry cost information distortion, improve the level of logistics cost management, the paper combines theoretical research and case analysis method to reflect cost allocation by building third-party logistics costing model using Time-Driven Activity-Based Costing(TDABC), and takes S company as an example to account and control the warehousing logistics cost. Based on the idea of “Products consume activities and activities consume resources”, TDABC put time into the main cost driver and use time-consuming equation resources assigned to cost objects. In S company, the objects focuses on three warehouse, engaged with warehousing and transportation (the second warehouse, transport point) service. These three warehouse respectively including five departments, Business Unit, Production Unit, Settlement Center, Security Department and Equipment Division, the activities in these departments are classified by in-out of storage forecast, in-out of storage or transit and safekeeping work. By computing capacity cost rate, building the time-consuming equation, the paper calculates the final operation cost so as to reveal the real cost. The numerical analysis results show that the TDABC can accurately reflect the cost allocation of service customers and reveal the spare capacity cost of resource center, verifies the feasibility and validity of TDABC in third-party logistics industry cost accounting. It inspires enterprises focus on customer relationship management and reduces idle cost to strengthen the cost management of third-party logistics enterprises.

Keywords: Cost Management, third-party logistics enterprises, TDABC, S company

Procedia PDF Downloads 242
6762 Immobilization of Lipase Enzyme by Low Cost Material: A Statistical Approach

Authors: Md. Z. Alam, Devi R. Asih, Md. N. Salleh

Abstract:

Immobilization of lipase enzyme produced from palm oil mill effluent (POME) by the activated carbon (AC) among the low cost support materials was optimized. The results indicated that immobilization of 94% was achieved by AC as the most suitable support material. A sequential optimization strategy based on a statistical experimental design, including one-factor-at-a-time (OFAT) method was used to determine the equilibrium time. Three components influencing lipase immobilization were optimized by the response surface methodology (RSM) based on the face-centered central composite design (FCCCD). On the statistical analysis of the results, the optimum enzyme concentration loading, agitation rate and carbon active dosage were found to be 30 U/ml, 300 rpm and 8 g/L respectively, with a maximum immobilization activity of 3732.9 U/g-AC after 2 hrs of immobilization. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed a high regression coefficient (R2) of 0.999, which indicated a satisfactory fit of the model with the experimental data. The parameters were statistically significant at p<0.05.

Keywords: Adsorption, activated carbon, immobilization, POME based lipase

Procedia PDF Downloads 112