Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 47

Search results for: low-cost airline

47 The Revenue Management Implementation and Its Complexity in the Airline Industry: An Empirical Study on the Egyptian Airline Industry

Authors: Amr Sultan, Sara Elgazzar, Breksal Elmiligy

Abstract:

The airline industry nowadays is becoming a more growing industry facing a severe competition. It is an influential issue in this context to utilize revenue management (RM) concept and practice in order to develop the pricing strategy. There is an unfathomable necessity for RM to assist the airlines and their associates to disparage the cost and recuperate their revenue, which in turn will boost the airline industry performance. The complexity of RM imposes enormous challenges on the airline industry. Several studies have been proposed on the RM adaptation in airlines industry while there is a limited availability of implementing RM and its complexity in the developing countries such as Egypt. This research represents a research schema about the implementation of the RM to the Egyptian airline industry. The research aims at investigating and demonstrating the complexities face implementing RM in the airline industry, up on which the research provides a comprehensive understanding of how to overcome these complexities while adapting RM in the Egyptian airline industry. An empirical study was conducted on the Egyptian airline sector based on a sample of four airlines (Egyptair, Britishair, KLM, and Lufthansa). The empirical study was conducted using a mix of qualitative and quantitative approaches. First, in-depth interviews were carried out to analyze the Egyptian airline sector status and the main challenges faced by the airlines. Then, a structured survey on the three different parties of airline industry; airlines, airfreight forwarders, and passengers were conducted in order to investigate the main complexity factors from different parties' points of view. Finally, a focus group was conducted to develop a best practice framework to overcome the complexities faced the RM adaptation in the Egyptian airline industry. The research provides an original contribution to knowledge by creating a framework to overcome the complexities and challenges in adapting RM in the airline industry generally and the Egyptian airline industry particularly. The framework can be used as a RM tool to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of the Egyptian airline industry performance.

Keywords: revenue management, airline industry, revenue management complexity, Egyptian airline industry

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46 The Influence of Website Quality on Customer E-Satisfaction in Low Cost Airline

Authors: Zainab Khalifah, Wong Chiet Bing, Noor Hazarina Hashim

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The evolution of customer behavior in purchasing products or services through the Internet leads to airline companies engaging in the e-ticketing process in order to maintain their business. A well-designed website is vitally significant for the airline companies to provide effective communication, support, and competitive advantage. This study was conducted to identify the dimensions of website quality for low cost airline and to investigate the relationship between the website quality and customer e-satisfaction at low cost airline. A total of 381 responses were conveniently collected among local passengers at Low Cost Carrier Terminal, Kuala Lumpur via questionnaire distribution. This study found that the five determinant factors of website quality for AirAsia were Information Content, Navigation, Responsiveness, Personalization, and Security and Privacy. The results of this study revealed that there is a positive relationship between the five dimensions of website quality and customer e-satisfaction, and also information content was the most significant contributor to customer e-satisfaction.

Keywords: website quality, customer e-satisfaction, low cost airline, e-ticketing

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45 The Relationship of the Marketing Mix, Brand Image and Consumer Behavior of the Low-Cost Airline Service

Authors: Bundit Pungnirund

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This research aimed to investigate the relationship between attitude towards marketing mix, brand image and consumer behavior of the passengers of low-cost airlines service. This study employed by quantitative research and the questionnaire was used to collect the data from 400 sampled of the passengers who have ever used the low-cost airline services based in Bangkok, Thailand. The descriptive statistics and Pearson’s correlation analysis were used to analyze data. The research results revealed that the attitude of the marketing mix of the low-cost airline services including product, price, place, promotion and process had related to the consumer behavior on the aspects of duration of service and frequency of service. While, the brand image of the low cost airline including the characteristics of organization, service quality and company identity had related to the consumer behavior on duration of service, frequency of service and cost of service at the significant statistically acceptable levels.

Keywords: brand image, consumer behavior, low-cost airline, marketing mix

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44 Education in Personality Development and Grooming for Airline Business Program's Students of International College, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University

Authors: Taksina Bunbut

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Personality and grooming are vital for creating professionalism and safety image for all staffs in the airline industry. Airline Business Program also has an aim to educate students through the subject Personality Development and Grooming in order to elevate the quality of students to meet standard requirements of the airline industry. However, students agree that there are many difficulties that cause unsuccessful learning experience in this subject. The research is to study problems that can afflict students from getting good results in the classroom. Furthermore, exploring possible solutions to overcome challenges are also included in this study. The research sample consists of 140 students who attended the class of Personality Development and Grooming. The employed research instrument is a questionnaire. Statistic for data analysis is t-test and Multiple Regression Analysis. The result found that although students are satisfied with teaching and learning of this subject, they considered that teaching in English and teaching topics in social etiquette in different cultures are difficult for them to understand.

Keywords: personality development, grooming, Airline Business Program, soft skill

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43 Examining the Challenges Faced by Passengers Using Arik Air for International and Domestic Travel

Authors: Mahmud Hafsat Hussaini, Eldah Ephraim Eldah, Bata Zoakah Amina

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This research work was aimed at examining the challenges faced by passengers using Arik air for domestic and international travels. Passengers do complain of delay flights, theft and rude behavior by Arik staff while on transit or in the process of travelling using the aircraft. Being the national carrier in Nigeria these behaviors have tarnished the image of the airline and makes travel experience to be challenging. Hundred survey questionnaires were administered to travellers who have used the airline for domestic and international flights. Findings show that the staff of the airline do lack customer care skills and are sometimes rude to customers. The airline does have different agents that book for international flights who delays confirming bookings even after payment. The website of the airline is mostly down and makes bookings difficult. Other findings related to the study are a delay of domestic flights within Nigeria. Passengers are sometimes kept for 8 hours in the airport due to delay of flights. The study, therefore, recommends that flight schedule should be adhered to and staff should be trained to meet of with passengers demand. The security of guest luggage at the airport should be put in place to avoid theft. An effective booking platform should be accessible to passengers for easy booking.

Keywords: examining, challenges, domestic, international, travels

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42 A Corpus-Based Discourse Analysis of the Disappearance of MH370 in Malaysia and United Kingdom Newspapers: A Pilot Study

Authors: Theng Theng Ong

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This pilot study adopts a corpus-based discourse analysis to explore the construction of Malaysia airline tragedy MH370 in the selected Malaysian and United Kingdom (UK) newspapers. Fairclough’s three-dimensional model is adopted in the study to support the corpus-based analysis. The analysis aims to determine the ways in which Malaysian Airline tragedy MH370 is linguistically defined and constructed in terms of keywords and collocation. The study also seeks to identify the types of discourse that are presented in the news articles. In addition, the differences or similarities in terms of keywords, topics or issues covered by the selected Malaysian and UK news media are examined.

Keywords: corpus, CDA, newspapers, airline tragedies

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41 US Airlines Performance and Its Connection with Service Quality

Authors: Nicole Kalemba, Fernando Campa-Planas, Ana-Beatriz Hernández-Lara, Maria Victória Sánchez-Rebull

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The purpose of this paper is to determine the effects of service quality on US airlines’ economic performance. In order to cover this goal, it has been considered four different indexes of service quality in the air transportation industry, and also two indicators of economic performance, revenues and return on investment (ROI). Data from American airline companies over a period that covers from 2006 to 2013 have been used in order to determine if airlines’ profitability increases when service quality improves. Considering the effects on airlines’ profitability, the results confirm the positive and significant influence of service quality on the ROI of the companies in our study. Meanwhile, a non-significant effect was found for airline revenues related to quality. No previous research in this area has been done and these findings could encourage airline companies to invest in quality as far as this policy can have a return on their profitability.

Keywords: airlines, economic performance, key performance indicators, quality

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40 Cost Benefit Analysis and Adjustments of Corporate Social Responsibility in the Airline Industry

Authors: Roman Asatryan

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The decision-making processes in Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) among firms in general and airlines in particular have to do with the benefits that accrue through those investments. The crux of the matter is not whether to invest in CSR or not, but rather, how firms can quantify the benefits derived from such investments. This paper analyzes the cost benefit adjustment strategies for firms in the airline industry in their CSR strategy adoption and implementation. The adjustment strategies identified will enable firms in the airline industry to have a basis for determining the worth of such CSR investments. This paper discusses the cost and benefit analysis model in order to understand the ways airlines can reduce costs and increase returns on CSR, or balance the cost and benefits. The analysis from this study points to the fact that economic concepts especially the CBA are useful, though they are not without challenges. The challenge arises when it is problematic to express the real impact of the externality in monetary terms. The use of rational maximization of the gains may seem to be a rather optimistic goal mainly because of environmental variability, perceptual uncertainty, and imperfect knowledge about the potential externality. This paper concludes that the CBA model gives a basic understanding of the motivations for investing in intangible assets like CSR. Consequently, it sets the tone for formulating relevant hypothesis in empirical studies in investment in CSR in particular and other intangible assets in business operations.

Keywords: cost-benefit analysis, corporate social responsibility, airline industry

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39 The Determinants of the Operational Performance in Airline Industry: A Case of a Turkish Airline Company

Authors: Mustafa K. Yilmaz, Ahmet Kaplan, Murat Guven, Vildan Kesici

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Aviation industry influences the social and economic growth across the countries. Further, airline companies are highly affected by social, political, and financial crises and show a high degree of cyclicity in operational performance. Hence, this paper investigates the effects of available seat kilometers (ASK), revenue per kilometer (RPK), passenger load factor (PLF) as well as socio-political crisis on the number of passengers carried (PC) by Turkish Airlines company over the period of 2010M1-2018M12. To conduct the analysis, we employ fully modified ordinary least squares (FMOLS), dynamic ordinary least squares (DOLS), and canonical cointegration regression (CCR) techniques using monthly data. We use ASK, RPK, PLF as independent variables to identify the determinants of the PC, as a dependent variable. We also test the effect of the socio-political crisis. The results reveal that there is a significant and negative relationship between ASK and PC, while the relationship between RPK and PC is positive and significant. We also find that there is an insignificant relationship between PLF and PC. Further, we also find a negative effect of the crisis on the PC. These findings show although the crisis had an immediate effect on the operational performance of Turkish Airlines, the company recovered from the crisis and cope with the situation very promptly. Thus, this proves the resilience and agile management ability of the company.

Keywords: airline industry, operational performance, air traffic, socio-political crisis

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38 Stress Perception, Ethics and Leadership Styles of Pilots: Implications for Airline Global Talent Acquisition and Talent Management Strategy

Authors: Arif Sikander, Imran Saeed

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The behavioral pattern and performance of airline pilots are influenced by the level of stress, their ethical decision-making ability and above all their leadership style as part of the Crew Management process. Cultural differences of pilots, especially while working in ex-country airlines, could influence the stress perception. Culture also influences ethical decision making. Leadership style is also a variable dimension, and pilots need to adapt to the cultural settings while flying with the local pilots as part of their team. Studies have found that age, education, gender, and management experience are statistically significant factors in ethical maturity. However, in the decades to come, more studies are required to validate the results over and over again; thereby, providing support for the validity of the Moral Development Theory. Leadership style plays a vital role in ethical decision making. This study is grounded in the Moral Development theory and seeks to analyze the styles of leadership of airline pilots related to ethical decision making and also the influence of the culture on their stress perception. The sample for the study included commercial pilots from a National Airline. It is expected that these results should provide useful input to the literature in the context of developing appropriate Talent Management strategies. The authors intend to extend this study (carried out in one country) to major national carriers (many countries) to be able to develop a ultimate framework on Talent Management which should serve as a benchmark for any international airline as most of them (e.g., Emirates, Etihad, Cathay Pacific, China Southern, etc.) are dependent on the supply of this scarce resource from outside countries.

Keywords: ethics, leadership, pilot, stress

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37 Passenger Preferences on Airline Check-In Methods: Traditional Counter Check-In Versus Common-Use Self-Service Kiosk

Authors: Cruz Queen Allysa Rose, Bautista Joymeeh Anne, Lantoria Kaye, Barretto Katya Louise

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The study presents the preferences of passengers on the quality of service provided by the two airline check-in methods currently present in airports-traditional counter check-in and common-use self-service kiosks. Since a study has shown that airlines perceive self-service kiosks alone are sufficient enough to ensure adequate services and customer satisfaction, and in contrast, agents and passengers stated that it alone is not enough and that human interaction is essential. In reference with former studies that established opposing ideas about the choice of the more favorable airline check-in method to employ, it is the purpose of this study to present a recommendation that shall somehow fill-in the gap between the conflicting ideas by means of comparing the perceived quality of service through the RATER model. Furthermore, this study discusses the major competencies present in each method which are supported by the theories–FIRO Theory of Needs upholding the importance of inclusion, control and affection, and the Queueing Theory which points out the discipline of passengers and the length of the queue line as important factors affecting quality service. The findings of the study were based on the data gathered by the researchers from selected Thomasian third year and fourth year college students currently enrolled in the first semester of the academic year 2014-2015, who have already experienced both airline check-in methods through the implication of a stratified probability sampling. The statistical treatments applied in order to interpret the data were mean, frequency, standard deviation, t-test, logistic regression and chi-square test. The final point of the study revealed that there is a greater effect in passenger preference concerning the satisfaction experienced in common-use self-service kiosks in comparison with the application of the traditional counter check-in.

Keywords: traditional counter check-in, common-use self-service Kiosks, airline check-in methods

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36 The Construction of Malaysian Airline Tragedies in Malaysian and British Online News: A Multidisciplinary Study

Authors: Theng Theng Ong

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This study adopts a multidisciplinary method by combining the corpus-based discourse analysis study and language attitude study to explore the construction of Malaysia airline tragedies: MH370, MH17 and QZ8501 in the selected Malaysian and United Kingdom (UK) online news. The study aims to determine the ways in which Malaysian Airline tragedies MH370, MH17 and QZ8501 are linguistically defined and constructed in terms of keyword and collocation. The study also seeks to identify the types of discourse that are presented in the new articles. The differences or similarities in terms of keywords, topics or issues covered by the selected Malaysian and UK news media will also be examined. Finally, the language attitude study will be carried out to examine the Malaysia and UK university students’ attitudes toward the keywords, topics or issues covered by the selected Malaysian and UK news media pertaining to Malaysian Airline tragedies MH370, MH17 and QZ8501. The analysis is divided into two parts with the first part focusing on corpus-based discourse analysis on the media text. The second part of the study is to investigate Malaysians and UK news readers’ attitudes towards the online news being reported by the Malaysian and UK news media pertaining to the Airline tragedies. The main findings of corpus-based discourse analysis are essential in designing the questions in the questionnaires and interview and therefore led to the identification of the attitudes among Malaysian and UK news. This study adopts a multidisciplinary method by combining the corpus-based discourse analysis study and language attitude study to explore the construction of Malaysia airline tragedies: MH370, MH17 and QZ8501 in the selected Malaysian and United Kingdom (UK) online news. The study aims to determine the ways in which Malaysian Airline tragedies MH370, MH17 and QZ8501 are linguistically defined and constructed in terms of keyword and collocation. The study also seeks to identify the types of discourse that are presented in the new articles. The differences or similarities in terms of keywords, topics or issues covered by the selected Malaysian and UK news media will also be examined. Finally, the language attitude study will be carried out to examine the Malaysia and UK university students’ attitudes toward the keywords, topics or issues covered by the selected Malaysian and UK news media pertaining to Malaysian Airline tragedies MH370, MH17 and QZ8501. The analysis is divided into two parts with the first part focusing on corpus-based discourse analysis on the media text. The second part of the study is to investigate Malaysians and UK news readers’ attitudes towards the online news being reported by the Malaysian and UK news media pertaining to the Airline tragedies. The main findings of corpus-based discourse analysis are essential in designing the questions in the questionnaires and interview and therefore led to the identification of the attitudes among Malaysian and UK news.

Keywords: corpus linguistics, critical discourse analysis, news media, tragedies study

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35 A Decision Support System for Flight Disruptions Management

Authors: Burak Erkayman, Emin Gundogar, Hayrettin Evirgen, Murat Sarı

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With the increasing competition in recent years, airline companies tend to manage their operations aiming fewer losses in a robust manner. Airline operations are complex operations and have the necessity of being performed just in time and more knock-on relevant elements in the event of a disruption. In this study a knowledge based decision support system is suggested and software is developed. The developed software includes knowledge bases which are based on expert experience and government regulations, model bases and data bases. The results of the suggested approach are presented and improvable aspects of the approach are discussed.

Keywords: knowledge based systems, irregular operations, decision support systems, flight disruptions management

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34 Managing Company's Reputation during Crisis: An Analysis of Croatia Airlines' Crisis Response Strategy to the Labor Unions' Strike Announcement

Authors: M. Polic, N. Cesarec Salopek

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When it comes to crisis, no company, notwithstanding its financial success, power or reputation is immune to the new environment and circumstances emerging from it. The main challenge company faces with during a crisis is to protect its most valuable intangible asset reputation. Crisis has the serious potential to disrupt company’s everyday operations and damage its reputation extremely fast, especially if the company did not anticipate threats that may cause a crisis. Therefore, when a crisis happens, company must directly respond to it, whilst an effective crisis communication can limit consequences arising from the crisis, protect and repair the reputational damage caused to the company. Since every crisis is unique, each one of it requires different crisis response strategy. In July 2018, airline labor unions threatened Croatia Airlines, the state owned flag carrier of Croatia, to hold a strike that would be called into question regular flights and affect more than 7.600 passengers per day. This study explores the differences between crisis response strategies that Croatia Airlines, the state owned flag carrier of Croatia and airline labor unions used during the crisis period within the Situational Crisis Communication Theory (SCCT) by analyzing the content of formal communication tools used by Croatia Airlines and airline labor unions. Moreover, this study shows how Croatia Airlines successfully managed to communicate to the general public the threat that airline labor unions imposed on it and how was it received by the Croatian media. By using the qualitative and quantitative content analysis, the study will reveal the frames that dominated in the media articles during the crisis period. The greatest significance of this study is that it will provide the deeper insight into how transparent and consistent communication, the one that Croatia Airlines used before and during the crisis period, contributed to the decision of the competent court (Zagreb County Court) which prohibited labor unions strike in August 2018.

Keywords: crisis communication, crisis response strategy, Croatia Airlines, labor union, reputation management, situational crisis communication theory, strike

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33 Geographical Location and the Global Airline Industry: A Delphi Study into the Future of Home Base Requirements

Authors: Darren J. Ellis

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This paper investigates the key industry-level consequences and future prospects for the global airline industry of the requirement for airlines to have a home base. This industry context results in geographical location playing a central role in determining how and where international airlines can operate, and the extent to which their international networks can develop. Data from a five stage mixed-methods Delphi study into the global airline industry’s likely future trajectory conducted in 2013 and 2014 are utilized to better understand the likelihood and consequences of home base requirements changing in future. Expert views and forecasts were collected to gauge core industry trends over a ten year timeframe. Attempts to change or bypass this industry requirement have not been successful to date outside of the European single air market. Europe remains the only prominent exception to the general rule in this regard. Most of the industry is founded on air space sovereignty, the nationality rule, and the bilateral system of traffic rights. Europe’s exceptionalism has seen it evolve into a single air market with characteristics similar to a nation-state, rather than to become a force for wider industry change and regional multilateralism. Europe has indeed become a key actor in global aviation, but Europe seems to now be part of the industry’s status quo, not a vehicle for substantially wider multilateralism around the world. The findings from this research indicate that the bilateral system is not viewed by most study experts as disappearing or substantially weakening in the foreseeable future. However, regional multilateralism was also viewed as progressively taking hold in the industry in future, demonstrating that for most industry experts the two are not seen as mutually exclusive but rather as being able to co-exist with each other. This reality ensures that geographical location will continue to play an important role in the global airline industry in future and that, home base requirements will not disappear any time soon either. Even moves in some aviation jurisdictions to dilute nationality requirements for airlines, and instead replace ownership and control restrictions with principal place of business tests, do not ultimately free airlines from their home base. Likewise, an expansion of what constitutes home base to include a regional grouping of countries – again, a currently uncommon reality in global aviation – does not fundamentally weaken the continued relevance of geographical location to the global industry’s future growth and development realities and prospects.

Keywords: airline industry, air space sovereignty, geographical location, home base

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32 Determinants of Service Quality on Thai Passengers’ Repeated Purchase of Domestic Flight Service with Thai Airways International

Authors: Nattapong Techarattanased

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This research paper aimed to identify determinants of airline service quality on passengers’ repeated purchase of service. The population of this study was Thai passengers flying domestic flights with Thai Airways, making a total of 300 samples. These 300 samples participated in this research by answering a collection of questions by means of a questionnaire. An analysis of means score and multiple regression revealed that perceived service quality for tangible elements, reliability, responsiveness, assurance and empathy had determined repeated purchase of flight service of the passengers at a high level. Moreover, reliability and responsiveness factors could predict the passengers’ repeated purchase of flight service at the percentage of 30.6. The findings gave a signal that Thai Airways may consider a development of route network and fleet strategy as well as an establishment of aircraft and seat qualification to meet passengers’ needs and requirements. Passengers’ level of satisfaction could also be maximized by offering service value through various kinds of special deals and programs, whereas value- added pricing strategy should be considered in order to differentiate from and beat other leading airline competitors.

Keywords: repeated purchase, service quality, domestic flight, Thai Airways

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31 A Column Generation Based Algorithm for Airline Cabin Crew Rostering Problem

Authors: Nan Xu

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In airlines, the crew scheduling problem is usually decomposed into two stages: crew pairing and crew rostering. In the crew pairing stage, pairings are generated such that each flight is covered by exactly one pairing and the overall cost is minimized. In the crew rostering stage, the pairings generated in the crew pairing stage are combined with off days, training and other breaks to create individual work schedules. The paper focuses on cabin crew rostering problem, which is challenging due to the extremely large size and the complex working rules involved. In our approach, the objective of rostering consists of two major components. The first is to minimize the number of unassigned pairings and the second is to ensure the fairness to crew members. There are two measures of fairness to crew members, the number of overnight duties and the total fly-hour over a given period. Pairings should be assigned to each crew member so that their actual overnight duties and fly hours are as close to the expected average as possible. Deviations from the expected average are penalized in the objective function. Since several small deviations are preferred than a large deviation, the penalization is quadratic. Our model of the airline crew rostering problem is based on column generation. The problem is decomposed into a master problem and subproblems. The mater problem is modeled as a set partition problem and exactly one roster for each crew is picked up such that the pairings are covered. The restricted linear master problem (RLMP) is considered. The current subproblem tries to find columns with negative reduced costs and add them to the RLMP for the next iteration. When no column with negative reduced cost can be found or a stop criteria is met, the procedure ends. The subproblem is to generate feasible crew rosters for each crew member. A separate acyclic weighted graph is constructed for each crew member and the subproblem is modeled as resource constrained shortest path problems in the graph. Labeling algorithm is used to solve it. Since the penalization is quadratic, a method to deal with non-additive shortest path problem using labeling algorithm is proposed and corresponding domination condition is defined. The major contribution of our model is: 1) We propose a method to deal with non-additive shortest path problem; 2) Operation to allow relaxing some soft rules is allowed in our algorithm, which can improve the coverage rate; 3) Multi-thread techniques are used to improve the efficiency of the algorithm when generating Line-of-Work for crew members. Here a column generation based algorithm for the airline cabin crew rostering problem is proposed. The objective is to assign a personalized roster to crew member which minimize the number of unassigned pairings and ensure the fairness to crew members. The algorithm we propose in this paper has been put into production in a major airline in China and numerical experiments show that it has a good performance.

Keywords: aircrew rostering, aircrew scheduling, column generation, SPPRC

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30 Evaluating and Reducing Aircraft Technical Delays and Cancellations Impact on Reliability Operational: Case Study of Airline Operator

Authors: Adel A. Ghobbar, Ahmad Bakkar

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Although special care is given to maintenance, aircraft systems fail, and these failures cause delays and cancellations. The occurrence of Delays and Cancellations affects operators and manufacturers negatively. To reduce technical delays and cancellations, one should be able to determine the important systems causing them. The goal of this research is to find a method to define the most expensive delays and cancellations systems for Airline operators. A predictive model was introduced to forecast the failure and their impact after carrying out research that identifies relevant information to tackle the problems faced while answering the questions of this paper. Data were obtained from the manufacturers’ services reliability team database. Subsequently, delays and cancellations evaluation methods were identified. No cost estimation methods were used due to their complexity. The model was developed, and it takes into account the frequency of delays and cancellations and uses weighting factors to give an indication of the severity of their duration. The weighting factors are based on customer experience. The data Analysis approach has shown that delays and cancellations events are not seasonal and do not follow any specific trends. The use of weighting factor does have an influence on the shortlist over short periods (Monthly) but not the analyzed period of three years. Landing gear and the navigation system are among the top 3 factors causing delays and cancellations for all three aircraft types. The results did confirm that the cooperation between certain operators and manufacture reduce the impact of delays and cancellations.

Keywords: reliability, availability, delays & cancellations, aircraft maintenance

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29 In-situ Mental Health Simulation with Airline Pilot Observation of Human Factors

Authors: Mumtaz Mooncey, Alexander Jolly, Megan Fisher, Kerry Robinson, Robert Lloyd, Dave Fielding

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Introduction: The integration of the WingFactors in-situ simulation programme has transformed the education landscape at the Whittington Health NHS Trust. To date, there have been a total of 90 simulations - 19 aimed at Paediatric trainees, including 2 Child and Adolescent Mental Health (CAMHS) scenarios. The opportunity for joint debriefs provided by clinical faculty and airline pilots, has created a new exciting avenue to explore human factors within psychiatry. Through the use of real clinical environments and primed actors; the benefits of high fidelity simulation, interdisciplinary and interprofessional learning has been highlighted. The use of in-situ simulation within Psychiatry is a newly emerging concept and its success here has been recognised by unanimously positive feedback from participants and acknowledgement through nomination for the Health Service Journal (HSJ) Award (Best Education Programme 2021). Methodology: The first CAMHS simulation featured a collapsed patient in the toilet with a ligature tied around her neck, accompanied by a distressed parent. This required participants to consider:; emergency physical management of the case, alongside helping to contain the mother and maintaining situational awareness when transferring the patient to an appropriate clinical area. The second simulation was based on a 17- year- old girl attempting to leave the ward after presenting with an overdose, posing potential risk to herself. The safe learning environment enabled participants to explore techniques to engage the young person and understand their concerns, and consider the involvement of other members of the multidisciplinary team. The scenarios were followed by an immediate ‘hot’ debrief, combining technical feedback with Human Factors feedback from uniformed airline pilots and clinicians. The importance of psychological safety was paramount, encouraging open and honest contributions from all participants. Key learning points were summarized into written documents and circulated. Findings: The in-situ simulations demonstrated the need for practical changes both in the Emergency Department and on the Paediatric ward. The presence of airline pilots provided a novel way to debrief on Human Factors. The following key themes were identified: -Team-briefing (‘Golden 5 minutes’) - Taking a few moments to establish experience, initial roles and strategies amongst the team can reduce the need for conversations in front of a distressed patient or anxious relative. -Use of checklists / guidelines - Principles associated with checklist usage (control of pace, rigor, team situational awareness), instead of reliance on accurate memory recall when under pressure. -Read-back - Immediate repetition of safety critical instructions (e.g. drug / dosage) to mitigate the risks associated with miscommunication. -Distraction management - Balancing the risk of losing a team member to manage a distressed relative, versus it impacting on the care of the young person. -Task allocation - The value of the implementation of ‘The 5A’s’ (Availability, Address, Allocate, Ask, Advise), for effective task allocation. Conclusion: 100% of participants have requested more simulation training. Involvement of airline pilots has led to a shift in hospital culture, bringing to the forefront the value of Human Factors focused training and multidisciplinary simulation. This has been of significant value in not only physical health, but also mental health simulation.

Keywords: human factors, in-situ simulation, inter-professional, multidisciplinary

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28 An Analysis of Brand-Building Characteristics in the Iran Airline Websites

Authors: Pedram Behyar, Zahra Bayat

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The internet and web are changing ways of “far reaching scope and potential for transformation of the marketing functions”. The web is developing in a faster rate than any previous new communication medium. The website of destination has become a crucial branding channel, that is why all businesses are changing their way to communicate with their customers to encounter their needs and wants in better ways. Website provides numerous opportunities for businesses to strengthen their relationship with their customers. One of these opportunities is website component that enables internet users to make two-way communication with the businesses.

Keywords: marketing communication, brand image, usability, privacy and security, personalization and customization, responsiveness, customer online web experience

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27 Frequent-Flyer Program: The Connection between Commercial Partners and Spin-off

Authors: Changmin Jiang

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In this paper, we build a theoretical model to investigate the relationship between two recent trends in airline frequent-flyer programs (FFPs): the adoption of the “coalition” business model with other commercial partners, and the separation from airlines’ operations. We show that commercial partners benefit from teaming up with FFP, while increasing the number of commercial partners will increase the total profit; it reduces the average profit of the parties involved. Furthermore, we show that the number of commercial partners of an FFP is negatively related with the benefit to keep the FFP in-house.

Keywords: frequent flyer program, coalition, commercial partners, spin-off

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26 Scheduled Maintenance and Downtime Cost in Aircraft Maintenance Management

Authors: Remzi Saltoglu, Nazmia Humaira, Gokhan Inalhan

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During aircraft maintenance scheduling, operator calculates the budget of the maintenance. Usually, this calculation includes only the costs that are directly related to the maintenance process such as cost of labor, material, and equipment. In some cases, overhead cost is also included. However, in some of those, downtime cost is neglected claiming that grounding is a natural fact of maintenance; therefore, it is not considered as part of the analytical decision-making process. Based on the normalized data, we introduce downtime cost with its monetary value and add its seasonal character. We envision that the rest of the model, which works together with the downtime cost, could be checked with the real life cases, through the review of MRO cost and airline spending in the particular and scheduled maintenance events.

Keywords: aircraft maintenance, downtime, downtime cost, maintenance cost

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25 Identification and Selection of a Supply Chain Target Process for Re-Design

Authors: Jaime A. Palma-Mendoza

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A supply chain consists of different processes and when conducting supply chain re-design is necessary to identify the relevant processes and select a target for re-design. A solution was developed which consists to identify first the relevant processes using the Supply Chain Operations Reference (SCOR) model, then to use Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) for target process selection. An application was conducted in an Airline MRO supply chain re-design project which shows this combination can clearly aid the identification of relevant supply chain processes and the selection of a target process for re-design.

Keywords: decision support systems, multiple criteria analysis, supply chain management

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24 COVID-19 Teaches Probability Risk Assessment

Authors: Sean Sloan

Abstract:

Probability Risk Assessments (PRA) can be a difficult concept for students to grasp. So in searching for different ways to describe PRA to relate it to their lives; COVID-19 came up. The parallels are amazing. Soon students began analyzing acceptable risk with the virus. This helped them to quantify just how dangerous is dangerous. The original lesson was dismissed and for the remainder of the period, the probability of risk, and the lethality of risk became the topic. Spreading events such as a COVID carrier on an airline became analogous to single fault casualties such as a Tsunami. Odds of spreading became odds of backup-diesel-generator failure – like with Fukashima Daiichi. Fatalities of the disease became expected fatalities due to radiation spread. Quantification from this discussion took it from hyperbole and emotion into one where we could rationally base guidelines. It has been one of the most effective educational devices observed.

Keywords: COVID, education, probability, risk

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23 Legal Implications of a Single African Air Transport Market on Airlines and Passengers in Nigeria

Authors: Adejoke Omowumi Adediran

Abstract:

The commitment of African states to liberalise civil aviation in Africa through the implementation of the Yamoussoukro Decision of 1999 was reiterated in 2015 at the African Union Assembly meeting. A declaration was made by African Heads of government at the meeting to ensure the immediate implementation of the decision towards the establishment of a Single African Air Transport Market (SAATM) by 2017. A SAATM will imply among others, a removal of all commercial restrictions for African airlines in Africa; access to any route in Africa by African airlines without any required permit or authorisation; and a common set of regulations for airlines in African member states. As the envisioned 2017 date for launching the SAATM could not be met, a new date of January 2018 has been set. The lack of political will by African States, however, remains a prominent challenge to the realisation of the SAATM. As at June 2017, only twenty-one states had signed the commitment to actualise the decision creating the SAATM. In actualisation of the SAATM, a regulatory framework has been established to efficiently manage the new African airline industry, and regulatory texts have been adopted as part of the legal regime. This legal regime is to regulate both interstate and domestic operations. Airlines in Nigeria are currently faced with certain challenges which ultimately affect their effectiveness and passengers as well do not enjoy utmost customer satisfaction with services rendered by the airlines. Although Nigeria has demonstrated support for the SAATM since 2015, as Nigeria alongside ten other states, signed the initial commitment, whether or not SAATM will eventually be beneficial to airlines and passengers has become an issue in the light of the challenges of the Nigerian airline industry. Remarkably, the benefit of the SAATM is to a large extent ultimately determined by its legal framework. Using doctrinal research, this paper examines the legal implications of the SAATM on airlines and passengers in Nigeria. This paper analyses the legal framework of SAATM and juxtaposes this with the particular issues affecting airlines and passengers in Nigeria such as financial difficulties on the part of airlines and consumer protection as regards passengers. Among others, it can be asserted that the legal regime affords an opportunity for business expansion and creates a fair environment for competition. This is beneficial not only to the airlines but to passengers as well. In addition, in the interest of passengers, consumer rights are prescribed, and the regulations also cater for situations where airlines interrupt their services, as losses arising from these situations will be mitigated. There is indeed no doubt that the SAATM will be of great utility to both airlines and passengers in Nigeria.

Keywords: airlines, civil aviation, competition, consumer protection, passengers, single African air transport market, yamoussoukro decision

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22 Examining the Effects of National Disaster on the Performance of Hospitality Industry in Korea

Authors: Kim Sang Hyuck, Y. Park Sung

Abstract:

The outbreak of national disasters stimulates the decrease of the both internal and domestic tourism demands, causing bad effects on the hospitality industry. The effective and efficient risk management regarding national disasters are being increasingly required from the hospitality industry practitioners and the tourism policymakers. To establish the effective and efficient risk management strategy on national disasters, the most essential prerequisite condition is the correct estimation of national disasters’ effects in terms of the size and duration of the damages occurred from national disaster on hospitality industry. More specifically, the national disasters are twofold: natural disaster and social disaster. In addition, the hospitality industry has consisted of several types of business, such as hotel, restaurant, travel agency, etc. As reasons of the above, it is important to consider how each type of national disasters differently influences on the performance of each type of hospitality industry. Therefore, the purpose of this study is examining the effects of national disaster on hospitality industry in Korea based on the types of national disasters as well as the types of hospitality business. The monthly data was collected from Jan. 2000 to Dec. 2016. The indexes of industrial production for each hospitality industry in Korea were used with the proxy variable for the performance of each hospitality industry. Two national disaster variables (natural disaster and social disaster) were treated as dummy variables. In addition, the exchange rate, industrial production index, and consumer price index were used as control variables in the research model. The impulse response analysis was used to examine the size and duration of the damages occurred from each type of national disaster on each type of hospitality industries. The results of this study show that the natural disaster and the social disaster differently influenced on each type of hospitality industry. More specifically, the performance of airline industry is negatively influenced by the natural disaster at the time of 3 months later from the incidence. However, the negative impacts of social disaster on airline industry occurred not significantly over the time periods. For the hotel industry, both natural disaster and social disaster negatively influence the performance of hotel industry at the time of 5 months and 6 months later, respectively. Also, the negative impact of natural disaster on the performance of restaurant industry occurred at the time of 5 months later, as well as for both 3 months and 6 months later for the social disaster. Finally, both natural disaster and social disaster negatively influence the performance of travel agency at the time of 3 months and 4 months later, respectively. In conclusion, the types of national disasters differently influence the performance of each type of hospitality industry in Korea. These results would provide an important information to establish the effective and efficient risk management strategy for the national disasters.

Keywords: impulse response analysis, Korea, national disaster, performance of hospitality industry

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21 Challenges of e-Service Adoption and Implementation in Nigeria: Lessons from Asia

Authors: Kazeem Oluwakemi Oseni, Kate Dingley

Abstract:

E-Service has moved from the usual manual and traditional way of rendering services to electronic service provision for the public and there are several reasons for implementing these services, Airline ticketing have gone from its manual traditional way to an intelligent web-driven service of purchasing. Many companies have seen their profits doubled through the use of online services in their operation and a typical example is Hewlett Packard (HP) which is rapidly transforming their after sales business into a profit generating e-service business unit. This paper will examine the various challenges confronting e-Service adoption and implementation in Nigeria and also analyse lessons learnt from e-Service adoption and implementation in Asia to see how it could be useful in Nigeria which is a lower middle income country. Based on the analysis of the online survey data. It has been identified that the public in Nigeria are much aware of e-Services but successful adoption and implementation have been the problems faced.

Keywords: e-government service, adoption, implementation, Nigeria, Asia

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20 Development of an Efficient Algorithm for Cessna Citation X Speed Optimization in Cruise

Authors: Georges Ghazi, Marc-Henry Devillers, Ruxandra M. Botez

Abstract:

Aircraft flight trajectory optimization has been identified to be a promising solution for reducing both airline costs and the aviation net carbon footprint. Nowadays, this role has been mainly attributed to the flight management system. This system is an onboard multi-purpose computer responsible for providing the crew members with the optimized flight plan from a destination to the next. To accomplish this function, the flight management system uses a variety of look-up tables to compute the optimal speed and altitude for each flight regime instantly. Because the cruise is the longest segment of a typical flight, the proposed algorithm is focused on minimizing fuel consumption for this flight phase. In this paper, a complete methodology to estimate the aircraft performance and subsequently compute the optimal speed in cruise is presented. Results showed that the obtained performance database was accurate enough to predict the flight costs associated with the cruise phase.

Keywords: Cessna Citation X, cruise speed optimization, flight cost, cost index, and golden section search

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19 An Evolutionary Multi-Objective Optimization for Airport Gate Assignment Problem

Authors: Seyedmirsajad Mokhtarimousavi, Danial Talebi, Hamidreza Asgari

Abstract:

Gate Assignment Problem (GAP) is one of the most substantial issues in airport operation. In principle, GAP intends to maintain the maximum capacity of the airport through the best possible allocation of the resources (gates) in order to reach the optimum outcome. The problem involves a wide range of dependent and independent resources and their limitations, which add to the complexity of GAP from both theoretical and practical perspective. In this study, GAP was mathematically formulated as a three-objective problem. The preliminary goal of multi-objective formulation was to address a higher number of objectives that can be simultaneously optimized and therefore increase the practical efficiency of the final solution. The problem is solved by applying the second version of Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II). Results showed that the proposed mathematical model could address most of major criteria in the decision-making process in airport management in terms of minimizing both airport/airline cost and passenger walking distance time. Moreover, the proposed approach could properly find acceptable possible answers.

Keywords: airport management, gate assignment problem, mathematical modeling, genetic algorithm, NSGA-II

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18 The Impact of Website Quality on Customers' Usage and Purchasing Intentions: The Case of Airlines and Online Travel Agencies

Authors: Nermin A. Morsy, Amany N. Beshay

Abstract:

The tourism industry has seen considerable transformations due to the emergency of e-commerce. For instance, airlines are increasingly dependent on achieving online sales instead of their traditional platform. Online travel agencies’ (OTAs) websites have been able to reach a broader range of customers and generate more revenue. Therefore, website quality plays an important role in attaining website effectiveness. It is now considered as a critical factor in attracting customers' attention and build loyalty. Customers are more likely to visit and purchase at websites that exhibit highly desirable qualities. A user-friendly website can help tourists find their target information easily and make decisions quickly. This research focuses on analyzing the impact of airline and OTAs’ websites quality on the actual customer usage and purchase intentions. An online survey was distributed among internet users to assess the various dimensions of website quality in the context of online booking and their effect on customer’s usage and purchase intentions. The data from the survey was analyzed statistically using correlation, t-tests and other statistical tests. Results revealed the direct impact of website quality on customer usage and purchase intentions.

Keywords: airlines, OTAs, purchasing intention, website quality

Procedia PDF Downloads 70