Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

Search results for: Joris J. Van Hoof

9 A Finite Element Study of Laminitis in Horses

Authors: Naeim Akbari Shahkhosravi, Reza Kakavand, Helen M. S. Davies, Amin Komeili

Abstract:

Equine locomotion and performance are significantly affected by hoof health. One of the most critical diseases of the hoof is laminitis, which can lead to horse lameness in a severe condition. This disease exhibits the mechanical properties degradation of the laminar junction tissue within the hoof. Therefore, it is essential to investigate the biomechanics of the hoof, focusing specifically on excessive and cumulatively accumulated stresses within the laminar junction tissue. For this aim, the current study generated a novel equine hoof Finite Element (FE) model under dynamic physiological loading conditions and employing a hyperelastic material model. Associated tissues of the equine hoof were segmented from computed tomography scans of an equine forelimb, including the navicular bone, third phalanx, sole, frog, laminar junction, digital cushion, and medial- dorsal- lateral wall areas. The inner tissues were connected based on the hoof anatomy, and the hoof was under a dynamic loading over cyclic strides at the trot. The strain distribution on the hoof wall of the model was compared with the published in vivo strain measurements to validate the model. Then the validated model was used to study the development of laminitis. The ultimate stress tolerated by the laminar junction before rupture was considered as a stress threshold. The tissue damage was simulated through iterative reduction of the tissue’s mechanical properties in the presence of excessive maximum principal stresses. The findings of this investigation revealed how damage initiates from the medial and lateral sides of the tissue and propagates through the hoof dorsal area.

Keywords: horse hoof, laminitis, finite element model, continuous damage

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8 Multi-Modality Imaging of Aggressive Hoof Wall Neoplasia in Two Horses

Authors: Hannah Nagel, Hayley Lang, Albert Sole Guitart, Natasha Lean, Rachel Allavena, Cleide Sprohnie-Barrera, Alex Young

Abstract:

Aggressive neoplasia of the hoof is a rare occurrence in horses and has been only sporadically described in the literature. In the few cases reported intra-hoof wall, aggressive neoplasia has been documented radiographically and has been described with variable imaging characteristics. These include a well-defined osteolytic area, a smoothly outlined semi-circular defect, an extensive draining tract beneath the hoof wall, as well as an additional large area of osteolysis or an extensive central lytic region. A 20-year-old Quarterhorse gelding and a 10-year-old Thoroughbred gelding were both presented for chronic reoccurring lameness in the left forelimb and left hindlimb, respectively. Both of the cases displayed radiographic lesions that have been previously described but also displayed osteoproliferative expansile regions of additional bone formation. Changes associated with hoof neoplasia are often non-specific due to the nature and capacity of bone to react to pathological insult, which is either to proliferate or be absorbed. Both cases depict and describe imaging findings seen on radiography, contrast radiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging before reaching a histological diagnosis of malignant melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Although aggressive hoof wall neoplasia is rare, there are some imaging features which may raise our index of suspicion for an aggressive hoof wall lesion. This case report documents two horses with similar imaging findings who underwent multiple assessments, surgical interventions, and imaging modalities with a final diagnosis of malignant neoplasia.

Keywords: horse, hoof, imaging, radiography, neoplasia

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7 Evaluation of Effectiveness of Three Common Equine Thrush Treatments

Authors: A. S. Strait, J. A. Bryk-Lucy, L. M. Ritchie

Abstract:

Thrush is a common disease of ungulates primarily affecting the frog and sulci, caused by the anaerobic bacteria Fusobacterium necrophorum. Thrush accounts for approximately 45.0% of hoof disorders in horses. Prevention and treatment of thrush are essential to prevent horses from developing severe infections and becoming lame. Proper knowledge of hoof care and thrush treatments is crucial to avoid financial costs, unsoundness and lost training time. Research on the effectiveness of numerous commercial and homemade thrush treatments is limited in the equine industry. The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of three common thrush treatments for horses: weekly application of Thrush Buster, daily dilute bleach solution spray, or Metronidazole pastes every other day. Cases of thrush diagnosed by a veterinarian or veterinarian-trained researcher were given a score, from 0 to 4, based on the severity of the thrush in each hoof (n=59) and randomly assigned a treatment. Cases were rescored each week of the three-week treatment, and the final and initial scores were compared to determine effectiveness. The thrush treatments were compared with Thrush Buster as the reference at a significance level of α=.05. Binomial Logistic Regression Modeling was performed, finding that the odds of a hoof treated with Metronidazole to be thrush-free was 6.1 times greater than a hoof treated with Thrush Buster (p=0.001), while the odds of a hoof that was treated with bleach to be thrush-free was only 0.97 times greater than a hoof treated with Thrush Buster (p=0.970), after adjustment for treatment week. Of the three treatments utilized in this study, Metronidazole paste applied to the affected areas every other day was the most effective treatment for thrush in horses. There are many other thrush remedies available, and further research is warranted to determine the efficacy of additional treatment options.

Keywords: fusobacterium necrophorum, thrush, equine, horse, lameness

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6 Facility Detection from Image Using Mathematical Morphology

Authors: In-Geun Lim, Sung-Woong Ra

Abstract:

As high resolution satellite images can be used, lots of studies are carried out for exploiting these images in various fields. This paper proposes the method based on mathematical morphology for extracting the ‘horse's hoof shaped object’. This proposed method can make an automatic object detection system to track the meaningful object in a large satellite image rapidly. Mathematical morphology process can apply in binary image, so this method is very simple. Therefore this method can easily extract the ‘horse's hoof shaped object’ from any images which have indistinct edges of the tracking object and have different image qualities depending on filming location, filming time, and filming environment. Using the proposed method by which ‘horse's hoof shaped object’ can be rapidly extracted, the performance of the automatic object detection system can be improved dramatically.

Keywords: facility detection, satellite image, object, mathematical morphology

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5 The Role and Effects of Communication on Occupational Safety: A Review

Authors: Pieter A. Cornelissen, Joris J. Van Hoof

Abstract:

The interest in improving occupational safety started almost simultaneously with the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. Yet, it was not until the late 1970’s before the role of communication was considered in scientific research regarding occupational safety. In recent years the importance of communication as a means to improve occupational safety has increased. Not only as communication might have a direct effect on safety performance and safety outcomes, but also as it can be viewed as a major component of other important safety-related elements (e.g., training, safety meetings, leadership). And while safety communication is an increasingly important topic in research, its operationalization is often vague and differs among studies. This is not only problematic when comparing results, but also in applying these results to practice and the work floor. By means of an in-depth analysis—building on an existing dataset—this review aims to overcome these problems. The initial database search yielded 25.527 articles, which was reduced to a research corpus of 176 articles. Focusing on the 37 articles of this corpus that addressed communication (related to safety outcomes and safety performance), the current study will provide a comprehensive overview of the role and effects of safety communication and outlines the conditions under which communication contributes to a safer work environment. The study shows that in literature a distinction is commonly made between safety communication (i.e., the exchange or dissemination of safety-related information) and feedback (i.e. a reactive form of communication). And although there is a consensus among researchers that both communication and feedback positively affect safety performance, there is a debate about the directness of this relationship. Whereas some researchers assume a direct relationship between safety communication and safety performance, others state that this relationship is mediated by safety climate. One of the key findings is that despite the strongly present view that safety communication is a formal and top-down safety management tool, researchers stress the importance of open communication that encourages and allows employees to express their worries, experiences, views, and share information. This raises questions with regard to other directions (e.g., bottom-up, horizontal) and forms of communication (e.g., informal). The current review proposes a framework to overcome the often vague and different operationalizations of safety communication. The proposed framework can be used to characterize safety communication in terms of stakeholders, direction, and characteristics of communication (e.g., medium usage).

Keywords: communication, feedback, occupational safety, review

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4 Exposure to Natural Outdoor Environment and Positive Health Impacts: A Synthesis of Empirical Research

Authors: Joris Zufferey, Roderick John Lawrence

Abstract:

This paper provides an overview of the state of the art about the positive health impacts of exposure to natural outdoor environments. It presents the results of a “review of reviews” in terms of empirical evidence and identifies some key questions. Finally, the authors stress the need to develop more interdisciplinary and systemic contributions. This synthesis of empirical research has been done as part of the EU- FP7 PHENOTYPE research project.

Keywords: Exposure, environment, phenotype, salutogenic effects

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3 Surface Modification of Cotton Using Slaughterhouse Wastes

Authors: Granch Berhe Tseghai, Lodrick Wangatia Makokha

Abstract:

Cotton dyeing using reactive dyes is one of the major water polluter; this is due to large amount of dye and salt remaining in effluent. Recent adverse climate change and its associated effect to human life have lead to search for more sustainable industrial production. Cationization of cotton to improve its affinity for reactive dye has been earmarked as a major solution for dyeing of cotton with no or less salt. Synthetic cationizing agents of ammonium salt have already been commercialized. However, in nature there are proteinous products which are rich in amino and ammonium salts which can be carefully harnessed to be used as cationizing agent for cotton. The hoofs and horns have successfully been used to cationize cotton so as to improve cotton affinity to the dye. The cationization action of the hoof and horn extract on cotton was confirmed by dyeing the pretreated fabric without salt and comparing it with conventionally dyed and untreated salt free dyed fabric. UV-VIS absorption results showed better dye absorption (62.5% and 50% dye bath exhaustion percentage for cationized and untreated respectively) while K/S values of treated samples were similar to conventional sample.

Keywords: cationization, cotton, proteinous products, reactive dyes

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2 Assessing the Recycling Potential of Cupriavidus Necator for Space Travel: Production of Single Cell Proteins and Polyhydroxyalkanoates From Organic Waste

Authors: P. Joris, E. Lombard, X. Cameleyre, G. Navarro, A. Paillet, N. Gorret, S. E. Guillouet

Abstract:

Today, on the international space station, multiple supplies are needed per year to supply food and spare parts and to take out waste. But as it is planned to go longer and further into space these supplies will no longer be possible. The astronaut life support system must be able of continuously transform waste into valuable compounds. Two types of production were identified as critical and could be be supplemented by microorganisms. On the one hand, since microgravity causes rapid muscle loss, single cell proteins (SCPs) could be used as protein rich feed or food. On the other hand, having enough building materials to build an advanced habitat will not be possible only by transporting space goods from earth to mars for example. The bacterium Cupriavidus. necator is well known for its ability to produce a large amount of proteins or of polyhydroxyalkanoate biopolymers (PHAs) depending on its implementation. By coupling the life support system to a 3D-printer, astronauts could be supplied with an unlimited amount of building materials. Additionally, based on the design of the life support system, waste streams have been identified: urea from the crew urine and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) from a first stage of organic waste (excrement and food waste) treatment through anaerobic digestion. Thus, the objective of this, within the Spaceship.Fr project, was to demonstrate the feasibility of producing SCPs and PHAs from VFAs and urea in bioreactor. Because life support systems operate continuously as loops, continuous culture experiments were chosen and the effect of the bioreactor dilution rate on biomass composition was investigated. Total transformation of the carbon source into biomass with high SCP or PHA content was achieved in all cases. We will present the transformation performances of VFAs and urea by the bacteria in bioreactor in terms of titers, yields and productivities but also in terms of the quality of SCP and PHA produced, nucleic acid content. We will further discuss the envisioned integration of our process within life support systems.

Keywords: life support system, space travel, waste treatment, single cell proteins, polyhydroxyalkanoates, bioreactor

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1 Schooling Competent Citizens: A Normative Analysis of Citizenship Education Policy in Europe

Authors: M. Joris, O. Agirdag

Abstract:

For over two decades, calls for citizenship education (CE) have been rising to the top of educational policy agendas in Europe. The main motive for the current treatment of CE as a key topic is a sense of crisis: social and political threats that go beyond the reach of nations and require action at the international and European level. On the one hand, this context has triggered abundant attention to the promotion of citizenship through education. On the other hand, the ubiquity of citizenship and education in policy language is paired with a self-evident manner of using the concepts: the more we call for citizenship in and through education, the less the concepts seem to be made explicit or be defined. Research and reflection on the normativity of the concepts of citizenship and CE in Europe are scarce. Departing from the idea that policies are always normative, this study, therefore, investigates the normativity of the current concepts of citizenship and education, in ’key’ European CE policy texts. The study consists of a content analysis of these texts, based on a normative framework developed around the different dimensions of citizenship as status, identity, virtues and agency. The framework also describes the purposes of education and its learning processes, content and practices, based on the assumption that good education always includes, next to qualification and socialisation, a purpose of emancipation: of helping young people become autonomous and independent subjects. The analysis shows how contemporary European citizenship is conceptualised around the dimension of competences. This focus on competences is also visible in the normative framing of education and its relationship to citizenship in the texts: CE should help young people learn how to become good citizens by acquiring a toolkit of competences, consisting of knowledge, skills, values and attitudes that can be predetermined, measured and evaluated. This ideal of citizenship-as-competence entails a focus on the educational purposes of socialisation and qualification. Current policy texts thus seem to leave out the educational purpose of emancipating young people, allowing them to take on citizenship as something to which they can determine their own relation and position. It is, however, this purpose of CE that seems increasingly important in our current context. Young people are stepping out of school and onto the streets by the thousands in Belgium and throughout Europe, protesting for more and better environmental policies. They are making use of existing modes of citizenship, exactly to indicate to policymakers how these are falling short and are claiming their right and entitlement to a future that established practices of politics are putting at risk. The importance of citizenship education might then lie, now more than ever, not in the fact that it would prepare young people for competent citizenship, but in offering them a possibility, an emancipatory experience of being able to do something new. It seems that this is what we might want to expect from the school if we want it to educate our truly future citizens.

Keywords: citizenship education, normativity, policy, purposes of education

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