Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 32

Search results for: technics

32 Contemporary Matter on Communication and Information Education: Technological Lack

Authors: Sedat Cereci

Abstract:

This study investigates character of communication, evaluates communication and information need of people, handles relation between communication and contemporary technology, and emphasizes technological lack on communication education in many societies. To get information and communication are of main needs of people and people developed different instruments and technics to learn and to communicate in the past. Because of social need, communication became social matter and governments contributed facilities of communication and set communication places for people to meet and to communicate. Industrial Revolution and technological developments also contributed communication technics and proved numerous technological facilities for communication. Education in the world also use developed technology in any department and communication education especially necessities high technological facilities in schools. Many high schools and universities have communication departments and most of them use contemporary technological facilities, but they are not sufficient. Communication departments in educational organizations in Turkey have computer classrooms, monitors, cameras, microphones, telephones, different softwares, and others. However, despite all this, technological facilities and teaching methods are not sufficient because of contemporary developments. Technology develops rapidly due to hopes of people and technological facilities in education cannot catch developments and people always hope more.

Keywords: information, communication education, technology, technological lack, contemporary conditions, technics

Procedia PDF Downloads 229
31 Objectives of the Standardization of Technical Terminology Nowadays in Albanian

Authors: Gani Pllana

Abstract:

In the conditions of the rapid development of technics and technology in recent years, the cooperation of the scientific-technical language with the standard Albanian language is continuing with a higher intensity than before. We notice a vigor of enrichment in the vocabulary of technical terminology, due to the birth and formation of new fields and subfields of technics, technology, as computing, mechatronics, telemetry, a multitude of concepts many of which, on the one hand, are marked with names of the languages they come from, mainly from English, but on the other hand, they meet their needs with the lexical mother tongue composition (by common words being raised to terms) and with the activation of other layers, such as compound word terms. Thus, for example, in the field of computing, we notice in it the inclusion of the ordinary vocabulary for reproductive reasons, like mi, dritare, flamur, adresë, skedar (Engl: mouse, window, flag, address, file), and along with them, the compound word terms, serving to differentiate relevant concepts, like, adresë e hiperlidhjes, adresë e uebit, adresë relative, adresë virtuale (Engl. address hyperlink, web address, relative address, virtual address) etc.

Keywords: common words, Albanian language, technical terminology, standardization

Procedia PDF Downloads 223
30 Water Detection in Aerial Images Using Fuzzy Sets

Authors: Caio Marcelo Nunes, Anderson da Silva Soares, Gustavo Teodoro Laureano, Clarimar Jose Coelho

Abstract:

This paper presents a methodology to pixel recognition in aerial images using fuzzy $c$-means algorithm. This algorithm is a alternative to recognize areas considering uncertainties and inaccuracies. Traditional clustering technics are used in recognizing of multispectral images of earth's surface. This technics recognize well-defined borders that can be easily discretized. However, in the real world there are many areas with uncertainties and inaccuracies which can be mapped by clustering algorithms that use fuzzy sets. The methodology presents in this work is applied to multispectral images obtained from Landsat-5/TM satellite. The pixels are joined using the $c$-means algorithm. After, a classification process identify the types of surface according the patterns obtained from spectral response of image surface. The classes considered are, exposed soil, moist soil, vegetation, turbid water and clean water. The results obtained shows that the fuzzy clustering identify the real type of the earth's surface.

Keywords: aerial images, fuzzy clustering, image processing, pattern recognition

Procedia PDF Downloads 341
29 The Effect of Flow Discharge on Suspended Solids Transport in the Nakhon-Nayok River

Authors: Apichote Urantinon

Abstract:

Suspended solid is one factor for water quality in open channel. It affects various problems in waterways that could cause high sedimentation in the channels, leading to shallowness in the river. It is composed of the organic and inorganic materials which can settle down anywhere along the open channel. Thus, depends on the solid amount and its composition, it occupies the water body capacity and causes the water quality problems simultaneously. However, the existing of suspended solid in the water column depends on the flow discharge (Q) and secchi depth (sec). This study aims to examine the effect of flow discharge (Q) and secchi depth (sec) on the suspended solids concentration in open channel and attempts to establish the formula that represents the relationship between flow discharges (Q), secchi depth (sec) and suspended solid concentration. The field samplings have been conducted in the Nakhon-Nayok river, during the wet season, September 15-16, 2014 and dry season, March 10-11, 2015. The samplings with five different locations are measured. The discharge has been measured onsite by floating technics, the secchi depth has been measured by secchi disc and the water samples have been collected at the center of the water column. They have been analyzed in the laboratory for the suspended solids concentration. The results demonstrate that the decrease in suspended solids concentration is dependent on flow discharge, since the natural processes in erosion consists of routing of eroded material. Finally, an empirical equation to compute the suspended solids concentration that shows an equation (SScon = 9.852 (sec)-0.759 Q0.0355) is developed. The calculated suspended solids concentration, with uses of empirical formula, show good agreement with the record data as the R2 = 0.831. Therefore, the empirical formula in this study is clearly verified.

Keywords: suspended solids concentration, the Nakhon-Nayok river, secchi depth, floating technics

Procedia PDF Downloads 120
28 An Adaptive Decomposition for the Variability Analysis of Observation Time Series in Geophysics

Authors: Olivier Delage, Thierry Portafaix, Hassan Bencherif, Guillaume Guimbretiere

Abstract:

Most observation data sequences in geophysics can be interpreted as resulting from the interaction of several physical processes at several time and space scales. As a consequence, measurements time series in geophysics have often characteristics of non-linearity and non-stationarity and thereby exhibit strong fluctuations at all time-scales and require a time-frequency representation to analyze their variability. Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) is a relatively new technic as part of a more general signal processing method called the Hilbert-Huang transform. This analysis method turns out to be particularly suitable for non-linear and non-stationary signals and consists in decomposing a signal in an auto adaptive way into a sum of oscillating components named IMFs (Intrinsic Mode Functions), and thereby acts as a bank of bandpass filters. The advantages of the EMD technic are to be entirely data driven and to provide the principal variability modes of the dynamics represented by the original time series. However, the main limiting factor is the frequency resolution that may give rise to the mode mixing phenomenon where the spectral contents of some IMFs overlap each other. To overcome this problem, J. Gilles proposed an alternative entitled “Empirical Wavelet Transform” (EWT) which consists in building from the segmentation of the original signal Fourier spectrum, a bank of filters. The method used is based on the idea utilized in the construction of both Littlewood-Paley and Meyer’s wavelets. The heart of the method lies in the segmentation of the Fourier spectrum based on the local maxima detection in order to obtain a set of non-overlapping segments. Because linked to the Fourier spectrum, the frequency resolution provided by EWT is higher than that provided by EMD and therefore allows to overcome the mode-mixing problem. On the other hand, if the EWT technique is able to detect the frequencies involved in the original time series fluctuations, EWT does not allow to associate the detected frequencies to a specific mode of variability as in the EMD technic. Because EMD is closer to the observation of physical phenomena than EWT, we propose here a new technic called EAWD (Empirical Adaptive Wavelet Decomposition) based on the coupling of the EMD and EWT technics by using the IMFs density spectral content to optimize the segmentation of the Fourier spectrum required by EWT. In this study, EMD and EWT technics are described, then EAWD technic is presented. Comparison of results obtained respectively by EMD, EWT and EAWD technics on time series of ozone total columns recorded at Reunion island over [1978-2019] period is discussed. This study was carried out as part of the SOLSTYCE project dedicated to the characterization and modeling of the underlying dynamics of time series issued from complex systems in atmospheric sciences

Keywords: adaptive filtering, empirical mode decomposition, empirical wavelet transform, filter banks, mode-mixing, non-linear and non-stationary time series, wavelet

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
27 Portfolio Risk Management Using Quantum Annealing

Authors: Thomas Doutre, Emmanuel De Meric De Bellefon

Abstract:

This paper describes the application of local-search metaheuristic quantum annealing to portfolio opti- mization. Heuristic technics are particularly handy when Markowitz’ classical Mean-Variance problem is enriched with additional realistic constraints. Once tailored to the problem, computational experiments on real collected data have shown the superiority of quantum annealing over simulated annealing for this constrained optimization problem, taking advantages of quantum effects such as tunnelling.

Keywords: optimization, portfolio risk management, quantum annealing, metaheuristic

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
26 Influence of Bottom Ash on the Geotechnical Parameters of Clayey Soil

Authors: Tanios Saliba, Jad Wakim, Elie Awwad

Abstract:

Clayey soils exhibit undesirable problems in civil engineering project: poor bearing soil capacity, shrinkage, cracking, …etc. On the other hand, the increasing production of bottom ash and its disposal in an eco-friendly manner is a matter of concern. Soil stabilization using bottom ash is a new technic in the geo-environmental engineering. It can be used wherever a soft clayey soil is encountered in foundations or road subgrade, instead of using old technics such as cement-soil mixing. This new technology can be used for road embankments and clayey foundations platform (shallow or deep foundations) instead of replacing bad soil or using old technics which aren’t eco-friendly. Moreover, applying this new technic in our geotechnical engineering projects can reduce the disposal of the bottom ash problem which is getting bigger day after day. The research consists of mixing clayey soil with different percentages of bottom ash at different values of water content, and evaluates the mechanical properties of every mix: the percentages of bottom ash are 10% 20% 30% 40% and 50% with values of water content of 25% 35% and 45% of the mix’s weight. Before testing the different mixes, clayey soil’s properties were determined: Atterbeg limits, soil’s cohesion and friction angle and particle size distribution. In order to evaluate the mechanical properties and behavior of every mix, different tests are conducted: -Direct shear test in order to determine the cohesion and internal friction angle of every mix. -Unconfined compressive strength (stress strain curve) to determine mix’s elastic modulus and compressive strength. Soil samples are prepared in accordance with the ASTM standards, and tested at different times, in order to be able to emphasize the influence of the curing period on the variation of the mix’s mechanical properties and characteristics. As of today, the results obtained are very promising: the mix’s cohesion and friction angle vary in function of the bottom ash percentage, water content and curing period: the cohesion increases enormously before decreasing for a long curing period (values of mix’s cohesion are larger than intact soil’s cohesion) while internal friction angle keeps on increasing even when the curing period is 28 days (the tests largest curing period), which give us a better soil behavior: less cracks and better soil bearing capacity.

Keywords: bottom ash, Clayey soil, mechanical properties, tests

Procedia PDF Downloads 116
25 Educase–Intelligent System for Pedagogical Advising Using Case-Based Reasoning

Authors: Elionai Moura, José A. Cunha, César Analide

Abstract:

This work introduces a proposal scheme for an Intelligent System applied to Pedagogical Advising using Case-Based Reasoning, to find consolidated solutions before used for the new problems, making easier the task of advising students to the pedagogical staff. We do intend, through this work, introduce the motivation behind the choices for this system structure, justifying the development of an incremental and smart web system who learns bests solutions for new cases when it’s used, showing technics and technology.

Keywords: case-based reasoning, pedagogical advising, educational data-mining (EDM), machine learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 308
24 Tunnel Convergence Monitoring by Distributed Fiber Optics Embedded into Concrete

Authors: R. Farhoud, G. Hermand, S. Delepine-lesoille

Abstract:

Future underground facility of French radioactive waste disposal, named Cigeo, is designed to store intermediate and high level - long-lived French radioactive waste. Intermediate level waste cells are tunnel-like, about 400m length and 65 m² section, equipped with several concrete layers, which can be grouted in situ or composed of tunnel elements pre-grouted. The operating space into cells, to allow putting or removing waste containers, should be monitored for several decades without any maintenance. To provide the required information, design was performed and tested in situ in Andra’s underground laboratory (URL) at 500m under the surface. Based on distributed optic fiber sensors (OFS) and backscattered Brillouin for strain and Raman for temperature interrogation technics, the design consists of 2 loops of OFS, at 2 different radiuses, around the monitored section (Orthoradiale strains) and longitudinally. Strains measured by distributed OFS cables were compared to classical vibrating wire extensometers (VWE) and platinum probes (Pt). The OFS cables were composed of 2 cables sensitive to strains and temperatures and one only for temperatures. All cables were connected, between sensitive part and instruments, to hybrid cables to reduce cost. The connection has been made according to 2 technics: splicing fibers in situ after installation or preparing each fiber with a connector and only plugging them together in situ. Another challenge was installing OFS cables along a tunnel mad in several parts, without interruption along several parts. First success consists of the survival rate of sensors after installation and quality of measurements. Indeed, 100% of OFS cables, intended for long-term monitoring, survived installation. Few new configurations were tested with relative success. Measurements obtained were very promising. Indeed, after 3 years of data, no difference was observed between cables and connection methods of OFS and strains fit well with VWE and Pt placed at the same location. Data, from Brillouin instrument sensitive to strains and temperatures, were compensated with data provided by Raman instrument only sensitive to temperature and into a separated fiber. These results provide confidence in the next steps of the qualification processes which consists of testing several data treatment approach for direct analyses.

Keywords: monitoring, fiber optic, sensor, data treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
23 Reinforcement Learning for Classification of Low-Resolution Satellite Images

Authors: Khadija Bouzaachane, El Mahdi El Guarmah

Abstract:

The classification of low-resolution satellite images has been a worthwhile and fertile field that attracts plenty of researchers due to its importance in monitoring geographical areas. It could be used for several purposes such as disaster management, military surveillance, agricultural monitoring. The main objective of this work is to classify efficiently and accurately low-resolution satellite images by using novel technics of deep learning and reinforcement learning. The images include roads, residential areas, industrial areas, rivers, sea lakes, and vegetation. To achieve that goal, we carried out experiments on the sentinel-2 images considering both high accuracy and efficiency classification. Our proposed model achieved a 91% accuracy on the testing dataset besides a good classification for land cover. Focus on the parameter precision; we have obtained 93% for the river, 92% for residential, 97% for residential, 96% for the forest, 87% for annual crop, 84% for herbaceous vegetation, 85% for pasture, 78% highway and 100% for Sea Lake.

Keywords: classification, deep learning, reinforcement learning, satellite imagery

Procedia PDF Downloads 96
22 The Criteria of the Aesthetic Quality of Art: Contemporary Photography

Authors: Artem Surkov

Abstract:

This work is devoted to a problem of aesthetic quality determinism in the context of contemporary art. The object of study is photography regarding as a kind of art which demands specific system of quality marking. Objective: To define aesthetic criteria in photography art. For current searching different kind of texts by such powerful authors like Clement Greenberg and Rosalind Krauss, Theodor Adorno and Herbert Marcuse, Charlott Cotton and Boris Groys, Viktor Miziano and Ekaterina Degot' were analyzed. Before all, there are two different kinds of photography: the classic art photography (by Ansel Adams) and the photography as kind of art (by Andreas Gursky). In this text we are talking about the photography as kind of art. The main principle of current searching is synthesis of two different approaches: modernism and postmodernism. This method helps us to define uniform criteria of aesthetic quality in photography as kind of art. The criteria mentioned in conclusion paragraph are: aesthetic rationality, aesthetic economy, awareness (using photographic technics or references), and intention to go beyond form, practice and method.

Keywords: aesthetic, art, criteria of quality, photography, visually

Procedia PDF Downloads 316
21 The Technics of Desalination Water in Algeria

Authors: H. Aburideh, Z.Tigrine, D. Ziou, S. Hout, R. Bellatreche, D. Belhout, Z. Belgroun, M. Abbas

Abstract:

Faced with climate hazards in recent decades and the constant increase of the population, Algeria is making considerable efforts to provide water resources and water availability, both for its nascent industry, agriculture and for the drinking water supply of cities and arid region of the country. Following a remarkable worldwide technological breakthrough in seawater and brackish water desalination, known in recent years, the specialists have seen that the use of desalination of sea water in Algeria is a promising alternative as long as it has a coastline of 1200 km. Seawater is clean and virtually inexhaustible resource; mainly for population and industry that have high water consumption and are close to the sea. The purpose of this work is to present information on the number of sea water desalination stations and demineralization plants existing in Algeria. The constraints related to the operation of certain stations; those which are operational, those that are not operational as well as the seawater desalination program that was hired to cover 49 desalination plants across the country at the end of 2019 with the aim of increasing and diversifying water resources.

Keywords: desalination, water, membrane, demineralization

Procedia PDF Downloads 303
20 Comparative Analysis of SVPWM and the Standard PWM Technique for Three Level Diode Clamped Inverter fed Induction Motor

Authors: L. Lakhdari, B. Bouchiba, M. Bechar

Abstract:

The multi-level inverters present an important novelty in the field of energy control with high voltage and power. The major advantage of all multi-level inverters is the improvement and spectral quality of its generated output signals. In recent years, various pulse width modulation techniques have been developed. From these technics we have: Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation (SPWM) and Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation (SVPWM). This work presents a detailed analysis of the comparative advantage of space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) and the standard SPWM technique for Three Level Diode Clamped Inverter fed Induction Motor. The comparison is based on the evaluation of harmonic distortion THD.

Keywords: induction motor, multilevel inverters, SVPWM, SPWM, THD

Procedia PDF Downloads 252
19 A Teaching Learning Based Optimization for Optimal Design of a Hybrid Energy System

Authors: Ahmad Rouhani, Masood Jabbari, Sima Honarmand

Abstract:

This paper introduces a method to optimal design of a hybrid Wind/Photovoltaic/Fuel cell generation system for a typical domestic load that is not located near the electricity grid. In this configuration the combination of a battery, an electrolyser, and a hydrogen storage tank are used as the energy storage system. The aim of this design is minimization of overall cost of generation scheme over 20 years of operation. The Matlab/Simulink is applied for choosing the appropriate structure and the optimization of system sizing. A teaching learning based optimization is used to optimize the cost function. An overall power management strategy is designed for the proposed system to manage power flows among the different energy sources and the storage unit in the system. The results have been analyzed in terms of technics and economics. The simulation results indicate that the proposed hybrid system would be a feasible solution for stand-alone applications at remote locations.

Keywords: hybrid energy system, optimum sizing, power management, TLBO

Procedia PDF Downloads 477
18 Study of Physico-Chimical Properties of a Silty Soil

Authors: Moulay Smaïne Ghembaza, Mokhtar Dadouch, Nour-Said Ikhlef

Abstract:

Soil treatment is to make use soil that does not have the characteristics required in a given context. We limit ourselves in this work to the field of road earthworks where we have chosen to develop a local material in the region of Sidi Bel Abbes (Algeria). This material has poor characteristics not meeting the standards used in road geo technics. To remedy this, firstly, we were trying to improve the Proctor Standard characteristics of this material by mechanical treatment increasing the compaction energy. Then, by a chemical treatment, adding some cement dosages, our results show that this material classified A1h a increase maximum dry density and a reduction in the water content of compaction. A comparative study is made on the optimal properties of the material between the two modes of treatment. On the other hand, after treatment, one finds a decrease in the plasticity index and the methylene blue value. This material exhibits a change of class. Therefore, soil class CL turned into a soil class composed CL-ML (Silt of low plasticity). This observation allows this material to be used as backfill or sub grade.

Keywords: treatment of soil, cement, subgrade, Atteberg limits, classification, optimum proctor properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 383
17 Recognition of Objects in a Maritime Environment Using a Combination of Pre- and Post-Processing of the Polynomial Fit Method

Authors: R. R. Hordijk, O. J. G. Somsen

Abstract:

Traditionally, radar systems are the eyes and ears of a ship. However, these systems have their drawbacks and nowadays they are extended with systems that work with video and photos. Processing of data from these videos and photos is however very labour-intensive and efforts are being made to automate this process. A major problem when trying to recognize objects in water is that the 'background' is not homogeneous so that traditional image recognition technics do not work well. Main question is, can a method be developed which automate this recognition process. There are a large number of parameters involved to facilitate the identification of objects on such images. One is varying the resolution. In this research, the resolution of some images has been reduced to the extreme value of 1% of the original to reduce clutter before the polynomial fit (pre-processing). It turned out that the searched object was clearly recognizable as its grey value was well above the average. Another approach is to take two images of the same scene shortly after each other and compare the result. Because the water (waves) fluctuates much faster than an object floating in the water one can expect that the object is the only stable item in the two images. Both these methods (pre-processing and comparing two images of the same scene) delivered useful results. Though it is too early to conclude that with these methods all image problems can be solved they are certainly worthwhile for further research.

Keywords: image processing, image recognition, polynomial fit, water

Procedia PDF Downloads 462
16 The Antecedent Variables of Government Financial Accounting System (SAKD) Implementation and Its Consequences: Empirical Study on the Device of Regional Coordinating Agency for Development of Cross County, City Region III Central Java Province, Indo

Authors: Dona Primasari

Abstract:

This study examines the antecedent variables of Government Financial Acccounting System (SAKD) implementation and its consequence. The antecedent variables are: decentralization of decision making, adaptation, and the manager support. The consequences are satisfaction and performance officer. This research represents the empirical test which used convenience sampling technics in data collection. The data were collected from 167 officers of local government in the Regional Coordinating Agency for Development of Cross County/City Region III Central Java Province. Data analysis used Structural Equation Model (SEM) with the AMOS 18.0 program. The result of hypothesis examination indicates that six raised hypothesis are accepted and two hypothesis are rejected.

Keywords: decentralization of decision making, adaptation officer, manager support, implementation of Government Accounting Financial System (SAKD), satisfaction and performance officer

Procedia PDF Downloads 322
15 Building Information Modelling-Based Diminished Reality Visualisation to Facilitate Building Renovation Projects

Authors: Roghieh Eskandari, Ali Motamedi

Abstract:

There is a significant demand for renovation as-built assets are aging. To plan for a desirable and comfortable indoor environment, stakeholders use simulation technics to assess potential renovation scenarios with the innovative designs. Diminished Reality (DR), which is a technique of visually removing unwanted objects from the real-world scene in real-time, can contribute to the renovation design visualization for stakeholders by removing existing structures and assets from the scene. Using DR, the objects to be demolished or changed will be visually removed from the scene for a better understanding of the intended design scenarios for stakeholders. This research proposes an integrated system for renovation plan visualization using Building Information Modelling (BIM) data and mixed reality (MR) technologies. It presents a BIM-based DR method that utilizes a textured BIM model of the environment to accurately register the virtual model of the occluded background to the physical world in real-time. This system can facilitate the simulation of the renovation plan by visually diminishing building elements in an indoor environment.

Keywords: diminished reality, building information modelling, mixed reality, stock renovation

Procedia PDF Downloads 4
14 Evaluating the Effect of Modern Technologies and Technics to Supply Energy of Buildings Using New Energies

Authors: Ali Reza Ghaffari, Hassan Saghi

Abstract:

Given the limitation of fossil resources to supply energy to buildings, recent years have seen a revival of interest in new technologies that produce the energy using new forms of energy in many developed countries. In this research, first the potentials of new energies in Iran are discussed and then based on case studies undertaken in a building in Tehran, the effects of utilizing new solar energy technology for supplying the energy of buildings are investigated. Then, by analyzing the data recorded over a four-year period, the technical performance of this system is investigated. According to the experimental operation plan, this system requires an auxiliary heating circuit for continuous operation over a year. Also, in the economic analysis, real conditions are considered and the results are recorded based on long-term data. Considering the purchase and commissioning building, supplementary energy consumption, etc. a comparison is drawn between the costs of using a solar water heater in a residential unit with the energy costs of a similar unit equipped with a conventional gas water heater. Given the current price of energy, using a solar water heater in the country will not economical, but considering the global energy prices, this system will have a return on investment after 4.5 years. It also produces 81% less pollution and saves about $21.5 on environmental pollution cleanup.

Keywords: energy supply, new energies, new technologies, buildings

Procedia PDF Downloads 9
13 Hygrothermal Properties of Raw Earth Material

Authors: Ichrak Hamrouni, Tariq Ouahbi, Natalija Lhuissier, Saïd Taibi, Mehrez Jemai, Olivier Crumeyrolle, Hatem Zenzri

Abstract:

Raw earth is the oldest building technique used for over 11 centuries, thanks to its various benefits. The most known raw earth construction technics are compressed earth blocks, rammed earth, raw earth concrete, and daub. The raw earth can be stabilized with hydraulic binders, mixed by fibers, or hyper-compacted in order to improve its mechanical behaviour. Moreover, raw earth is characterized by a low thermal conductivity what make it a good thermal insulator, and it has a very important capacity to condense and evaporate relative humidity. In this context, many researches have been developed. They have shown that the mechanical characteristics of earth materials increase with the hyper-compaction and adding fibers or hydraulic binders. Besides, other researches have been determined the thermal and hygroscopic properties of raw earth. They have shown that this material able to contribute to moisture and heat control in constructions. Its hygrothermal properties are better than fired earth bricks and concrete. The aim of this study is to evaluate the thermal and hygrometric behavior of raw earth material using experimental tests allows to determine the main Hygrothermal properties such as the water Vapour permeability and thermal conductivity and compare the results with those of other building materials such as fired clay bricks and cement concrete is presented.

Keywords: raw earth material, hygro-thermal, thermal conductivity, water vapour permeability, building materials, building materials

Procedia PDF Downloads 84
12 Mathematical Study for Traffic Flow and Traffic Density in Kigali Roads

Authors: Kayijuka Idrissa

Abstract:

This work investigates a mathematical study for traffic flow and traffic density in Kigali city roads and the data collected from the national police of Rwanda in 2012. While working on this topic, some mathematical models were used in order to analyze and compare traffic variables. This work has been carried out on Kigali roads specifically at roundabouts from Kigali Business Center (KBC) to Prince House as our study sites. In this project, we used some mathematical tools to analyze the data collected and to understand the relationship between traffic variables. We applied the Poisson distribution method to analyze and to know the number of accidents occurred in this section of the road which is from KBC to Prince House. The results show that the accidents that occurred in 2012 were at very high rates due to the fact that this section has a very narrow single lane on each side which leads to high congestion of vehicles, and consequently, accidents occur very frequently. Using the data of speeds and densities collected from this section of road, we found that the increment of the density results in a decrement of the speed of the vehicle. At the point where the density is equal to the jam density the speed becomes zero. The approach is promising in capturing sudden changes on flow patterns and is open to be utilized in a series of intelligent management strategies and especially in noncurrent congestion effect detection and control.

Keywords: statistical methods, traffic flow, Poisson distribution, car moving technics

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
11 Pushover Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Buildings Using Full Jacket Technics: A Case Study on an Existing Old Building in Madinah

Authors: Tarek M. Alguhane, Ayman H. Khalil, M. N. Fayed, Ayman M. Ismail

Abstract:

The retrofitting of existing buildings to resist the seismic loads is very important to avoid losing lives or financial disasters. The aim at retrofitting processes is increasing total structure strength by increasing stiffness or ductility ratio. In addition, the response modification factors (R) have to satisfy the code requirements for suggested retrofitting types. In this study, two types of jackets are used, i.e. full reinforced concrete jackets and surrounding steel plate jackets. The study is carried out on an existing building in Madinah by performing static pushover analysis before and after retrofitting the columns. The selected model building represents nearly all-typical structure lacks structure built before 30 years ago in Madina City, KSA. The comparison of the results indicates a good enhancement of the structure respect to the applied seismic forces. Also, the response modification factor of the RC building is evaluated for the studied cases before and after retrofitting. The design of all vertical elements (columns) is given. The results show that the design of retrofitted columns satisfied the code's design stress requirements. However, for some retrofitting types, the ductility requirements represented by response modification factor do not satisfy KSA design code (SBC- 301).

Keywords: concrete jackets, steel jackets, RC buildings, pushover analysis, non-Linear analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 274
10 Management of Urban Watering: A Study of Appliance of Technologies and Legislation in Goiania, Brazil

Authors: Vinicius Marzall, Jussanã Milograna

Abstract:

The urban drainwatering remains a major challenge for most of the Brazilian cities. Not so different of the most part, Goiania, a state capital located in Midwest of the country has few legislations about the subject matter and only one registered solution of compensative techniques for drainwater. This paper clam to show some solutions which are adopted in other Brazilian cities with consolidated legislation, suggesting technics about detention tanks in a building sit. This study analyzed and compared the legislation of Curitiba, Porto Alegre e Sao Paulo, with the actual legislation and politics of Goiania. After this, were created models with adopted data for dimensioning the size of detention tanks using the envelope curve method considering synthetic series for intense precipitations and building sits between 250 m² and 600 m², with an impermeabilization tax of 50%. The results showed great differences between the legislation of Goiania and the documentation of the others cities analyzed, like the number of techniques for drainwatering applied to the reality of the cities, educational actions to awareness the population about care the water courses and political management by having a specified funds for drainwater subjects, for example. Besides, the use of detention tank showed itself practicable, have seen that the occupation of the tank is minor than 3% of the building sit, whatever the size of the terrain, granting the exit flow to pre-occupational taxes in extreme rainfall events. Also, was developed a linear equation to measure the detention tank based in the size of the building sit in Goiania, making simpler the calculation and implementation for non-specialized people.

Keywords: clean technology, legislation, rainwater management, urban drainwater

Procedia PDF Downloads 87
9 Neural Graph Matching for Modification Similarity Applied to Electronic Document Comparison

Authors: Po-Fang Hsu, Chiching Wei

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a novel neural graph matching approach applied to document comparison. Document comparison is a common task in the legal and financial industries. In some cases, the most important differences may be the addition or omission of words, sentences, clauses, or paragraphs. However, it is a challenging task without recording or tracing the whole edited process. Under many temporal uncertainties, we explore the potentiality of our approach to proximate the accurate comparison to make sure which element blocks have a relation of edition with others. In the beginning, we apply a document layout analysis that combines traditional and modern technics to segment layouts in blocks of various types appropriately. Then we transform this issue into a problem of layout graph matching with textual awareness. Regarding graph matching, it is a long-studied problem with a broad range of applications. However, different from previous works focusing on visual images or structural layout, we also bring textual features into our model for adapting this domain. Specifically, based on the electronic document, we introduce an encoder to deal with the visual presentation decoding from PDF. Additionally, because the modifications can cause the inconsistency of document layout analysis between modified documents and the blocks can be merged and split, Sinkhorn divergence is adopted in our neural graph approach, which tries to overcome both these issues with many-to-many block matching. We demonstrate this on two categories of layouts, as follows., legal agreement and scientific articles, collected from our real-case datasets.

Keywords: document comparison, graph matching, graph neural network, modification similarity, multi-modal

Procedia PDF Downloads 73
8 Estimation of Energy Losses of Photovoltaic Systems in France Using Real Monitoring Data

Authors: Mohamed Amhal, Jose Sayritupac

Abstract:

Photovoltaic (PV) systems have risen as one of the modern renewable energy sources that are used in wide ranges to produce electricity and deliver it to the electrical grid. In parallel, monitoring systems have been deployed as a key element to track the energy production and to forecast the total production for the next days. The reliability of the PV energy production has become a crucial point in the analysis of PV systems. A deeper understanding of each phenomenon that causes a gain or a loss of energy is needed to better design, operate and maintain the PV systems. This work analyzes the current losses distribution in PV systems starting from the available solar energy, going through the DC side and AC side, to the delivery point. Most of the phenomena linked to energy losses and gains are considered and modeled, based on real time monitoring data and datasheets of the PV system components. An analysis of the order of magnitude of each loss is compared to the current literature and commercial software. To date, the analysis of PV systems performance based on a breakdown structure of energy losses and gains is not covered enough in the literature, except in some software where the concept is very common. The cutting-edge of the current analysis is the implementation of software tools for energy losses estimation in PV systems based on several energy losses definitions and estimation technics. The developed tools have been validated and tested on some PV plants in France, which are operating for years. Among the major findings of the current study: First, PV plants in France show very low rates of soiling and aging. Second, the distribution of other losses is comparable to the literature. Third, all losses reported are correlated to operational and environmental conditions. For future work, an extended analysis on further PV plants in France and abroad will be performed.

Keywords: energy gains, energy losses, losses distribution, monitoring, photovoltaic, photovoltaic systems

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
7 Effects of Non-Motorized Vehicles on a Selected Intersection in Dhaka City for Non Lane Based Heterogeneous Traffic Using VISSIM 5.3

Authors: A. C. Dey, H. M. Ahsan

Abstract:

Heterogeneous traffic composed of both motorized and non-motorized vehicles that are a common feature of urban Bangladeshi roads. Popular non-motorized vehicles include rickshaws, rickshaw-van, and bicycle. These modes performed an important role in moving people and goods in the absence of a dependable mass transport system. However, rickshaws play a major role in meeting the demand for door-to-door public transport services to the city dwellers. But there is no separate lane for non-motorized vehicles in this city. Non-motorized vehicles generally occupy the outermost or curb-side lanes, however, at intersections non-motorized vehicles get mixed with the motorized vehicles. That’s why the conventional models fail to analyze the situation completely. Microscopic traffic simulation software VISSIM 5.3, itself a lane base software but default behavioral parameters [such as driving behavior, lateral distances, overtaking tendency, CCO=0.4m, CC1=1.5s] are modified for calibrating a model to analyze the effects of non-motorized traffic at an intersection (Mirpur-10) in a non-lane based mixed traffic condition. It is seen from field data that NMV occupies an average 20% of the total number of vehicles almost all the link roads. Due to the large share of non-motorized vehicles, capacity significantly drop. After analyzing simulation raw data, significant variation is noticed. Such as the average vehicular speed is reduced by 25% and the number of vehicles decreased by 30% only for the presence of NMV. Also the variation of lateral occupancy and queue delay time increase by 2.37% and 33.75% respectively. Thus results clearly show the negative effects of non-motorized vehicles on capacity at an intersection. So special management technics or restriction of NMV at major intersections may be an effective solution to improve this existing critical condition.

Keywords: lateral occupancy, non lane based intersection, nmv, queue delay time, VISSIM 5.3

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
6 Construction of Ovarian Cancer-on-Chip Model by 3D Bioprinting and Microfluidic Techniques

Authors: Zakaria Baka, Halima Alem

Abstract:

Cancer is a major worldwide health problem that has caused around ten million deaths in 2020. In addition, efforts to develop new anti-cancer drugs still face a high failure rate. This is partly due to the lack of preclinical models that recapitulate in-vivo drug responses. Indeed conventional cell culture approach (known as 2D cell culture) is far from reproducing the complex, dynamic and three-dimensional environment of tumors. To set up more in-vivo-like cancer models, 3D bioprinting seems to be a promising technology due to its ability to achieve 3D scaffolds containing different cell types with controlled distribution and precise architecture. Moreover, the introduction of microfluidic technology makes it possible to simulate in-vivo dynamic conditions through the so-called “cancer-on-chip” platforms. Whereas several cancer types have been modeled through the cancer-on-chip approach, such as lung cancer and breast cancer, only a few works describing ovarian cancer models have been described. The aim of this work is to combine 3D bioprinting and microfluidic technics with setting up a 3D dynamic model of ovarian cancer. In the first phase, alginate-gelatin hydrogel containing SKOV3 cells was used to achieve tumor-like structures through an extrusion-based bioprinter. The desired form of the tumor-like mass was first designed on 3D CAD software. The hydrogel composition was then optimized for ensuring good and reproducible printability. Cell viability in the bioprinted structures was assessed using Live/Dead assay and WST1 assay. In the second phase, these bioprinted structures will be included in a microfluidic device that allows simultaneous testing of different drug concentrations. This microfluidic dispositive was first designed through computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations for fixing its precise dimensions. It was then be manufactured through a molding method based on a 3D printed template. To confirm the results of CFD simulations, doxorubicin (DOX) solutions were perfused through the dispositive and DOX concentration in each culture chamber was determined. Once completely characterized, this model will be used to assess the efficacy of anti-cancer nanoparticles developed in the Jean Lamour institute.

Keywords: 3D bioprinting, ovarian cancer, cancer-on-chip models, microfluidic techniques

Procedia PDF Downloads 98
5 Acoustic Wave Propagation to Locate and Evaluate Obstructions in Dam Seepage Drains

Authors: André Taras, Mathieu Soares, M. Rodriguez, M. Argouges

Abstract:

Concrete dams are subject to cracks at the reservoir face of the dam. Water seeps into the cracks of the concrete can create an uplift pressure. To reduce this pressure, drains are bored vertically in the wall of the dam or at angle in the foundation, to intercept these cracks, it permits water to flow and reduce pressure. However, these drains may, with time, clog up from calcite deposit or accretion. Some big dams can bare several hundreds of drains. Before choosing which drain to clean, camera inspection permits to evaluate the state of obstructions, but it is tedious and time consuming. To improve upon the inspection time, research was undertaken to evaluate the potential of the acoustic wave propagation technic to locate obstructions in air filled seepage drains and to evaluate calcite section reduction. Such acoustic technics have been studied for gas and oil pipes to detect cracks and leaks. Physical models were developed to describe wave attenuation due to leakage through the wall and damping with distance. Also, reflection and transmission behaviour had to be described from the incident wave at an obstruction. The values of reflected and incident waveswere extrapolated to the point of obstruction. Their ratio was correlated to the cross-sectional reduction due to calcite at a given obstruction. Extensive lab tests in PVC and Fibrocement pipes have permitted to establish the performances of these models. Also, ballpark figures were obtained for the attenuation coefficient and the effect of superposition of the measured reflected wave to its rebound at the open extremity of the pipe. The effects of cavities were also identified. The proposed paper will present the results from tests undertaken in actual drains in dams. A first series of testswere undertaken at a dam in drains with no important obstruction. These measurementsserved to determine the actual coefficient of attenuation and correction coefficient for superposition. A second series of tests were undertaken on drains with obstructions at another dam. These measurements served to evaluate the performance of the proposed acoustic wave propagation inspection method in predicting the degree of obstruction in actual drains. The proposed method was found to be around 5 times faster than the camera. Correlation between actual and predicted obstructions were encouraging. However, there was a certain degree of interpretation in the amount of obstruction as evaluated by the camera used as a means of comparison. Future work will focus on developing a user-friendly software interface for the wave signal analysis and obstruction prediction.

Keywords: acoustic, wave propagation, drains, calcite, dams

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
4 Nursing Education in the Pandemic Time: Case Study

Authors: Jaana Sepp, Ulvi Kõrgemaa, Kristi Puusepp, Õie Tähtla

Abstract:

COVID-19 was officially recognized as a pandemic in late 2019 by the WHO, and it has led to changes in the education sector. Educational institutions were closed, and most schools adopted distance learning. Estonia is known as a digitally well-developed country. Based on that, in the pandemic time, nursing education continued, and new technological solutions were implemented. To provide nursing education, special focus was paid on quality and flexibility. The aim of this paper is to present administrative, digital, and technological solutions which support Estonian nursing educators to continue the study process in the pandemic time and to develop a sustainable solution for nursing education for the future. This paper includes the authors’ analysis of the documents and decisions implemented in the institutions through the pandemic time. It is a case study of Estonian nursing educators. Results of the analysis show that the implementation of distance learning principles challenges the development of innovative strategies and technics for the assessment of student performance and educational outcomes and implement new strategies to encourage student engagement in the virtual classroom. Additionally, hospital internships were canceled, and the simulation approach was deeply implemented as a new opportunity to develop and assess students’ practical skills. There are many other technical and administrative changes that have also been carried out, such as students’ support and assessment systems, the designing and conducting of hybrid and blended studies, etc. All services were redesigned and made more available, individual, and flexible. Hence, the feedback system was changed, the information was collected in parallel with educational activities. Experiences of nursing education during the pandemic time are widely presented in scientific literature. However, to conclude our study, authors have found evidence that solutions implemented in Estonian nursing education allowed the students to graduate within the nominal study period without any decline in education quality. Operative information system and flexibility provided the minimum distance between the students, support, and academic staff, and likewise, the changes were implemented quickly and efficiently. Institution memberships were updated with the appropriate information, and it positively affected their satisfaction, motivation, and commitment. We recommend that the feedback process and the system should be permanently changed in the future to place all members in the same information area, redefine the hospital internship process, implement hybrid learning, as well as to improve the communication system between stakeholders inside and outside the organization. The main limitation of this study relates to the size of Estonia. Nursing education is provided by two institutions only, and similarly, the number of students is low. The result could be generated to the institutions with a similar size and administrative system. In the future, the relationship between nurses’ performance and organizational outcomes should be deeply investigated and influences of the pandemic time education analyzed at workplaces.

Keywords: hybrid learning, nursing education, nursing, COVID-19

Procedia PDF Downloads 42
3 Cognitive Radio in Aeronautic: Comparison of Some Spectrum Sensing Technics

Authors: Abdelkhalek Bouchikhi, Elyes Benmokhtar, Sebastien Saletzki

Abstract:

The aeronautical field is experiencing issues with RF spectrum congestion due to the constant increase in the number of flights, aircrafts and telecom systems on board. In addition, these systems are bulky in size, weight and energy consumption. The cognitive radio helps particularly solving the spectrum congestion issue by its capacity to detect idle frequency channels then, allowing an opportunistic exploitation of the RF spectrum. The present work aims to propose a new use case for aeronautical spectrum sharing and to study the performances of three different detection techniques: energy detector, matched filter and cyclostationary detector within the aeronautical use case. The spectrum in the proposed cognitive radio is allocated dynamically where each cognitive radio follows a cognitive cycle. The spectrum sensing is a crucial step. The goal of the sensing is gathering data about the surrounding environment. Cognitive radio can use different sensors: antennas, cameras, accelerometer, thermometer, etc. In IEEE 802.22 standard, for example, a primary user (PU) has always the priority to communicate. When a frequency channel witch used by the primary user is idle, the secondary user (SU) is allowed to transmit in this channel. The Distance Measuring Equipment (DME) is composed of a UHF transmitter/receiver (interrogator) in the aircraft and a UHF receiver/transmitter on the ground. While the future cognitive radio will be used jointly to alleviate the spectrum congestion issue in the aeronautical field. LDACS, for example, is a good candidate; it provides two isolated data-links: ground-to-air and air-to-ground data-links. The first contribution of the present work is a strategy allowing sharing the L-band. The adopted spectrum sharing strategy is as follow: the DME will play the role of PU which is the licensed user and the LDACS1 systems will be the SUs. The SUs could use the L-band channels opportunely as long as they do not causing harmful interference signals which affect the QoS of the DME system. Although the spectrum sensing is a key step, it helps detecting holes by determining whether the primary signal is present or not in a given frequency channel. A missing detection on primary user presence creates interference between PU and SU and will affect seriously the QoS of the legacy radio. In this study, first brief definitions, concepts and the state of the art of cognitive radio will be presented. Then, a study of three communication channel detection algorithms in a cognitive radio context is carried out. The study is made from the point of view of functions, material requirements and signal detection capability in the aeronautical field. Then, we presented a modeling of the detection problem by three different methods (energy, adapted filter, and cyclostationary) as well as an algorithmic description of these detectors is done. Then, we study and compare the performance of the algorithms. Simulations were carried out using MATLAB software. We analyzed the results based on ROCs curves for SNR between -10dB and 20dB. The three detectors have been tested with a synthetics and real world signals.

Keywords: aeronautic, communication, navigation, surveillance systems, cognitive radio, spectrum sensing, software defined radio

Procedia PDF Downloads 87