Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 42

# Search results for: rack and pinion

##### 42 Design and Fabrication of Electricity Generating Speed Breaker

Authors: Haider Aamir, Muhammad Ali Khalid

Abstract:

Electricity harvesting speed bump (EHSB) is speed breaker of conventional shape, but the difference is that it is not fixed, rather it moves up and down, and electricity can be generated from its vibrating motion. This speed bump consists of an upper cover which will move up and down, a shaft mechanism which will be used to drive the generator and a rack and pinion mechanism which will connect the cover and shaft. There is a spring mechanism to return the cover to its initial state when a vehicle has passed over the bump. Produced energy in the past was up to 80 Watts. For this purpose, a clutch mechanism is used so that both the up-down movements of the cover can be used to drive the generator. Mechanical Motion Rectifier (MMR) mechanism ensures the conversion of both the linear motions into rotational motion which is used to drive the generator. Downloads 173
##### 41 Mathematical Model of a Compound Gear Pump

Authors: Hsueh-Cheng Yang

Abstract:

The generation and design of compound involute spur gearings can be used in gear pump. A compound rack cutter with asymmetric involute teeth is presented for determining the mathematical model of compound gear pumps. This paper covers the following topics: (a) generation and geometry of compound rack cutter is presented and used to generate a compound gear and a compound pinion. (b) Based on the developed compound gears, stress analysis was performed for the symmetric gears and the asymmetric gears. Comparing the results of the stress analysis for the asymmetric involute teeth is superior to the symmetric involute teeth. A numerical example that illustrates the developed compound rack cutter is represented.

Keywords: compound, involute teeth, gear pump, rack cutter

##### 40 Mechanism Design and Dynamic Analysis of Active Independent Front Steering System

Authors: Cheng-Chi Yu, Yu-Shiue Wang, Kei-Lin Kuo

Abstract:

##### 39 An Experimental Study on the Optimum Installation of Fire Detector for Early Stage Fire Detecting in Rack-Type Warehouses

Abstract:

Rack type warehouses are different from general buildings in the kinds, amount, and arrangement of stored goods, so the fire risk of rack type warehouses is different from those buildings. The fire pattern of rack type warehouses is different in combustion characteristic and storing condition of stored goods. The initial fire burning rate is different in the surface condition of materials, but the running time of fire is closely related with the kinds of stored materials and stored conditions. The stored goods of the warehouse are consisted of diverse combustibles, combustible liquid, and so on. Fire detection time may be delayed because the residents are less than office and commercial buildings. If fire detectors installed in rack type warehouses are inadaptable, the fire of the warehouse may be the great fire because of delaying of fire detection. In this paper, we studied what kinds of fire detectors are optimized in early detecting of rack type warehouse fire by real-scale fire tests. The fire detectors used in the tests are rate of rise type, fixed type, photo electric type, and aspirating type detectors. We considered optimum fire detecting method in rack type warehouses suggested by the response characteristic and comparative analysis of the fire detectors. Downloads 441
##### 38 Review Paper on Structural Behaviour of Industrial Pallet Rack with Braced and Unbraced Frames

Abstract:

According to the structural point of view Industrial Pallet rack structure can be considered typical steel framed structure. This work presents a general analysis of an industrial pallet rack structure, evaluating the influence of each of the components on the global stability. An analytical study for the sensitivity of pallet rack configuration in linear static equivalent lateral loads. The aim is to braced/unbraced frames were design and their analytical models are to be built in software. The finite element analysis is used to determine axial forces in beam and column, maximum storey displacement and buckling loads on braced/unbraced pallet rack structure. Bracing systems are mostly provided to enhance the stiffness factor of the structures with the seismic loads. Unbraced systems have mostly translational modes of failure and are very flexible due to excessive loads. Downloads 264
##### 37 Current Design Approach for Seismic Resistant Automated Rack Supported Warehouses: Strong Points and Critical Aspects

Abstract:

Automated Rack Supported Warehouses (ARSWs) are structures currently designed as steel racks. Even if there are common characteristics, there are differences that don’t allow to adopt the same design approach. Aiming to highlight the factors influencing the design and the behavior of ARSWs, a set of 5 structures designed by 5 European companies specialized in this field is used to perform both a critical analysis of the design approaches and the assessment of the seismic performance, which is used to point out the criticalities and the necessity of new design philosophy. Downloads 74
##### 36 Mechanical Behaviour of High Strength Steel Thin-Walled Profiles for Automated Rack Supported Warehouses

Abstract:

In the framework of the evaluation of the applicability of high strength steel to produce thin-walled elements to be used in Automated Rack Supported Warehouses, an experimental campaign is carried outto evaluate the structural performance of typical profile shapes adopted for such purposes and made of high strength steel. Numerical models are developed to fit the observed failure modes, stresses, and deformation patterns, and proper directions are proposed to simplify the numerical simulations to be used in further applications and to evaluate the mechanical behavior and performance of profiles. Downloads 86
##### 35 Design and Tooth Contact Analysis of Face Gear Drive with Modified Tooth Surface in Helicopter Transmission

Abstract:

A face gear drive is actually composed of a spur or helical pinion that is in mesh with a face gear and transfers power and motion between intersecting or skew axes. Due to the peculiarity of the face gear drive in shunt and confluence drive, it shows potential advantages in the application in the helicopter transmission. The advantages of such applications are the possibility of the split of the torque that appears to be significant where a pinion drives two face gears to provide an accurate division of power and motion. This mechanism greatly reduces the weight and cost compared to conventional design. Therefore, this has been led to revived interest and the face gear drive has been utilized in substitution for bevel and hypoid gears in limited cases. The face gear drive with a spur or a helical pinion is newly designed in order to determine an effective meshing area under the design parameters and specific design dimensions. The face gear has two unique dimensions which control the face width of the tooth, and the outside and inside diameters of the face gear. On the other hand, it is necessary to modify the tooth surfaces of face gear drive in order to avoid the influences of alignment errors on the tooth contact patterns in practical use. In this case, the pinion tooth surfaces are usually modified in the conventional method. However, it is hard to control the tooth contact pattern intentionally and adjust the position of the pinion axis in meshing of the gear pair. Therefore, a method of the modification of the tooth surfaces of the face gear is proposed. Moreover, based on tooth contact analysis, the tooth contact pattern and transmission errors of the designed face gear drive are analyzed, and the influences of alignment errors on the tooth contact patterns and transmission errors are investigated. These results showed that the tooth contact patterns and transmission errors were controllable and the face gear drive which is insensitive to alignment errors can be obtained. Downloads 333
##### 34 High Strength Steel Thin-Walled Cold-Formed Profiles Manufactured for Automated Rack Supported Warehouses

Abstract:

Automated Rack Supported Warehouses (ARSWs) are storage buildings whose load-bearing structure is made of the same steel racks where goods are stocked. These racks are made of cold formed elements, and the main supporting structure is repeated several times along the length of the building, resulting in a huge quantity of steel. The possibility of using high strength steel to manufacture the traditional cold-formed profiles used for ARSWs is numerically investigated, with the aim of reducing the necessary steel quantity but guaranteeing optimal structural performance levels. Downloads 79
##### 33 Characteristics of Elastic Tracked-Crawler Based on Worm-Rack Mechanism

Authors: Jun-ya Nagase

Abstract:

There are many pipes such as a water pipe and a gas pipe in a chemical plant and house. It is possible to prevent accidents by these inspections. However, many pipes are very narrow and it is difficult for people to inspect directly. Therefore, development of a robot that can move in narrow pipe is necessary. A wheel movement type robot, a snake-like robot and a multi-leg robot are all described in the relevant literature as pipe inspection robots that are currently studied. Among them, the tracked crawler robot can travel by traversing uneven ground flexibly with a crawler belt attached firmly to the ground surface. Although conventional crawler robots have high efficiency and/or high ground-covering ability, they require a comparatively large space to move. In this study, a cylindrical crawler robot based on worm-rack mechanism, which does not need large space to move and which has high ground-covering ability, is proposed. Experiments have demonstrated smooth operation and a forward movement of the robot by application of voltage to the motor. In addition, performance tests show that it can propel itself in confined spaces. This paper reports the structure, drive mechanism, prototype, and experimental evaluation. Downloads 361
##### 32 Innovative Dissipative Bracings for Seismic-Resistant Automated Rack Supported Warehouses

Abstract:

Automated Rack Supported Warehouses (ARSWs) are storage buildings whose structure is made of the same racks where goods are placed. The possibility of designing dissipative seismic-resistant ARSWs is investigated. Diagonals are the dissipative elements, arranged as tense-only X bracings. Local optimization is numerically performed to satisfy the over-resistant connection request for the dissipative element, that is hard to be reached due the geometrical limits of the thin-walled diagonals and must be balanced with resistance, the limit of slenderness, and ductility requests. Downloads 88
##### 31 Acoustic Modeling of a Data Center with a Hot Aisle Containment System

Authors: Arshad Alfoqaha, Seth Bard, Dustin Demetriou

Abstract:

A new multi-physics acoustic modeling approach using ANSYS Mechanical FEA and FLUENT CFD methods is developed for modeling servers mounted to racks, such as IBM Z and IBM Power Systems, in data centers. This new approach allows users to determine the thermal and acoustic conditions that people are exposed to within the data center. The sound pressure level (SPL) exposure for a human working inside a hot aisle containment system inside the data center is studied. The SPL is analyzed at the noise source, at the human body, on the rack walls, on the containment walls, and on the ceiling and flooring plenum walls. In the acoustic CFD simulation, it is assumed that a four-inch diameter sphere with monopole acoustic radiation, placed in the middle of each rack, provides a single-source representation of all noise sources within the rack. Ffowcs Williams & Hawkings (FWH) acoustic model is employed. The target frequency is 1000 Hz, and the total simulation time for the transient analysis is 1.4 seconds, with a very small time step of 3e-5 seconds and 10 iterations to ensure convergence and accuracy. A User Defined Function (UDF) is developed to accurately simulate the acoustic noise source, and a Dynamic Mesh is applied to ensure acoustic wave propagation. Initial validation of the acoustic CFD simulation using a closed-form solution for the spherical propagation of an acoustic point source is performed. Downloads 107
##### 30 Effective Stacking of Deep Neural Models for Automated Object Recognition in Retail Stores

Abstract:

Automated product recognition in retail stores is an important real-world application in the domain of Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition. In this paper, we consider the problem of automatically identifying the classes of the products placed on racks in retail stores from an image of the rack and information about the query/product images. We improve upon the existing approaches in terms of effectiveness and memory requirement by developing a two-stage object detection and recognition pipeline comprising of a Faster-RCNN-based object localizer that detects the object regions in the rack image and a ResNet-18-based image encoder that classifies the detected regions into the appropriate classes. Each of the models is fine-tuned using appropriate data sets for better prediction and data augmentation is performed on each query image to prepare an extensive gallery set for fine-tuning the ResNet-18-based product recognition model. This encoder is trained using a triplet loss function following the strategy of online-hard-negative-mining for improved prediction. The proposed models are lightweight and can be connected in an end-to-end manner during deployment to automatically identify each product object placed in a rack image. Extensive experiments using Grozi-32k and GP-180 data sets verify the effectiveness of the proposed model. Downloads 2
##### 29 Improvement of Buckling Behavior of Cold Formed Steel Uprights with Open Cross Section Used in Storage Rack Systems

Authors: Yasar Pala, Safa Senaysoy, Emre Calis

Abstract:

In this paper, structural behavior and improvement of buckling behavior of cold formed steel uprights with open cross-section used storage rack system are studied. As a first step, in the case of a stiffener having an inclined part on the flange, experimental and nonlinear finite element analysis are carried out for three different upright lengths. In the uprights with long length, global buckling is observed while distortional buckling and local buckling are observed in the uprights with medium length and those with short length, respectively. After this point, the study is divided into two groups. One of these groups is the case where the stiffener on the flange is folded at 90°. For this case, four different distances of the stiffener from the web are taken into account. In the other group, the case where different depth of stiffener on the web is considered. Combining experimental and finite element results, the cross-section giving the ultimate critical buckling load is selected. Downloads 188
##### 28 Pressure Angle and Profile Shift Factor Effects on the Natural Frequency of Spur Tooth Design

Abstract:

In this paper, an (irregular) case relating to base circle, root circle, and pressure angle has been discussed and a computer programme has been developed to simulate and plot spur gear tooth profile, including involute and trochoid curves based on the formulation of rack cutter using different values of pressure angle and profile shift factor and it gave the values of all important geometric parameters. The results showed the flexibility of this approach and versatility of the programme to draw many different cases of spur gear teeth of any module, pressure angle, profile shift factor, number of teeth and rack cutter tip radius. The procedure developed can be extended to produce finite element models of heretofore intractable geometrical forms, to exploring fabrication of nonstandard tooth forms also. Finite elements model of these irregular cases have been built using above programme, and modal analysis has been done using ANSYS software, and natural frequencies of these selected cases have been obtained and discussed. Downloads 198
##### 27 Computer Server Virtualization

Abstract:

Virtual infrastructure initiatives often spring from data center server consolidation projects, which focus on reducing existing infrastructure “box count”, retiring older hardware or life-extending legacy applications. Server consolidation benefits result from a reduction in the overall number of systems and related recurring costs (power, cooling, rack space, etc.) and also helps in the reduction of heat to the environment. Downloads 443

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##### 25 Control Performance Simulation and Analysis for Microgravity Vibration Isolation System Onboard Chinese Space Station

Authors: Wei Liu, Shuquan Wang, Yang Gao

Abstract:

Microgravity Science Experiment Rack (MSER) will be onboard TianHe (TH) spacecraft planned to be launched in 2018. TH is one module of Chinese Space Station. Microgravity Vibration Isolation System (MVIS), which is MSER’s core part, is used to isolate disturbance from TH and provide high-level microgravity for science experiment payload. MVIS is two stage vibration isolation system, consisting of Follow Unit (FU) and Experiment Support Unit (ESU). FU is linked to MSER by umbilical cables, and ESU suspends within FU and without physical connection. The FU’s position and attitude relative to TH is measured by binocular vision measuring system, and the acceleration and angular velocity is measured by accelerometers and gyroscopes. Air-jet thrusters are used to generate force and moment to control FU’s motion. Measurement module on ESU contains a set of Position-Sense-Detectors (PSD) sensing the ESU’s position and attitude relative to FU, accelerometers and gyroscopes sensing ESU’s acceleration and angular velocity. Electro-magnetic actuators are used to control ESU’s motion. Firstly, the linearized equations of FU’s motion relative to TH and ESU’s motion relative to FU are derived, laying the foundation for control system design and simulation analysis. Subsequently, two control schemes are proposed. One control scheme is that ESU tracks FU and FU tracks TH, shorten as E-F-T. The other one is that FU tracks ESU and ESU tracks TH, shorten as F-E-T. In addition, motion spaces are constrained within ±15 mm、±2° between FU and ESU, and within ±300 mm between FU and TH or between ESU and TH. A Proportional-Integrate-Differentiate (PID) controller is designed to control FU’s position and attitude. ESU’s controller includes an acceleration feedback loop and a relative position feedback loop. A Proportional-Integrate (PI) controller is designed in the acceleration feedback loop to reduce the ESU’s acceleration level, and a PID controller in the relative position feedback loop is used to avoid collision. Finally, simulations of E-F-T and F-E-T are performed considering variety uncertainties, disturbances and motion space constrains. The simulation results of E-T-H showed that control performance was from 0 to -20 dB for vibration frequency from 0.01 to 0.1 Hz, and vibration was attenuated 40 dB per ten octave above 0.1Hz. The simulation results of T-E-H showed that vibration was attenuated 20 dB per ten octave at the beginning of 0.01Hz. Downloads 96
##### 24 Singular Value Decomposition Based Optimisation of Design Parameters of a Gearbox

Authors: Mehmet Bozca

Abstract:

Singular value decomposition based optimisation of geometric design parameters of a 5-speed gearbox is studied. During the optimisation, a four-degree-of freedom torsional vibration model of the pinion gear-wheel gear system is obtained and the minimum singular value of the transfer matrix is considered as the objective functions. The computational cost of the associated singular value problems is quite low for the objective function, because it is only necessary to compute the largest and smallest singular values (µmax and µmin) that can be achieved by using selective eigenvalue solvers; the other singular values are not needed. The design parameters are optimised under several constraints that include bending stress, contact stress and constant distance between gear centres. Thus, by optimising the geometric parameters of the gearbox such as, the module, number of teeth and face width it is possible to obtain a light-weight-gearbox structure. It is concluded that the all optimised geometric design parameters also satisfy all constraints. Downloads 276
##### 23 Stress Analysis of Spider Gear Using Structural Steel on ANSYS

Authors: Roman Kalvin, Anam Nadeem, Shahab Khushnood

Abstract:

Differential is an integral part of four wheeled vehicle, and its main function is to transmit power from drive shaft to wheels. Differential assembly allows both rear wheels to turn at different speed along curved paths. It consists of four gears which are assembled together namely pinion, ring, spider and bevel gears. This research focused on the spider gear and its static structural analysis using ANSYS. The main aim was to evaluate the distribution of stresses on the teeth of the spider gear. This study also analyzed total deformation that may occur during its working along with bevel gear that is meshed with spider gear. Structural steel was chosen for spider gear in this research. Modeling and assembling were done on SolidWorks for both spider and bevel gear. They were assembled exactly same as in a differential assembly. This assembly was then imported to ANSYS. After observing results that maximum amount of stress and deformation was produced in the spider gear, it was concluded that structural steel material for spider gear possesses greater amount of strength to bear maximum stress.

Keywords: ANSYS, differential, spider gear, structural steel

##### 22 Design and Evaluation of a Pneumatic Muscle Actuated Gripper

Authors: Tudor Deaconescu, Andrea Deaconescu

Abstract:

Deployment of pneumatic muscles in various industrial applications is still in its early days, considering the relative newness of these components. The field of robotics holds particular future potential for pneumatic muscles, especially in view of their specific behaviour known as compliance. The paper presents and discusses an innovative constructive solution for a gripper system mountable on an industrial robot, based on actuation by a linear pneumatic muscle and transmission of motion by gear and rack mechanism. The structural, operational and constructive models of the new gripper are presented, along with some of the experimental results obtained subsequently to the testing of a prototype. Further presented are two control variants of the gripper system, one by means of a 3/2-way fast-switching solenoid valve, the other by means of a proportional pressure regulator. Advantages and disadvantages are discussed for both variants. Downloads 160
##### 21 Measuring Technology of Airship Propeller Thrust and Torque in China Academy of Aerospace Aerodynamics

Abstract:

In order to measure thrust and torque of airship propeller, a two-component balance and data acquisition system was developed in China Academy of Aerospace Aerodynamics(CAAA) in early time. During the development, some problems were encountered. At first, the measuring system and its protective parts made the weight of whole system increase significantly. Secondly, more parts might induce more failures, so the reliability of the system was decreased. In addition, the rigidity of the system was lowered, and the structure was more possible to vibrate. Therefore, CAAA and the Academy of Opto-Electronics, Chinese Academy of Science(AOECAS) developed a new technology, use the propeller supporting rack as a spring element, attach strain gages onto it, sum up as a generalized balance. And new math models, new calibration methods and new load determining methods were developed.

Keywords: airship, propeller, thrust and torque, flight test

##### 20 Enhancing the Performance of Automatic Logistic Centers by Optimizing the Assignment of Material Flows to Workstations and Flow Racks

Abstract:

In modern large-scale logistic centers (e.g., big automated warehouses), complex logistic operations performed by human staff (pickers) need to be coordinated with the operations of automated facilities (robots, conveyors, cranes, lifts, flow racks, etc.). The efficiency of advanced logistic centers strongly depends on optimizing picking technologies in synch with the facility/product layout, as well as on optimal distribution of material flows (products) in the system. The challenge is to develop a mathematical operations research (OR) tool that will optimize system cost-effectiveness. In this work, we propose a model that describes an automatic logistic center consisting of a set of workstations located at several galleries (floors), with each station containing a known number of flow racks. The requirements of each product and the working capacity of stations served by a given set of workers (pickers) are assumed as predetermined. The goal of the model is to maximize system efficiency. The proposed model includes two echelons. The first is the setting of the (optimal) number of workstations needed to create the total processing/logistic system, subject to picker capacities. The second echelon deals with the assignment of the products to the workstations and flow racks, aimed to achieve maximal throughputs of picked products over the entire system given picker capacities and budget constraints. The solutions to the problems at the two echelons interact to balance the overall load in the flow racks and maximize overall efficiency. We have developed an operations research model within each echelon. In the first echelon, the problem of calculating the optimal number of workstations is formulated as a non-standard bin-packing problem with capacity constraints for each bin. The problem arising in the second echelon is presented as a constrained product-workstation-flow rack assignment problem with non-standard mini-max criteria in which the workload maximum is calculated across all workstations in the center and the exterior minimum is calculated across all possible product-workstation-flow rack assignments. The OR problems arising in each echelon are proved to be NP-hard. Consequently, we find and develop heuristic and approximation solution algorithms based on exploiting and improving local optimums. The LC model considered in this work is highly dynamic and is recalculated periodically based on updated demand forecasts that reflect market trends, technological changes, seasonality, and the introduction of new items. The suggested two-echelon approach and the min-max balancing scheme are shown to work effectively on illustrative examples and real-life logistic data. Downloads 162
##### 19 Real Time Activity Recognition Framework for Health Monitoring Support in Home Environments

Authors: Shaikh Farhad Hossain, Liakot Ali

Abstract:

Technology advances accelerate the quality and type of services provided for health care and especially for monitoring health conditions. Sensors have turned out to be more effective to detect diverse physiological signs and can be worn on the human body utilizing remote correspondence modules. An assortment of programming devices have been created to help in preparing a difference rundown of essential signs by examining and envisioning information produced by different sensors. In this proposition, we presented a Health signs and Activity acknowledgment monitoring system. Utilizing off-the-rack sensors, we executed a movement location system for identifying five sorts of action: falling, lying down, sitting, standing, and walking. The framework collects and analyzes sensory data in real-time, and provides different feedback to the users. In addition, it can generate alerts based on the detected events and store the data collected to a medical server.

Keywords: ADL, SVM, TRIL , MEMS

##### 18 A Multi Sensor Monochrome Video Fusion Using Image Quality Assessment

Authors: M. Prema Kumar, P. Rajesh Kumar

Abstract:

The increasing interest in image fusion (combining images of two or more modalities such as infrared and visible light radiation) has led to a need for accurate and reliable image assessment methods. This paper gives a novel approach of merging the information content from several videos taken from the same scene in order to rack up a combined video that contains the finest information coming from different source videos. This process is known as video fusion which helps in providing superior quality (The term quality, connote measurement on the particular application.) image than the source images. In this technique different sensors (whose redundant information can be reduced) are used for various cameras that are imperative for capturing the required images and also help in reducing. In this paper Image fusion technique based on multi-resolution singular value decomposition (MSVD) has been used. The image fusion by MSVD is almost similar to that of wavelets. The idea behind MSVD is to replace the FIR filters in wavelet transform with singular value decomposition (SVD). It is computationally very simple and is well suited for real time applications like in remote sensing and in astronomy. Downloads 500
##### 17 The Conceptual Design Model of an Automated Supermarket

Abstract:

The success of any retail business is predisposed by its swift response and its knack in understanding the constraints and the requirements of customers. In this paper a conceptual design model of an automated customer-friendly supermarket has been proposed. In this model a 10-sided, space benefited, regular polygon shaped gravity shelves have been designed for goods storage and effective customer-specific algorithms have been built-in for quick automatic delivery of the randomly listed goods. The algorithm is developed with two main objectives, viz., delivery time and priority. For meeting these objectives the randomly listed items are reorganized according to the critical-path of the robotic arm specific to the identified shop and its layout and the items are categorized according to the demand, shape, size, similarity and nature of the product for an efficient pick-up, packing and delivery process. We conjectured that the proposed automated supermarket model reduces business operating costs with much customer satisfaction warranting a win-win situation. Downloads 338

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##### 15 Performance Optimization of Low-Cost Solar Dryer Using Modified PI Controller

Abstract:

Today, there is a huge global concern for sustainable development which would include minimizing the consumption of non-renewable energies without affecting the basic global economy. Solar drying is one of the important processes used for extending the shelf life of agricultural products. The performance of a low cost automated solar dryer fitted with cascade control scheme and modified PI controller for drying chilli was investigated. The dryer was composed of designed solar collector (air heater) fitted with cylindrical pipes to improve the air velocity and a solar drying chamber containing rack of two cheese cloth (net) trays both being integrated together. The air allowed in through air inlet is heated up in the solar collector and channelled through the drying chamber where it is utilized in drying (removing the moisture content from the food substance or agricultural produce loaded). Here, to maintain the temperature in the heating chambers and to improve performance, a modified PI (Proportional–Integral) controller was used due its simplicity and robustness. Drying time for drying chilli from the initial moisture content of 88.5% (wb) to 7.3% (wb) was estimated to be 14 hours in solar dryer whereas 32 h was observed in the open sun drying.

Keywords: cascade control, chilli, PI controller, solar dryer