Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 25221

Search results for: community based question and answering

25221 Identifying Quality Islamic Content in Community Question Answering Sites

Authors: Shahzad Faisal, Khalid Iqbal, Atif Inayat

Abstract:

Internet is growing rapidly and new community-based content is added by people every second. With this fast growing community-based content, if a user requires answers of particular questions then reviews are required from experts or community. However, is difficult to get quality answers. Muslim community all over the world is seeking help to get their questions and issues discussed to get answers. Online web portals of religious schools and community based question answering sites are two big platforms to solve the issues of users. In case of religious schools, there are experts and qualified religious scholars (Mufti) who can give the expert opinion. However, the quality of community-based content cannot be guaranteed as it may not be an answer that satisfies the question of a user. Users on community based Q&A sites may be spammers or just criticizing the questioner instead of answering. In this paper, we research strategies to distinguish the right content naturally. As an experiment, we concentrate on Yahoo! Answers, and Quora, popular online Q&A sites; where questions are asked, answered, edited and organized by a large community of users. We present classification of data to categorize relevant and irrelevant answers. Specifically, we demonstrate that our framework can isolate quality answer from the rest with an exactness near that of people.

Keywords: answer classification, community based question and answering, evaluation and prediction of quality answer, quality assessment of content

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25220 Analyzing Log File of Community Question Answering for Online Learning

Authors: Long Chen

Abstract:

With the proliferation of E-Learning, collaborative learning becomes more and more popular in various teaching and learning occasions. Studies over the years have proved that actively participating in classroom discussion can enhance student's learning experience, consolidating their knowledge and understanding of the class content. Collaborative learning can also allow students to share their resources and knowledge by exchanging, absorbing, and observing one another's opinions and ideas. Community Question Answering (CQA) services are particularly suitable paradigms for collaborative learning, since it is essentially an online collaborative learning platform where one can get information from multiple sources for he/her to choose from. However, current CQA services have only achieved limited success in collaborative learning due to the uncertainty of answers' quality. In this paper, we predict the quality of answers in a CQA service, i.e. Yahoo! Answers, for the use of online education and distance learning, which would enable a student to find relevant answers and potential answerers more effectively and efficiently, and thus greatly increase students' user experience in CQA services. Our experiment reveals that the quality of answers is influenced by a series of factors such as asking time, relations between users, and his/her experience in the past. We also show that by modelling user's profile with our proposed personalized features, student's satisfaction towards the provided answers could be accurately estimated.

Keywords: Community Question Answering, Collaborative Learning, Log File, Co-Training

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25219 Open-Ended Multi-Modal Relational Reason for Video Question Answering

Authors: Haozheng Luo, Ruiyang Qin

Abstract:

People with visual impairments urgently need assistance, not only on the fundamental tasks such as guiding and retrieving objects but on the advanced like picturing the new environments. More than a guiding dog, they might want such devices that can provide linguistic interaction. Building on this idea, we aim to study the interaction between the robot agent and visually impaired people. In our research, we are going to develop a robot agent that will be able to analyze the test environment and answer the participants’ questions. We also will study the relevant issues regarding the interaction between human beings and the robot agents to figure out which and how the factors will affect the interaction.

Keywords: HRI, video question answering, visual question answering, natural language processing

Procedia PDF Downloads 118
25218 Selecting Answers for Questions with Multiple Answer Choices in Arabic Question Answering Based on Textual Entailment Recognition

Authors: Anes Enakoa, Yawei Liang

Abstract:

Question Answering (QA) system is one of the most important and demanding tasks in the field of Natural Language Processing (NLP). In QA systems, the answer generation task generates a list of candidate answers to the user's question, in which only one answer is correct. Answer selection is one of the main components of the QA, which is concerned with selecting the best answer choice from the candidate answers suggested by the system. However, the selection process can be very challenging especially in Arabic due to its particularities. To address this challenge, an approach is proposed to answer questions with multiple answer choices for Arabic QA systems based on Textual Entailment (TE) recognition. The developed approach employs a Support Vector Machine that considers lexical, semantic and syntactic features in order to recognize the entailment between the generated hypotheses (H) and the text (T). A set of experiments has been conducted for performance evaluation and the overall performance of the proposed method reached an accuracy of 67.5% with [email protected] score of 80.46%. The obtained results are promising and demonstrate that the proposed method is effective for TE recognition task.

Keywords: information retrieval, machine learning, natural language processing, question answering, textual entailment

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25217 Towards Logical Inference for the Arabic Question-Answering

Authors: Wided Bakari, Patrice Bellot, Omar Trigui, Mahmoud Neji

Abstract:

This article constitutes an opening to think of the modeling and analysis of Arabic texts in the context of a question-answer system. It is a question of exceeding the traditional approaches focused on morphosyntactic approaches. Furthermore, we present a new approach that analyze a text in order to extract correct answers then transform it to logical predicates. In addition, we would like to represent different levels of information within a text to answer a question and choose an answer among several proposed. To do so, we transform both the question and the text into logical forms. Then, we try to recognize all entailment between them. The results of recognizing the entailment are a set of text sentences that can implicate the user’s question. Our work is now concentrated on an implementation step in order to develop a system of question-answering in Arabic using techniques to recognize textual implications. In this context, the extraction of text features (keywords, named entities, and relationships that link them) is actually considered the first step in our process of text modeling. The second one is the use of techniques of textual implication that relies on the notion of inference and logic representation to extract candidate answers. The last step is the extraction and selection of the desired answer.

Keywords: NLP, Arabic language, question-answering, recognition text entailment, logic forms

Procedia PDF Downloads 252
25216 Uplift Modeling Approach to Optimizing Content Quality in Social Q/A Platforms

Authors: Igor A. Podgorny

Abstract:

TurboTax AnswerXchange is a social Q/A system supporting users working on federal and state tax returns. Content quality and popularity in the AnswerXchange can be predicted with propensity models using attributes of the question and answer. Using uplift modeling, we identify features of questions and answers that can be modified during the question-asking and question-answering experience in order to optimize the AnswerXchange content quality. We demonstrate that adding details to the questions always results in increased question popularity that can be used to promote good quality content. Responding to close-ended questions assertively improve content quality in the AnswerXchange in 90% of cases. Answering knowledge questions with web links increases the likelihood of receiving a negative vote from 60% of the askers. Our findings provide a rationale for employing the uplift modeling approach for AnswerXchange operations.

Keywords: customer relationship management, human-machine interaction, text mining, uplift modeling

Procedia PDF Downloads 179
25215 Automated Evaluation Approach for Time-Dependent Question Answering Pairs on Web Crawler Based Question Answering System

Authors: Shraddha Chaudhary, Raksha Agarwal, Niladri Chatterjee

Abstract:

This work demonstrates a web crawler-based generalized end-to-end open domain Question Answering (QA) system. An efficient QA system requires a significant amount of domain knowledge to answer any question with the aim to find an exact and correct answer in the form of a number, a noun, a short phrase, or a brief piece of text for the user's questions. Analysis of the question, searching the relevant document, and choosing an answer are three important steps in a QA system. This work uses a web scraper (Beautiful Soup) to extract K-documents from the web. The value of K can be calibrated on the basis of a trade-off between time and accuracy. This is followed by a passage ranking process using the MS-Marco dataset trained on 500K queries to extract the most relevant text passage, to shorten the lengthy documents. Further, a QA system is used to extract the answers from the shortened documents based on the query and return the top 3 answers. For evaluation of such systems, accuracy is judged by the exact match between predicted answers and gold answers. But automatic evaluation methods fail due to the linguistic ambiguities inherent in the questions. Moreover, reference answers are often not exhaustive or are out of date. Hence correct answers predicted by the system are often judged incorrect according to the automated metrics. One such scenario arises from the original Google Natural Question (GNQ) dataset which was collected and made available in the year 2016. Use of any such dataset proves to be inefficient with respect to any questions that have time-varying answers. For illustration, if the query is where will be the next Olympics? Gold Answer for the above query as given in the GNQ dataset is “Tokyo”. Since the dataset was collected in the year 2016, and the next Olympics after 2016 were in 2020 that was in Tokyo which is absolutely correct. But if the same question is asked in 2022 then the answer is “Paris, 2024”. Consequently, any evaluation based on the GNQ dataset will be incorrect. Such erroneous predictions are usually given to human evaluators for further validation which is quite expensive and time-consuming. To address this erroneous evaluation, the present work proposes an automated approach for evaluating time-dependent question-answer pairs. In particular, it proposes a metric using the current timestamp along with top-n predicted answers from a given QA system. To test the proposed approach GNQ dataset has been used and the system achieved an accuracy of 78% for a test dataset comprising 100 QA pairs. This test data was automatically extracted using an analysis-based approach from 10K QA pairs of the GNQ dataset. The results obtained are encouraging. The proposed technique appears to have the possibility of developing into a useful scheme for gathering precise, reliable, and specific information in a real-time and efficient manner. Our subsequent experiments will be guided towards establishing the efficacy of the above system for a larger set of time-dependent QA pairs.

Keywords: web-based information retrieval, open domain question answering system, time-varying QA, QA evaluation

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25214 Towards a Goal-Question-Metric Based Approach to Assess Social Sustainability of Software Systems

Authors: Rahma Amri, Narjès Bellamine Ben Saoud

Abstract:

Sustainable development or sustainability is one of the most urgent issues in actual debate in almost domains. Particularly the significant way the software pervades our live should make it in the center of sustainability concerns. The social aspects of sustainability haven’t been well studied in the context of software systems and still immature research field that needs more interest among researchers’ community. This paper presents a Goal-Question-Metric based approach to assess social sustainability of software systems. The approach is based on a generic social sustainability model taken from Social sciences.

Keywords: software assessment approach, social sustainability, goal-question-metric paradigm, software project metrics

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25213 Brand Creation for Community Product: A Case Study at Samut Songkram, Thailand

Authors: Cholpassorn Sitthiwarongchai

Abstract:

The purposes of this paper were to search for the uniqueness of community products from Bang Khonthi District, Samut Songkram Province, Thailand and to create a proper brand for the community products. Four important questions were asked to identify the uniqueness of the community products. The first question: What is the brand of coconut sugar that community wants to imply? The answer was 100 percent authentic coconut sugar. The second question: What is the nature of this product? The answer was that it is a natural product without any harmful chemical. The third question is: Who are the target customers? The answer was that homemakers and tourists are target customers. The fourth question: What is the brand guarantee to customers? The answer was that the brand guarantees that the product is 100 percent natural process with a high quality and it is a community production. The findings revealed that in terms of product, customers rated quality and package as the two most important factors. In terms of price, customers rated lower price and a visible label as the two most important factors. In terms of place, customer rated layout and the cleanliness of the place as the two most important factors. In terms of promotion, customer rated public relations and brochure at the store as the most important factors. From the group discussion, the local community agreed that the brand for the community coconut sugar of Salapi community should be a picture of a green coconut tree and yellow color background. This brand implies the strength of community and authentic of the high quality natural product.

Keywords: coconut sugar, community brand, Samut Songkram, natural product

Procedia PDF Downloads 319
25212 Economic Benefits in Community Based Forest Management from Users Perspective in Community Forestry, Nepal

Authors: Sovit Pujari

Abstract:

In the developing countries like Nepal, the community-based forest management approach has often been glorified as one of the best forest management alternatives to maximize the forest benefits. Though the approach has succeeded to construct a local level institution and conserve the forest biodiversity, how the local communities perceived about the forest benefits, the question always remains silent among the researchers and policy makers. The paper aims to explore the understanding of forest benefits from the perspective of local communities who used the forests in terms of institutional stability, equity and livelihood opportunity, and ecological stability. The paper revealed that the local communities have mixed understanding over the forest benefits. The institutional and ecological activities carried out by the local communities indicated that they have a better understanding over the forest benefits. However, inequality while sharing the forest benefits, low pricing strategy and its negative consequences in the valuation of forest products and limited livelihood opportunities indicating the poor understanding.

Keywords: community based forest management, low pricing strategy, forest benefits, livelihood opportunities, Nepal

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
25211 Community Structure Detection in Networks Based on Bee Colony

Authors: Bilal Saoud

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a new method to find the community structure in networks. Our method is based on bee colony and the maximization of modularity to find the community structure. We use a bee colony algorithm to find the first community structure that has a good value of modularity. To improve the community structure, that was found, we merge communities until we get a community structure that has a high value of modularity. We provide a general framework for implementing our approach. We tested our method on computer-generated and real-world networks with a comparison to very known community detection methods. The obtained results show the effectiveness of our proposition.

Keywords: bee colony, networks, modularity, normalized mutual information

Procedia PDF Downloads 166
25210 The Comparison of Community Home-Based Care for the Aged in Kishiwada, Japan and Hangzhou, China

Authors: Zijiao Chai, Wangming Li

Abstract:

Hangzhou is one of the cities with the most serious aging in China. Community home-based care for the aged is an important solution to old-age care in aging society. In this aspect, Europe, the United States and Japan are on the top in the world. As an East Asian country, Japan has similar cultural traditions in pension with China. So, there is much enlightenment China can get from Japan in the mode of community home-based care for the aged. This paper introduces the mode of community home-based care for the aged in Kishiwada, Japan and Hangzhou, China. Then compare the two modes in the aspects of insurance system for the aged, community service and facilities, support system and so on. Thereby the success experience of Kishiwada and weaknesses of Hangzhou are summarized. At last, the improvement strategy of facility plan and service mode of community home-based care for the aged in China are also proposed.

Keywords: community, comparison, elderly-oriented, home-based care for the aged, support system

Procedia PDF Downloads 409
25209 Multi-source Question Answering Framework Using Transformers for Attribute Extraction

Authors: Prashanth Pillai, Purnaprajna Mangsuli

Abstract:

Oil exploration and production companies invest considerable time and efforts to extract essential well attributes (like well status, surface, and target coordinates, wellbore depths, event timelines, etc.) from unstructured data sources like technical reports, which are often non-standardized, multimodal, and highly domain-specific by nature. It is also important to consider the context when extracting attribute values from reports that contain information on multiple wells/wellbores. Moreover, semantically similar information may often be depicted in different data syntax representations across multiple pages and document sources. We propose a hierarchical multi-source fact extraction workflow based on a deep learning framework to extract essential well attributes at scale. An information retrieval module based on the transformer architecture was used to rank relevant pages in a document source utilizing the page image embeddings and semantic text embeddings. A question answering framework utilizingLayoutLM transformer was used to extract attribute-value pairs incorporating the text semantics and layout information from top relevant pages in a document. To better handle context while dealing with multi-well reports, we incorporate a dynamic query generation module to resolve ambiguities. The extracted attribute information from various pages and documents are standardized to a common representation using a parser module to facilitate information comparison and aggregation. Finally, we use a probabilistic approach to fuse information extracted from multiple sources into a coherent well record. The applicability of the proposed approach and related performance was studied on several real-life well technical reports.

Keywords: natural language processing, deep learning, transformers, information retrieval

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25208 An Analysis on Community Based Heritage Tourism: A Resource for a Small Community in Rural County Clare, Ireland

Authors: Marie Taylor, Catriona Murphy

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to identify the factors of success in community based heritage tourism initiatives. Heritage and community are central to many tourism initiatives with heritage tourism having the potential to act as a catalyst for community development. This paper presents the findings of research that examined the relationship between heritage tourism and community development. The findings recognised that heritage tourism had economic, social and cultural benefits for a community as well as a role in strengthening concepts such as sense of identity, place, and authenticity. In addition, this paper proposes an assessment framework for sustainable community based heritage tourism to identify factors and contextual influences involved in their success or failure. In evaluating the sustainability of such initiatives, a number of issues are investigated including the continued role of stakeholders, the role of funding, the influence of collaboration and the changing role of rural development and its impact on community engagement. The research is descriptive, evaluative and explanatory research, exploring and analysing issues such as the development of community structures in community based heritage tourism. Thus, it will contribute to the development of potential tourism and community development policies and strategies at a local, national and international level. An interpretative and inductive approach is utilised, and a mixed method approach followed as it encapsulates the best of quantitative and qualitative research methods. The case studies focus on social enterprises in relation to tourism and community based tourism cooperatives as there are limited study and knowledge of these. Consequently, this research will contribute to the discourse on community based heritage tourism as an aspect of community development.

Keywords: collaboration, community-based heritage tourism, stakeholders, sustainable tourism

Procedia PDF Downloads 252
25207 Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction in Mizoram, India

Authors: Lalrokima Chenkual

Abstract:

Legal provision and various guidelines issued by the National Disaster Management Authority in India strives for setting up of disaster management authority from the central government to the district level. Community-Based Disaster Risk Reduction practice is still relevant as the communities are the victim as well as the first responder in any incidents. The primary goal of Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction is to reduce vulnerability of the concerned community and strengthen its existing capacity to cope with disaster. By involving the community in the preparedness phase, it not only increases the likelihood of coordinated action by the communities to help in mitigating disasters and lessening the impact of disaster but also brings the community together to address the issue collectively. Community participation ensures local ownership, addresses local needs, and promotes volunteerism and mutual help to prevent and minimise damage. Community-Based Disaster Risk Reduction is very much relevant for Mizoram as the society is closed knit, population is very less, religion homogeneity i.e Christianity, very active and widespread community-based organization viz, Young Mizo Association, MHIP (Women Federation), MUP (Elders Clubs which are guided together by Mizo code of morals conduct termed as Tlawmngaihna.

Keywords: community, close-knit, first responder, Tlawmngaihna

Procedia PDF Downloads 67
25206 Research on Community-Based Engineering Learning and Undergraduate Students’ Creativity in China: The Moderate Effect of Engineering Identity

Authors: Liang Wang, Wei Zhang

Abstract:

There have been some existing researches on design-based engineering learning (DBEL) and project-based or problem-based engineering learning (PBEL). Those findings have greatly promoted the reform of engineering education in China. However, the engineering with a big E means that more and more engineering activities are designed and operated by communities of practice (CoPs), namely community-based engineering learning. However, whether community-based engineering learning can promote students' innovation has not been verified in published articles. This study fills this gap by investigating the relationship between community-based learning approach and students’ creativity, using engineering identity as an intermediary variable. The goal of this study is to discover the core features of community-based engineering learning, and make the features more beneficial for students’ creativity. The study created and adapted open survey items from previously published studies and a scale on learning community, students’ creativity and engineering identity. Firstly, qualitative content analysis methods by MAXQDA were used to analyze 32 open-ended questionnaires. Then the authors collected data (n=322) from undergraduate students in engineering competition teams and engineering laboratories in Zhejiang University, and structural equation modelling (SEM) was used to understand the relationship between different factors. The study finds: (a) community-based engineering learning has four main elements like real-task context, self-inquiry learning, deeply-consulted cooperation and circularly-iterated design, (b) community-based engineering learning can significantly enhance the engineering undergraduate students’ creativity, and (c) engineering identity partially moderated the relationship between community-based engineering learning and undergraduate students' creativity. The findings further illustrate the value of community-based engineering learning for undergraduate students. In the future research, the authors should further clarify the core mechanism of community-based engineering learning, and pay attention to the cultivation of undergraduate students’ engineer identity in learning community.

Keywords: community-based engineering learning, students' creativity, engineering identity, moderate effect

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25205 Operationalizing the Concept of Community Resilience through Community Capitals Framework-Based Index

Authors: Warda Ajaz

Abstract:

This study uses the ‘Community Capitals Framework’ (CCF) to develop a community resilience index that can serve as a useful tool for measuring resilience of communities in diverse contexts and backgrounds. CCF is an important analytical tool to assess holistic community change. This framework identifies seven major types of community capitals: natural, cultural, human, social, political, financial and built, and claims that the communities that have been successful in supporting healthy sustainable community and economic development have paid attention to all these capitals. The framework, therefore, proposes to study the community development through identification of assets in these major capitals (stock), investment in these capitals (flow), and the interaction between these capitals. Capital based approaches have been extensively used to assess community resilience, especially in the context of natural disasters and extreme events. Therefore, this study identifies key indicators for estimating each of the seven capitals through an extensive literature review and then develops an index to calculate a community resilience score. The CCF-based community resilience index presents an innovative way of operationalizing the concept of community resilience and will contribute toward decision-relevant research regarding adaptation and mitigation of community vulnerabilities to climate change-induced, as well as other adverse events.

Keywords: adverse events, community capitals, community resilience, climate change, economic development, sustainability

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25204 Community-Based Assessment Approach to Empower Child with Disabilities: Institutional Study on Deaf Art Community in Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Authors: Mukhamad Fatkhullah, Arfan Fadli, Marini Kristina Situmeang, Siti Hazar Sitorus

Abstract:

The emergence of a community of people with disabilities along with the various works produced has made great progress to open the public eye to their existence in society. This study focuses attention on a community that is suspected to be one of the pioneers in pursuing the movement. It is Deaf Art Community (DAC), a community of persons with disabilities based in Yogyakarta, with deaf and speech-impaired members who use sign language in everyday communication. Knowing the movement of disabled communities is a good thing, the description of the things behind it then important to know as the basis for initiating similar movements. This research focuses on the question of how community of people with disabilities begin to take shape in different regions and interact with collaborative events. Qualitative method with in-depth interview as data collection techniques was used to describe the process of formation and the emergence of community. The analytical unit in the study initially focuses on the subject in the community, but in the process, it develops to institutional analysis. Therefore some informants were determined purposively and expanded using the snowball technique. The theory used in this research is Phenomenology of Alfred Schutz to be able to see reality from the subject and institutional point of view. The results of this study found that the community is formed because the existing educational institutions (both SLB and inclusion) are less able to empower and make children with disabilities become equal with the society. Through the SLB, the presence of children with disabilities becomes isolated from the society, especially in children of his or her age. Therefore, discrimination and labeling will never be separated from society's view. Meanwhile, facilities for the basic needs of children with disabilities can not be fully provided. Besides that, the guarantee of discrimination, glances, and unpleasant behavior from children without disability does not exist, which then indicates that the existing inclusion schools offer only symbolic acceptance. Thus, both in SLB and Inclusive Schools can not empower children with disabilities. Community-based assistance, in this case, has become an alternative to actually empowering children with disabilities. Not only giving them a place to interact, through the same community, children with disabilities will be guided to discover their talents and develop their potential to be self-reliant in the future.

Keywords: children with disabilities, community-based assessment, community empowerment, social equity

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25203 Community Based Participatory Research in Opioid Use: Design of an Informatics Solution

Authors: Sue S. Feldman, Bradley Tipper, Benjamin Schooley

Abstract:

Nearly every community in the US has been impacted by opioid related addictions/deaths; it is a national problem that is threatening our social and economic welfare. Most believe that tackling this problem from a prevention perspective advances can be made toward breaking the chain of addiction. One mechanism, community based participatory research, involves the community in the prevention approach. This project combines that approach with a design science approach to develop an integrated solution. Findings suggested accountable care communities, transpersonal psychology, and social exchange theory as product kernel theories. Evaluation was conducted on a prototype.

Keywords: substance use and abuse recovery, community resource centers, accountable care communities, community based participatory research

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25202 Community Forest Management Practice in Nepal: Public Understanding of Forest Benefit

Authors: Chandralal Shrestha

Abstract:

In the developing countries like Nepal, the community based forest management approach has often been glorified as one of the best forest management alternatives to maximize the forest benefits. Though the approach has succeeded to construct a local level institution and conserve the forest biodiversity, how the local communities perceived about the forest benefits, the question always remains silent among the researchers and policy makers. The paper aims to explore the understanding of forest benefits from the perspective of local communities who used the forests in terms of institutional stability, equity and livelihood opportunity, and ecological stability. The paper revealed that the local communities have mixed understanding over the forest benefits. The institutional and ecological activities carried out by the local communities indicated that they have better understanding over the forest benefits. However, inequality while sharing the forest benefits, low pricing strategy and its negative consequences in valuation of forest products and limited livelihood opportunities indicated the poor understanding.

Keywords: community based forest management, forest benefits, lowland, Nepal

Procedia PDF Downloads 213
25201 The Impact of the Saudi New E-Commerce Law on Protecting E-Commerce Investments in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Faris Algarni

Abstract:

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia adopted a new law of e-commerce on July 10, 2019, which is the first Saudi law regarding e-commerce. The practice of e-commerce has been started in Saudi Arabia a few years ago with no specific rules to govern e-commerce in the Kingdom. The adoption of the law raises the concern of the ability of the law to provide real protection to both the investors and the customers. Based on that, this article seeks to respond to some questions related to the protection of investors of e-commerce in Saudi Arabia, using a quantitative method through questionnaires to gather primary data. The study tried to find the impact of adopting a new Saudi law of e-commerce on the protection of the investors from the point of view of those investors. By answering this main question, this article provides an answer to the question of whether there is a need to reform the Saudi law of e-commerce to convince existing and potential foreign investors to invest in the Kingdom through e-commerce. Questions were put to the respondents to determine their level of satisfaction with the Saudi law of e-commerce and what reforms to that system would enhance the attractiveness of the Kingdom as an investment environment for e-commerce investors, based on the information gathered and the analysis of them. A key finding is that the law of e-commerce is a core factor in the decision of investors to continue investing in the e-commerce market in Saudi Arabia. A subsequent finding is that some of the respondents are not fully satisfied with the new law and think that the law provides more protection to the customers than the investors. So, they are suggesting some legal reforms to be implemented in the bylaw of e-commerce, which is not adopted yet in order to attract them to continue investing in the Kingdom.

Keywords: e-commerce, law, investors, protection, Saudi Arabia

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25200 Urban Resilience and Planning in the Perspective of Community

Authors: Xu Tao, Yilun Xu, Dingwei Xiang, Yaofei Sun

Abstract:

Urban community is constitute the entire city and its management ‘cell’, let ‘cells’ with growth and self-regeneration capacity and persistence, to allow the city with infinite vigor and vitality of the source; with toughness community mankind's adaptation to the basic unit of social risk, toughness of the city from the community to create a point of building is urban toughness of top-down construction mode of supplement, is of positive significance on the toughness of the urban construction. Based on the basic concept of resilience, this paper reviews the research on the four main areas of the study of urban resilience (i.e., the engineering toughness, ecological resilience, economic resilience, and social resilience, etc.). Studies and comments and summarizes the basic characteristic and main content of the four kind of toughness. Based on, from the city - community level and community level for building community resilience, including the level of urban community and create a Unicom, inclusiveness and openness of the community; community-level lifted from the four angles of the engineering community toughness, ecological toughness, resilience, social resilience, mainly including enhanced the toughness of the infrastructure, green infrastructure of toughness, resilience, social network and social relations, building with a sense of belonging, inclusive, multicultural community. Finally, summarize and prospect the resilience of the community.

Keywords: resilience, community resilience, urban resilience, construction strategies

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25199 Research Methodology and Mixed Methods (Qualitative and Quantitative) for Ph.D. Construction Management – Post-Disaster Reconstruction

Authors: Samuel Quashie

Abstract:

Ph.D. Construction Management methodology and mixed methods are organized to guide the researcher to assemble and assess data in the research activities. Construction management research is close to business management and social science research. It also contributes to researching the phenomenon and answering the research question, generating an integrated management system for post-disaster reconstruction in construction and related industries. Research methodology and methods drive the research to achieve the goal or goals, contribute to knowledge, or increase knowledge. This statement means the research methodology, mixed methods, aim, objectives, and processes address the research question, facilitate its achievement and foundation to conduct the study. Mixed methods use project-based case studies, interviews, observations, literature and archival document reviews, research questionnaires, and surveys, and evaluation of integrated systems used in the construction industry and related industries to address the research work. The research mixed methods (qualitative, quantitative) define the research topic and establish a more in-depth study. The research methodology is action research, which involves the collaboration of participants and service users to collect and evaluate data, studying the phenomenon, research question(s) to improve the situation in post-disaster reconstruction phase management.

Keywords: methodology, Ph.D. research, post-disaster reconstruction, mixed-methods qualitative and quantitative

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25198 Local Pricing Strategy Should Be the Entry Point of Equitable Benefit Sharing and Poverty Reduction in Community Based Forest Management: Some Evidences from Lowland Community Forestry in Nepal

Authors: Dhruba Khatri

Abstract:

Despite the short history of community based forest management, the community forestry program of Nepal has produced substantial positive effects to organize the local people at a local level institution called Community Forest User Group and manage the local forest resources in the line of poverty reduction since its inception in 1970s. Moreover, each CFUG has collected a community fund from the sale of forest products and non-forestry sources as well and the fund has played a vital role to improve the livelihood of user households living in and around the forests. The specific study sites were selected based on the criteria of i) community forests having dominancy of Sal forests, and ii) forests having 3-5 years experience of community forest management. The price rates of forest products fixed by the CFUGs and the distribution records were collected from the respective community forests. Nonetheless, the relation between pricing strategy and community fund collection revealed that the small change in price of forest products could greatly affect in community fund collection and carry out of forest management, community development, and income generation activities in the line of poverty reduction at local level.

Keywords: benefit sharing, community forest, equitable, Nepal

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25197 Preventing Violent Extremism through Augmenting Community Resilience and Empowering Community Members in Swat

Authors: Dr. Muhammad Idris Idris, Dr. Said Saeed Saeed

Abstract:

Terrorism is the chronic issue of the hour. It is the disciplined practice of vicious activities like assassinating, slaughtering, mutilating, and frightening of the innocents to attain religious, fiscal, and political goals and to question the authority of the government. Leaders of the world promised to transform the planet by empowering community members and building community resilience (CR) against terrorism. This study concentrates to explore building community resilience against terrorism and empowering community members and implement strategies for strengthening community resilience. For data collection a mixed methods methodology will be used. Means, STD deviation, Pearson correlation, and thematic analysis will be employed to analyze the gathered data. The findings of the study will be interpreted and recommendations will be furnished accordingly. Study results will be disseminated to all concerned through conferences and seminar sessions. It is predicted that after the completion, the project team will be in a robust position to start writing the report that concentrates on strengthening community resilience, which is the crucial goal of this project. The publication will contribute effectively to all stakeholders and society, particularly to the lower rungs of social order. Moreover, it is expected that this project will contribute to future research in the domain of community resilience. This project will also reveal the remarkable potential of archival research on community resilience.

Keywords: Violent Extremism, community Role, community resilience, community empowerment, Leadership role

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25196 In-Service Training to Enhance Community Based Corrections

Authors: Varathagowry Vasudevan

Abstract:

This paper attempts to demonstrate the importance of capacity building of the para-professionals in community based corrections for enhancing family and child welfare as a crucial factor in providing in-service training as a responsive methodology in community based corrections to enhance the best practices. The Diploma programme in community-based corrections initiated by the National Institute of Social Development has been engaged in this noble task of training quality personnel knowledgeable in the best practices and fieldwork skills on community-based correction and its best practice. To protect the families and children and enhance best practices, National Institute of Social Development with support from the department of community-based corrections initiated a Diploma programme in community-based corrections to enhance and update the knowledge, skills, attitudes with the right mindset of the work supervisors employed at the department of community-based corrections. This study based on reflective practice illustrated the effectiveness of curriculum of in-service training programme as a tool to enhance the capacities of the relevant officers in Sri Lanka. The data for the study was obtained from participants and coordinator through classroom discussions and key informant interviews. This study showed that use of appropriate tailor-made curriculum and field practice manual by the officers during the training was very much dependent on the provision of appropriate administrative facilities, passion, teaching methodology that promote capacity to involve best practices. It also demonstrated further the fact that professional social work response, strengthening families within legal framework was very much grounded in the adoption of proper skills imbibed through training in appropriate methodology practiced in the field under guided supervision.

Keywords: capacity building, community-based corrections, in-service training, paraprofessionals

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25195 Community Based Tourism and Development in Third World Countries: The Case of the Bamileke Region of Cameroon

Authors: Ngono Mindzeng Terencia

Abstract:

Community based tourism, as a sustainable tourism approach, has been adopted as a tool for development among local communities in third world countries with income generation as the main driver. However, an analysis of community based tourism and development brings to light another driving force which is paramount to development strategies in the difficult conditions of third world countries: this driving force is “place revitalization”. This paper seeks to assess the relevance of “place revitalization” to the enhancement of development within the challenging context of developing countries. The research provides a community based tourism model to development in third world countries through a three step process based on awareness, mentoring and empowerment at the local level. It also tries to examine how effectively this model can address the development problems faced by the local communities of third world countries. The case study for this research is the Bamiléké region of Cameroon, the breeding ground of community based tourism initiatives and a region facing the difficulties of third world countries that are great impediments to community based tourism.

Keywords: awareness, empowerment, local communities, mentoring, place revitalization, third world countries

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25194 Study on the Layout of 15-Minute Community-Life Circle in the State of “Community Segregation” Based on Poi: Shengwei Community and Other Two Communities in Chongqing

Authors: Siyuan Cai

Abstract:

This paper takes community segregation during major infectious diseases as the background, based on the physiological needs and safety needs of citizens during home segregation, and based on the selection of convenient facilities and medical facilities as the main research objects. Based on the POI data of public facilities in Chongqing, the spatial distribution characteristics of the convenience and medical facilities in the 15-minute living circle centered on three neighborhoods in Shapingba, namely Shengwei Community, Anju Commmunity and Fengtian Garden Community, were explored by means of GIS spatial analysis. The results show that the spatial distribution of convenience and medical facilities in this area has significant clustering characteristics, with a point-like distribution pattern of "dense in the west and sparse in the east", and a grouped and multi-polar spatial structure. The spatial structure is multi-polar and has an obvious tendency to the intersections and residential areas with dense pedestrian flow. This study provides a preliminary exploration of the distribution of medical and convenience facilities within the 15-minute living circle of a segregated community, which makes up for the lack of spatial research in this area.

Keywords: ArcGIS, community segregation, convenient facilities; distribution pattern, medical facilities, POI, 15-minute community life circle

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25193 China and the Middle East in the 21st Century: From Political Mediation to Economic Expansionism

Authors: Ali Asghar Sotoudeh

Abstract:

Mediation Diplomacy has emerged as one of the main pillars of China's foreign policy goals and practices, and Beijing has established itself as a peacekeeping force in regional conflicts and crises such as Afghanistan, Syria, Sudan, Yemen, and the Arab-Israeli peace process. China is deepening and intensifying its diplomatic interventions in the Middle East and trying to shape the security and political developments in the Middle East. On the other hand, economically, China has become one of the most important trading partners with Middle Eastern governments. China is also seeking to expand its foreign policy and economic interests in the Middle East through the New Silk Road initiative and has signed cooperation agreements with 17 Arab countries. In this regard, due to the importance of the subject, this research focuses on answering this question; what is the basis of China's political mediation and economic expansionism in the Middle East? In parallel with this question, this study follows the hypothesis that the mediating role of peace is a legitimate way for China to intervene in Middle East political crises, Without causing China to deviate from its traditional guiding principles based on non-interference in the internal affairs of other actors in the international system. This policy also promotes the security of economic interests and increases the country's political influence in the Middle East. The research method is descriptive-analytical based on the qualitative method, and the data collection method is library and internet resources.

Keywords: China, middle east, political mediation, economic expansionism

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25192 Social Information Seeking: Studying the Effect of Question Type on Responses in Social Q&A Sites

Authors: Arshia Ayoub, Zahid Ashraf Wani

Abstract:

With the introduction of online social Q&A sites, people are able to reach each other efficiently for information seeking and simultaneously creating social bonds. There prevails an issue of low or no response for some questions posed by an information seeker on these sites. So this study tries to understand the effect of question type on responses in Social Q & A sites. The study found that among the answered queries, majority of them were answered within 24 hours of posting the questions and surprisingly most replies were received within one hour of posting. It was observed that questions of general information type were most likely to be answered followed by verification type.

Keywords: community‐based services, information seeking, social search, social Q&A site

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