Search results for: evidence-based medicine
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1461

Search results for: evidence-based medicine

1461 Complementary and Traditional Medicine in Turkey

Authors: Hüseyin Biçer


The purpose of this study is an explanation of using and expectation traditional and complementary medicine in Turkey in terms of regionally, cultural and social. Due to geopolitics position, at the intersection of the Middle East, Africa and Europe, Turkey has historically hosted many civilizations and cultures, and hosts many religions at the same time and therefore is very open to intercultural interaction. For this reason, the traditional medicine of Turkey contains traces of many civilizations rather than a traditional medicine of its own. In Turkey, complementary and traditional medicine are used actively. The aim of the study is to measure whether the patients have ever taken traditional medicine as a caretaker or for the supportive treatment of their diseases, and as a result, their expectations. This cross-sectional, paper-based survey study was conducted in 27 state hospitals and 29 family medicine clinics in seven geographical regions of Turkey. Patients who had an appointment in the waiting rooms that day were included. 77.4% of the patients participating in the study stated that they used traditional medicine at least 5 times in their life, 27.6% stated that traditional medicine was sufficient in some diseases, and 36.8% stated that traditional treatment was a part of normal treatment. Both faith and cultural approaches in Turkey always keep traditional medicine close to drugs. Another danger, apart from traditional medicine drugs that can interact with drugs, is that patients find it sufficient to use traditional and complementary medicine alone.

Keywords: complementary medicine, traditional medicine, medicine in Turkey, alternative medicine

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1460 Anatolian Geography: Traditional Medicine and Its Herbs

Authors: Hüseyin Biçer


There are more than a thousand endemic plants growing in Turkey. On the other hand, apart from these plantsAnatolia is home to more plant diversitythan the neighboring countries due to its transitional zone. These plants become a part of traditional medicine in the hope of curing the people with whom they have lived for thousands of years. No matter how important the climate is for the plant, the diseases of the region have an important place in the plant's life. While the plants used for tea are in the foreground in regions with heavy winters, the use of raw plants and fruits is common in some gastrointestinal problems. The aim of this study is explaining using the area of endemic plants in Anatolia.

Keywords: anatolian traditional medicine, traditional medicine, anatolian medicine, herbs

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1459 The Right to Receive Alternative Health Care as a Part of the Right to Health

Authors: Vera Lúcia Raposo


The right to health care – usually known as the right to health – is recognized in many national laws and Constitutions, as well as in international human rights documents. The kind of health care that citizens are entitled to receive, especially in the framework of the National Health Service, is usually identified with conventional medicine. However, since ancient times that a different form of medicine – alternative, traditional or nonconventional medicine – exists. In recent times it is attracting increasing interest, as it is demonstrated by the use of its specific knowledge either by pharmaceutical companies either by modern health technologies. Alternative medicine refers to a holistic approach to body and mind using herbal products, animal parts and minerals instead of technology and pharmaceutical drugs. These notes contributed to a sense of distrust towards it, accusing alternative medicine of being based on superstition and ignorance. However, and without denying that some particular practices lack indeed any kind of evidence or scientific grounds, the fact is that a substantial part of alternative medicine can actually produce satisfactory results. The paper will not advocate the substitution of conventional medicine by alternative medicine, but the complementation between the two and their specific knowledge. In terms of the right to health, as a fundamental right and a human right, this thesis leads to the implementation of a wider range of therapeutic choices for patients, who should be entitled to receive different forms of health care that complement one another, both in public and private health facilities. This scenario would demand a proper regulation for alternative medicine, which nowadays does not exist in most countries, but it is essential to protect patients and public health in general and to reinforce confidence in alternative medicine.

Keywords: alternative medicine, conventional medicine, patient’s rights, right to health

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1458 Traditional Chinese Medicine Treatment for Coronary Heart Disease: a Meta-Analysis

Authors: Yuxi Wang, Xuan Gao


Traditional Chinese medicine has been used in the treatment of coronary heart disease (CHD) for centuries, and in recent years, the research data on the efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine through clinical trials has gradually increased to explore its real efficacy and internal pharmacology. However, due to the complexity of traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions, the efficacy of each component is difficult to clarify, and pharmacological research is challenging. This study aims to systematically review and clarify the clinical efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine in the treatment of coronary heart disease through a meta-analysis. Based on PubMed, CNKI database, Wanfang data, and other databases, eleven randomized controlled trials and 1091 CHD subjects were included. Two researchers conducted a systematic review of the papers and conducted a meta-analysis supporting the positive therapeutic effect of traditional Chinese medicine in the treatment of CHD.

Keywords: coronary heart disease, Chinese medicine, treatment, meta-analysis

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1457 Vegetative Materia Medica for the Women Illness in mss2999 Kitab Tibb: A Modern Medical Interpretation of a Malay Medical Manuscript

Authors: Wan Aminah Hasbullah


The knowledge of medicine in Malay society stemmed out from the need to remedy disease process. Such knowledge came from observations by looking at the signs on the plants which signify it uses, the doctrine of signature, and also observing what kind of animal and its parts that can be used to treat the disease. Prayers (jampi and doa’) play a very important role in the therapeutic processes addressing the ethereal part of the body. In Malay medicine, prayers were said in the heart of the Malay bomoh (medicine man) when they are first approaching the diseased person, seeking the help of Allah in accurately directing his mind into making the right diagnosis and subsequently the right choice of treatment. In the making of medicine, similar rituals were religiously followed, starting from gathering the materia medica to the final concoction of the medicine. Thus, all the materia medica and the prayers in Malay medicine were gathered and documented in the medical manuscript known as MSS 2999 Kitab Tibb. For this study, a collection of vegetative materia medica which is specialized for the women illness from this manuscript will be gathered and analysed. A medical and cultural interpretation will be highlighted to see the relationship between efficacy in traditional Malay medicine as practiced in the past and the recent practice of the modern medicine.

Keywords: vegetative, materia medica, woman illness, Malay medical manuscript

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1456 Holistic and Naturalistic Traditions of British Hygiene and Medicine, Reflected in E. W. Lane's Hygienic Medicine, 1859

Authors: Min Bae


Hygiene had traditionally meant ways of healthy and right living. However, the nineteenth century was the time when a gradual shift in medical and hygienic paradigms took place from holism to reductionism. Against this medical and social background, E. W. Lane (MD, Edinburgh, 1853) formulated his own medical philosophies in his book Hydropathy: Or Hygienic Medicine (1859). Until the 1880s when he published his last book on the hygienic medicine, he consistently intended to raise the importance of hygienic holism in medicine, while adopting hydropathy as his main therapeutic measure. Lane’s case reflects the mid-nineteenth century trend in which since the 1840s, the rational and holistic facets in medicine had significantly transferred to hydropathy, which was the most naturalistic healing system in the medical market. Hygiene for Lane was no longer the ancient form of ‘six non-naturals’. He emphasised physiology as the rational grounds for his project of the medicalisation of hygiene. His medical philosophy was profoundly naturalistic and holistic against the opposite trend of the contemporary hygiene and medicine. Conflicting aspects may often be best embodied in persons who stood on the boundaries between inside and outside. Lane’s theories on hygienic medicine did not develop into a new medical system which he believed would reconciliate orthodox medicine and hydropathy of his time had also adopted increasingly reductionist approaches since 1860s. Nevertheless, the naturalistic philosophies and approaches in Lane’s hygienic medicine demonstrates a continuous effort for a theoretical reformulation of hydropathy during its stagnant and declining period to constantly fit into the holistic paradigm of medicine and hygiene. Considering the fact that the nature cure concept in hydropathy and its individualistic approach were succeeded by naturopathy at the end of the century, analysis of Lane’s medical thoughts reveals part of a ‘thin red line’ of naturalism in the battleground between reductionism and holism during the nineteenth century in the history of medicine and hygiene.

Keywords: E. W. Lane, hygienic medicine, hydropathy, naturopath

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1455 Improving Diagnostic Accuracy in Rural Medicine

Authors: Kelechi Emmanuel, Kyaw Thein Aung, William Burch


Introduction: Although rewarding in more ways than one, rural medicine can be challenging. The factors that lead to the challenges experienced in rural medicine include but are not limited to scarcity of resources, poor patient education inadequately trained professionals. This is the first single center study done on the challenges of and ways to improve diagnosis in rural medicine. Materials and Methods: Questionnaires were given to providers in a single hospital in rural Tennessee USA. In which providers were asked the question ‘In the past six months, what measures have you taken to improve your diagnostic accuracy given limited resources. Results: The questionnaire was passed to ten physicians working in a two hundred and twentyfive hospital bed. Physicians who participated included physicians in hospital medicine, emergency medicine, surgery, cardiology and gastroenterology. The study found that improved physical examination skills, access to specialist especially via telemedicine and affiliation to centers with more experienced professionals improved diagnosis and overall patient outcome in rural medicine. Conclusion: From this single center study, there is evidence to show that in addition to honing physical examination skills and having access to immediate results of testing done; hospital collaborations and access to highly trained specialist via telemedicine does improve diagnosis in rural medicine.

Keywords: rural medicine, diagnostic accuracy, diagnosis, telemedicine

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1454 Ensuring Compliancy in Traditional Tibetan Medicine Treatment Through Patient Education

Authors: Nashalla Gwyn Nyinda


The ancient system of Tibetan Medicine, known as Sowa Rigpa across the Himalayan regions, is a systematic system of healing encouraging balance primarily through diet and behavior modifications. With the rise of the popularity of Tibetan Medicine, compliance is critical to successful treatment outcomes. As patients learn more about who they are as individuals and how their elemental balances or imbalances affect disorders and mental-emotional balance, they develop faith and dedication to their healing process. Specifically, regarding diet and behavior and the basic principles of the medical system, patient compliance increases dramatically in all treatment areas when they understand why a treatment or dietary prescription guidance is effective. Successful responses to Tibetan treatment rely on a buy-in from the patient. Trust between the slower process of Traditional medicine treatments, the Tibetan physician and the patient is a cornerstone of treatment. The resulting decrease in the use of allopathic medicine and better health outcomes for acute and chronic disorders are well documented. This paper addresses essential points of the Tibetan Medicine system, dialogue between doctor and patient focused on appropriate and seasonal changing dietetics. Such fluctuating treatment approaches, based on external elemental factors, dramatically increase treatment outcomes. Specifically, this work addresses why allopathic medicine models may need more trust development between practitioner and patient.

Keywords: compliancy in treatment, diet and lifestyle medicine, nature and elements as medicine, seasonal diets, Sowa Rigpa, traditional Tibetan medicine, treatment outcomes

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1453 Using India’s Traditional Knowledge Digital Library on Traditional Tibetan Medicine

Authors: Chimey Lhamo, Ngawang Tsering


Traditional Tibetan medicine, known as Sowa Rigpa (Science of healing), originated more than 2500 years ago with an insightful background, and it has been growing significant attention in many Asian countries like China, India, Bhutan, and Nepal. Particularly, the Indian government has targeted Traditional Tibetan medicine as its major Indian medical system, including Ayurveda. Although Traditional Tibetan medicine has been growing interest and has a long history, it is not easily recognized worldwide because it exists only in the Tibetan language and it is neither accessible nor understood by patent examiners at the international patent office, data about Traditional Tibetan medicine is not yet broadly exist in the Internet. There has also been the exploitation of traditional Tibetan medicine increasing. The Traditional Knowledge Digital Library is a database aiming to prevent the patenting and misappropriation of India’s traditional medicine knowledge by using India’s Traditional knowledge Digital Library on Sowa Rigpa in order to prevent its exploitation at international patent with the help of information technology tools and an innovative classification systems-traditional knowledge resource classification (TKRC). As of date, more than 3000 Sowa Rigpa formulations have been transcribed into a Traditional Knowledge Digital Library database. In this paper, we are presenting India's Traditional Knowledge Digital Library for Traditional Tibetan medicine, and this database system helps to preserve and prevent the exploitation of Sowa Rigpa. Gradually it will be approved and accepted globally.

Keywords: traditional Tibetan medicine, India's traditional knowledge digital library, traditional knowledge resources classification, international patent classification

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1452 The Prevalence of Herbal Medicine Practice and Associated Factors among Cancer Patients Receiving Palliative Care at Mobile Hospice Mbarara

Authors: Harriet Nalubega, Eddie Mwebesa


In Uganda, over 90% of people use herbal remedies. Herbal medicine use has been associated with delayed clinical appointments, presentation with advanced cancers, financial constraints, and misdiagnosis. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of herbal medicine use and practices amongst cancer patients receiving Palliative Care at Mobile Hospice Mbarara (MHM) and the associated challenges. This was a mixed-methods prospective study conducted in 2022 at MHM, where patients were interviewed, and a questionnaire was completed. 87% of the patients had used herbal medicine. Of these, 83% were female, and 59% had not received formal education. 27% of patients had used herbal remedies for a year or more. 51% of patients who were consuming herbs stopped using them after starting palliative care treatment. Motivations for herbal medicine use were in the hope for a cure in 59%, for pain relief in 30%, and peer influence in 10%. There is a high prevalence of herbal medicine use in Palliative Care. Female gender and lack of formal education were disproportionately associated with herbal remedy use. Most patients consume herbal remedies in search of a cure or to relieve severe pain. Education of cancer patients about herbal remedy use may improve treatment outcomes in Palliative Care.

Keywords: prevalence, herbal medicine, cancer patients, palliative care

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1451 A Non-Destructive TeraHertz System and Method for Capsule and Liquid Medicine Identification

Authors: Ke Lin, Steve Wu Qing Yang, Zhang Nan


The medicine and drugs has in the past been manufactured to the final products and then used laboratory analysis to verify their quality. However the industry needs crucially a monitoring technique for the final batch to batch quality check. The introduction of process analytical technology (PAT) provides an incentive to obtain real-time information about drugs on the production line, with the following optical techniques being considered: near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and imaging, mid-infrared spectroscopy with the use of chemometric techniques to quantify the final product. However, presents problems in that the spectra obtained will consist of many combination and overtone bands of the fundamental vibrations observed, making analysis difficult. In this work, we describe a non-destructive system and method for capsule and liquid medicine identification, more particularly, using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and/or designed terahertz portable system for identifying different types of medicine in the package of capsule or in liquid medicine bottles. The target medicine can be detected directly, non-destructively and non-invasively.

Keywords: terahertz, non-destructive, non-invasive, chemical identification

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1450 Nanoparticles and Nanoproducts in Medicine Applications

Authors: Shideh Mohseni Movahed, Mansoureh Safari, Ali Safari


In this paper, the state of play and prospect of nanoparticles and nanoproducts in medicine have been discussed. Advances in terms of scientific knowledge in the Nanosciences (nanotechnologies and/or nanomaterials) have and already translated into an industrial and economic reality. Just like other sectors in the phase of launching products in the markets, it is to consider the introduction of these new products in order to measure and control potential consequences in terms of health impacts on humans and the environment, but also in terms of societal impacts.

Keywords: nanoparticles, nanoproducts, medicine, health

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1449 Effects of Medication Reminder Innovation on Adherence and the Quality of Medicine

Authors: Suparpit von Bormann, Winai Sayorwan, Sirichai Channim, Sararat Rungruangkhanarak, Premchai Suksamran, Piyaporn Srisuk, Piyatida Phosri


The best medicine will not work if the patient does not take them. There are several methods developed to help patients to be adherent to medicine. However, non-adherent rate still high: 24% in physically ill and 42% in mentally ill patients. Moreover, patients might feel less confident when carrying medicine around. Normal medicine box has no alarm; whereas the one with alarm is not handy and might be left at home. Therefore, Medication Reminder (MR) was invented. MR is a medicine pocket that has an alarm clock to remind the patient when it is the time to take medicine. It also has a small light indicating the medicine the patient has to take. This pocket is attached within a purse or wallet because most people forget medicine but do not forget to take their money. This research was conducted to develop innovation assisting patients to take their medicine on time. Samples were 24 volunteers who went out to work every day. Uncoated tablets, coated tablets, and capsules were filled in three types of containers: MR, plastic bag with ziplock, and normal plastic box. Each volunteer carried three types of containers everywhere during day time. After three days, medicines were tested for physical quality (appearance, odor, color, hardness, and weight) in laboratory. Medication adherence and satisfaction questionnaires were completed by participants. The results showed that MR showed significant improvement in participants’ adherence than plastic bag with ziplock, and normal plastic box at p < .001 (x̄(SD) = 11.16(0.75), 7.83(0.98), 8.83(1.32), respectively). Based on the quality test, MR and normal plastic box significantly better protected medicine than plastic bag with zip lock at p < .001 (x̄(SD) = 4(0.00), 4(0.00), 2.5(0.54), respectively). Most participants were satisfied with the innovation in highest level (4.50 out of 5). MR has a potential to improve adherent rates of participants and therefore to be an innovation that helps reducing the cost of treatment due to non-adherence. MR also has a potential in commercial aspect due to its effects in preserving quality of medicine. MR can be integrated with local products such as silk purse that can increase income for local people.

Keywords: medication, reminder, adherence, satisfaction

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1448 Nutrition Strategy Using Traditional Tibetan Medicine in the Preventive Measurement

Authors: Ngawang Tsering


Traditional Tibetan medicine is primarily focused on promoting health and keeping away diseases from its unique in prescribing specific diet and lifestyle. The prevalence of chronic diseases has been rising day by day and kills a number of people due to the lack of proper nutritional design in modern times. According to traditional Tibetan medicine, chronic diseases such as diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, respiratory diseases, and arthritis are heavily associated with an unwholesome diet and inappropriate lifestyles. Diet and lifestyles are the two main conditions of diseases and healthy life. The prevalence of chronic diseases is one of the challenges, with massive economic impact and expensive health issues. Though chronic diseases are challenges, it has a solution in the preventive measurements by using proper nutrition design based on traditional Tibetan medicine. Until today, it is hard to evaluate whether traditional Tibetan medicine nutrition strategy could play a major role in preventive measurement as of the lack of current research evidence. However, compared with modern nutrition, it has an exclusive valuable concept, such as a holistic way and diet or nutrition recommendation based on different aspects. Traditional Tibetan medicine is one of the oldest ancient existing medical systems known as Sowa Rigpa (Science of Healing) highlights different aspects of dietetics and nutrition, namely geographical, seasonal, age, personality, emotional, food combination, the process of individual metabolism, potency, and amount of food. This article offers a critical perspective on the preventive measurement against chronic diseases through nutrition design using traditional Tibetan medicine and also needs attention for a deeper understanding of traditional Tibetan medicine in the modern world.

Keywords: traditional Tibetan medicine, nutrition, chronic diseases, preventive measurement, holistic approach, integrative

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1447 Ethnobotanical Survey on the Use of Herbal Medicine at Children in Algeria

Authors: Metahri Leyla


Herbal medicine is one of the oldest medicines in the world. It constitutes an interesting alternative to treat and cure without creating new diseases. Despite the progress of medicine, the increase in the number of doctors, the creation of social security, many parents have resorted to herbal medicine for their children; they are increasingly asking for "natural remedies", "without risk" for their children. Herbal tea is a very accessible way to enjoy the benefits of herbal medicine. Accordingly; the objective of our study is to obtain detailed information on the composition and mode of administration of these herbal teas and to identify the different plants used; their beneficial effects, as well as their possible toxicity. The current research work represents an ethnobotanical survey spread over one month (from January 6, 2021, to February 19, 2021) carried out by means of an electronic questionnaire concerning 753 respondents involving single or multiparous mothers. The obtained results reveal that a total of 684 mothers used herbal teas for their infants, which revealed the use of 55 herbal remedies for several indications, the most sought after are the carminative effect and relief of colic, and which 9% of users noticed undesirable effects linked to the administration of herbal teas to their infants. As a conclusion, it has been asserted that the use of herbal teas as a natural remedy by Algerian mothers is a widely accepted practice, however, the "natural" nature of the plants does not mean that they are harmless.

Keywords: herbal medicine, herbal teas, children, mothers, medicinal plants

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1446 Common Sports Medicine Injuries in Primary Health Care

Authors: Thuraya Ahmed Hamood Al Shidhani


Sports Medicine injuries are very common in primary health care. It is not necessary related to direct trauma, but it could be because of repetitive stress and overuse injuries. Knowledge of Primary Health care providers about the common sports medicine injuries and when to refer to a specialist is essential. Common sports injuries are muscle strain, joint sprain, bone bruise, Patellofemoral pain syndrome, Anterior cruciate ligament injuries, meniscal injuries, ankle ligaments injuries, concussion, Rotator cuff tendinosis/impingement syndrome, lateral and medial epicondylitis and fractures. Systematic approach is very useful in evaluation of sports injuries. RICE is important in initial management. Physiotherapy is essential for rehabilitation. Definitive Management is dependent on patient’s condition and function.

Keywords: common, sports medicine injuries, primary health care, injuries

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1445 The Development of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness in China from Reviewing Their Studies from the Journal of China Sports Science

Authors: Dong Zhan


China sports science is the core periodical of scientific research in the field of sports in China at present. It is the first academic periodical ranked in China. The author has studied the characteristics and trends of articles on sports medicine and physical fitness published in the journal since it founded. Now, the articles on sports medicine and physical fitness published in the Journal of Sports Science from 2013 to 2017 are reviewed. The results show that 1) The characteristics of previous sports medicine articles showed that there were more articles on the basis of sports medicine than that on the application. The research on animal experiments was far more than that on the human body. Moreover, the trend was getting worse and worse as time goes on. But in the past five years, there had been a marked improvement. The basic/application has been improved from 2.1/1 to 1.3/1. This shows that sports medicine researchers have been paid more attention to the application research in sports medicine. 2) There are few articles on sports injury, because the state put the sports injury specialty into the medical colleges, and the research scope of sports research institutes does not include sports injury. It cannot meet the need for the development of sports medicine, and it should change sooner or later. 3) In the past, researchers’ effort was on athletes' physical health, not on ordinary people. Now, there is a great change, they not only research on the sportsmen’s health but also research on the health of the ordinary people. 4) Researchers mainly studied on the young people’s physical fitness in the past; now, it has been greatly improved. Researchers study on the physical health of the elderly, especially those over the age of 60. Numbers of paper researching on the young were much more than those on the old. In the past 10 years, the ratio of number of paper researching on the young to the old people was (young/old) 16.6/1, while in the past 5 years, this ratio was 6.3/1. However, this is not enough. China has a large population and needs to focus on promoting the health of the people. Conclusion: It is important to pay more attention to the application research on sports medicine and on the physical fitness, and it is also important to make a research on physical health of the elderly.

Keywords: sports medicine, people's health, the young, the old

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1444 Ethno-Medical Potentials of Tacazzea apiculata Oliv. (Periplocaceae)

Authors: Abubakar Ahmed, Zainab Mohammed, Hadiza D. Nuhu, Hamisu Ibrahim


Introduction: The plant Tacazzea apiculata Oliv (Periplocaceae) is widely distributed in tropical West Africa. It is claimed to have multiple uses in traditional medicine among which are its use to treat hemorrhoids, inflammations and cancers. Methods: Ethno-botanical survey through interview and using show-and-tell method of data collection were conducted among Hausa and Fulani tribes of northern Nigeria with the view to document useful information on the numerous claims by the local people on the plant. Results: The results revealed that the plant T. apiculata has relative popularity among the herbalist (38.2 %), nomads (14.8 %) and fishermen (16.0%). The most important uses of the plant in traditional medicine are inflammation (Fedelity level: 25.7 %) and Haemorrhoids (Fedelity level: 17.1 %) Conclusion: These results suggest the relevance of T. apiculata in traditional medicine and as a good candidate for drug Development.

Keywords: ethno-botany, periplocaceae, Tacazzea apiculata, traditional medicine

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1443 Utilizing Street Medicine to Reduce Communicable Disease Prevalence in a Cost-Effective Way

Authors: Bailey Hall, Athena Hoppe, Tevyn Kagele, Anna Nichols, Breeanna Messner


The Spokane Street Medicine (SSM) Program aims to deliver medical care to people experiencing homelessness in Spokane, Washington. Street medicine is designed to function in a non-traditional setting to help deliver healthcare to a largely underserved population. In this analysis, the SSM Program’s medical charts from street and shelter encounters in early 2021 were reviewed in order to identify illness and diseases in people experiencing homelessness in Spokane. More than half of the prescriptions written during these encounters were for either an antibacterial, an antibiotic, or an antifungal. Estimates of the cost to the local healthcare system are included. Initiating treatment for communicable diseases in people experiencing homelessness via street medicine efforts greatly reduces economic costs while improving health outcomes.

Keywords: ethical issues in public health, equity issues in public health, health economics, health disparities, healthcare costs, medical public health, public health ethics, street medicine

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1442 The Phenomenon of Nutrition as a 'Trading Zone' Approach in the Paradigm Shift between Humoral Theory and Modern Medicine

Authors: Dilay Merve Temur


How knowledge is produced and how scientific knowledge progress are questions that science philosophers have investigated for centuries. When the scientific and technological developments reached the 20th century, Kuhn proposed a completely new view among all the approaches. In this article, firstly, Kuhn's theory is represented. Secondly, the criticisms of Kuhn's theory directed to him are examined, and Galison's proposal for the trade area term of the incommensurability thesis is shared. The interaction of Humoral Theory with nutrition has been illustrated extensively, and the transition to modern medicine has been described historically by including scientific and technological developments in the field of medicine. This paper will seek to see how the concept of nutrition is positioned as a trading zone within the medicine paradigm, which has experienced a revolution within the framework of the paradigm concept introduced by Kuhn.

Keywords: food studies, incommensurability, nutrition and dietetics, trading zone

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1441 Institutional Legitimacy and Professional Boundary: Western Medicine-Trained Doctors' Attitudes and Behaviors toward Traditional Chinese Medicine

Authors: Xiaoli Tian


The recent growing interest in and use of complementary and alternative medicine is a global phenomenon. In many regions, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), an important type of complementary and alternative medicine, has been formally integrated into the healthcare system. Consequently, today’s doctors face increasing requests and questions from patients regarding TCM. However, studies of TCM focus either on patients’ approaches to TCM and Western medicine (WM) or on the politics involved in the institutionalization of TCM. To our knowledge, sociological studies on doctors’ attitudes toward TCM are rare. This paper compares the receptivity of WM-trained Chinese doctors to TCM in Hong Kong and mainland China, in order to evaluate the interplay between professional training and dominant medical paradigms, on the one hand, and institutional legitimacy and government and client pressures to accept TCM, on the other. Based on survey and in-depth interviews with Western-medicine doctors in Hong Kong and mainland China, this research finds that: there is major difference between Western-medicine doctors’ attitude toward traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in Hong Kong and mainland China. Doctors in Hong Kong are still suspicious toward TCM, no matter if they have exposure to TCM or not. Even some doctors who have much knowledge about TCM, such as got a diploma or certificate in TCM or tried TCM themselves, are still suspicious. This is because they hold up to the ideal of 'evidence-based medicine' and emphasize the kind of evidence based on randomized controlled trial (RCT). To Western medicine doctors in Hong Kong, this is the most reliable type of evidence for any medical practice, but it is lacking in TCM. This is the major reason why they do not trust TCM and would not refer patients to TCM in clinical practices. In contrast, western medicine doctors in mainland China also know about randomized controlled trial (RCT) and believe that’s the most reliable evidence, but they tend to think experience-based evidence is also reliable. On this basis, they think TCM also has clinical effectiveness. Research findings reveal that legitimacy based on institutional arrangements is a relevant factor, but how doctors understand their professional boundaries also play an important role. Doctors in Hong Kong are more serious about a strict professional boundary between Western medicine and TCM because they benefited from it, such as a very prestigious status and high income. Doctors in mainland China tend to be flexible about professional boundaries because they never benefited from a well-defined strict professional boundary. This is related to a long history of the lack of professionalism in China but is also aggravated by the increasing state support of TCM.

Keywords: evidence-based decision-making, institutional legitimacy, professional behavior, traditional Chinese medicine

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1440 The Same Rules of Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine in Treating Chronic Idiopathic Urticaria and Hypertension

Authors: Heng W. Chang, Mao F. Sun


Chronic Idiopathic Urticaria (CIU) and hypertension are rarely discussed together in modern and traditional Chinese medicine, and often belong to different medical departments. However, in traditional Chinese medicinal theory, the two diseases have some similar characters. For example, they are both relevant to 'wind'. This study conducted a literature review using the China National Knowledge Infrastructure to identify herbs yielding the same effect for the two diseases. The finding showed that the common herbs used most frequently is Rehmanniae. The conclusion is that the same TCM (Traditional Chinese Medicine) mechanism of the two diseases may be 'blood heat'. It requires further study to prove it in the future.

Keywords: urticaria, herbs, hypertension, Rehmanniae

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1439 The Development of Clinical Nursing Practice Guidelines for Preventing of Infection during Intubation in Patients with Suspected or Confirmed COVID-19

Authors: Sarinra Thongmee, Krittaporn Prakobsaeng, Adithep Mingsuan, Chanyapak Polkhet, Supattra Wongsuk


The purposes of this research and developmentwasto develop and evaluation of the clinical nursingpractice guideline (CNPG) for the prevention infection during intubation in patient with suspected or confirmedCOVID-19 patient. This study was developed by using the evidencebased practice model of Soukup (2000) asa conceptual framework. The study consisted of 4 steps: 1) situational analysis of intubation service in patientswith confirmed COVID-19; 2) development of the CNPG; 3) apply the NPG to trial; and 4) evaluation of the CNPG. The sample consisted of 52 nurse anesthetists and 25 infected or suspected COVID-19 patients. The research instrument consisted of 1) the CNPG, which was developed by the researchers; 2) the nurses anesthetist opinion questionnaire to the guideline; 3) the evaluation practice form; and 4) the nurse anesthetist knowledge test on nursing care of patients infected with COVID-19. Data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics, and Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank test. The results revealed this developed CNPG consists of 4 sections: 1)the CNPG for airborne precautions2) the preparation of anesthetic and intubation equipments3) the roles and duties of the intubation team, 4) the guidelines for intubation in suspected or confirmed COVID-19 patients. The results of CNPG use found that 1)the provider: using NPG in providers revealed that nurse anesthetist had a higher mean of knowledge scores than before using CNPG statistically significant at the 0.05 level (p<0.01) and able to follow the NPG 100% inall activities. The anesthetic team was not infected with COVID-19 from intubation outside the operating room. 2)the client: the patient was safe, with no complications from intubation. Summary CNPG to prevent infection during reintubation of suspected or confirmedCOVID-19patient was appropriate and applicable to practice.

Keywords: clinical nursing practice guideline, prevention of infection, endotracheal intubation, COVID-19

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1438 Reasons for Choosing Medicine and the Personality Traits of Pre-Clinical Medical Students

Authors: Zarini Ismail, Nurul Azmawati Mohamed, Shalinawati Ramli, Nurul Hayati Chamhuri, Nur Syahrina Rahim, Khairani Omar


Choosing a career is one of the most important decisions that people have to make in life. While choosing a suitable career, a person cannot ignore their intrinsic traits such as the type of personality, interests, values, and aptitude. The objective of this study is to ascertain the personality of the pre-clinical medical students and their reasons or intentions for choosing medicine as a career. This study is a cross-sectional study involving Year 3 pre-clinical medical students at Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia. Participants were given a set of validated questionnaires on demographic data and open-ended questions for reasons of choosing medicine. Thematic analysis were used to analyse the open-ended question. The Participants were also required to answer a Career Interest Questionnaire (based on Holland’s Theory). A total of 81 Year 3 medical students were involved in this study. About two third (69%) of them were female and their age ranged from 20 to 21 years old. The majority of them were from middle-income families. From the thematic analysis, there were several reasons given for choosing medicine by the students. The majority of the students stated that it was their passion and interest in the medical field (45.7%). Approximately 24.7% decided to take the medical course because of parents/family influenced and 19.8% mentioned that they wanted to help the society. Other themes emerged were jobs opportunity in future (1.2%) and influenced by friends (3.7%). Based on Holland’s theory, ideally to become a good medical doctor one should score high in investigative and social personality trait. However, 26.3% of the students had low scores in these personality traits. We then looked into the reasons given by these students for choosing medicine. Approximately 28% were due to parents/family decision while 52% admitted that it was due to their interest. When compared with the group of students with high personality scores (investigative and social), there was not much difference in the reasons given for choosing medicine. The main reasons given by the students for choosing medicine were own interest, family’s influence and to help others. However, a proportion of them had low scores in the personality traits which are relevant for medicine. Although some of these students admitted that they choose medicine based on their interest, their strength might not be suitable for their chosen carrier.

Keywords: career, medical students, medicine, personality

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1437 Reviews of Chief Complaints and Treatments [in an Early Street Medicine Program]

Authors: A. Hoppe, T. Kagele, B. Hall, A. Nichols, B. Messner


The Spokane Street Medicine (SSM) Program aims to deliver medical care to members of Spokane, Washington, experiencing homelessness. Street medicine is designed to function in a non-traditional setting to help deliver healthcare to the underserved homeless population. In this analysis, clinical charts from street and shelter encounters made by the Spokane Street Medicine Program in early 2021 were reviewed in order to better understand the healthcare inequities prevalent among people experiencing homelessness in Spokane, WA. Pain, wound-care, and follow-up efforts were predominant concerns among the homeless population. More than half of the conditions addressed were acute, and almost a quarter of all chief complaints involved chronic unmanaged conditions. This analysis gives reason for the priorities of the SSM Program to be focused on pain, wound-care, and follow-up efforts. Understanding the specific medical needs of this population will allow for better resource allocation and improved health outcomes among people experiencing homelessness.

Keywords: equity issues in public health, health disparities, health services accessibility, medical public health, street medicine

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1436 Effectiveness of Homoeopathic Medicine Conium Maculatum 200 C for Management of Pyuria

Authors: Amir Ashraf


Homoeopathy is an alternative system of medicine discovered by German physician Samuel Hahnemann in 1796. It has been used by several people for various health conditions globally for more than last 200 years. In India, homoeopathy is considered as a major system of alternative medicine. Homoeopathy is found effective in various medical conditions including Pyuria. Pyuria is the condition in which pus cells are found in urine. Homoeopathy is very useful for reducing pus cells, and homeopathically potentized Conium Mac (Hemlock) is an important remedy commonly used for reducing pyuria. Aim: To reduce the amount pus cells found in urine using Conium Mac 200C. Methods: Design. Small N Design. Samples: Purposive Sampling with 5 cases diagnosed as pyuria. Tools: Personal Data Schedule and ICD-10 Criteria for Pyuria. Techniques: Potentized homoeopathic medicine, Conium Mac 200th potency is used. Statistical Analysis: The statistical analyses were done using non-parametric tests. Results: There is significant pre/post difference has been identified. Conclusion: Homoeopathic potency, Conium Mac 200 C is effective in reducing the increased level of pus cells found in urine samples.

Keywords: homoeopathy, alternative medicine, Pyuria, Conim Mac, small N design, non-parametric tests, homeopathic physician, Ashirvad Hospital, Kannur

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1435 Shared Decision-Making in Holistic Healthcare: Integrating Evidence-Based Medicine and Values-Based Medicine

Authors: Ling-Lang Huang


Research Background: Historically, the evolution of medicine has not only aimed to extend life but has also inadvertently introduced suffering in the process of maintaining life, presenting a contemporary challenge. We must carefully assess the conflict between the length of life and the quality of living. Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) exists primarily to ensure the quality of cures. However, EBM alone does not fulfill our ultimate medical goals; we must also evaluate Value-Based Medicine (VBM) to find the best treatment for patients. Research Methodology: We can attempt to integrate EBM with VBM. Within the five steps of EBM, the first three steps (Ask—Acquire—Appraise) focus on the physical aspect of humans. However, in the fourth and fifth steps (Apply—Assess), the focus shifts from the physical to applying evidence-based treatment to the patient and assessing its effectiveness, considering a holistic approach to the individual. To consider VBM for patients, we can divide the process into three steps: The first step is "awareness," recognizing that each patient inhabits a different life-world and possesses unique differences. The second step is "integration," akin to the hermeneutic concept of the Fusion of Horizons. This means being aware of differences and also understanding the origins of these patient differences. The third step is "respect," which involves setting aside our adherence to medical objectivity and scientific rigor to respect the ultimate healthcare decisions made by individuals regarding their lives. Discussion and Conclusion: After completing these three steps of VBM, we can return to the fifth step of EBM: Assess. Our assessment can now transcend the physical treatment focus of the initial steps to align with a holistic care philosophy.

Keywords: shared decision-making, evidence-based medicine, values-based medicine, holistic healthcare

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1434 Traditional Herbal Medicine Used to Treat Infertility in Women by Traditional Practitioner of Malwa Region of Madhya Pradesh, India

Authors: Shweta Shriwas, Sumeet Dwivedi


Knowledge of use of traditional medicine is as old as human civilization in almost every system of medicine. Traditional practitioner viz., vaidhayas, ojha, hakim have their own herbal therapy in the treatment of infertility among women’s. Infertility is very common in developed and developing countries due to busy life style of women’s. The present study was initiated with an aim to identify medicinal plants resources from traditional practitioners of Malwa region of Madhya Pradesh to treat infertility. An ethnomedicinal study of Malwa region viz., Indore, Dewas, Ratlam, Ujjain, Dhar, Mandsour and Neemuch of Madhya Pradesh, India comprising fifty-seven study site was conducted during Jan-217 to June-2017. During the course of present investigation, the traditional use of medicinal plants for infertility in women was revealed by traditional practitioner. The botanical name, family, local name, part used, habit along with mode of their administration and dose duration were enumerated.

Keywords: herbal medicine, infertility, traditional, Malwa, Madhya Pradesh

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1433 Improving the Emergency Medicine Teaching from the Perspective of Faculty Training

Authors: Qin-Min Ge, Shu-Ming Pan


Emergency clinicians usually get teaching qualification after graduating from medical universities without special faculty training in China mainland. Emergency departments are overcrowded places, with large numbers of patients suffering undifferentiated illness. In the field of emergency medicine (EM), improving the faculty competencies and developing the teaching skills are important for medical education, they could enhance learners outcomes and hence affect the patients prognosis indirectly. This article highlights the necessities of faculty training in EM, illustrates the qualities a good clinical educator should qualify, advances the skills as educators in an academic setting and discusses the ways to be good clinical teachers.

Keywords: emergency education, competence, faculty training, teaching, emergency medicine

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1432 The Place of Herbal Teas Based on Medicinal Plants in the Treatment and Comfort of Infants

Authors: Metahri Leyla, Helali Amal, Dali Yahia Mustapha Kamel


Herbal medicine is one of the oldest medicines in the world. It constitutes an interesting alternative to treat and cure without creating new diseases. Despite the progress of medicine, the increase in the number of doctors, the creation of social security, many parents have resorted to herbal medicine for their children; they are increasingly asking for "natural remedies", "without risk" for their children. Herbal tea is a very accessible way to enjoy the benefits of herbal medicine. Accordingly; the objective of our study is to obtain detailed information on the composition and mode of administration of these herbal teas and to identify the different plants used; their beneficial effects, as well as their possible toxicity. The current research work represents an ethnobotanical survey spread over one month (from January 6, 2021 to February 19, 2021) carried out by means of an electronic questionnaire concerning 753 respondents, involving single or multiparous mothers. The obtained results reveal that a total of 684 mothers used herbal teas for their infants, which revealed the use of 55 herbal remedies for several indications, the most sought after are the carminative effect and relief of colic, and which 9% of users noticed undesirable effects linked to the administration of herbal teas to their infants. As a conclusion, it has been asserted that the use of herbal teas as a natural remedy by Algerian mothers is a widely accepted practice, however the "natural" nature of the plants does not mean that they are harmless.

Keywords: Keywords: Herbal medicine, Herbal teas, Children, Mothers, Medicinal plants.

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