Search results for: PICO questions
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2535

Search results for: PICO questions

2535 Empowering Transformers for Evidence-Based Medicine

Authors: Jinan Fiaidhi, Hashmath Shaik


Breaking the barrier for practicing evidence-based medicine relies on effective methods for rapidly identifying relevant evidence from the body of biomedical literature. An important challenge confronted by medical practitioners is the long time needed to browse, filter, summarize and compile information from different medical resources. Deep learning can help in solving this based on automatic question answering (Q&A) and transformers. However, Q&A and transformer technologies are not trained to answer clinical queries that can be used for evidence-based practice, nor can they respond to structured clinical questioning protocols like PICO (Patient/Problem, Intervention, Comparison and Outcome). This article describes the use of deep learning techniques for Q&A that are based on transformer models like BERT and GPT to answer PICO clinical questions that can be used for evidence-based practice extracted from sound medical research resources like PubMed. We are reporting acceptable clinical answers that are supported by findings from PubMed. Our transformer methods are reaching an acceptable state-of-the-art performance based on two staged bootstrapping processes involving filtering relevant articles followed by identifying articles that support the requested outcome expressed by the PICO question. Moreover, we are also reporting experimentations to empower our bootstrapping techniques with patch attention to the most important keywords in the clinical case and the PICO questions. Our bootstrapped patched with attention is showing relevancy of the evidence collected based on entropy metrics.

Keywords: automatic question answering, PICO questions, evidence-based medicine, generative models, LLM transformers

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2534 Spatial Dynamic of Pico- and Nano-Phytoplankton Communities in the Mouth of the Seine River

Authors: M. Schapira, S. Françoise, F. Maheux, O. Pierre-Duplessix, E. Rabiller, B. Simon, R. Le Gendre


Pico- and nano-phytoplankton are abundant and ecologically critical components of the autotrophic communities in the pelagic realm. While the role of physical forcing related to tidal cycle, water mass intrusion, nutrient availability, mixing and stratification on microphytoplankton blooms have been widely investigated, these are often overlooked for pico- and nano-phytoplankton especially in estuarine waters. This study investigates changes in abundances and community composition of pico- and nano-phytoplankton under different estuarine tidal conditions in the mouth of the Seine River in relation to nutrient availability, water column stratification and spatially localized currents. Samples were collected each day at high tide, over spring tide to neap tide cycle, from 21 stations homogeneously distributed in the Seine river month in May 2011. Vertical profiles of temperature, salinity and fluorescence were realized at each sampling station. Sub-surface water samples (i.e. 1 m depth) were collected for nutrients (i.e. N, P and Si), phytoplankton biomass (i.e. Chl a) and pico- and nano-phytoplankton enumeration and identification. Pico- and nano-phytoplankton populations were identified and quantified using flow cytometry. Total abundances tend to decrease from spring tide to neap tide. Samples were characterized by high abundances of Synechococcus and Cryptophyceae. The composition of the pico- and nano-phytoplankton varied greatly under the different estuarine tidal conditions. Moreover, at the scale of the river mouth, the pico- and nano-phytoplankton population exhibited patchy distribution patterns that were closely controlled by water mass intrusion from the Sea, freshwater inputs from the Seine River and the geomorphology of the river mouth. This study highlights the importance of physical forcing to the community composition of pico- and nano-phytoplankton that may be critical for the structure of the pelagic food webs in estuarine and adjacent coastal seas.

Keywords: nanophytoplancton, picophytoplankton, physical forcing, river mouth, tidal cycle

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2533 A Double PWM Source Inverter Technique with Reduced Leakage Current for Application on Standalone Systems

Authors: Md.Noman Habib Khan, M. S. Tajul Islam, T. S. Gunawan, M. Hasanuzzaman


The photovoltaic (PV) panel with no galvanic isolation system is well-known technique in the world which is effective and deliver power with enhanced efficiency. The PV generation presented here is for stand-alone system installed in remote areas when as the resulting power gets connected to electronic load installation instead of being tied to the grid. Though very small, even then transformer-less topology is shown to be with leakage in pico-ampere range. By using PWM technique PWM, leakage current in different situations is shown. The results that are demonstrated in this paper show how the pico-ampere current is reduced to femto-ampere through use of inductors and capacitors of suitable values of inductor and capacitors with the load.

Keywords: photovoltaic (PV) panel, duty cycle, pulse duration modulation (PDM), leakage current

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2532 A Simple Thermal Control Technique for the First Egyptian Pico Satellite

Authors: Maged Assem Soliman Mossallam


One of the main prospectives on the demand of space exploration is to reduce the costs and efforts for satellite design. Concerning this issue satellite down scaling attracts space scientists and engineers. Picosatellite is the smallest category of satellites. The overall mass is less than 1 kg and dimensions are 10x10x3 cm3. Thermal control target is to keep the Pico-satellite board temperature within the permissible limits of temperature. Thermal design is completely passive which relies mainly on the enhancement of the thermo-optical properties of aluminum using anodization. Transient analysis is given for two different orbits, ISS orbit and 600 km altitude orbit. Results show that board temperature lies within 3 oC to 22 oC using black anodization which is a permissible limit for the satellite internal electronic board.

Keywords: satellite thermal control, small satellites, thermooptical properties , transient orbit analysis

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2531 Study Variation of Blade Angle on the Performance of the Undershot Waterwheel on the Pico Scale

Authors: Warjito, Kevin Geraldo, Budiarso, Muhammad Mizan, Rafi Adhi Pranata, Farhan Rizqi Syahnakri


According to data from 2021, the number of households in Indonesia that have access to on-grid electricity is claimed to have reached 99.28%, which means that around 0.7% of Indonesia's population (1.95 million people) still have no proper access to electricity and 38.1% of it comes from remote areas in Nusa Tenggara Timur. Remote areas are classified as areas with a small population of 30 to 60 families, have limited infrastructure, have scarce access to electricity and clean water, have a relatively weak economy, are behind in access to technological innovation, and earn a living mostly as farmers or fishermen. These people still need electricity but can’t afford the high cost of electricity from national on-grid sources. To overcome this, it is proposed that a hydroelectric power plant driven by a pico-hydro turbine with an undershot water wheel will be a suitable pico-hydro turbine technology because of the design, materials and installation of the turbine that is believed to be easier (i.e., operational and maintenance) and cheaper (i.e., investment and operating costs) than any other type. The comparative study of the angle of the undershot water wheel blades will be discussed comprehensively. This study will look into the best variation of curved blades on an undershot water wheel that produces maximum hydraulic efficiency. In this study, the blade angles were varied by 180 ̊, 160 ̊, and 140 ̊. Two methods of analysis will be used, which are analytical and numerical methods. The analytical method will be based on calculations of the amount of torque and rotational speed of the turbine, which is used to obtain the input and output power of the turbine. Whereas the numerical method will use the ANSYS application to simulate the flow during the collision with the designed turbine blades. It can be concluded, based on the analytical and numerical methods, that the best angle for the blade is 140 ̊, with an efficiency of 43.52% for the analytical method and 37.15% for the numerical method.

Keywords: pico hydro, undershot waterwheel, blade angle, computational fluid dynamics

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2530 Comparing Stability Index MAPping (SINMAP) Landslide Susceptibility Models in the Río La Carbonera, Southeast Flank of Pico de Orizaba Volcano, Mexico

Authors: Gabriel Legorreta Paulin, Marcus I. Bursik, Lilia Arana Salinas, Fernando Aceves Quesada


In volcanic environments, landslides and debris flows occur continually along stream systems of large stratovolcanoes. This is the case on Pico de Orizaba volcano, the highest mountain in Mexico. The volcano has a great potential to impact and damage human settlements and economic activities by landslides. People living along the lower valleys of Pico de Orizaba volcano are in continuous hazard by the coalescence of upstream landslide sediments that increased the destructive power of debris flows. These debris flows not only produce floods, but also cause the loss of lives and property. Although the importance of assessing such process, there is few landslide inventory maps and landslide susceptibility assessment. As a result in México, no landslide susceptibility models assessment has been conducted to evaluate advantage and disadvantage of models. In this study, a comprehensive study of landslide susceptibility models assessment using GIS technology is carried out on the SE flank of Pico de Orizaba volcano. A detailed multi-temporal landslide inventory map in the watershed is used as framework for the quantitative comparison of two landslide susceptibility maps. The maps are created based on 1) the Stability Index MAPping (SINMAP) model by using default geotechnical parameters and 2) by using findings of volcanic soils geotechnical proprieties obtained in the field. SINMAP combines the factor of safety derived from the infinite slope stability model with the theory of a hydrologic model to produce the susceptibility map. It has been claimed that SINMAP analysis is reasonably successful in defining areas that intuitively appear to be susceptible to landsliding in regions with sparse information. The validations of the resulting susceptibility maps are performed by comparing them with the inventory map under LOGISNET system which provides tools to compare by using a histogram and a contingency table. Results of the experiment allow for establishing how the individual models predict the landslide location, advantages, and limitations. The results also show that although the model tends to improve with the use of calibrated field data, the landslide susceptibility map does not perfectly represent existing landslides.

Keywords: GIS, landslide, modeling, LOGISNET, SINMAP

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2529 Pupils´ Questions at School Attendance Beginning and Teachers´ Teaching Strategy

Authors: Marie Pavelková, Hana Lukášová


Pupils´ inquisitiveness at the beginning of their school attendance is reflected by characteristics of the questions they ask. Clearly most of the classroom communication sequences are initiated by the teacher. But the teaching process also includes questions initiated by pupils in the need to satisfy their need for knowledge. The purpose of our research is to present the results of our pre-research strategy of occurrence of pupil-initiated questions in math lessons at the lower elementary school level, and to reveal the extent to which they are influenced by the teacher´s teaching strategy. We used the research methods of direct and indirect observations of fifth year classes in primary school. We focused on questions asked by the pupils in their math lessons. Our research sample for the pre-research observation method was a collection of video recordings available online. We used them for analysing the nature of pupils´ questions identified there. On the basis of the analysis, we hereby present the results concerning the nature of pupils´ questions asked in math lessons on the lower elementary school level. The interpretation of the collected results will be the starting point for the selection of research strategies in the next research stages concerning pupils’ questions in the future.

Keywords: beginning of schooling, pre-research, questions of pupils, teaching strategy

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2528 Statistical Modeling of Local Area Fading Channels Based on Triply Stochastic Filtered Marked Poisson Point Processes

Authors: Jihad Daba, Jean-Pierre Dubois


Multi path fading noise degrades the performance of cellular communication, most notably in femto- and pico-cells in 3G and 4G systems. When the wireless channel consists of a small number of scattering paths, the statistics of fading noise is not analytically tractable and poses a serious challenge to developing closed canonical forms that can be analysed and used in the design of efficient and optimal receivers. In this context, noise is multiplicative and is referred to as stochastically local fading. In many analytical investigation of multiplicative noise, the exponential or Gamma statistics are invoked. More recent advances by the author of this paper have utilized a Poisson modulated and weighted generalized Laguerre polynomials with controlling parameters and uncorrelated noise assumptions. In this paper, we investigate the statistics of multi-diversity stochastically local area fading channel when the channel consists of randomly distributed Rayleigh and Rician scattering centers with a coherent specular Nakagami-distributed line of sight component and an underlying doubly stochastic Poisson process driven by a lognormal intensity. These combined statistics form a unifying triply stochastic filtered marked Poisson point process model.

Keywords: cellular communication, femto and pico-cells, stochastically local area fading channel, triply stochastic filtered marked Poisson point process

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2527 Your Second Step to Understanding Research Ethics: Psycho-Methodological Approach

Authors: Sadeq Al Yaari, Ayman Al Yaari, Adham Al Yaari, Montaha Al Yaari, Aayah Al Yaari, Sajedah Al Yaari


Objective: The study is a summary of a book on research ethics in the scientific field. It aims at investigating ethics that researchers should follow before, during and after doing research. Method: It is an analytic research design wherein the researchers attempted to cover the phenomenon at hand from all specialists’ viewpoints by giving their answers to the most frequent asked questions. Results Questions on the research draft can only be answered when doing the research. This determines understanding the usage of research, questions on the on-line research, specializations and research-related concepts. Questions on the university’s library determines understanding where the library sections do exist, the periodicals, forums, and all about journals, theses and dissertations along with references.

Keywords: research ethics, most frequent questions, scientific answers, journals, library

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2526 Dental Students' Acquired Knowledge of the Pre-Contemplation Stage of Change

Authors: S. Curtin, A. Trace


Introduction: As patients can often be ambivalent about or resistant to any change in their smoking behavior the traditional ‘5 A’ model may be limited as it assumes that patients are ready and motivated to change. However, there is a stage model that is helpful to give guidance for dental students: the Transtheoretical Model (TTM). This model allows students to understand the tasks and goals for the pre-contemplation stage. The TTM was introduced in early stages as a core component of a smoking cessation programme that was integrated into a Behavioral Science programme as applied to dentistry. The aim of the present study is to evaluate and illustrate the students’ current level of knowledge from the questions the students generated in order to engage patients in the tasks and goals of the pre-contemplation stage. Method: N=47 responses of fifth-year undergraduate dental students. These responses were the data set for this study and related to their knowledge base of appropriate questions for a dentist to ask at the pre-contemplation stage of change. A deductive -descriptive analysis was conducted on the data. The goals and tasks of the pre-contemplation stage of the TTM provided a template for this deductive analysis. Results: 51% of students generated relevant, open, exploratory questions for the pre-contemplation stage, whilst 100% of students generated closed questions. With regard to those questions appropriate for the pre-contemplation stage, 19% were open and exploratory, while 66% were closed questions. A deductive analysis of the open exploratory questions revealed that 53% of the questions addressed increased concern about the current pattern of behavior, 38% of the questions concerned increased awareness of a need for change and only 8% of the questions dealt with the envisioning of the possibility of change. Conclusion: All students formulated relevant questions for the pre-contemplation stage, and half of the students generated the open, exploratory questions that increased patients’ awareness of the need to change. More training is required to facilitate a shift in the formulation from closed to open questioning, especially given that, traditionally, smoking cessation was modeled on the ‘5 As’, and that the general training for dentists supports an advisory and directive approach.

Keywords: behaviour change, pre-contemplation stage, trans-theoretical model, undergraduate dentistry students

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2525 First Aid Awareness Campaign for Two Undergraduate Nursing Cohorts

Authors: Mona Afifi, Yara Al Qahtani, Afnan Al Dosari, Amnah Hamdi


Background: First aid is the care provided outside the hospital. It is important in saving lives. Delay in helping the victims may result in serious complication or even death. Many people die in Saudi Arabia because they don’t get proper first aid interventions. According to Traffic Safety council in KSA (2012), in the year of 2011 there was 7153 deaths from car accident in KAS. Subjects and method: Quasi-experimental research design was utilized to assess the effect of a structured 45-minute educational session on 82 undergraduate nursing students’ knowledge about first aid. Two tools were developed for the purpose of the current study. First tool containing the sociodemographic data including age, gender, level, and previous participation in a first aid course, and 55 statements specific to different situations that requires first aid. Concept and Knowledge of First Aid has 9 questions, cardiopulmonary resuscitation has 12 questions, Bleeding and Shock have 7 questions, Road Traffic Accidents has 5 questions, Fracture and Trauma have 4 questions, wound has 5 questions, sunstroke has 4 questions, bits and stings has 4 questions and burn has 5 questions. The second tool was to evaluate the campaign session. Result: The overall knowledge score showed significant difference between the pre and post awareness session (59.58 and 93.00 respectively, p=.000). Mean score shows significant difference in pre-tests between third and fourth year nursing students indicating that knowledge of fourth year students is higher compared to third year students with the mean knowledge scores of 69.56 and 60.88 respectively (p=0.006). Conclusion: Results of the current study indicate that the level of the knowledge in the post test session was higher than in the pre session. Also results showed that the fourth year student`s knowledge in pre-test was better compared to previous year.

Keywords: first aid, awareness campaign, undergraduate nursing students, knowledge

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2524 Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy for Assessment in Engineering Education

Authors: K. Sindhu, V. Shubha Rao


The goal of every faculty is to guide students to learn fundamental concepts and also improve thinking skills. Curriculum questionnaires must be framed, which would facilitate students to improve their thinking skills. Improving thinking skill is a difficult task and one of the ways to achieve this is to frame questionnaires using Bloom’s Taxonomy. Bloom’s Taxonomy helps the faculty to assess the students in a systematic approach which involves students performing successfully at each level in a systematic manner. In this paper, we have discussed on Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy and how to frame our questions based on the taxonomy for assessment. We have also presented mapping the questions with the taxonomy table which shows the mapping of the questions in knowledge and cognitive domain.

Keywords: bloom’s taxonomy, assessment, questions, engineering education

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2523 The Role of Instruction in Knowledge Construction in Online Learning

Authors: Soo Hyung Kim


Two different learning approaches were suggested: focusing on factual knowledge or focusing on the embedded meaning in the statements. Each way of learning has positive effects on different question categories, where factual knowledge helps more with simple fact questions, and searching for meaning in given information helps learn causal relationship and the embedded meaning. To test this belief, two groups of learners (12 male and 39 female adults aged 18-37) watched a ten-minute long Youtube video about various factual events of American history, their meaning, and the causal relations of the events. The fact group was asked to focus on factual knowledge in the video, and the meaning group was asked to focus on the embedded meaning in the video. After watching the video, both groups took multiple-choice questions, which consisted of 10 questions asking the factual knowledge addressed in the video and 10 questions asking embedded meaning in the video, such as the causal relationship between historical events and the significance of the event. From ANCOVA analysis, it was found that the factual knowledge showed higher performance on the factual questions than the meaning group, although there was no group difference on the questions about the meaning between the two groups. The finding suggests that teacher instruction plays an important role in learners constructing a different type of knowledge in online learning.

Keywords: factual knowledge, instruction, meaning-based knowledge, online learning

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2522 Language and Communication of Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Highlights on Both the Issues around Requesting-Information Skills and the Procedures for Teaching These Skills

Authors: Amaal Almigal


Neurotypical children learn to ask questions from natural exposure and this skill is fundamental for their academic success. However, children with autism spectrum disorder may not learn to ask in the same way due to earlier communication impairments, and some may need to use Augmentative and Alternative Communication systems (AAC) to ask questions. This paper aims to highlight issues related to questioning skills in children with autism giving a specific attention to asking questions within preverbal or minimally verbal children. Different procedures have been employed to teach these children, including AAC users, to ask questions. Therefore, these procedures will also be discussed to administrate how they were used and what they were aimed to teach. This paper also provides a suggested procedure to assist preverbal or minimally verbal children to ask questions using an iPad application for communication (Proloquo2Go) as AAC. This suggested procedure was used with 3 children with autism. Initial results will be discussed to clarify ways in which this procedure was used with each child based on his skills and which questioning skills each child has acquired using this procedure.

Keywords: AAC, autism, communication, information, iPad, requesting

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2521 Uplift Modeling Approach to Optimizing Content Quality in Social Q/A Platforms

Authors: Igor A. Podgorny


TurboTax AnswerXchange is a social Q/A system supporting users working on federal and state tax returns. Content quality and popularity in the AnswerXchange can be predicted with propensity models using attributes of the question and answer. Using uplift modeling, we identify features of questions and answers that can be modified during the question-asking and question-answering experience in order to optimize the AnswerXchange content quality. We demonstrate that adding details to the questions always results in increased question popularity that can be used to promote good quality content. Responding to close-ended questions assertively improve content quality in the AnswerXchange in 90% of cases. Answering knowledge questions with web links increases the likelihood of receiving a negative vote from 60% of the askers. Our findings provide a rationale for employing the uplift modeling approach for AnswerXchange operations.

Keywords: customer relationship management, human-machine interaction, text mining, uplift modeling

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2520 The Role of Creative Thinking in Science Education

Authors: Jindriska Svobodova, Jan Novotny


A teacher’s attitude to creativity plays an essential role in the thinking development of his/her students. The purpose of this study is to understand if a science teacher's personal creativity can modify his/her ability to produce various kinds of questions. This research used an education activity based on cosmic sketches and pictures by K.E. Tsiolkovsky, the founder of astronautics, to explore if any relationship between individual creativity and the asking questions skill exists. As a screening instrument, which allows an assessment of the respondent's creative potential, a common test of creative thinking was used. The results of the creativity test and the diversity of the questions are mentioned.

Keywords: science education, active learning, physics teaching, religious cosmology

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2519 An Examination of the Effectiveness of iPad-Based Augmentative and Alternative Intervention on Acquisition, Generalization and Maintenance of the Requesting Information Skills of Children with Autism

Authors: Amaal Almigal


Technology has been argued to offer distinct advantages and benefits for teaching children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to communicate. One aspect of this technology is augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) systems such as picture exchange or speech generation devices. Whilst there has been significant progress in teaching these children to request their wants and needs with AAC, there remains a need for developing technologies that can really make a difference in teaching them to ask questions. iPad-based AAC can be effective for communication. However, the effectiveness of this type of AAC in teaching children to ask questions needs to be examined. Thus, in order to examine the effectiveness of iPad-based AAC in teaching children with ASD to ask questions, This research will test whether iPad leads to more learning than a traditional approach picture and text cards does. Two groups of children who use AAC will be taught to ask ‘What is it?’ questions. With the first group, low-tech AAC picture and text cards will be used, while an iPad-based AAC application called Proloquo2Go will be used with the second group. Interviews with teachers and parents will be conducted before and after the experiment. The children’s perspectives will also be considered. The initial outcomes of this research indicate that iPad can be an effective tool to help children with autism to ask questions.

Keywords: autism, communication, information, iPad, pictures, requesting

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2518 Examining the Influence of Question Phrasing in Police Interviews on Suspects’ Inferences Regarding Interviewer’s Prior Knowledge

Authors: Meghana Srivatsav, Timothy J. Luke, Par Anders Granhag, Aldert Vrij


The aim of this study was to understand how the phrasing of questions influences guilty suspects’ inferences regarding prior information held by the interviewer about the suspect’s crime-related activities. Three phrasing factors were explored namely specificity (crime-related details within questions), stressor (emphasis on the importance of the information in the question) and phase presentation (whether a specific activity was questioned about). 370 participants were recruited and randomly assigned into 6 different question-phrasing groups. Participants assumed the role of a suspect, read a crime narrative and an interview transcript based on the suspect’s activities. Participants responded to scales that measured their perception of interviewer’s knowledge (PIK) based on the questions posed by the interviewer in the interview transcripts. The researchers found that there is an effect of specific details revealed in the questions on the suspect’s perception of interviewer knowledge. Questioning about a specific activity also increased their perception of interviewer’s prior knowledge. However, the individual hypotheses were only partially supported. The study allowed the researchers to explore a psycholinguistic approach to investigate the underlying mechanisms of inferences drawn by suspects from the phrasing of investigative questions.

Keywords: police interviewing, question framing effects on suspects, suspect inferences from questions, suspect interviews

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2517 A Model for Adaptive Online Quiz: QCitra

Authors: Rosilah Hassan, Karam Dhafer Mayoof, Norngainy Mohd Tawil, Shamshubaridah Ramlee


Application of adaptive online quiz system and a design are performed in this paper. The purpose of adaptive quiz system is to establish different questions automatically for each student and measure their competence on a definite area of discipline. This model determines students competencies in cases like distant-learning which experience challenges frequently. Questions are specialized to allow clear deductions about student gains; they are able to identify student competencies more effectively. Also, negative effects of questions requiring higher knowledge than competency over student’s morale and self-confidence are dismissed. The advantage of the system in the quiz management requires less total time for measuring and is more flexible. Self sufficiency of the system in terms of repeating, planning and assessment of the measurement process allows itself to be used in the individual education sets. Adaptive quiz technique prevents students from distraction and motivation loss, which is led by the questions with quite lower hardness level than student’s competency.

Keywords: e-learning, adaptive system, security, quiz database

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2516 The Zen Socrates Archetype and the Priority of the Unanswerable Question

Authors: Shawn Thompson


Socrates and Zen Buddhism are separated by time, distance, and cultures in a way that it is unlikely that they influenced each other. And yet the two have an amazing similarity in the principle that paradoxical and unanswerable questions can be a form of wisdom that produces a healthy psyche. Both have a sense that the limit of human awareness is a wisdom of this uncertainty. Both are at odds with the dogma of answers and of a western rationality that prioritizes the answer. Both have enigmatic answers that perpetuate the question. Both use the form of a dialogue of interaction with mutual illumination rather than the form of a lecture to passive recipients. If these premises are true, Socrates and Zen Buddhism has elements in common that reflect basic human needs for a good life. It can be argued that there is a joint archetypal experience of the wisdom of uncertainty and unanswerable questions in Socrates and Zen Buddhism.

Keywords: zen buddhism, socrates, unanswerable questions, aporia

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2515 Social Information Seeking: Studying the Effect of Question Type on Responses in Social Q&A Sites

Authors: Arshia Ayoub, Zahid Ashraf Wani


With the introduction of online social Q&A sites, people are able to reach each other efficiently for information seeking and simultaneously creating social bonds. There prevails an issue of low or no response for some questions posed by an information seeker on these sites. So this study tries to understand the effect of question type on responses in Social Q & A sites. The study found that among the answered queries, majority of them were answered within 24 hours of posting the questions and surprisingly most replies were received within one hour of posting. It was observed that questions of general information type were most likely to be answered followed by verification type.

Keywords: community‐based services, information seeking, social search, social Q&A site

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2514 The Libyc Writing

Authors: S. Ait Ali Yahia


One of the main features of the Maghreb is its linguistic richness. The multilingualism is a fact which always marked the Maghreb since the beginning of the history up to know. Since the arrival of the Phoenicians, followed by the Carthaginians, Romans, and Arabs, etc, there was a social group in the Maghreb which controlled two kinds of idioms. The libyc one remained, despite everything, the local language used by the major part of the population. This language had a support of written transmission attested by many inscriptions. Among all the forms of the Maghreb writing, this alphabet, however, continues to cause a certain number of questions about the origin and the date of its appearance. The archaeological, linguistic and historical data remain insufficient to answer these questions. This did not prevent the researchers from giving an opinion. In order to answer these questions we will expose here the various assumptions adopted by various authors who are founded on more or less explicit arguments. We will also speak about the various forms taken by the libyc writing during antiquity.

Keywords: the alphabet libyc, Eastern libyc, Western libyc, multilingualism

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2513 Visual Thinking Routines: A Mixed Methods Approach Applied to Student Teachers at the American University in Dubai

Authors: Alain Gholam


Visual thinking routines are principles based on several theories, approaches, and strategies. Such routines promote thinking skills, call for collaboration and sharing of ideas, and above all, make thinking and learning visible. Visual thinking routines were implemented in the teaching methodology graduate course at the American University in Dubai. The study used mixed methods. It was guided by the following two research questions: 1). To what extent do visual thinking inspire learning in the classroom, and make time for students’ questions, contributions, and thinking? 2). How do visual thinking routines inspire learning in the classroom and make time for students’ questions, contributions, and thinking? Eight student teachers enrolled in the teaching methodology course at the American University in Dubai (Spring 2017) participated in the following study. First, they completed a survey that measured to what degree they believed visual thinking routines inspired learning in the classroom and made time for students’ questions, contributions, and thinking. In order to build on the results from the quantitative phase, the student teachers were next involved in a qualitative data collection phase, where they had to answer the question: How do visual thinking routines inspire learning in the classroom and make time for students’ questions, contributions, and thinking? Results revealed that the implementation of visual thinking routines in the classroom strongly inspire learning in the classroom and make time for students’ questions, contributions, and thinking. In addition, student teachers explained how visual thinking routines allow for organization, variety, thinking, and documentation. As with all original, new, and unique resources, visual thinking routines are not free of challenges. To make the most of this useful and valued resource, educators, need to comprehend, model and spread an awareness of the effective ways of using such routines in the classroom. It is crucial that such routines become part of the curriculum to allow for and document students’ questions, contributions, and thinking.

Keywords: classroom display, student engagement, thinking classroom, visual thinking routines

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2512 Evaluation of the Grammar Questions at the Undergraduate Level

Authors: Preeti Gacche


A considerable part of undergraduate level English Examination papers is devoted to grammar. Hence the grammar questions in the question papers are evaluated and the opinions of both students and teachers about them are obtained and analyzed. A grammar test of 100 marks is administered to 43 students to check their performance. The question papers have been evaluated by 10 different teachers and their scores compared. The analysis of 38 University question papers reveals that on an average 20 percent marks are allotted to grammar. Almost all the grammar topics are tested. Abundant use of grammatical terminology is observed in the questions. Decontextualization, repetition, possibility of multiple correct answers and grammatical errors in framing the questions have been observed. Opinions of teachers and students about grammar questions vary in many respects. The students responses are analyzed medium-wise and sex-wise. The Medium at the School level and the sex of the students are found to play no role as far as interest in the study of grammar is concerned. English medium students solve grammar questions intuitively whereas non-English medium students are required to recollect the rules of grammar. Prepositions, Verbs, Articles and Model auxiliaries are found to be easy topics for most students whereas the use of conjunctions is the most difficult topic. Out of context items of grammar are difficult to answer in comparison with contextualized items of grammar. Hence contextualized texts to test grammar items are desirable. No formal training in setting questions is imparted to teachers by the competent authorities like the University. They need to be trained in testing. Statistically there is no significant change of score with the change in the rater in testing of grammar items. There is scope of future improvement. The question papers need to be evaluated and feedback needs to be obtained from students and teachers for future improvement.

Keywords: context, evaluation, grammar, tests

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2511 Can Exams Be Shortened? Using a New Empirical Approach to Test in Finance Courses

Authors: Eric S. Lee, Connie Bygrave, Jordan Mahar, Naina Garg, Suzanne Cottreau


Marking exams is universally detested by lecturers. Final exams in many higher education courses often last 3.0 hrs. Do exams really need to be so long? Can we justifiably reduce the number of questions on them? Surprisingly few have researched these questions, arguably because of the complexity and difficulty of using traditional methods. To answer these questions empirically, we used a new approach based on three key elements: Use of an unusual variation of a true experimental design, equivalence hypothesis testing, and an expanded set of six psychometric criteria to be met by any shortened exam if it is to replace a current 3.0-hr exam (reliability, validity, justifiability, number of exam questions, correspondence, and equivalence). We compared student performance on each official 3.0-hr exam with that on five shortened exams having proportionately fewer questions (2.5, 2.0, 1.5, 1.0, and 0.5 hours) in a series of four experiments conducted in two classes in each of two finance courses (224 students in total). We found strong evidence that, in these courses, shortening of final exams to 2.0 hrs was warranted on all six psychometric criteria. Shortening these exams by one hour should result in a substantial one-third reduction in lecturer time and effort spent marking, lower student stress, and more time for students to prepare for other exams. Our approach provides a relatively simple, easy-to-use methodology that lecturers can use to examine the effect of shortening their own exams.

Keywords: exam length, psychometric criteria, synthetic experimental designs, test length

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2510 Empirical Evaluation of Game Components Based on Learning Theory: A Preliminary Study

Authors: Seoi Lee, Dongjoo Chin, Heewon Kim


Gamification refers to a technique that applies game elements to non-gaming elements, such as education and exercise, to make people more engaged in these behaviors. The purpose of this study was to identify effective elements in gamification for changing human behaviors. In order to accomplish this purpose, a survey based on learning theory was developed, especially for assessing antecedents and consequences of behaviors, and 8 popular and 8 unpopular games were selected for comparison. A total of 407 adult males and females were recruited via crowdsourcing Internet marketplace and completed the survey, which consisted of 19 questions for antecedent and 14 questions for consequences. Results showed no significant differences in consequence questions between popular and unpopular games. For antecedent questions, popular games are superior to unpopular games in character customization, play type selection, a sense of belonging, patch update cycle, and influence or dominance. This study is significant in that it reveals the elements of gamification based on learning theory. Future studies need to empirically validate whether these factors affect behavioral change.

Keywords: gamification, learning theory, antecedent, consequence, behavior change, behaviorism

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2509 The Effects of Three Pre-Reading Activities (Text Summary, Vocabulary Definition, and Pre-Passage Questions) on the Reading Comprehension of Iranian EFL Learners

Authors: Leila Anjomshoa, Firooz Sadighi


This study investigated the effects of three types of pre-reading activities (vocabulary definitions, text summary and pre-passage questions) on EFL learners’ English reading comprehension. On the basis of the results of a placement test administered to two hundred and thirty English students at Kerman Azad University, 200 subjects (one hundred intermediate and one hundred advanced) were selected.Four texts, two of them at intermediate level and two of them at advanced level were chosen. The data gathered was subjected to the statistical procedures of ANOVA. A close examination of the results through Tukey’s HSD showed the fact that the experimental groups performed better than the control group, highlighting the effect of the treatment on them. Also, the experimental group C (text summary), performed remarkably better than the other three groups (both experimental & control). Group B subjects, vocabulary definitions, performed better than groups A and D. The pre-passage questions group’s (D) performance showed higher scores than the control condition.

Keywords: pre-reading activities, text summary, vocabulary definition, and pre-passage questions, reading comprehension

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2508 Formative Assessment in an Introductory Python Programming Course

Authors: María José Núñez-Ruiz, Luis Álvarez-González, Cristian Olivares-Rodriguez, Benjamin Lazo-Letelier


This paper begins with some concept of formative assessment and the relationship with learning objective: contents objectives, processes objectives, and metacognitive objectives. Two methodologies are describes Evidence-Based teaching and Question Drive Instruction. To do formative assessments in larges classes a Classroom Response System (CRS) is needed. But most of CRS use only Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ), True/False question, or text entry; however, this is insufficient to formative assessment. To do that a new CRS, call FAMA was developed. FAMA support six types of questions: Choice, Order, Inline choice, Text entry, Associated, and Slider. An experiment participated in 149 students from four engineering careers. For results, Kendall's Range Correlation Analysis and descriptive analysis was done. In conclusion, there is a strong relation between contents question, process questions (ask in formative assessment without a score) and metacognitive questions, asked in summative assessment. As future work, the lecturer can do personalized teaching, because knows the behavior of all students in each formative assessment

Keywords: Python language, formative assessment, classroom response systems, evidence-Based teaching, question drive instruction

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2507 The Development and Validation of the Awareness to Disaster Risk Reduction Questionnaire for Teachers

Authors: Ian Phil Canlas, Mageswary Karpudewan, Joyce Magtolis, Rosario Canlas


This study reported the development and validation of the Awareness to Disaster Risk Reduction Questionnaire for Teachers (ADRRQT). The questionnaire is a combination of Likert scale and open-ended questions that were grouped into two parts. The first part included questions relating to the general awareness on disaster risk reduction. Whereas, the second part comprised questions regarding the integration of disaster risk reduction in the teaching process. The entire process of developing and validating of the ADRRQT was described in this study. Statistical and qualitative findings revealed that the ADRRQT is significantly valid and reliable and has the potential of measuring awareness to disaster risk reduction of stakeholders in the field of teaching. Moreover, it also shows the potential to be adopted in other fields.

Keywords: awareness, development, disaster risk reduction, questionnaire, validation

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2506 Design and Implementation a Platform for Adaptive Online Learning Based on Fuzzy Logic

Authors: Budoor Al Abid


Educational systems are increasingly provided as open online services, providing guidance and support for individual learners. To adapt the learning systems, a proper evaluation must be made. This paper builds the evaluation model Fuzzy C Means Adaptive System (FCMAS) based on data mining techniques to assess the difficulty of the questions. The following steps are implemented; first using a dataset from an online international learning system called ( the dataset contains over 1300000 records with 9 features for students, questions and answers information with feedback evaluation. Next, a normalization process as preprocessing step was applied. Then FCM clustering algorithms are used to adaptive the difficulty of the questions. The result is three cluster labeled data depending on the higher Wight (easy, Intermediate, difficult). The FCM algorithm gives a label to all the questions one by one. Then Random Forest (RF) Classifier model is constructed on the clustered dataset uses 70% of the dataset for training and 30% for testing; the result of the model is a 99.9% accuracy rate. This approach improves the Adaptive E-learning system because it depends on the student behavior and gives accurate results in the evaluation process more than the evaluation system that depends on feedback only.

Keywords: machine learning, adaptive, fuzzy logic, data mining

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