Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1378

Search results for: Latin American pipe organs

1378 China's Aid to Latin America from the 1950s to 2020

Authors: Wanda Luen-Wun Siu, Xiaowen Zhang

Abstract:

This paper adopted a retrospective review of China’s assistance to Latin America from the1950s to 2020. Findings suggested that China’s assistance to Latin America can be roughly divided into five stages: The 1950s to 1960s was the initial stage of China’s assistance to Latin America, mainly focusing on the establishment of diplomatic relations with Cuba and other Latin American countries. The strategy has a strong ideological basis. The 1980s was the stage of development of China's aid to Latin America, which was characterized by consolidating and expanding diplomatic space, emphasizing the spirit of cooperation of equality, mutual benefit, and common development. 90-20 marked the further development of diplomatic relations with Latin American countries, plus domestic market-oriented reforms, emphasizing the importance of economic considerations and less ideological orientation, and this period also witnessed more Chinese state-owned enterprises going out to invest in Latin America. 2010-2019 marked the further development of Latin American relations. This paper contributes to the literature of diplomacy and health assistance to Latin America and highlights the importance of foreign aid and health assistance in sealing bilateral diplomatic relations.

Keywords: aid, china, latin america, bilateral relations

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1377 Sounds of Power: An Ethnoorganological Approach to Understanding Colonial Music Culture in the Peruvian Andes

Authors: Natascha Reich

Abstract:

In colonial Peru, the Spanish crown relied on religious orders, most notably Dominicans, Franciscans, and Jesuits, for accelerating processes of colonization. The dissemination of Christian art, architecture, and music, and most of all, the agency of indigenous people in their production played a key role in facilitating the acceptance of the new religious and political system. Current research on Peruvian colonial music culture and its role as a vehicle for colonization focus on practices in urban centers. The lack of (written) primary sources seems to turn rural areas into a less attractive research territory for musicologists. This paper advocates for a more inclusive approach. By investigating seventeenth-century pipe organs as material remains of Franciscan missionary music culture, it shows how reactions to colonial forces and Christianization in rural Andean locations could follow tendencies different from those in urban areas. Indigenous musicians in cities tried to 'fit' into the European system in order to be accepted by the ruling Spanish elite. By contrast, the indigenous-built pipe organs in the rural Peruvian Colca-Valley show distinctly native-Andean influences. This paper argues that this syncretism can be interpreted as hybridity in Homi K. Bhabha’s sense, as a means of the colonized to undermine the power of the colonizer and to advance reactionary politics. Not only will it show the necessity of considering rural Peruvian music history in modern scholarship for arriving at a more complete picture of colonial culture, but it will also evidence the advantages of a mixed-methodology approach. Historical organology, combined with concepts from ethnomusicology and post-colonial studies, proves as a useful tool in the absence or scarcity of written primary sources.

Keywords: cultural hybridity, music as reactionary politics, Latin American pipe organs, Peruvian colonial music

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1376 Analysis of the Brazilian Trade Balance in Relation to Mercosur: A Comparison between the Period 1989-1994 and 1994-2012

Authors: Luciana Aparecida Bastos, Tatiana Diair L. F. Rosa, Jesus Creapldi

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The idea of Latin American integration occurred from the ideals of Simón Bolívar that, in 1824, called the Ibero-American nations to Amphictyonic Congress of Panama, on June 22, 1826, where he would defend the importance of Latin American unity. However, this congress was frustrating and the idea of Bolívar went no further. It was only after the European Union to start the process, driven by the end of World War II that the subject returned to emerge in Latin America. Thus, in 1960, supported by the European integration process, started in 1957 with the excellent result of the ECSC - European Coal and Steel Community, a result of the Customs Union of the BENELUX (integration between Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg) in 1948, was created in Latin America, LAFTA - Latin American Free Trade Association, in 1960. In 1980, LAFTA was replaced by LAAI- Latin American Association, both with the same goal: to integrate Latin America, it´s economy and its trade. Most researchers in this period agree that the regional market would be expanded through the integration. The creation of one or more economic blocs in the region would provide the union of Latin American countries through a fusion of common interests and by their geographical proximity, which would try to develop common projects to promote mutual growth and economic development, tariff reductions, promotion of increased trade between, among many other goals set together. Thus, taking into account Mercosur, the main Latin-American block, created in 1994, the aim of this paper is to make a brief analysis of the trade balance performance of Brazil (larger economy of the block) in Mercosur in the periods: 1989-1994 and 1994-2012. The choice of this period was because the objective is to compare the period before and after the integration of Brazil in Mercosur. The methodologies used were the literature review and descriptive statistics. The results showed that after the integration of Brazil in Mercosur, the exports and imports grew within the bloc and the country turned out to become the leading importer of other economies of Mercosur after integration, that is, Brazil, after integration to Mercosur, was largely responsible for promoting the expansion of regional trade through the import of products from other members of the block.

Keywords: Brazil, mercosur, integration, trade balance, comparison

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1375 Corporate Social Responsibility a Comparison between European and Latin American Companies

Authors: Eva Wagner, Lucely Vargas

Abstract:

Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) plays an important role in (large-scale) enterprises’ business strategy in developed and emerging countries. This article approaches CSR in international comparison by examining the CSR reporting of 116 leading companies in Austria, Germany, Colombia and Chile from 2006 to 2010. We have used an independently developed scoring model which analyzes reported CSR-activities using seven dimensions to efficiently assess CSR. The study reveals that there are significant differences in CSR-commitment among countries and regions: German companies, as expected, lead most of the investigated CSR dimensions revealing stronger commitment to CSR than their Austrian, Colombian and Chilean counterparts. Even if Latin American companies lag behind their European counterparts, they exhibit high CSR-performance in the social dimension: corporate giving and philanthropic activities are firmly anchored in the tradition of Latin American companies. This indicates that particular CSR-emphases reflect the political and social circumstances of each individual country.

Keywords: corporate social responsibility, corporate social performance, international comparison

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1374 Historical Memory and Social Representation of Violence in Latin American Cinema: A Cultural Criminology Approach

Authors: Maylen Villamanan Alba

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Latin America is marked by its history: conquest, colonialism, and slavery left deep footprints in most Latin American countries. Also, the past century has been affected by wars, military dictatorships, and political violence, which profoundly influenced Latin American popular culture. Consequently, reminiscences of historical crimes are frequently present in daily life, media, public opinion, and arts. This legacy is remembered in novels, paintings, songs, and films. In fact, Latin American cinema has a trend which refers to the verisimilitude with reality in fiction films. These films about historical violence are narrated as fictional characters, but their stories are based on real historical contexts. Therefore, cultural criminology has considered films as a significant field to understand social representations of violence related to historical crimes. The aim of the present contribution is to analyze the legacy of past and historical memory in social representations of violence in Latin American cinema as a critical approach to historical crimes. This qualitative research is based on content analysis. The sample is seven multi-award winning films of the International Festival of New Latin American Cinema of Havana. The films selected are Kamchatka, Argentina (2002); Carandiru, Brazil (2003); Enlightened by fire, Argentina (2005); Post-mortem, Chile (2010); No, Chile (2012) Wakolda; Argentina (2013) and The Clan, Argentina (2015). Cultural criminology highlights that cinema shapes meanings of social practices such as historical crimes. Critical criminology offers a critical theory framework to interpret Latin American cinema. This analysis reveals historical conditions deeply associated with power relationships, policy, and inequality issues. As indicated by this theory, violence is characterized as a structural process based on social asymmetries. These social asymmetries are crossed by social scopes, including institutional and personal dimensions. Thus, institutions of the states are depicted through personal stories of characters involved with human conflicts. Intimacy and social background are linked in the personages who simultaneously perform roles such as soldiers, policemen, professionals or inmates and they are at the same time depict as human beings with family, gender, racial, ideological or generational issues. Social representations of violence related to past legacy are a portrait of historical crimes perpetrated against Latin American citizens. Thereby, they have contributed to political positions, social behaviors, and public opinion. The legacy of these historical crimes suggests a path that should never be taken again. It means past legacy is a reminder, a warning, and a historic lesson for Latin American people. Social representations of violence are permeated by historical memory as denunciation under a critical approach.

Keywords: Latin American cinema, historical memory, social representation, violence

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1373 The Conceptualization of Patient-Centered Care in Latin America: A Scoping Review

Authors: Anne Klimesch, Alejandra Martinez, Martin HäRter, Isabelle Scholl, Paulina Bravo

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Patient-centered care (PCC) is a key principle of high-quality healthcare. In Latin America, research on and promotion of PCC have taken place in the past. However, thorough implementation of PCC in practice is still missing. In Germany, an integrative model of patient-centeredness has been developed by synthesis of diverse concepts of PCC. The model could serve as a point of reference for further research on the implementation of PCC. However, it is predominantly based on research from Europe and North America. This scoping review, therefore, aims to accumulate research on PCC in Latin America in the past 15 years and analyse how PCC has been conceptualized. The resulting overview of PCC in Latin America will be a foundation for a subsequent study aiming at the adaptation of the integrative model of patient-centeredness to the Latin American health care context. Scientific databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Scopus, Web of Science, SCIELO, Redalyc.) will be searched, and reference and citation tracking will be performed. Studies will be included if they were carried out in Latin America, investigated PCC in any clinical and community setting (public and private), and were published in English, Spanish, French, or Portuguese since 2006. Furthermore, any theoretical framework or conceptual model to guide how PCC is conceptualized in Latin America will be included. Two reviewers will be responsible for the identification of articles, screening of records, and full-text assessment. The results of the scoping review will be used in the development of a mixed-methods study with the aim to understand the needs for PCC, as well as barriers and facilitators in Latin America. Based on the outcomes, the integrative model of PCC will be translated to Spanish and adapted to the Latin American context. The integrative model will enable the dissemination of the concept of PCC in Latin America and will provide a common ground for further research on the topic. The project will thereby make an important contribution to an evidence-based implementation of PCC in Latin America.

Keywords: conceptual framework, integrative model of PCC, Latin America, patient-centered care

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1372 Corporate Demography: An Unexplored Trend along the Latin American Context

Authors: Jesus Argueta

Abstract:

This study aims to explore the Business Demography Phenomena along the Central American context, through the examination of its theoretical background, and the revision of Central American corporations success stories, that will eventually guide this research towards the business Demography Key Performance Indicators, across the Central American Business Ambiance. Considering that this analysis will support the development of a Small and Medium Business Observatory over the Honduran commercial landscapes, as platform for the reinforcement of this global topic.

Keywords: business demography, economic dynamism, small, medium and large enterprises, corporate demography

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1371 Central American Security Issue: Civil War Legacy and Contemporary Challenges

Authors: Olga Andrianova, Lazar Jeifets

Abstract:

The security issue has always been one of the most sensitive and significant in Latin American context, especially focused on Central American region. Despite the fact that the time of the civil wars has ended, violence, delinquency, insecurity, discrimination still exist and keep relevance in the 21st century. This article is dedicated to consider this kind of problems, to find out the main causes and to propose solution approaches.

Keywords: Central America, insecurity, instability, post-war countries, violence

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1370 Possibilities of Building Regional Migration Governance due to the Venezuelan Diaspora in Ibero-America (2015-2018)

Authors: Jonathan Palatz Cedeño

Abstract:

The paper will seek to examine the scope and limitations of the process of construction of ordinary and extraordinary migration regulatory tools of the countries of Latin America, due to the Venezuelan diaspora in Ibero-America (2015-2018). The analysis methodology will be based on a systematic presentation of the existing advances in the subject under a qualitative approach, in which the results are detailed. We hold that an important part of the Latin American countries that used to be the emitters of migrants have had to generate, with greater or lesser success both nationally and regionally, ordinary and extraordinary migration regulatory tools to respond to the rapid intensification of the current Venezuelan migratory flows. This fact beyond implementing policies for the reception and integration of this population marks a new moment that represents a huge challenge both for the receiving States and for the young Ibero-American institutional migration system. Therefore, we can say that measures to adopt reception and solidarity policies, despite being supported by organs of the multilateral system such as UNHCR and IOM, are not found as guidelines for national and regional action, at the expense of the reactions of the respective public opinions and the influence of what to do of the neighboring countries in the face of the problem.

Keywords: Venezuela, migration, migration policies and governance, Venezuelan diaspora

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1369 Central American Security Issue: Civil Wars Legacy and Contemporary Challenges

Authors: Olga Andrianova, Lazar Jeifets

Abstract:

The security issue has always been one of the most sensitive and significant in Latin American context, especially focused on Central American region. Despite the fact that the time of the civil wars has ended, violence, delinquency, insecurity, discrimination still exist and keep relevance in the 21st century. This article is dedicated to consider this kind of problems, to find out the main causes and to propose solution approaches.

Keywords: Central America, insecurity, instability, violence

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1368 The South Looking East: The New Geopolitics of Latin America

Authors: Heike Pintor Pirzkall

Abstract:

The positive economic evolution of many countries in the Latin American Continent, mainly in South America, has changed the geopolitical position of the region in the world. It is no longer the Hinterland or backyard of the United States, now it has become the Heartland for Europe and Asia. This position has favored the interest of countries like China or India, who are combining trade agreements with special assistance and aid agreements in many fields like agriculture, alternative energy resources, defense and mining. As many countries in the region are no longer low income countries, a more equal relationship in development aid has been created were the donor and the recipient have become partners and where new actors intervene in a triangular relationship that promotes new alternative aid structures. Triangular co-operation brings together the best of different actors who are providers of development co-operation, partners in SouthSouth co-operation and international organizations. The objective is to share knowledge and implement projects that support the common goal of reducing poverty and promoting development. The intention of this paper is to explain the reasons for Latin America´s “virage” to the east and to give examples of projects and agreements between Latin American countries, China and India which will help to understand the intensification of south-east relations in recent years.

Keywords: development cooperation, China, Latin America, triangular cooperation, natural resources, partnership

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1367 A Framework for Teaching Distributed Requirements Engineering in Latin American Universities

Authors: G. Sevilla, S. Zapata, F. Giraldo, E. Torres, C. Collazos

Abstract:

This work describes a framework for teaching of global software engineering (GSE) in university undergraduate programs. This framework proposes a method of teaching that incorporates adequate techniques of software requirements elicitation and validated tools of communication, critical aspects to global software development scenarios. The use of proposed framework allows teachers to simulate small software development companies formed by Latin American students, which build information systems. Students from three Latin American universities played the roles of engineers by applying an iterative development of a requirements specification in a global software project. The proposed framework involves the use of a specific purpose Wiki for asynchronous communication between the participants of the process. It is also a practice to improve the quality of software requirements that are formulated by the students. The additional motivation of students to participate in these practices, in conjunction with peers from other countries, is a significant additional factor that positively contributes to the learning process. The framework promotes skills for communication, negotiation, and other complementary competencies that are useful for working on GSE scenarios.

Keywords: requirements analysis, distributed requirements engineering, practical experiences, collaborative support

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1366 Study of the Effect of Soil Compaction and Height on Pipe Ovality for Buried Steel Pipe

Authors: Ali Ghodsbin Jahromi, Ehsan Moradi

Abstract:

In this paper, the numerical study of buried steel pipe in soil is investigated. Buried pipeline under soil weight, after embankment on the pipe leads to ovality of pipe. In this paper also it is considered the percentage of soil compaction, the soil height on the steel pipe and the external load of a mechanical excavator on the steel pipe and finally, the effect of these on the rate of pipe ovality investigated. Furthermore, the effect of the pipes’ thickness on ovality has been investigated. The results show that increasing the percentage of soil compaction has more effect on reducing percentage of ovality, and if the percentage of soil compaction increases, we can use the pipe with less thickness. Finally, ovality rate of the pipe and acceptance criteria of pipe diameter up to yield stress is investigated.

Keywords: pipe ovality, soil compaction, finite element, pipe thickness

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1365 Effects of Corruption and Logistics Performance Inefficiencies on Container Throughput: The Latin America Case

Authors: Fernando Seabra, Giulia P. Flores, Karolina C. Gomes

Abstract:

Trade liberalizations measures, as import tariff cuts, are not a sufficient trigger for trade growth. Given that price margins are narrow, traders and cargo operators tend to opt out of markets where the process of goods clearance is slow and costly. Excess paperwork and slow customs dispatch not only lead to institutional breakdowns and corruption but also to increasing transaction cost and trade constraints. The objective of this paper is, therefore, two-fold: First, to evaluate the relationship between institutional and infrastructural performance indexes and trade growth in container throughput; and, second, to investigate the causes for differences in container demurrage and detention fees in Latin American countries (using other emerging countries as benchmarking). The analysis is focused on manufactured goods, typically transported by containers. Institutional and infrastructure bottlenecks and, therefore, the country logistics efficiency – measured by the Logistics Performance Index (LPI, World Bank-WB) – are compared with other indexes, such as the Doing Business index (WB) and the Corruption Perception Index (Transparency International). The main results based on the comparison between Latin American countries and the others emerging countries point out in that the growth in containers trade is directly related to LPI performance. It has also been found that the main hypothesis is valid as aspects that more specifically identify trade facilitation and corruption are significant drivers of logistics performance. The exam of port efficiency (demurrage and detention fees) has demonstrated that not necessarily higher level of efficiency is related to lower charges; however, reductions in fees have been more significant within non-Latin American emerging countries.

Keywords: corruption, logistics performance index, container throughput, Latin America

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1364 The Role of Human Capital in the Evolution of Inequality and Economic Growth in Latin-America

Authors: Luis Felipe Brito-Gaona, Emma M. Iglesias

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There is a growing literature that studies the main determinants and drivers of inequality and economic growth in several countries, using panel data and different estimation methods (fixed effects, Generalized Methods of Moments (GMM) and Two Stages Least Squares (TSLS)). Recently, it was studied the evolution of these variables in the period 1980-2009 in the 18 countries of Latin-America and it was found that one of the main variables that explained their evolution was Foreign Direct Investment (FDI). We extend this study to the year 2015 in the same 18 countries in Latin-America, and we find that FDI does not have a significant role anymore, while we find a significant negative and positive effect of schooling levels on inequality and economic growth respectively. We also find that the point estimates associated with human capital are the largest ones of the variables included in the analysis, and this means that an increase in human capital (measured by schooling levels of secondary education) is the main determinant that can help to reduce inequality and to increase economic growth in Latin-America. Therefore, we advise that economic policies in Latin-America should be directed towards increasing the level of education. We use the methodologies of estimating by fixed effects, GMM and TSLS to check the robustness of our results. Our conclusion is the same regardless of the estimation method we choose. We also find that the international recession in the Latin-American countries in 2008 reduced significantly their economic growth.

Keywords: economic growth, human capital, inequality, Latin-America

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1363 Perception and Control in the Age of Surrealism: A Critical History and a Survey of Pita Amor’s Poetic Ontology

Authors: Oliver Arana

Abstract:

Within the common vein of social understanding, surrealism is often understood to rely on disconcerting images and fragmented collage, both in its visual representation and literary manifestations. By tracing the history and literature of surrealism, the author makes the argument that there were certain factions within Latin America that employed characteristics of surrealism in order to reach some sense of understanding, and not to further complicate or disorient -an aim that most closely aligns to Freudian psychoanalysis. Psychoanalysis should, however, be a comparable practice only to understand how Latin American surrealism had more of a concrete goal than its European counterpart. The primary subject of the paper is the Mexican poet, Pita Amor, who has retroactively been associated with the movement; and therefore, it should be duly noted that the adjective, surrealism, only applies to her as something that describes traits within the literary lexicon.

Keywords: Latin America, Pita Amor, poetry, surrealism

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1362 Territorial Disputes behind the Declaration of Independence of Abkhazia and South Ossetia by Some Latin American States

Authors: Besik Goginava

Abstract:

Several days later after the end of 2008 Russo-Georgian War, Venezuela and Nicaragua formally recognized the independence of Abkhazia and South Ossetia. In 2009-10 both countries established diplomatic relations with self-declared republics. It is a paradoxical fact that after neighboring Russia-Georgian conflict territories were internationally recognized by two Latin American states with ongoing territorial disputes. The Venezuela-Guyana territorial dispute which officially began in the early XIX century became conflict-ridden again in the late 1990s and 2000s. Venezuela has long claimed the land which comprises 40% of Guyana’s current territory. Territorial disputes of Nicaragua include dispute with Colombia over Caribbean Islands, with Costa Rica over the San Juan River and maritime dispute with Honduras. Based on historical and analytical research methods the purpose of this paper is to establish the relationship between the recognition of Abkhazia and South Ossetia by Venezuela and Nicaragua and Venezuela’s territorial dispute with Guyana, as well as Nicaragua’s with Colombia, Costa Rica and Honduras. The objective of the study is to investigate the factors that led Venezuela and Nicaragua to formally recognize Georgian conflict territories and how could their own territorial disputes affect on their decision.

Keywords: Latin America, Georgia, Venezuela, Nicaragua, Abkhazia, South Ossetia

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1361 British English vs. American English: A Comparative Study

Authors: Halima Benazzouz

Abstract:

It is often believed that British English and American English are the foremost varieties of the English Language serving as reference norms for other varieties;that is the reason why they have obviously been compared and contrasted.Meanwhile,the terms “British English” and “American English” are used differently by different people to refer to: 1) Two national varieties each subsuming regional and other sub-varieties standard and non-standard. 2) Two national standard varieties in which each one is only part of the range of English within its own state, but the most prestigious part. 3) Two international varieties, that is each is more than a national variety of the English Language. 4) Two international standard varieties that may or may not each subsume other standard varieties.Furthermore,each variety serves as a reference norm for users of the language elsewhere. Moreover, without a clear identification, as primarily belonging to one variety or the other, British English(Br.Eng) and American English (Am.Eng) are understood as national or international varieties. British English and American English are both “variants” and “varieties” of the English Language, more similar than different.In brief, the following may justify general categories of difference between Standard American English (S.Am.E) and Standard British English (S.Br.e) each having their own sociolectic value: A difference in pronunciation exists between the two foremost varieties, although it is the same spelling, by contrast, a divergence in spelling may be recognized, eventhough the same pronunciation. In such case, the same term is different but there is a similarity in spelling and pronunciation. Otherwise, grammar, syntax, and punctuation are distinctively used to distinguish the two varieties of the English Language. Beyond these differences, spelling is noted as one of the chief sources of variation.

Keywords: Greek, Latin, French pronunciation expert, varieties of English language

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1360 Authority and Function of Administrative Organs According to the Constitution: A Construction of Democracy in the Administrative Law of Indonesia

Authors: Andhika Danesjvara, Nur Widyastanti

Abstract:

The constitution regulates the forms, types, and powers of sState organs in a government. The powers of the organs are then regulated in more detail in the legislation. One of these organs is a government organ, headed by a president or by another name that serves as the main organizer of government. The laws and regulations will govern how the organs of government shall exercise their authority and functions. In a modern state, the function of enacting laws or called executive power does not exercise the functions of government alone, but there are other organs that help the government run the country. These organs are often called government agencies, government accelerating bodies, independent regulatory bodies, commissions, councils or other similar names. The legislation also limits the power of officials within the organs to keep from abusing its authority. The main question in this paper is whether organs are the implementation of a democratic country, or as a form of compromise with the power of stakeholders. It becomes important to see how the administrative organs perform their functions. The administrative organs that are bound by government procedures work in the public service; therefore the next question is how far the function of public service is appropriate and not contradictory to the constitution.

Keywords: administrative organs, constitution, democracy, government

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1359 Plastic Pipe Defect Detection Using Nonlinear Acoustic Modulation

Authors: Gigih Priyandoko, Mohd Fairusham Ghazali, Tan Siew Fun

Abstract:

This paper discusses about the defect detection of plastic pipe by using nonlinear acoustic wave modulation method. It is a sensitive method for damage detection and it is based on the propagation of high frequency acoustic waves in plastic pipe with low frequency excitation. The plastic pipe is excited simultaneously with a slow amplitude modulated vibration pumping wave and a constant amplitude probing wave. The frequency of both the excitation signals coincides with the resonances of the plastic pipe. A PVP pipe is used as the specimen as it is commonly used for the conveyance of liquid in many fields. The results obtained are being observed and the difference between uncracked specimen and cracked specimen can be distinguished clearly.

Keywords: plastic pipe, defect detection, nonlinear acoustic modulation, excitation

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1358 The Development of Open Access in Latin America and Caribbean: Mapping National and International Policies and Scientific Publications of the Region

Authors: Simone Belli, Sergio Minniti, Valeria Santoro

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ICTs and technology transfer can benefit and move a country forward in economic and social development. However, ICT and access to the Internet have been inequitably distributed in most developing countries. In terms of science production and dissemination, this divide articulates itself also through the inequitable distribution of access to scientific knowledge and networks, which results in the exclusion of developing countries from the center of science. Developing countries are on the fringe of Science and Technology (S&T) production due not only to low investment in research but also to the difficulties to access international scholarly literature. In this respect, Open access (OA) initiatives and knowledge infrastructure represent key elements for both producing significant changes in scholarly communication and reducing the problems of developing countries. The spreading of the OA movement in the region, exemplified by the growth of regional and national initiatives, such as the creation of OA institutional repositories (e.g. SciELO and Redalyc) and the establishing of supportive governmental policies, provides evidence of the significant role that OA is playing in reducing the scientific gap between Latin American countries and improving their participation in the so-called ‘global knowledge commons’. In this paper, we map OA publications in Latin America and observe how Latin American countries are moving forward and becoming a leading force in widening access to knowledge. Our analysis, developed as part of the H2020 EULAC Focus research project, is based on mixed methods and consists mainly of a bibliometric analysis of OA publications indexed in the most important scientific databases (Web of Science and Scopus) and OA regional repositories, as well as the qualitative analysis of documents related to the main OA initiatives in Latin America. Through our analysis, we aim at reflecting critically on what policies, international standards, and best practices might be adapted to incorporate OA worldwide and improve the infrastructure of the global knowledge commons.

Keywords: open access, LAC countries, scientific publications, bibliometric analysis

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1357 Numerical Analysis of Water Hammer in a Viscoelastic Pipe System Considering Fluid Structure Interaction

Authors: N. Tavakoli Shirazi

Abstract:

This study investigates the effects of pipe-wall viscoelasticity on water hammer pressures. Tests have been conducted in a reservoir-pipe-valve system configured of a main viscoelastic pipeline and two short steel pipes placed upstream and downstream of the main pipe. Rapid closure of a manually operated valve at the downstream end generates water hammer. Experimental measurements at several positions along the pipeline have been collected from the papers. Computer simulations of the experiment have been performed and the results of runs with various options affecting the water hammer are provided and discussed. It is shown that the incorporation of viscoelastic pipe wall mechanical behavior in the hydraulic transient model contributes to a favorable fitting between numerical results and observed data.

Keywords: pipe system, PVC pipe, viscoelasticity, water hammer

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1356 Flame Acceleration of Premixed Natural Gas/Air Explosion in Closed Pipe

Authors: H. Mat Kiah, Rafiziana M. Kasmani, Norazana Ibrahim, Roshafima R. Ali, Aziatul N.Sadikin

Abstract:

An experimental study has been done to investigate the flame acceleration in a closed pipe. A horizontal steel pipe, 2m long and 0.1 m in diameter (L/D of 20), was used in this work. For tests with 90 degree bends, the bend had a radius of 0.1 m and thus, the pipe was lengthened 1 m (based on the centreline length of the segment). Ignition was affected one end of the vessel while the other end was closed. Only stoichiometric concentration (Ф, = 1.0) of natural gas/air mixtures will be reported in this paper. It was demonstrated that bend pipe configuration gave three times higher in maximum over-pressure (5.5 bars) compared to straight pipe (2.0 bars). From the results, the highest flame speed of 63 m s-1 was observed in a gas explosion with bent pipe, greater by a factor of ~3 as compared with straight pipe (23 m s-1). This occurs because bending acts similar to an obstacle, in which this mechanism can induce more turbulence, initiating combustion in an unburned pocket at the corner region and causing a high mass burning rate which increases the flame speed.

Keywords: bending, gas explosion, bending, flame acceleration, over-pressure

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1355 Survey of American Women to Promote Social Citizenship among White, African American, and Muslim American Women

Authors: Rachel Turney

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American Woman is a discussion of being a woman in American through the lens of intersectionality, critical race theory, Muslim American identities, and social citizenship. The survey design and resulting paper are based on the researcher’s personal experience studying intersectionality and Muslim American identities through National Endowment for the Humanities. The researcher poses three questions to White, African American, and Muslim American women about female identify in America. Results are coded and analyzed in their meaning in the context of American society. Results show the similarities, primarily the idea of motherhood and fighting in society. Results also examine differences like those related to faith and family identifies in responses. The researcher examines the specific overlap in responses in the context of social citizenship.

Keywords: women, Muslim women, intersectionality, feminism

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1354 The Pitch Diameter of Pipe Taper Thread Measurement and Uncertainty Using Three-Wire Probe

Authors: J. Kloypayan, W. Pimpakan

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The pipe taper thread measurement and uncertainty normally used the four-wire probe according to the JIS B 0262. Besides, according to the EA-10/10 standard, the pipe thread could be measured using the three-wire probe. This research proposed to use the three-wire probe measuring the pitch diameter of the pipe taper thread. The measuring accessory component was designed and made, then, assembled to one side of the ULM 828 CiM machine. Therefore, this machine could be used to measure and calibrate both the pipe thread and the pipe taper thread. The equations and the expanded uncertainty for pitch diameter measurement were formulated. After the experiment, the results showed that the pipe taper thread had the pitch diameter equal to 19.165 mm and the expanded uncertainty equal to 1.88µm. Then, the experiment results were compared to the results from the National Institute of Metrology Thailand. The equivalence ratio from the comparison showed that both results were related. Thus, the proposed method of using the three-wire probe measured the pitch diameter of the pipe taper thread was acceptable.

Keywords: pipe taper thread, three-wire probe, measure and calibration, the universal length measuring machine

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1353 Contemplation of Thermal Characteristics by Filling Ratio of Aluminium Oxide Nano Fluid in Wire Mesh Heat Pipe

Authors: D. Mala, S. Sendhilnathan, D. Ratchagaraja

Abstract:

In this paper, the performance of heat pipe in terms of overall heat transfer coefficient and thermal resistance is quantified by varying the volume of working fluid and the performance parameters are contemplated. For this purpose Al2O3 nano particles with a density of 9.8 gm/cm3 and a volume concentration of 1% is used as the working fluid in experimental heat pipe. The performance of heat pipe was evaluated by conducting experiments with different thermal loads and different angle of inclinations. Thermocouples are used to record the temperature distribution across the experiment. The results provide evidence that the suspension of Al2O3 nano particles in the base fluid increases the thermal efficiency of heat pipe and can be used in practical heat exchange applications.

Keywords: heat pipe, angle of inclination, thermal resistance, thermal efficiency

Procedia PDF Downloads 447
1352 The United States Film Industry and Its Impact on Latin American Identity Rationalizations

Authors: Alfonso J. García Osuna

Abstract:

Background and Significance: The objective of this paper is to analyze the inception and development of identity archetypes in early XX century Latin America, to explore their roots in United States culture, to discuss the influences that came to bear upon Latin Americans as the United States began to export images of standard identity paradigms through its film industry, and to survey how these images evolved and impacted Latin Americans’ ideas of national distinctiveness from the early 1900s to the present. Therefore, the general hypothesis of this work is that United States film in many ways influenced national identity patterning in its neighbors, especially in those nations closest to its borders, Cuba and Mexico. Very little research has been done on the social impact of the United States film industry on the country’s southern neighbors. From a historical perspective, the US’s influence has been examined as the projection of political and economic power, that is to say, that American influence is seen as a catalyst to align the forces that the US wants to see wield the power of the State. But the subtle yet powerful cultural influence exercised by film, the eminent medium for exporting ideas and ideals in the XX century, has not been significantly explored. Basic Methodologies and Description: Gramscian Marxist theory underpins the study, where it is argued that film, as an exceptional vehicle for culture, is an important site of political and social struggle; in this context, it aims to show how United States capitalist structures of power not only use brute force to generate and maintain control of overseas markets, but also promote their ideas through artistic products such as film in order to infiltrate the popular culture of subordinated peoples. In this same vein, the work of neo-Marxist theoreticians of popular culture is employed in order to contextualize the agency of subordinated peoples in the process of cultural assimilations. Indication of the Major Findings of the Study: The study has yielded much data of interest. The salient finding is that each particular nation receives United States film according to its own particular social and political context, regardless of the amount of pressure exerted upon it. An example of this is the unmistakable dissimilarity between Cuban and Mexican reception of US films. The positive reception given in Cuba to American film has to do with the seamless acceptance of identity paradigms that, for historical reasons discussed herein, were incorporated into the national identity grid quite unproblematically. Such is not the case with Mexico, whose express rejection of identity paradigms offered by the United States reflects not only past conflicts with the northern neighbor, but an enduring recognition of the country’s indigenous roots, one that precluded such paradigms. Concluding Statement: This paper is an endeavor to elucidate the ways in which US film contributed to the outlining of Latin American identity blueprints, offering archetypes that would be accepted or rejected according to each nation’s particular social requirements, constraints and ethnic makeup.

Keywords: film studies, United States, Latin America, identity studies

Procedia PDF Downloads 215
1351 Comparative Syudy Of Heat Transfer Capacity Limits of Heat Pipe

Authors: H. Shokouhmand, A. Ghanami

Abstract:

Heat pipe is simple heat transfer device which combines the conduction and phase change phenomena to control the heat transfer without any need for external power source. At hot surface of heat pipe, the liquid phase absorbs heat and changes to vapor phase. The vapor phase flows to condenser region and with the loss of heat changes to liquid phase. Due to gravitational force the liquid phase flows to evaporator section.In HVAC systems the working fluid is chosen based on the operating temperature. The heat pipe has significant capability to reduce the humidity in HVAC systems. Each HVAC system which uses heater, humidifier or dryer is a suitable nominate for the utilization of heat pipes. Generally heat pipes have three main sections: condenser, adiabatic region and evaporator.Performance investigation and optimization of heat pipes operation in order to increase their efficiency is crucial. In present article, a parametric study is performed to improve the heat pipe performance. Therefore, the heat capacity of heat pipe with respect to geometrical and confining parameters is investigated. For the better observation of heat pipe operation in HVAC systems, a CFD simulation in Eulerian- Eulerian multiphase approach is also performed. The results show that heat pipe heat transfer capacity is higher for water as working fluid with the operating temperature of 340 K. It is also observed that the vertical orientation of heat pipe enhances it’s heat transfer capacity.

Keywords: heat pipe, HVAC system, grooved heat pipe, heat pipe limits

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
1350 Improve Heat Pipe Thermal Performance in H-VAC Systems Using CFD Modeling

Authors: H. Shokouhmand, A. Ghanami

Abstract:

A heat pipe is simple heat transfer device which combines the conduction and phase change phenomena to control the heat transfer without any need for external power source. At a hot surface of the heat pipe, the liquid phase absorbs heat and changes to the vapor phase. The vapor phase flows to condenser region and with the loss of heat changes to the liquid phase. Due to gravitational force the liquid phase flows to the evaporator section. In HVAC systems, the working fluid is chosen based on the operating temperature. The heat pipe has significant capability to reduce the humidity in HVAC systems. Each HVAC system which uses the heater, humidifier, or dryer is a suitable nominate for the utilization of heat pipes. Generally, heat pipes have three main sections: condenser, adiabatic region, and evaporator. Performance investigation and optimization of heat pipes operation in order to increase their efficiency is crucial. In the present article, a parametric study is performed to improve the heat pipe performance. Therefore, the heat capacity of the heat pipe with respect to geometrical and confining parameters is investigated. For the better observation of heat pipe operation in HVAC systems, a CFD simulation in Eulerian-Eulerian multiphase approach is also performed. The results show that heat pipe heat transfer capacity is higher for water as working fluid with the operating temperature of 340 K. It is also showed that the vertical orientation of heat pipe enhances its heat transfer capacity.

Keywords: heat pipe, HVAC system, grooved heat pipe, heat pipe limits

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
1349 Three-Dimensional Numerical Analysis of the Harmfulness of Defects in Oil Pipes

Authors: B. Medjadji, L. Aminallah, B. Serier, M. Benlebna

Abstract:

In this study, the finite element method in 3-D is used to calculate the integral J in the semi-elliptical crack in a pipe subjected to internal pressure. The stress-strain curve of the pipe has been determined experimentally. The J-integral was calculated in two fronts crack (Ф = 0 and Ф = π/2). The effect of the configuration of the crack on the J integral is analysed. The results show that an external longitudinal crack in a pipe is the most dangerous. It also shows that the increase in the applied pressure causes a remarkable increase of the integral J. The effect of the depth of the crack becomes important when the ratio between the depth of the crack and the thickness of the pipe (a / t) tends to 1.

Keywords: J integral, pipeline, crack, MEF

Procedia PDF Downloads 262