Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3192

Search results for: eccentric connectivity index

3192 Eccentric Connectivity Index, First and Second Zagreb Indices of Corona Graph

Authors: A. Kulandai Therese

Abstract:

The eccentric connectivity index based on degree and eccentricity of the vertices of a graph is a widely used graph invariant in mathematics.In this paper, we present the explicit eccentric connectivity index, first and second Zagreb indices for a Corona graph and sub division-related corona graphs.

Keywords: corona graph, degree, eccentricity, eccentric connectivity index, first zagreb index, second zagreb index, subdivision graphs

Procedia PDF Downloads 258
3191 A Study of the Relationship between Habitat Patch Metrics and Landscape Connectivity with Reference to Colombo Wetlands Sri Lanka

Authors: H. E. M. W. G. M. K. Ekanayake, J. Dharmasena

Abstract:

Natural Landscape fragmentation and habitat loss are emerging issues in Sri Lanka, which is due to rapid urban development and inadequate concern of managing Landscape connectivity. Urban Wetlands are the most vulnerable ecosystem effects from the fragmentation. Therefore, management of landscape connectivity with proper analysis and understanding has become a most important measure for urban wetland habitats. This study aimed to introduce spatial planning strategy to identify and locate landscape developments appropriately in order to restore landscape connectivity. Therefore, the study focuses on understanding the relationship between habitat patch metrics and landscape connectivity with reference to Colombo wetlands. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) was used to measure the wetland patch metrics; Patch area, Total edge, Perimeter-area ratio, Core area index and Inter-patch distances. Further, GIS-enabled least-cost path tool was used to measure the Landscape connectivity and calculate the number of species flow paths per wetland patch. According to the research findings; increasing the patch area, maintaining a mean perimeter-area ratio and core area index also reducing the inter-patch distances could enhance the landscape connectivity. Further, this study introduces three patch typologies; ‘active patches,' ‘open patches’ and ‘closed patches’ that severs to landscape connectivity in different levels. In the end, the study proposes a strategy for Landscape Architects to select most suitable locations to implement ecological based landscape developments with adjacent to the existing urban habitat in order to enhance habitat patch metrics and to restore the landscape connectivity.

Keywords: landscape fragmentation, urban wetlands, landscape connectivity, patch metrics

Procedia PDF Downloads 119
3190 Air Connectivity in Promoting Association of Southeast Asian Nations Integration: The Role of Low Cost-Carriers

Authors: Gabriella Fardhiyanti, Victor Wee

Abstract:

Air connectivity is the crucial factors to boost a region economics growth. It will open the accessibility to support regional competitiveness and helps to achieve ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) integration in term of economic integration, business investment, promote intra-regional trade, and creates the sense of belongingness among ASEAN people in the region. An increasing number of air connectivity and transportation will be benefiting the region because air transportation is a vital hub for ASEAN. The aim of this paper is to address the importance of air connectivity in promoting ASEAN Integration, by focusing on the ASEAN vision for a more integrated region. The assessment uses based on the Netscan Air connectivity model based on the flight destination and airport connectivity index, further analysis present that air connectivity significantly influence ASEAN tourism sector. Follow by the implications of open skies policy for the liberation of the aviation industry and the growth of low cost-carriers (LCCs) in the region. This paper provides recommendation and strategy for overcoming the challenges faced by ASEAN to boost ASEAN tourism integration successfully. The findings can assist in guiding policy and industry stakeholders in the future decision relating to air liberalization and more integrated system in the region.

Keywords: air connectivity, ASEAN integration, low-cost carries, NetScan connectivity model, open skies policy

Procedia PDF Downloads 97
3189 Amblyopia and Eccentric Fixation

Authors: Kristine Kalnica-Dorosenko, Aiga Svede

Abstract:

Amblyopia or 'lazy eye' is impaired or dim vision without obvious defect or change in the eye. It is often associated with abnormal visual experience, most commonly strabismus, anisometropia or both, and form deprivation. The main task of amblyopia treatment is to ameliorate etiological factors to create a clear retinal image and, to ensure the participation of the amblyopic eye in the visual process. The treatment of amblyopia and eccentric fixation is usually associated with problems in the therapy. Eccentric fixation is present in around 44% of all patients with amblyopia and in 30% of patients with strabismic amblyopia. In Latvia, amblyopia is carefully treated in various clinics, but eccentricity diagnosis is relatively rare. Conflict which has developed relating to the relationship between the visual disorder and the degree of eccentric fixation in amblyopia should to be rethoughted, because it has an important bearing on the cause and treatment of amblyopia, and the role of the eccentric fixation in this case. Visuoscopy is the most frequently used method for determination of eccentric fixation. With traditional visuoscopy, a fixation target is projected onto the patient retina, and the examiner asks to look straight directly at the center of the target. An optometrist then observes the point on the macula used for fixation. This objective test provides clinicians with direct observation of the fixation point of the eye. It requires patients to voluntarily fixate the target and assumes the foveal reflex accurately demarcates the center of the foveal pit. In the end, by having a very simple method to evaluate fixation, it is possible to indirectly evaluate treatment improvement, as eccentric fixation is always associated with reduced visual acuity. So, one may expect that if eccentric fixation in amlyopic eye is found with visuoscopy, then visual acuity should be less than 1.0 (in decimal units). With occlusion or another amblyopia therapy, one would expect both visual acuity and fixation to improve simultaneously, that is fixation would become more central. Consequently, improvement in fixation pattern by treatment is an indirect measurement of improvement of visual acuity. Evaluation of eccentric fixation in the child may be helpful in identifying amblyopia in children prior to measurement of visual acuity. This is very important because the earlier amblyopia is diagnosed – the better the chance of improving visual acuity.

Keywords: amblyopia, eccentric fixation, visual acuity, visuoscopy

Procedia PDF Downloads 75
3188 Adaptation to Repeated Eccentric Exercise Assessed by Double to Single Twitch Ratio

Authors: Damian Janecki, Anna Jaskólska, Jarosław Marusiak, Artur Jaskólski

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to assess double to single twitch ratio after two bouts of eccentric exercise of the elbow flexors. Maximal isometric torque, single and double twitch responses and low-frequency fatigue were assessed on the elbow flexors in 19 untrained male volunteers before, immediately after, 24 and 48 hours following two bouts of eccentric exercise consisted of 30 repetitions of lowering a dumbbell adjusted to ~75% of each individual's maximal isometric torque. Maximal isometric torque and electrically evoked responses decreased significantly in all measurements after the first bout of eccentric exercise (P<0.05). In measurements performed at 24 and 48 hours after the second bout both maximal voluntary isometric torque and electrically evoked contractions were significantly higher than in measurements performed after the fist bout (P<0.05). Although low-frequency fatigue significantly increased up to 48 hours after each bout of eccentric exercise, its values at 24 and 48 hours after the second bout were significantly lower than at respective time points after the first bout (P<0.05). Smaller changes in double to single twitch ratio at 24 and 48 hours after the second bout of eccentric exercise reflects repeated bout effect that confers protection against subsequent exercise-induced muscle damage.

Keywords: biceps brachii, electrical stimulation, lenghtening contractions, repeated bout effect

Procedia PDF Downloads 252
3187 Numerical Simulation of High Strength Steel Hot-Finished Elliptical Hollow Section Subjected to Uniaxial Eccentric Compression

Authors: Zhengyi Kong, Xueqing Wang, Quang-Viet Vu

Abstract:

In this study, the structural behavior of high strength steel (HSS) hot-finished elliptical hollow section (EHS) subjected to uniaxial eccentric compression is investigated. A finite element method for predicting the cross-section resistance of HSS hot-finished EHS is developed using ABAQUS software, which is then verified by comparison with previous experiments. The validated finite element method is employed to carry out parametric studies for investigating the structural behavior of HSS hot-finished EHS under uniaxial eccentric compression and evaluate the current design guidance for HSS hot-finished EHS. Different parameters, such as the radius of the larger and smaller outer diameter of EHS, thickness of EHS, eccentricity, and material property, are considered. The resulting data from 84 finite element models are used to obtain the relationship between the cross-section resistance of HSS hot-finished EHS and cross-section slenderness. It is concluded that current design provisions, such as EN 1993-1-1, BS 5950-1, AS4100, and Gardner et al., are conservative for predicting the HSS hot-finished EHS under uniaxial eccentric compression.

Keywords: hot-finished, elliptical hollow section, uniaxial eccentric compression, finite element method

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
3186 Experimental and Numerical Study of Ultra-High-Performance Fiber-Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to Axial and Eccentric Loads

Authors: Chengfeng Fang, Mohamed Ali Sadakkathulla, Abdul Sheikh

Abstract:

Ultra-high-performance fiber reinforced concrete (UHPFRC) is a specially formulated cement-based composite characterized with an ultra-high compressive strength (fc = 240 MPa) and a low water-cement ratio (W/B= 0.2). With such material characteristics, UHPFRC is favored for the design and constructions of structures required high structural performance and slender geometries. Unlike conventional concrete, the structural performance of members manufactured with UHPFRC has not yet been fully studied, particularly, for UHPFRC columns with high slenderness. In this study, the behaviors of slender UHPFRC columns under concentric or eccentric load will be investigated both experimentally and numerically. Four slender UHPFRC columns were tested under eccentric loads with eccentricities, of 0 mm, 35 mm, 50 mm, and 85 mm, respectively, and one UHPFRC beam was tested under four-point bending. Finite element (FE) analysis was conducted with concrete damage plasticity (CDP) modulus to simulating the load-middle height or middle span deflection relationships and damage patterns of all UHPFRC members. Simulated results were compared against the experimental results and observation to gain the confidence of FE model, and this model was further extended to conduct parametric studies, which aim to investigate the effects of slenderness regarding failure modes and load-moment interaction relationships. Experimental results showed that the load bearing capacities of the slender columns reduced with an increase in eccentricity. Comparisons between load-middle height and middle span deflection relationships as well as damage patterns of all UHPFRC members obtained both experimentally and numerically demonstrated high accuracy of the FE simulations. Based on the available FE model, the following parametric study indicated that a further increase in the slenderness of column resulted in significant decreases in the load-bearing capacities, ductility index, and flexural bending capacities.

Keywords: eccentric loads, ductility index, RC column, slenderness, UHPFRC

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
3185 Computing Some Topological Descriptors of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

Authors: Amir Bahrami

Abstract:

In the fields of chemical graph theory, molecular topology, and mathematical chemistry, a topological index or a descriptor index also known as a connectivity index is a type of a molecular descriptor that is calculated based on the molecular graph of a chemical compound. Topological indices are numerical parameters of a graph which characterize its topology and are usually graph invariant. Topological indices are used for example in the development of quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) in which the biological activity or other properties of molecules are correlated with their chemical structure. In this paper some descriptor index (descriptor index) of single-walled carbon nanotubes, is determined.

Keywords: chemical graph theory, molecular topology, molecular descriptor, single-walled carbon nanotubes

Procedia PDF Downloads 220
3184 Adjustment and Compensation Techniques for the Rotary Axes of Five-axis CNC Machine Tools

Authors: Tung-Hui Hsu, Wen-Yuh Jywe

Abstract:

Five-axis computer numerical control (CNC) machine tools (three linear and two rotary axes) are ideally suited to the fabrication of complex work pieces, such as dies, turbo blades, and cams. The locations of the axis average line and centerline of the rotary axes strongly influence the performance of these machines; however, techniques to compensate for eccentric error in the rotary axes remain weak. This paper proposes optical (Non-Bar) techniques capable of calibrating five-axis CNC machine tools and compensating for eccentric error in the rotary axes. This approach employs the measurement path in ISO/CD 10791-6 to determine the eccentric error in two rotary axes, for which compensatory measures can be implemented. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed techniques can improve the performance of various five-axis CNC machine tools by more than 90%. Finally, a result of the cutting test using a B-type five-axis CNC machine tool confirmed to the usefulness of this proposed compensation technique.

Keywords: calibration, compensation, rotary axis, five-axis computer numerical control (CNC) machine tools, eccentric error, optical calibration system, ISO/CD 10791-6

Procedia PDF Downloads 312
3183 Eccentric Loading of CFDST Columns

Authors: Trevor N. Haas, Alexander Koen

Abstract:

Columns have traditionally been constructed of reinforced concrete or structural steel. Much attention was allocated to estimate the axial capacity of the traditional column sections to the detriment of other forms of construction. Other forms of column construction such as Concrete Filled Double Skin Tubes received little research attention, and almost no attention when subjected to eccentric loading. This paper investigates the axial capacity of columns when subjected to eccentric loading. The experimental axial capacities are compared to other established theoretical formulae on concentric loading to determine a possible relationship. The study found a good correlation between the reduction in axial capacity for different column lengths and hollow section ratios.

Keywords: CSDST, CFST, axial capacity, hollow section ratios

Procedia PDF Downloads 271
3182 Effect of Different Muscle Contraction Mode on the Expression of Myostatin, IGF-1, and PGC-1 Alpha Family Members in Human Vastus Lateralis Muscle

Authors: Pejman Taghibeikzadehbadr

Abstract:

Muscle contraction stimulates a transient change of myogenic factors, partly related to the mode of contractions. Here, we assessed the response of Insulin-like growth factor 1Ea (IGF-1Ea), Insulin-like growth factor 1Eb (IGF-1Eb), Insulin-like growth factor 1Ec (IGF-1Ec), Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC1α-1), Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 4-alpha (PGC1α-4), and myostatin to the eccentric Vs the concentric contraction in human skeletal muscle. Ten healthy males were performed an acute eccentric and concentric exercise bout (n = 5 per group). For each contraction type, participants performed 12 sets of 10 repetitions knee extension by the dominant leg. Baseline and post-exercise muscle biopsy were taken 4 weeks before and immediately after experimental sessions from Vastus Lateralis muscle. Genes expression was measured by real-time PCR technique. There was a significant increase in PGC1α-1, PGC1α-4, IGF-1Ea and, IGF-1Eb mRNA after concentric contraction (p ≤ 0.05), while the PGC1α-4 and IGF-1Ec significantly increased after eccentric contraction (p ≤ 0.05). It is intriguing to highlight that; no significant differences between groups were evident for changes in any variables following exercise bouts (p ≥ 0.05). Our results found that concentric and eccentric contractions presented different responses in PGC1α-1, IGF-1Ea, IGF-1Eb, and IGF-1Ec mRNA. However, a similar significant increase in mRNA content was observed in PGC1α-4. Further, no apparent differences could be found between the response of genes to eccentric and concentric contraction.

Keywords: eccentric contraction, concentric contraction, gene expression, PGC-1 alpha, IGF-1 Myostatin

Procedia PDF Downloads 92
3181 The Effects of Chamomile on Serum Levels of Inflammatory Indexes to a Bout of Eccentric Exercise in Young Women

Authors: K. Azadeh, M. Ghasemi, S. Fazelifar

Abstract:

Aim: Changes in stress hormones can be modify response of immune system. Cortisol as the most important body corticosteroid is anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive hormone. Normal levels of cortisol in humans has fluctuated during the day, In other words, cortisol is released periodically, and regulate through the release of ACTH circadian rhythm in every day. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effects of Chamomile on serum levels of inflammatory indexes to a bout of eccentric exercise in young women. Methodology: 32 women were randomly divided into 4 groups: high dose of Chamomile, low dose of Chamomile, ibuprofen and placebo group. Eccentric exercise included 5 set and rest period between sets was 1 minute. For this purpose, subjects warm up 10 min and then done eccentric exercise. Each participant completed 15 repetitions with optional 20 kg weight or until can’t continue moving. When the subject was no longer able to continue to move, immediately decreased 5 kg from the weight and the protocol continued until cause exhaustion or complete 15 repetitions. Also, subjects received specified amount of ibuprofen and Chamomile capsules in target groups. Blood samples in 6 stages (pre of starting pill, pre of exercise protocol, 4, 24, 48 and 72 hours after eccentric exercise) was obtained. The levels of cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone levels were measured by ELISA way. K-S test to determine the normality of the data and analysis of variance for repeated measures was used to analyze the data. A significant difference in the p < 0/05 accepted. Results: The results showed that Individual characteristics including height, weight, age and body mass index were not significantly different among the four groups. Analyze of data showed that cortisol and ACTH basic levels significantly decreased after supplementation consumption, but then gradually significantly increased in all stages of post exercise. In High dose of Chamomile group, increasing tendency of post exercise somewhat less than other groups, but not to a significant level. The inter-group analysis results indicate that time effect had a significant impact in different stages of the groups. Conclusion: The results of this study, one session of eccentric exercise increased cortisol and ACTH hormone. The results represent the effect of high dose of Chamomile in the prevention and reduction of increased stress hormone levels. As regards use of medicinal plants and ibuprofen as a pain medication and inflammation has spread among athletes and non-athletes, the results of this research can provide information about the advantages and disadvantages of using medicinal plants and ibuprofen.

Keywords: chamomile, inflammatory indexes, eccentric exercise, young girls

Procedia PDF Downloads 364
3180 Expression of PGC-1 Alpha Isoforms in Response to Eccentric and Concentric Resistance Training in Healthy Subjects

Authors: Pejman Taghibeikzadehbadr

Abstract:

Background and Aim: PGC-1 alpha is a transcription factor that was first detected in brown adipose tissue. Since its discovery, PGC-1 alpha has been known to facilitate beneficial adaptations such as mitochondrial biogenesis and increased angiogenesis in skeletal muscle following aerobic exercise. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of PGC-1 alpha isoforms in response to eccentric and concentric resistance training in healthy subjects. Materials and Methods: Ten healthy men were randomly divided into two groups (5 patients in eccentric group - 5 in eccentric group). Isokinetic contraction protocols included eccentric and concentric knee extension with maximum power and angular velocity of 60 degrees per second. The torques assigned to each subject were considered to match the workload in both protocols, with a rotational speed of 60 degrees per second. Contractions consisted of a maximum of 12 sets of 10 repetitions for the right leg, a rest time of 30 seconds between each set. At the beginning and end of the study, biopsy of the lateral broad muscle tissue was performed. Biopsies were performed in both distal and proximal directions of the lateral flank. To evaluate the expression of PGC1α-1 and PGC1α-4 genes, tissue analysis was performed in each group using Real-Time PCR technique. Data were analyzed using dependent t-test and covariance test. SPSS21 software and Exell 2013 software were used for data analysis. Results: The results showed that intra-group changes of PGC1α-1 after one session of activity were not significant in eccentric (p = 0.168) and concentric (p = 0.959) groups. Also, inter-group changes showed no difference between the two groups (p = 0.681). Also, intra-group changes of PGC1α-4 after one session of activity were significant in an eccentric group (p = 0.012) and concentric group (p = 0.02). Also, inter-group changes showed no difference between the two groups (p = 0.362). Conclusion: It seems that the lack of significant changes in the desired variables due to the lack of exercise pressure is sufficient to stimulate the increase of PGC1α-1 and PGC1α-4. And with regard to reviewing the answer, it seems that the compatibility debate has different results that need to be addressed.

Keywords: eccentric contraction, concentric contraction, PGC1α-1 و PGC1α-4, human subject

Procedia PDF Downloads 9
3179 A Novel Eccentric Lapping Method with Two Rotatable Lapping Plates for Finishing Cemented Carbide Balls

Authors: C. C. Lv, Y. L. Sun, D. W. Zuo

Abstract:

Cemented carbide balls are usually implemented in industry under the environment of high speed, high temperature, corrosiveness and strong collisions. However, its application is limited due to high fabrication cost, processing efficiency and quality. A novel eccentric lapping method with two rotatable lapping plates was proposed in this paper. A mathematical model was constructed to analyze the influence of each design parameter on this lapping method. To validate this new lapping method, an orthogonal experiment was conducted with cemented carbide balls (YG6). The simulation model was verified and the optimal lapping parameters were derived. The results show that the surface roundness of the balls reaches to 0.65um from 2um in 1 hour using this lapping method. So, using this novel lapping method, it can effectively improve the machining precision and efficiency of cemented carbide balls.

Keywords: cemented carbide balls, eccentric lapping, high precision, lapping tracks, V-groove

Procedia PDF Downloads 331
3178 Flow inside Micro-Channel Bounded by Superhydrophobic Surface with Eccentric Micro-Grooves

Authors: Yu Chen, Weiwei Ren, Xiaojing Mu, Feng Zhang, Yi Xu

Abstract:

The superhydrophobic surface is widely used to reduce friction for the flow inside micro-channel and can be used to control/manipulate fluid, cells and even proteins in lab-on-chip. Fabricating micro grooves on hydrophobic surfaces is a common method to obtain such superhydrophobic surface. This study utilized the numerical method to investigate the effect of eccentric micro-grooves on the friction of flow inside micro-channel. A detailed parametric study was conducted to reveal how the eccentricity of micro-grooves affects the micro-channel flow under different grooves sizes, channel heights, Reynolds number. The results showed that the superhydrophobic surface with eccentric micro-grooves induces less friction than the counter part with aligning micro-grooves, which means requiring less power for pumps.

Keywords: eccentricity, micro-channel, micro-grooves, superhydrophobic surface

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
3177 Acute Effects of Active Dynamic, Static Stretching and Passive Static Stretching Exercise on Hamstrings Flexibility and Muscle Strength

Authors: Yi Tse Wang, Che Hsiu Chen, Zih Jian Huang, Hon Wen Cheng

Abstract:

Stretching treatments enhanced flexibility. On the other hand, decreases in hamstrings strength have been reported after stretching, especially with static stretching or passive stretching. Stretching has been shown to be more effective than static stretching to improve muscle performance, but a clear consensus for the effect of dynamic stretching on muscle performance has not been achieved. The purpose of this study was to compare the acute effect of a dynamic stretching, static stretching and eccentric exercise protocol on hamstrings stiffness, flexibility and muscle strength. Forty-five healthy active men (height 179.9 cm; weight 71.5 kg; age 22.5 years) were participated in 3 randomly ordered testing sessions: dynamic stretching (DS), active static stretching (ASS), and passive static stretching (PSS). All the stretch were performed 30 seconds and repeated 6 times. There was a 30-second interval between repetitions. The outcome measures were isokinetic concentric contraction (60°/s), eccentric contraction (30°/s) peak torque, muscle flexibility after stretching. The results showed that the muscle flexibility (3.6%, 3.9% and 1.59%, respectively) increased significantly after DS, PSS and ASS. Hamstring isokinetic concentric peak torque (-6.4%, -8.0% and -5.8%, respectively) and eccentric peak torque (-5.8%, -4.5% and -5.4%, respectively) decreased significantly after DS, PSS and ASS. Hence, although the stretching protocols improve hamstrings flexibility immediately, reduced hamstring muscle eccentric and concentric peak torque.

Keywords: hamstrings injury, warm-up, muscle performance, muscle stretching

Procedia PDF Downloads 298
3176 Planning and Implementing Large-Scale Ecological Connectivity: A Review of Past and Ongoing Practices in Turkey

Authors: Tutku Ak, A. Esra Cengiz, Çiğdem Ayhan Kaptan

Abstract:

The conservation community has been increasingly promoting the concept of ecological connectivity towards the prevention and mitigation of landscape fragmentation. Many tools have been proposed for this purpose in not only Europe, but also around the world. Spatial planning for building connectivity, however, has many problems associated with the complexity of ecological processes at spatial and temporal scales. Furthermore, on the ground implementation could be very difficult potentially leading to ecologically disastrous results and waste of resources. These problems, on the other hand, can be avoided or rectified as more experience is gained with implementation. Therefore, it is the objective of this study to document the experiences gained with connectivity planning in Turkish landscapes. This paper is a preliminary review of the conservation initiatives and projects aimed at protecting and building ecological connectivity in and around Turkey. The objective is to scope existing conservation plans, tools and implementation approaches in Turkey and the ultimate goal is to understand to what degree they have been implemented and what are the constraints and opportunities that are being faced.

Keywords: ecological connectivity, large-scale landscapes, planning and implementation, Turkey

Procedia PDF Downloads 425
3175 Effect of Two Bouts of Eccentric Exercise on Knee Flexors Changes in Muscle-Tendon Lengths

Authors: Shang-Hen Wu, Yung-Chen Lin, Wei-Song Chang, Ming-Ju Lin

Abstract:

This study investigated whether the repeated bout effect (RBE) of knee flexors (KF) eccentric exercise would be changed in muscle-tendon lengths. Eight healthy university male students used their KF of non-dominant leg and performed a bout of 60 maximal isokinetic (30°/s) eccentric contractions (MaxECC1). A week after MaxECC1, all subjects used the same KF to perform a subsequent bout of MaxECC2. Changes in maximal isokinetic voluntary contraction torque (MVC-CON), muscle soreness (SOR), relaxed knee joint angle (RANG), leg circumference (CIR), and ultrasound images (UI; muscle-tendon length and muscle angle) were measured before, immediately after, 1-5 days after each bout. Two-way ANOVA was used to analyze all the dependent variables. After MaxECC1, all the dependent variables (e.g. MVC-CON: ↓30%, muscle-tendon length: ↑24%, muscle angle: ↑15%) showed significantly change. Following MaxECC2, all the above dependent variables (e.g. MVC-CON:↓21%, tendon length: ↑16%, muscle angle: ↑6%) were significantly smaller than those of MaxECC1. These results of this study found that protective effect conferred by MaxECC1 against MaxECC2, and changes in muscle damage indicators, muscle-tendon length and muscle angle following MaxECC2 were smaller than MaxECC1. Thus, the amount of shift of muscle-tendon length and muscle angle was related to the RBE.

Keywords: eccentric exercise, maximal isokinetic voluntary contraction torque, repeated bout effect, ultrasound

Procedia PDF Downloads 262
3174 Effect of Submaximal Eccentric versus Maximal Isometric Contraction on Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness

Authors: Mohamed M. Ragab, Neveen A. Abdel Raoof, Reham H. Diab

Abstract:

Background: Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) is the most common symptom when ordinary individuals and athletes are exposed to unaccustomed physical activity, especially eccentric contraction which impairs athletic performance, ordinary people work ability and physical functioning. A multitude of methods have been investigated to reduce DOMS. One of the valuable method to control DOMS is repeated bout effect (RBE) as a prophylactic method. Purpose: To compare the repeated bout effect of submaximal eccentric contraction versus maximal isometric contraction on induced DOMS. Methods: Sixty normal male volunteers were assigned randomly into three groups of equal number: Group (A) “first study group”: 20 subjects received submaximal eccentric contraction on non-dominant elbow flexors as prophylactic exercise. Group (B) “second study group”: 20 subjects received maximal isometric contraction on non-dominant elbow flexors as prophylactic exercise. Group (C) “control group”: 20 subjects did not receive any prophylactic exercise. Maximal isometric contraction peak torque of elbow flexors and patient related elbow evaluation (PREE) scale were measured for each subject 3 times before, immediately after and 48 hours after induction of DOMS. Results: Post-hoc test for maximal isometric peak torque and PREE scale immediately and 48 hours after induction of DOMS revealed that group (A) and group (B) resulted in significant decrease in maximal isometric strength loss and elbow pain and disability rather than control group (C), but submaximal eccentric group (A) was more effective than maximal isometric group (B) as it showed more rapid recovery of functional strength and less degrees of elbow pain and disability. Conclusion: Both submaximal eccentric contraction and maximal isometric contraction were effective in prevention of DOMS but submaximal eccentric contraction had the greatest protective effect.

Keywords: delayed onset muscle soreness, maximal isometric peak torque, patient related elbow evaluation scale, repeated bout effect

Procedia PDF Downloads 256
3173 Effect of Velocity Slip on Two Phase Flow in an Eccentric Annular Region

Authors: Umadevi B., Dinesh P. A., Indira. R., Vinay C. V.

Abstract:

A mathematical model is developed to study the simultaneous effects of particle drag and slip parameter on the velocity as well as rate of flow in an annular cross sectional region bounded by two eccentric cylinders. In physiological flows this phenomena can be observed in an eccentric catheterized artery with inner cylinder wall is impermeable and outer cylinder wall is permeable. Blood is a heterogeneous fluid having liquid phase consisting of plasma in which a solid phase of suspended cells and proteins. Arterial wall gets damaged due to aging and lipid molecules get deposited between damaged tissue cells. Blood flow increases towards the damaged tissues in the artery. In this investigation blood is modeled as two phase fluid as one is a fluid phase and the other is particulate phase. The velocity of the fluid phase and rate of flow are obtained by transforming eccentric annulus to concentric annulus with the conformal mapping. The formulated governing equations are analytically solved for the velocity and rate of flow. The numerical investigations are carried out by varying eccentricity parameter, slip parameter and drag parameter. Enhancement of slip parameter signifies loss of fluid then the velocity and rate of flow will be decreased. As particulate drag parameter increases then the velocity as well as rate flow decreases. Eccentricity facilitates transport of more fluid then the velocity and rate of flow increases.

Keywords: catheter, slip parameter, drag parameter, eccentricity

Procedia PDF Downloads 435
3172 Molecular Topology and TLC Retention Behaviour of s-Triazines: QSRR Study

Authors: Lidija R. Jevrić, Sanja O. Podunavac-Kuzmanović, Strahinja Z. Kovačević

Abstract:

Quantitative structure-retention relationship (QSRR) analysis was used to predict the chromatographic behavior of s-triazine derivatives by using theoretical descriptors computed from the chemical structure. Fundamental basis of the reported investigation is to relate molecular topological descriptors with chromatographic behavior of s-triazine derivatives obtained by reversed-phase (RP) thin layer chromatography (TLC) on silica gel impregnated with paraffin oil and applied ethanol-water (φ = 0.5-0.8; v/v). Retention parameter (RM0) of 14 investigated s-triazine derivatives was used as dependent variable while simple connectivity index different orders were used as independent variables. The best QSRR model for predicting RM0 value was obtained with simple third order connectivity index (3χ) in the second-degree polynomial equation. Numerical values of the correlation coefficient (r=0.915), Fisher's value (F=28.34) and root mean square error (RMSE = 0.36) indicate that model is statistically significant. In order to test the predictive power of the QSRR model leave-one-out cross-validation technique has been applied. The parameters of the internal cross-validation analysis (r2CV=0.79, r2adj=0.81, PRESS=1.89) reflect the high predictive ability of the generated model and it confirms that can be used to predict RM0 value. Multivariate classification technique, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), has been applied in order to group molecules according to their molecular connectivity indices. HCA is a descriptive statistical method and it is the most frequently used for important area of data processing such is classification. The HCA performed on simple molecular connectivity indices obtained from the 2D structure of investigated s-triazine compounds resulted in two main clusters in which compounds molecules were grouped according to the number of atoms in the molecule. This is in agreement with the fact that these descriptors were calculated on the basis of the number of atoms in the molecule of the investigated s-triazine derivatives.

Keywords: s-triazines, QSRR, chemometrics, chromatography, molecular descriptors

Procedia PDF Downloads 327
3171 Topological Indices of Some Graph Operations

Authors: U. Mary

Abstract:

Let be a graph with a finite, nonempty set of objects called vertices together with a set of unordered pairs of distinct vertices of called edges. The vertex set is denoted by and the edge set by. Given two graphs and the wiener index of, wiener index for the splitting graph of a graph, the first Zagreb index of and its splitting graph, the 3-steiner wiener index of, the 3-steiner wiener index of a special graph are explored in this paper.

Keywords: complementary prism graph, first Zagreb index, neighborhood corona graph, steiner distance, splitting graph, steiner wiener index, wiener index

Procedia PDF Downloads 433
3170 A Study on the Computation of Gourava Indices for Poly-L Lysine Dendrimer and Its Biomedical Applications

Authors: M. Helen

Abstract:

Chemical graph serves as a convenient model for any real or abstract chemical system. Dendrimers are novel three dimensional hyper branched globular nanopolymeric architectures. Drug delivery scientists are especially enthusiastic about possible utility of dendrimers as drug delivery tool. Dendrimers like poly L lysine (PLL), poly-propylene imine (PPI) and poly-amidoamine (PAMAM), etc., are used as gene carrier in drug delivery system because of their chemical characteristics. These characteristics of chemical compounds are analysed using topological indices (invariants under graph isomorphism) such as Wiener index, Zagreb index, etc., Prof. V. R. Kulli motivated by the application of Zagreb indices in finding the total π energy and derived Gourava indices which is an improved version over Zagreb indices. In this paper, we study the structure of PLL-Dendrimer that has the following applications: reduction in toxicity, colon delivery, and topical delivery. Also, we determine first and second Gourava indices, first and second hyper Gourava indices, product and sum connectivity Gourava indices for PLL-Dendrimer. Gourava Indices have found applications in Quantitative Structure-Property Relationship (QSPR)/ Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) studies.

Keywords: connectivity Gourava indices, dendrimer, Gourava indices, hyper GouravaG indices

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
3169 Structural Behavior of Composite Hollow RC Column under Combined Loads

Authors: Abdul Qader Melhm, Hussein Elrafidi

Abstract:

This paper is dealing with studying the structural behavior of a steel-composite hollow reinforced concrete (RC) column model under combined eccentric loading. The composite model consists of an inner steel tube surrounded via a concrete core with longitudinal and circular transverse reinforcement. The radius of gyration according to American and Euro specifications be calculated, in order to calculate the thinnest ratio for this type of composite column model, in addition to the flexural rigidity. Formulas for interaction diagram is given for this type of model, which is a general loading conditions in which an element is exposed to an axial load with bending at the same time. The structural capacity of this model, elastic, plastic loads and strains will be computed and compared with experimental results. The total eccentric axial load of the column model is calculated based on the effective length KL available from several relationships provided in the paper. Furthermore, the inner tube experiences buckling failure after reaching its maximum strength will be investigated.

Keywords: column, composite, eccentric, inner tube, interaction, reinforcement

Procedia PDF Downloads 111
3168 Gender Features of Left Ventricular Myocardial Remodeling and the Development of Chronic Heart Failure in Patients with Postinfarction Cardiosclerosis

Authors: G. Dadashova, A. Bakhshaliyev

Abstract:

Aim: Determine gender differences in the etiology and clinical outcomes, as well as in the remodeling of the left ventricle (LV) in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF), suffering from arterial hypertension (AH) and coronary heart disease (CHD). Material and methods: The study included 112 patients of both sexes; aged 45 to 60 years with postinfarction cardiosclerosis had functional class (FC) heart failure II-IV of NYHA which were examined on the basis of Azerbaijan Scientific Research Institute of Cardiology. The patients were divided into 2 groups: 1st c. 60 males, mean age 54,8 ± 3,3 years, and 2nd gr 52 women, mean age 55,8 ± 3,1 years. To assess cardiac hemodynamic all patients underwent echocardiography (B-M-modes) using ‘Vivid 3’. Thus on the basis of indicators such as the index of the relative thickness of the left ventricle wall and the index of left ventricular mass (LVMI) was identified the architectonic model of the left ventricle. Results: According to our research leading cause of heart failure in women is 50.5% of cases of hypertension, ischemic heart disease 23.7% (with 79.5% of the cases developed in patients with chronic heart failure who did not have a history of myocardial infarction). While in men is the undisputed leader of CHD, forming 78.3% of CHF (80.3% in men with CHF occurred after myocardial infarction). According to our research in women more often than men CHF develops a type of diastolic dysfunction (DD, and left ventricular ejection fraction remained unchanged. Since DD occurs in men at 65,8% vs. 76,4% of women when p < 0,05. In the group of women was more common prognostic neblagopryatnye remodeling - eccentric hypertrophy of the left ventricle: 68% vs. 54.5% among men (p < 0,05), concentric left ventricular hypertrophy: 21% in women vs 19,1% (p > 0,05 ). Conclusions: Patients with heart failure are a number of gender-specific: the prevalence of hypertension in women, and coronary heart disease in men. While in women with heart failure often recorded diastolic dysfunction and characterized by the development of prognostically unfavorable remodeling types: eccentric and concentric LV hypertrophy.

Keywords: chronic heart failure, arterial hypertension, remodeling, diastolic dysfunction, men, women, ischemic heart disease

Procedia PDF Downloads 271
3167 Earthquake Resistant Sustainable Steel Green Building

Authors: Arup Saha Chaudhuri

Abstract:

Structural steel is a very ductile material with high strength carrying capacity, thus it is very useful to make earthquake resistant buildings. It is a homogeneous material also. The member section and the structural system can be made very efficient for economical design. As the steel is recyclable and reused, it is a green material. The embodied energy for the efficiently designed steel structure is less than the RC structure. For sustainable green building steel is the best material nowadays. Moreover, pre-engineered and pre-fabricated faster construction methodologies help the development work to complete within the stipulated time. In this paper, the usefulness of Eccentric Bracing Frame (EBF) in steel structure over Moment Resisting Frame (MRF) and Concentric Bracing Frame (CBF) is shown. Stability of the steel structures against horizontal forces especially in seismic condition is efficiently possible by Eccentric bracing systems with economic connection details. The EBF is pin–ended, but the beam-column joints are designed for pin ended or for full connectivity. The EBF has several desirable features for seismic resistance. In comparison with CBF system, EBF system can be designed for appropriate stiffness and drift control. The link beam is supposed to yield in shear or flexure before initiation of yielding or buckling of the bracing member in tension or compression. The behavior of a 2-D steel frame is observed under seismic loading condition in the present paper. Ductility and brittleness of the frames are compared with respect to time period of vibration and dynamic base shear. It is observed that the EBF system is better than MRF system comparing the time period of vibration and base shear participation.

Keywords: steel building, green and sustainable, earthquake resistant, EBF system

Procedia PDF Downloads 283
3166 Relay Node Placement for Connectivity Restoration in Wireless Sensor Networks Using Genetic Algorithms

Authors: Hanieh Tarbiat Khosrowshahi, Mojtaba Shakeri

Abstract:

Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) consist of a set of sensor nodes with limited capability. WSNs may suffer from multiple node failures when they are exposed to harsh environments such as military zones or disaster locations and lose connectivity by getting partitioned into disjoint segments. Relay nodes (RNs) are alternatively introduced to restore connectivity. They cost more than sensors as they benefit from mobility, more power and more transmission range, enforcing a minimum number of them to be used. This paper addresses the problem of RN placement in a multiple disjoint network by developing a genetic algorithm (GA). The problem is reintroduced as the Steiner tree problem (which is known to be an NP-hard problem) by the aim of finding the minimum number of Steiner points where RNs are to be placed for restoring connectivity. An upper bound to the number of RNs is first computed to set up the length of initial chromosomes. The GA algorithm then iteratively reduces the number of RNs and determines their location at the same time. Experimental results indicate that the proposed GA is capable of establishing network connectivity using a reasonable number of RNs compared to the best existing work.

Keywords: connectivity restoration, genetic algorithms, multiple-node failure, relay nodes, wireless sensor networks

Procedia PDF Downloads 165
3165 Empirical Exploration for the Correlation between Class Object-Oriented Connectivity-Based Cohesion and Coupling

Authors: Jehad Al Dallal

Abstract:

Attributes and methods are the basic contents of an object-oriented class. The connectivity among these class members and the relationship between the class and other classes play an important role in determining the quality of an object-oriented system. Class cohesion evaluates the degree of relatedness of class attributes and methods, whereas class coupling refers to the degree to which a class is related to other classes. Researchers have proposed several class cohesion and class coupling measures. However, the correlation between class coupling and class cohesion measures have not been thoroughly studied. In this paper, using classes of three open-source Java systems, we empirically investigate the correlation between several measures of connectivity-based class cohesion and coupling. Four connectivity-based cohesion measures and eight coupling measures are considered in the empirical study. The empirical study results show that class connectivity-based cohesion and coupling internal quality attributes are inversely correlated. The strength of the correlation depends highly on the cohesion and coupling measurement approaches.

Keywords: object-oriented class, software quality, class cohesion measure, class coupling measure

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
3164 Study on Effectiveness of Strategies to Re-Establish Landscape Connectivity of Expressways with Reference to Southern Expressway Sri Lanka

Authors: N. G. I. Aroshana, S. Edirisooriya

Abstract:

Construction of highway is the most emerging development tendency in Sri Lanka. With these development activities, there are a lot of environmental and social issues started. Landscape fragmentation is one of the main issues that highly effect to the environment by the construction of expressways. Sri Lankan expressway system getting effort to treat fragmented landscape by using highway crossing structures. This paper designates, a highway post construction landscape study on the effectiveness of the landscape connectivity structures to restore connectivity. Geographic Information Systems (GIS), least cost path tool has been used in the selected two plots; 25km alone the expressway to identify animal crossing paths. Animal accident data use as measure for determining the most contributed plot for landscape connectivity. Number of patches, Mean patch size, Class area use as a parameter to determine the most effective land use class to reestablish the landscape connectivity. The findings of the research express scrub, grass and marsh were the most positively affected land use typologies for increase the landscape connectivity. It represents the growth increased by 8% within the 12 years of time. From the least cost analysis within the plot one, 28.5% of total animal crossing structures are within the high resistance land use classes. Southern expressway used reinforced compressed earth technologies for construction. It has been controlled the growth of the climax community. According to all findings, it could assume that involvement of the landscape crossing structures contributes to re-establish connectivity, but it is not enough to restore the majority of disturbance performed by the expressway. Connectivity measures used within the study can use as a tool for re-evaluate future involvement of highway crossing structures. Proper placement of the highway crossing structures leads to increase the rate of connectivity. The study recommends that monitoring the all stages (preconstruction, construction and post construction) of the project and preliminary design, and the involvement of the research applied connectivity assessment strategies helps to overcome the complication regarding the re-establishment of landscape connectivity using the highway crossing structures that facilitate the growth of flora and fauna.

Keywords: landscape fragmentation, least cost path, land use analysis, landscape connectivity structures

Procedia PDF Downloads 88
3163 Mechanical Responses to Hip Versus Knee Induced Muscle Fatigue in Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome

Authors: Eman Ahmed Ahmed, Ghada Abdelmoneim Mohamed, Hamada Ahmed Hamada, Nagui Sobhi Nassif

Abstract:

Impaired skeletal muscle endurance may be an important causal factor in the development of patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS). However, there is lack of information regarding the effect of hip versus knee muscle fatigue on isokinetic parameters, and myoelectric activity of hip and knee muscles in these patients. Purpose: The study was conducted to investigate the effect of hip abductors versus knee extensors fatigue protocol on knee proprioception, hip and knee muscle strength and their myoelectric activity in patients with PFPS. Methods: Fifteen female patients with PFPS participated in the study. They were tested randomly under two fatiguing conditions; hip abductors and knee extensors fatigue protocols. Isolated muscle fatigue of two muscles was induced isokinetically on the affected side in a two separate sessions with a rest interval of at least three days. After determining peak torque, patients performed continuous maximal concentric-eccentric contraction of the selected muscle until the torque output dropped below 50% of peak torque value for 3 consecutive repetitions. Knee proprioception, eccentric hip abductors' peak torque, eccentric knee extensors' peak torque, EMG ratio of vastus medialis obliquus (VMO) / vastus lateralis (VL), and EMG activity of gluteus medius (GM) muscle, were recorded before and immediately after each fatigue protocol using the Biodex Isokinetic system and EMG Myosystem. Results: Two-way within subject MANOVA revealed that eccentric knee extensors’ peak torque decreased significantly after hip abductors fatigue protocol compared to pre fatigue condition (p<0.05). On the other hand, there was no statistically significant difference in the eccentric hip abductors’ peak torque after admitting knee extensors fatigue protocol (p > 0.05). Moreover, no significant difference was found in knee proprioception, EMG ratio of VMO/VL, and EMG activity of GM muscle, after either hip or knee fatigue protocol (p>0.05). Conclusion: A hip focused rehabilitation program may be beneficial in improving knee function through correcting faulty kinematics and hence decrease knee loading in patients with PFPS.

Keywords: electromyography, knee proprioception, mechanical responses, muscle fatigue, patellofemoral pain syndrome

Procedia PDF Downloads 236