Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 93

Search results for: Encarnación Álvarez

93 The Effect of Outliers on the Economic and Social Survey on Income and Living Conditions

Authors: Encarnación Álvarez, Rosa M. García-Fernández, Francisco J. Blanco-Encomienda, Juan F. Muñoz

Abstract:

The European Union Survey on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) is a popular survey which provides information on income, poverty, social exclusion and living conditions of households and individuals in the European Union. The EUSILC contains variables which may contain outliers. The presence of outliers can have an impact on the measures and indicators used by the EU-SILC. In this paper, we used data sets from various countries to analyze the presence of outliers. In addition, we obtain some indicators after removing these outliers, and a comparison between both situations can be observed. Finally, some conclusions are obtained.

Keywords: poverty line, headcount index, risk of poverty, skewness coefficient

Procedia PDF Downloads 321
92 On Estimating the Headcount Index by Using the Logistic Regression Estimator

Authors: Encarnación Álvarez, Rosa M. García-Fernández, Juan F. Muñoz, Francisco J. Blanco-Encomienda

Abstract:

The problem of estimating a proportion has important applications in the field of economics, and in general, in many areas such as social sciences. A common application in economics is the estimation of the headcount index. In this paper, we define the general headcount index as a proportion. Furthermore, we introduce a new quantitative method for estimating the headcount index. In particular, we suggest to use the logistic regression estimator for the problem of estimating the headcount index. Assuming a real data set, results derived from Monte Carlo simulation studies indicate that the logistic regression estimator can be more accurate than the traditional estimator of the headcount index.

Keywords: poverty line, poor, risk of poverty, Monte Carlo simulations, sample

Procedia PDF Downloads 338
91 A Comparison between Empirical and Theoretical OC Curves Related to Acceptance Sampling for Attributes

Authors: Encarnacion Alvarez, Noemı Hidalgo-Rebollo, Juan F. Munoz, Francisco J. Blanco-Encomienda

Abstract:

Many companies use the technique named as acceptance sampling which consists on the inspection and decision making regarding products. According to the results derived from this method, the company takes the decision of acceptance or rejection of a product. The acceptance sampling can be applied to the technology management, since the acceptance sampling can be seen as a tool to improve the design planning, operation and control of technological products. The theoretical operating characteristic (OC) curves are widely used when dealing with acceptance sampling. In this paper, we carry out Monte Carlo simulation studies to compare numerically the empirical OC curves derived from the empirical results to the customary theoretical OC curves. We analyze various possible scenarios in such a way that the differences between the empirical and theoretical curves can be observed under different situations.

Keywords: single-sampling plan, lot, Monte Carlo simulation, quality control

Procedia PDF Downloads 382
90 Economic Design of a Quality Control Chart for the Proportion of Defective Items

Authors: Encarnación Álvarez-Verdejo, Raúl Amor-Pulido, Pablo J. Moya-Fernández, Juan F. Muñoz-Rosas, Francisco J. Blanco-Encomienda

Abstract:

Many companies use the statistical tool named as statistical quality control, and which can have a high cost for the companies interested on these statistical tools. The evaluation of the quality of products and services is an important topic, but the reduction of the cost of the implantation of the statistical quality control also has important benefits for the companies. For this reason, it is important to implement a economic design for the various steps included into the statistical quality control. In this paper, we describe some relevant aspects related to the economic design of a quality control chart for the proportion of defective items. They are very important because the suggested issues can reduce the cost of implementing a quality control chart for the proportion of defective items. Note that the main purpose of this chart is to evaluate and control the proportion of defective items of a production process.

Keywords: proportion, type I error, economic plan, distribution function

Procedia PDF Downloads 309
89 A New Method to Estimate the Low Income Proportion: Monte Carlo Simulations

Authors: Encarnación Álvarez, Rosa M. García-Fernández, Juan F. Muñoz

Abstract:

Estimation of a proportion has many applications in economics and social studies. A common application is the estimation of the low income proportion, which gives the proportion of people classified as poor into a population. In this paper, we present this poverty indicator and propose to use the logistic regression estimator for the problem of estimating the low income proportion. Various sampling designs are presented. Assuming a real data set obtained from the European Survey on Income and Living Conditions, Monte Carlo simulation studies are carried out to analyze the empirical performance of the logistic regression estimator under the various sampling designs considered in this paper. Results derived from Monte Carlo simulation studies indicate that the logistic regression estimator can be more accurate than the customary estimator under the various sampling designs considered in this paper. The stratified sampling design can also provide more accurate results.

Keywords: poverty line, risk of poverty, auxiliary variable, ratio method

Procedia PDF Downloads 329
88 On Estimating the Low Income Proportion with Several Auxiliary Variables

Authors: Juan F. Muñoz-Rosas, Rosa M. García-Fernández, Encarnación Álvarez-Verdejo, Pablo J. Moya-Fernández

Abstract:

Poverty measurement is a very important topic in many studies in social sciences. One of the most important indicators when measuring poverty is the low income proportion. This indicator gives the proportion of people of a population classified as poor. This indicator is generally unknown, and for this reason, it is estimated by using survey data, which are obtained by official surveys carried out by many statistical agencies such as Eurostat. The main feature of the mentioned survey data is the fact that they contain several variables. The variable used to estimate the low income proportion is called as the variable of interest. The survey data may contain several additional variables, also named as the auxiliary variables, related to the variable of interest, and if this is the situation, they could be used to improve the estimation of the low income proportion. In this paper, we use Monte Carlo simulation studies to analyze numerically the performance of estimators based on several auxiliary variables. In this simulation study, we considered real data sets obtained from the 2011 European Union Survey on Income and Living Condition. Results derived from this study indicate that the estimators based on auxiliary variables are more accurate than the naive estimator.

Keywords: inclusion probability, poverty, poverty line, survey sampling

Procedia PDF Downloads 327
87 One vs. Rest and Error Correcting Output Codes Principled Rebalancing Schemes for Solving Imbalanced Multiclass Problems

Authors: Alvaro Callejas-Ramos, Lorena Alvarez-Perez, Alexander Benitez-Buenache, Anibal R. Figueiras-Vidal

Abstract:

This contribution presents a promising formulation which allows to extend the principled binary rebalancing procedures, also known as neutral re-balancing mechanisms in the sense that they do not alter the likelihood ratio

Keywords: Bregman divergences, imbalanced multiclass classifi-cation, informed re-balancing, invariant likelihood ratio

Procedia PDF Downloads 85
86 Integration of LCA and BIM for Sustainable Construction

Authors: Laura Álvarez Antón, Joaquín Díaz

Abstract:

The construction industry is turning towards sustainability. It is a well-known fact that sustainability is based on a balance between environmental, social and economic aspects. In order to achieve sustainability efficiently, these three criteria should be taken into account in the initial project phases, since that is when a project can be influenced most effectively. Thus the aim must be to integrate important tools like BIM and LCA at an early stage in order to make full use of their potential. With the synergies resulting from the integration of BIM and LCA, a wider approach to sustainability becomes possible, covering the three pillars of sustainability.

Keywords: building information modeling (BIM), construction industry, design phase, life cycle assessment (LCA), sustainability

Procedia PDF Downloads 338
85 Gender Diversity on the Board and Asymmetry Information: An Empirical Analysis for Spanish Listed Firms

Authors: David Abad, M. Encarnación Lucas-Pérez, Antonio Minguez-Vera, José Yagüe

Abstract:

We examine explicitly the relation between the gender diversity on corporate boards and the levels of information asymmetry in the stock market. Based on prior evidence that suggests that the presence of women on director boards increases the quantity and quality of public disclosure by firms, we expect firms with higher gender diversity on their boards to show lower levels of information asymmetry in the market. Using a Spanish sample for the period 2004-2009, proxies for information asymmetry estimated from high-frequency data, and a system GMM methodology, we find that the gender diversity on boards is negative associated with the level of information asymmetry in the stock market. Our findings support legislative changes implemented to increase the presence of women on boards in several European countries by providing evidence that gender diverse boards have beneficial effects on stock markets.

Keywords: corporate board, female directors, gender diversity, information asymmetry, market microstructure

Procedia PDF Downloads 373
84 Touching Interaction: An NFC-RFID Combination

Authors: Eduardo Álvarez, Gerardo Quiroga, Jorge Orozco, Gabriel Chavira

Abstract:

AmI proposes a new way of thinking about computers, which follows the ideas of the Ubiquitous Computing vision of Mark Weiser. In these, there is what is known as a Disappearing Computer Initiative, with users immersed in intelligent environments. Hence, technologies need to be adapted so that they are capable of replacing the traditional inputs to the system by embedding these in every-day artifacts. In this work, we present an approach, which uses Radiofrequency Identification (RFID) and Near Field Communication (NFC) technologies. In the latter, a new form of interaction appears by contact. We compare both technologies by analyzing their requirements and advantages. In addition, we propose using a combination of RFID and NFC.

Keywords: touching interaction, ambient intelligence, ubiquitous computing, interaction, NFC and RFID

Procedia PDF Downloads 350
83 Comparison of Air Quality in 2019 and 2020 in the Campuses of the University of the Basque Country

Authors: Elisabete Alberdi, Irantzu Álvarez, Nerea Astigarraga, Heber Hernández

Abstract:

The purpose of this research work is to study the emissions of certain substances that contribute to air pollution and, as far as possible, to try to eliminate or reduce them, to avoid damage to both health and the environment. This work focuses on analyzing and comparing air quality in 2019 and 2020 in the Autonomous Community of the Basque Country, especially near the UPV/EHU campuses. We use Geostatistics to develop a spatial model and to analyse the levels of pollutants in those areas where the scope of the monitoring stations is limited. Finally, different more sustainable transport alternatives for users have been proposed.

Keywords: air quality, pollutants, monitoring stations, environment, geostatistics

Procedia PDF Downloads 91
82 The Effects of Wealth on Eco-Centric and Anthropocentric Environmentalism: A Statistical Approach Using the World Values Survey

Authors: Rubi Alvarez-Rodriguez

Abstract:

Traditionally, eco-centric and anthropocentric forms of environmentalism have been seen as mutually exclusive. While eco-centrism focuses on global environmental issues, anthropocentrism is concerned with local ones. The objective of this paper is to characterize the relationship between eco-centric and anthropocentric attitudes across 43 countries. This study analysed secondary data from the 2005 World Values Survey, using a standard linear regression approach. It is shown that eco-centric and anthropocentric attitudes are not mutually exclusive and that the predominance of one over the other is best predicted by a country’s level of wealth.

Keywords: anthropocentrism, eco-centrism, pro-environmental attitudes, wealth

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
81 Health Status Monitoring of COVID-19 Patient's through Blood Tests and Naïve-Bayes

Authors: Carlos Arias-Alcaide, Cristina Soguero-Ruiz, Paloma Santos-Álvarez, Adrián García-Romero, Inmaculada Mora-Jiménez

Abstract:

Analysing clinical data with computers in such a way that have an impact on the practitioners’ workflow is a challenge nowadays. This paper provides a first approach for monitoring the health status of COVID-19 patients through the use of some biomarkers (blood tests) and the simplest Naïve Bayes classifier. Data of two Spanish hospitals were considered, showing the potential of our approach to estimate reasonable posterior probabilities even some days before the event.

Keywords: Bayesian model, blood biomarkers, classification, health tracing, machine learning, posterior probability

Procedia PDF Downloads 80
80 Traffic Study and Proposal for a Bike Lane for the University of the Basque Country

Authors: Elisabete Alberdi, Irantzu Álvarez, Laura Girón

Abstract:

The objective of this work is to propose a cycle path or network of paths to the UPV/EHU Campus in Leioa. The proposal will be presented from the point of view of sustainability. In order to achieve this, the roads that are already built will be used, and the road or network will be proposed to be built with the least amount of money possible. To select the most suitable route for the bike lane, various sources of information have been used. Through this data, we analyse the transport infrastructure and the mobility around the UPV/EHU Campus in Leioa. This work aims to satisfy the mobility needs of users on the University Campus to contribute to the sustainability of the campus.

Keywords: cycle lane, sustainability, accessibility, transport, agenda 2030

Procedia PDF Downloads 96
79 Neural Correlates of Arabic Digits Naming

Authors: Fernando Ojedo, Alejandro Alvarez, Pedro Macizo

Abstract:

In the present study, we explored electrophysiological correlates of Arabic digits naming to determine semantic processing of numbers. Participants named Arabic digits grouped by category or intermixed with exemplars of other semantic categories while the N400 event-related potential was examined. Around 350-450 ms after the presentation of Arabic digits, brain waves were more positive in anterior regions and more negative in posterior regions when stimuli were grouped by category relative to the mixed condition. Contrary to what was found in other studies, electrophysiological results suggested that the production of numerals involved semantic mediation.

Keywords: Arabic digit naming, event-related potentials, semantic processing, number production

Procedia PDF Downloads 270
78 Evidence from the Field: The Case Study of Golitos as an Effective Soccer Program for Autism Spectrum Disorder Children

Authors: J. O. Alvarez, L. Y. Rivera

Abstract:

Physical activity can reduce symptomatology in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The sport of soccer has been widely applied as a therapeutic method for ASD children. However, empirical results from soccer programs are not widely known. This paper presents the case study of Golitos, the only dedicated soccer program for children on the island of Puerto Rico, and analyzes its results in the reduction of ASD social and emotional symptoms. The paper shows evidence that suggests that program approach, content, and community-based elements can make a notable difference in the effectiveness of using soccer or sports as therapeutic methods for children with ASD.

Keywords: autism, soccer, program, community

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
77 Choice of Sleeper and Rail Fastening Using Linear Programming Technique

Authors: Luciano Oliveira, Elsa Vásquez-Alvarez

Abstract:

The increase in rail freight transport in Brazil in recent years requires new railway lines and the maintenance of existing ones, which generates high costs for concessionaires. It is in this context that this work is inserted, whose objective is to propose a method that uses Binary Linear Programming for the choice of sleeper and rail fastening, from various options, including the way to apply these materials, with focus to minimize costs. Unit value information, the life cycle each of material type, and service expenses are considered. The model was implemented in commercial software using real data for its validation. The formulated model can be replicated to support decision-making for other railway projects in the choice of sleepers and rail fastening with lowest cost.

Keywords: linear programming, rail fastening, rail sleeper, railway

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
76 Touch Interaction through Tagging Context

Authors: Gabriel Chavira, Jorge Orozco, Salvador Nava, Eduardo Álvarez, Julio Rolón, Roberto Pichardo

Abstract:

Ambient Intelligence promotes a shift in computing which involves fitting-out the environments with devices to support context-aware applications. One of main objectives is the reduction to a minimum of the user’s interactive effort, the diversity and quantity of devices with which people are surrounded with, in existing environments; increase the level of difficulty to achieve this goal. The mobile phones and their amazing global penetration, makes it an excellent device for delivering new services to the user, without requiring a learning effort. The environment will have to be able to perceive all of the interaction techniques. In this paper, we present the PICTAC model (Perceiving touch Interaction through TAgging Context), which similarly delivers service to members of a research group.

Keywords: ambient intelligence, tagging context, touch interaction, touching services

Procedia PDF Downloads 296
75 The Anti-Obesity Effects of the Aqueous and Ethanolic Leaf Extracts of Blumea balsamifera on Diet-Induced Obese Sprague-Dawley Rats

Authors: Mae Genevieve G. Cheung, Michael G. Cuevas, Lovely Fe L. Cuison, Elijin P. Dai, Katrina Marie S. Duron, Azalea Damaris E. Encarnacion, May T. Magtoto, Gina C. Castro

Abstract:

The present study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of Blumea balsamifera in reducing obesity on diet-induced obese Sprague-Dawley rats. Aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts were obtained by maceration and percolation, respectively, of air-dried, grinded leaves. The test animals were given a high fat diet (HFD) for 21 days, except for one negative control group fed with a standard diet (SD). The Blumea balsamifera extracts were given at doses of 300 mg/Kg and 600 mg/Kg for BBAE and BBEE groups, and the positive control group, Orlistat, was given at 21.6 mg/Kg dose. After 24 days of treatment, the statistical difference of parameters such as Lee’s index and lipid profile of each group before and after the treatment period were determined separately using Tukey’s test of two-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The statistical results showed that the600mg/kg dose of BBAE and BBEE had greatly lowered the Lee’s index among the other doses while the 300 mg/Kg dose BBEE, 600 mg/Kg BBAE, and 300 mg/kg BBAE lowered the total cholesterol level, LDL level, and VLDL and total triglyceride level respectively. The extracts, however, lowered the HDL level which was also exhibited by the standard drug, Orlistat.

Keywords: adipocytes, adipogenesis, Blumea balsamifera, Lee’s index, obesity, Sambong

Procedia PDF Downloads 294
74 Conical Spouted Bed Combustor for Combustion of Vine Shoots Wastes

Authors: M. J. San José, S. Alvarez, R. López

Abstract:

In order to prove the applicability of a conical spouted bed combustor for the thermal exploitation of vineyard pruning wastes, the flow regimes of beds consisting of vine shoot beds and an inert bed were established under different operating conditions. The effect of inlet air temperature on the minimum spouted velocity was evaluated. Batch combustion of vine shoots in a conical spouted bed combustor was conducted at temperatures in the range 425-550 ºC with an inert bed. The experimental values of combustion efficiency of vine shoot calculated from the concentration the exhaust gases were assessed. The high experimental combustion efficiency obtained evidenced the proper suitability of the conical spouted bed combustor for the thermal combustion of vine shoots.

Keywords: biomass wastes, thermal combustion, conical spouted beds, vineyard wastes

Procedia PDF Downloads 115
73 Renewable Energy System Eolic-Photovoltaic for the Touristic Center La Tranca-Chordeleg in Ecuador

Authors: Christian Castro Samaniego, Daniel Icaza Alvarez, Juan Portoviejo Brito

Abstract:

For this research work, hybrid wind-photovoltaic (SHEF) systems were considered as renewable energy sources that take advantage of wind energy and solar radiation to transform into electrical energy. In the present research work, the feasibility of a wind-photovoltaic hybrid generation system was analyzed for the La Tranca tourist viewpoint of the Chordeleg canton in Ecuador. The research process consisted of the collection of data on solar radiation, temperature, wind speed among others by means of a meteorological station. Simulations were carried out in MATLAB/Simulink based on a mathematical model. In the end, we compared the theoretical radiation-power curves and the measurements made at the site.

Keywords: hybrid system, wind turbine, modeling, simulation, validation, experimental data, panel, Ecuador

Procedia PDF Downloads 158
72 Model Based Development of a Processing Map for Friction Stir Welding of AA7075

Authors: Elizabeth Hoyos, Hernán Alvarez, Diana Lopez, Yesid Montoya

Abstract:

The main goal of this research relates to the modeling of FSW from a different or unusual perspective coming from mechanical engineering, particularly looking for a way to establish process windows by assessing soundness of the joints as a priority and with the added advantage of lower computational time. This paper presents the use of a previously developed model applied to specific aspects of soundness evaluation of AA7075 FSW welds. EMSO software (Environment for Modeling, Simulation, and Optimization) was used for simulation and an adapted CNC machine was used for actual welding. This model based approach showed good agreement with the experimental data, from which it is possible to set a window of operation for commercial aluminum alloy AA7075, all with low computational costs and employing simple quality indicators that can be used by non-specialized users in process modeling.

Keywords: aluminum AA7075, friction stir welding, phenomenological based semiphysical model, processing map

Procedia PDF Downloads 178
71 Learning through Gaming with Mobile Devices

Authors: Luis Rodrigo Valencia Pérez, Juan Manuel Peña Aguilar, Adelina Morita Alexander, Alberto Lamadrid Alvarez, Héctor Fernando Valencia Pérez

Abstract:

Financial education is among the areas of opportunity in the Spanish-speaking from an early age to high school, through mobile devices such as cell phones and tablets using ludic and fun applications like interactive games, children can learn money management and investment through time, thereby fostering the habit of saving and/or sound management of cash and family business resources, having interaction with an uncontrolled environment such as the involvement of other players in the external decisions of the environment in which the game is play. The application proposed in Phase 1 (design and development) was designed in multi-user environments, under methodologies of hybrid programming for any platform on the market and designed under CMMI standards that allow for quality production over time, following up on these improvements counting with continuous user feedback and usage statistics.

Keywords: mobile educational games, ludic games, children, multiuser, design and software development

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
70 Addressing the Exorbitant Cost of Labeling Medical Images with Active Learning

Authors: Saba Rahimi, Ozan Oktay, Javier Alvarez-Valle, Sujeeth Bharadwaj

Abstract:

Successful application of deep learning in medical image analysis necessitates unprecedented amounts of labeled training data. Unlike conventional 2D applications, radiological images can be three-dimensional (e.g., CT, MRI), consisting of many instances within each image. The problem is exacerbated when expert annotations are required for effective pixel-wise labeling, which incurs exorbitant labeling effort and cost. Active learning is an established research domain that aims to reduce labeling workload by prioritizing a subset of informative unlabeled examples to annotate. Our contribution is a cost-effective approach for U-Net 3D models that uses Monte Carlo sampling to analyze pixel-wise uncertainty. Experiments on the AAPM 2017 lung CT segmentation challenge dataset show that our proposed framework can achieve promising segmentation results by using only 42% of the training data.

Keywords: image segmentation, active learning, convolutional neural network, 3D U-Net

Procedia PDF Downloads 68
69 An AFM Approach of RBC Micro and Nanoscale Topographic Features During Storage

Authors: K. Santacruz-Gomez, E. Silva-Campa, S. Álvarez-García, V. Mata-Haro, D. Soto-Puebla, M. Pedroza-Montero

Abstract:

Blood gamma irradiation is the only available method to prevent transfusion-associated graft versus host disease (TA-GVHD). However, when blood is irradiated, determine blood shelf time is crucial. Non-irradiated blood has a self-time from 21 to 35 days when is preserved with an anticoagulated solution and stored at 4°C. During their storage, red blood cells (RBC) undergo a series of biochemical, biomechanical and molecular changes involving what is known as storage lesion (SL). SL include loss of structural integrity of RBC, a decrease of 2,3-diphosphatidylglyceric acid levels, and an increase of both ion potassium concentration and hemoglobin (Hb). On the other hand, Atomic force Microscopy (AFM) represents a versatile tool for a nano-scale high-resolution topographic analysis in biological systems. In order to evaluate SL in irradiated and non-irradiated blood, RBC topography and morphometric parameters were obtained from an AFM XE-BIO system. Cell viability was followed using flow cytometry. Our results showed that early markers as nanoscale roughness, allow us to evaluate blood quality since another perspective.

Keywords: AFM, blood γ-irradiation, roughness, storage lesion

Procedia PDF Downloads 435
68 Application of Transform Fourier for Dynamic Control of Structures with Global Positioning System

Authors: J. M. de Luis Ruiz, P. M. Sierra García, R. P. García, R. P. Álvarez, F. P. García, E. C. López

Abstract:

Given the evolution of viaducts, structural health monitoring requires more complex techniques to define their state. two alternatives can be distinguished: experimental and operational modal analysis. Although accelerometers or Global Positioning System (GPS) have been applied for the monitoring of structures under exploitation, the dynamic monitoring during the stage of construction is not common. This research analyzes whether GPS data can be applied to certain dynamic geometric controls of evolving structures. The fundamentals of this work were applied to the New Bridge of Cádiz (Spain), a worldwide milestone in bridge building. GPS data were recorded with an interval of 1 second during the erection of segments and turned to the frequency domain with Fourier transform. The vibration period and amplitude were contrasted with those provided by the finite element model, with differences of less than 10%, which is admissible. This process provides a vibration record of the structure with GPS, avoiding specific equipment.

Keywords: Fourier transform, global position system, operational modal analysis, structural health monitoring

Procedia PDF Downloads 144
67 A Literature Review on the Effect of Industrial Clusters and the Absorptive Capacity on Innovation

Authors: Enrique Claver Cortés, Bartolomé Marco Lajara, Eduardo Sánchez García, Pedro Seva Larrosa, Encarnación Manresa Marhuenda, Lorena Ruiz Fernández, Esther Poveda Pareja

Abstract:

In recent decades, the analysis of the effects of clustering as an essential factor for the development of innovations and the competitiveness of enterprises has raised great interest in different areas. Nowadays, companies have access to almost all tangible and intangible resources located and/or developed in any country in the world. However, despite the obvious advantages that this situation entails for companies, their geographical location has shown itself, increasingly clearly, to be a fundamental factor that positively influences their innovative performance and competitiveness. Industrial clusters could represent a unique level of analysis, positioned between the individual company and the industry, which makes them an ideal unit of analysis to determine the effects derived from company membership of a cluster. Also, the absorptive capacity (hereinafter 'AC') can mediate the process of innovation development by companies located in a cluster. The transformation and exploitation of knowledge could have a mediating effect between knowledge acquisition and innovative performance. The main objective of this work is to determine the key factors that affect the degree of generation and use of knowledge from the environment by companies and, consequently, their innovative performance and competitiveness. The elements analyzed are the companies' membership of a cluster and the AC. To this end, 30 most relevant papers published on this subject in the "Web of Science" database have been reviewed. Our findings show that, within a cluster, the knowledge coming from the companies' environment can significantly influence their innovative performance and competitiveness, although in this relationship, the degree of access and exploitation of the companies to this knowledge plays a fundamental role, which depends on a series of elements both internal and external to the company.

Keywords: absorptive capacity, clusters, innovation, knowledge

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
66 Asymmetric Warfare: Exploratory Study of the Implicit Defense Strategy of the People's Republic of China in 2012-2016

Authors: María Victoria Alvarez Magañini, Lautaro Nahuel Rubbi

Abstract:

According to different theories, the hegemonic war between the United States and the People's Republic of China seems to be imminent. However, nowadays, it is clear that China's conventional military capacity is inferior to that of the United States. Nevertheless, the conditions that in the past were considered to be an indicator of validity in asymmetrical warfare, at present, in a possible asymmetric war scenario, are no longer considered to be taken as such. The military capacity is not the only concept that represents the main indicator of victory. The organisation and the use of forces are also an essential part of it. The present paper aims to analyze the Chinese Defense Strategy in relation to the concept of asymmetric warfare in the face of a possible war with the United States. The starting point will be developed on the basis of application of the theory which corresponds to the concept aforementioned making focus on recent developments of the People’s Republic of China in the field of non-conventional defense. A comparative analysis of the conventional forces of both powers/countries will also be carried out.

Keywords: asymmetric warfare, China, United States, hegemonic warfare

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
65 A Novel Photocrosslinkable and Cytocompatible Chitosan Coating for TI6AL4V Surfaces

Authors: D. Zujur, J. Moret, D. Rodriguez, L. Cruz, J. Lira, L. Gil, E. Dominguez, J. F. Alvarez-Barreto

Abstract:

In this work, chitosan (CH) has been used to produce a novel coating for Ti6Al4V, the most widely used alloy in orthopedic implants, so as to improve the biological tissue response at the metallic surface. The Ti6Al4V surface was sandblasted with alumina particles and observed by SEM. Chitosan was chemically modified, via crodiimide chemistry, with lactobionic and 4-azidebenzoic acid to make it soluble at physiological pH and photo-crosslinkable, respectively. The reaction was verified by FTIR, NMR, and UV/vis spectroscopy. Ti6Al4V surfaces were coated with solutions of the modified CH and exposed to UV light, causing the polymer crosslinking, and formation of a hydrogel on the surface. The crosslinking reaction was monitored by FTIR at different exposure times. Coating morphology was observed by SEM. The coating´s cytocompatibility was determined in vitro through the culture of rat bone marrow´s mesenchymal stem cells, using an MTT assay. The results show that the developed coating is cytocompatible, easy to apply and could be used for further studies in the encapsulation of bioactive molecules to improve osteogenic potential at the tissue-implant interface.

Keywords: chitosan, photo-crosslinking, Ti6Al4V, bioactive coating, hydrogel

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
64 Synthesis and Characterization of Ferromagnetic Ni-Cu Alloys for Thermal Rectification Applications

Authors: Josue Javier Martinez Flores, Jaime Alvarez Quintana

Abstract:

A thermal rectifier consists of a device which can load a different heat flow which depends on the direction of that flow. That device is a thermal diode. It is well known that heat transfer in solids basically depends on the electrical, magnetic and crystalline nature of materials via electrons, magnons and phonons as thermal energy carriers respectively. In the present research, we have synthesized polycrystalline Ni-Cu alloys and identified the Curie temperatures; and we have observed that by way of secondary phase transitions, it is possible manipulate the heat conduction in solid state thermal diodes via transition temperature. In this sense, we have succeeded in developing solid state thermal diodes with a control gate through the Curie temperature via the activation and deactivation of magnons in Ni-Cu ferromagnetic alloys at room temperature. Results show thermal diodes with thermal rectification factors up to 1.5. Besides, the performance of the electrical rectifiers can be controlled by way of alloy Cu content; hence, lower Cu content alloys present enhanced thermal rectifications factors than higher ones.

Keywords: thermal rectification, Curie temperature, ferromagnetic alloys, magnons

Procedia PDF Downloads 166