Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 38

Search results for: naval

38 A Unified Approach for Naval Telecommunication Architectures

Authors: Y. Lacroix, J.-F. Malbranque


We present a chronological evolution for naval telecommunication networks. We distinguish periods: with or without multiplexers, with switch systems, with federative systems, with medium switching, and with medium switching with wireless networks. This highlights the introduction of new layers and technology in the architecture. These architectures are presented using layer models of transmission, in a unified way, which enables us to integrate pre-existing models. A ship of a naval fleet has internal communications (i.e. applications' networks of the edge) and external communications (i.e. the use of the means of transmission between edges). We propose architectures, deduced from the layer model, which are the point of convergence between the networks on board and the HF, UHF radio, and satellite resources. This modelling allows to consider end-to-end naval communications, and in a more global way, that is from the user on board towards the user on shore, including transmission and networks on the shore side. The new architectures need take care of quality of services for end-to-end communications, the more remote control develops a lot and will do so in the future. Naval telecommunications will be more and more complex and will use more and more advanced technologies, it will thus be necessary to establish clear global communication schemes to grant consistency of the architectures. Our latest model has been implemented in a military naval situation, and serves as the basic architecture for the RIFAN2 network.

Keywords: equilibrium beach profile, eastern tombolo of Giens, potential function, erosion

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37 Studies of the Corrosion Kinetics of Metal Alloys in Stagnant Simulated Seawater Environment

Authors: G. Kabir, A. M. Mohammed, M. A. Bawa


The paper presents corrosion behaviors of Naval Brass, aluminum alloy and carbon steel in simulated seawater under stagnant conditions. The behaviors were characterized on the variation of chloride ions concentration in the range of 3.0wt% and 3.5wt% and exposure time. The weight loss coupon-method immersion technique was employed. The weight loss for the various alloys was measured. Based on the obtained results, the corrosion rate was determined. It was found that the corrosion rates of the various alloys are related to the chloride ions concentrations, exposure time and kinetics of passive film formation of the various alloys. Carbon steel, suffers corrosion many folds more than Naval Brass. This indicated that the alloy exhibited relatively strong resistance to corrosion in the exposure environment of the seawater. Whereas, the aluminum alloy exhibited an excellent and beneficial resistance to corrosion more than the Naval Brass studied. Despite the prohibitive cost, Naval Brass and aluminum alloy, indicated to have beneficial corrosion behavior that can offer wide range of application in seashore operations. The corrosion kinetics parameters indicated that the corrosion reaction is limited by diffusion mass transfer of the corrosion reaction elements and not by reaction controlled.

Keywords: alloys, chloride ions concentration, corrosion kinetics, corrosion rate, diffusion mass transfer, exposure time, seawater, weight loss

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36 Preliminary Design of Maritime Energy Management System: Naval Architectural Approach to Resolve Recent Limitations

Authors: Seyong Jeong, Jinmo Park, Jinhyoun Park, Boram Kim, Kyoungsoo Ahn


Energy management in the maritime industry is being required by economics and in conformity with new legislative actions taken by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and the European Union (EU). In response, the various performance monitoring methodologies and data collection practices have been examined by different stakeholders. While many assorted advancements in operation and technology are applicable, their adoption in the shipping industry stays small. This slow uptake can be considered due to many different barriers such as data analysis problems, misreported data, and feedback problems, etc. This study presents a conceptual design of an energy management system (EMS) and proposes the methodology to resolve the limitations (e.g., data normalization using naval architectural evaluation, management of misrepresented data, and feedback from shore to ship through management of performance analysis history). We expect this system to make even short-term charterers assess the ship performance properly and implement sustainable fleet control.

Keywords: data normalization, energy management system, naval architectural evaluation, ship performance analysis

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35 Introduction of the Fluid-Structure Coupling into the Force Analysis Technique

Authors: Océane Grosset, Charles Pézerat, Jean-Hugh Thomas, Frédéric Ablitzer


This paper presents a method to take into account the fluid-structure coupling into an inverse method, the Force Analysis Technique (FAT). The FAT method, also called RIFF method (Filtered Windowed Inverse Resolution), allows to identify the force distribution from local vibration field. In order to only identify the external force applied on a structure, it is necessary to quantify the fluid-structure coupling, especially in naval application, where the fluid is heavy. This method can be decomposed in two parts, the first one consists in identifying the fluid-structure coupling and the second one to introduced it in the FAT method to reconstruct the external force. Results of simulations on a plate coupled with a cavity filled with water are presented.

Keywords: aeroacoustics, fluid-structure coupling, inverse methods, naval, turbulent flow

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34 Military Bases and Prostitution: Olongapo City after the Bases

Authors: Karl Gerrard Tiu See


Military bases are an indelible mark of prolonged US defense relationships in the Pacific. Bases like the Subic Naval Base in Olongapo City have irreversible consequences for their host communities, not all of which are positive. One consequence the Subic Naval Base had for Olongapo City was the rise of vibrant sex industry. While the Philippine Senate voted to remove US bases like Subic in 1991, the question remains as to why did prostitution not end after the bases pull-out? To answer this question, the study used an institutionalist lens coupled with focus group discussions from the sex industry. It found that prostitution persisted due to two main reasons. The first was that like Olongapo City; the sex industry successfully shifted its reliance from the military to foreign tourism. The second was that agreements such as the 1996 Visiting Forces Agreement (VFA) ensured that the sex industry continued to receive US military clientele. With the contextual factors as the backdrop, this study used the Theory of Institutional Change to study institutions pivotal in altering Olongapo City and its sex industry after Subic Naval Base. These include local government, civil society actors such as NGOs, and the city’s economic base. The study found that policy such as the VFA allowed the bases period status quo to revive (Symbionts). This led to renewed exploitation from the military presence coupled with foreign tourism (Opportunists). The local government, however, shifted focus away from base reliance which allowed a reinvigorated civil society to effect a gradual change (Subversives). Furthermore, uncertainties like rising HIV incidence, abandoned children born from US soldiers, and the Enhanced Defence Cooperation Agreement (EDCA) remain to change the sex industry’s future, for better or worse.

Keywords: Philippine-USA defence relations, overseas USA basing, 1991 Philippine-USA bases pull-out, Olongapo city, Subic naval base, institutional change

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33 Selecting a Foreign Country to Build a Naval Base Using a Fuzzy Hybrid Decision Support System

Authors: Latif Yanar, Muammer Kaçan


Decision support systems are getting more important in many fields of science and technology and used effectively especially when the problems to be solved are complicated with many criteria. In this kind of problems one of the main challenges for the decision makers are that sometimes they cannot produce a countable data for evaluating the criteria but the knowledge and sense of experts. In recent years, fuzzy set theory and fuzzy logic based decision models gaining more place in literature. In this study, a decision support model to determine a country to build naval base is proposed and the application of the model is performed, considering Turkish Navy by the evaluations of Turkish Navy officers and academicians of international relations departments of various Universities located in Istanbul. The results achieved from the evaluations made by the experts in our model are calculated by a decision support tool named DESTEC 1.0, which is developed by the authors using C Sharp programming language. The tool gives advices to the decision maker using Analytic Hierarchy Process, Analytic Network Process, Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process and Fuzzy Analytic Network Process all at once. The calculated results for five foreign countries are shown in the conclusion.

Keywords: decision support system, analytic hierarchy process, fuzzy analytic hierarchy process, analytic network process, fuzzy analytic network process, naval base, country selection, international relations

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32 'Sea Power: Concept, Influence and Securitization'; the Nigerian Navy's Role in a Developing State like Nigeria

Authors: William Abiodun Duyile


It is common knowledge that marine food has always been found from the sea, energy can also be found underneath and, to a growing extent; other mineral resources have come from the sea spaces. It is the importance of the sea and the sea lines of communication to littoral nations that has made concepts such as sea power, naval power, etc., significant to them. The study relied on documentary data. The documentary data were sourced from government annual departmental reports, newspapers and correspondence. The secondary sources used were subjected to internal and external criticism for authentication, and then to textual and contextual analyses. The study found that the differential level of seamanship amongst states defined their relationship. It was sea power that gave some states an edge over the others. The study proves that over the ages sea power has been core to the development of States or Empires. The study found that the Nigerian Navy was centre to Nigeria’s conquest of the littoral areas of Biafra, like Bonny, Port-Harcourt, and Calabar; it was also an important turning point of the Nigerian civil war since by it Biafra became landlocked. The research was able to identify succinctly the Nigerian Navy’s contribution to the security and development of the Nigerian State.

Keywords: sea power, naval power, land locked states, warship

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31 The Sea Striker: The Relevance of Small Assets Using an Integrated Conception with Operational Performance Computations

Authors: Gaëtan Calvar, Christophe Bouvier, Alexis Blasselle


This paper presents the Sea Striker, a compact hydrofoil designed with the goal to address some of the issues raised by the recent evolutions of naval missions, threats and operation theatres in modern warfare. Able to perform a wide range of operations, the Sea Striker is a 40-meter stealth surface combatant equipped with a gas turbine and aft and forward foils to reach high speeds. The Sea Striker's stealthiness is enabled by the combination of composite structure, exterior design, and the advanced integration of sensors. The ship is fitted with a powerful and adaptable combat system, ensuring a versatile and efficient response to modern threats. Lightly Manned with a core crew of 10, this hydrofoil is highly automated and can be remoted pilote for special force operation or transit. Such a kind of ship is not new: it has been used in the past by different navies, for example, by the US Navy with the USS Pegasus. Nevertheless, the recent evolutions in science and technologies on the one hand, and the emergence of new missions, threats and operation theatres, on the other hand, put forward its concept as an answer to nowadays operational challenges. Indeed, even if multiples opinions and analyses can be given regarding the modern warfare and naval surface operations, general observations and tendencies can be drawn such as the major increase in the sensors and weapons types and ranges and, more generally, capacities; the emergence of new versatile and evolving threats and enemies, such as asymmetric groups, swarm drones or hypersonic missile; or the growing number of operation theatres located in more coastal and shallow waters. These researches were performed with a complete study of the ship after several operational performance computations in order to justify the relevance of using ships like the Sea Striker in naval surface operations. For the selected scenarios, the conception process enabled to measure the performance, namely a “Measure of Efficiency” in the NATO framework for 2 different kinds of models: A centralized, classic model, using large and powerful ships; and A distributed model relying on several Sea Strikers. After this stage, a was performed. Lethal, agile, stealth, compact and fitted with a complete set of sensors, the Sea Striker is a new major player in modern warfare and constitutes a very attractive response between the naval unit and the combat helicopter, enabling to reach high operational performances at a reduced cost.

Keywords: surface combatant, compact, hydrofoil, stealth, velocity, lethal

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30 Infilling Strategies for Surrogate Model Based Multi-disciplinary Analysis and Applications to Velocity Prediction Programs

Authors: Malo Pocheau-Lesteven, Olivier Le Maître


Engineering and optimisation of complex systems is often achieved through multi-disciplinary analysis of the system, where each subsystem is modeled and interacts with other subsystems to model the complete system. The coherence of the output of the different sub-systems is achieved through the use of compatibility constraints, which enforce the coupling between the different subsystems. Due to the complexity of some sub-systems and the computational cost of evaluating their respective models, it is often necessary to build surrogate models of these subsystems to allow repeated evaluation these subsystems at a relatively low computational cost. In this paper, gaussian processes are used, as their probabilistic nature is leveraged to evaluate the likelihood of satisfying the compatibility constraints. This paper presents infilling strategies to build accurate surrogate models of the subsystems in areas where they are likely to meet the compatibility constraint. It is shown that these infilling strategies can reduce the computational cost of building surrogate models for a given level of accuracy. An application of these methods to velocity prediction programs used in offshore racing naval architecture further demonstrates these method's applicability in a real engineering context. Also, some examples of the application of uncertainty quantification to field of naval architecture are presented.

Keywords: infilling strategy, gaussian process, multi disciplinary analysis, velocity prediction program

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29 A Fuzzy Hybrıd Decısıon Support System for Naval Base Place Selectıon in a Foreıgn Country

Authors: Latif Yanar, Muharrem Kaçan


In this study, an Analytic Hierarchy Process and Analytic Network Process Decision Support System (DSS) model for determination of a navy base place in another country is proposed together with a decision support software (DESTEC 1.0) developed using C Sharp programming language. The proposed software also has the ability of performing the fuzzy models (Fuzzy AHP and Fuzzy ANP) of the proposed DSS to cope with the ambiguous and linguistic nature of the model. The AHP and ANP model, for a decision support for selecting the best place among the alternatives, including the criteria and alternatives, is developed and solved by the experts from Turkish Navy and Turkish academicians related to international relations branches of the universities in Turkey. Also, the questionnaires used for weighting of the criteria and the alternatives are filled by these experts.Some of our alternatives are: economic and political stability of the third country, the effect of another super power in that country, historical relations, security in that country, social facilities in the city in which the base will be built, the transportation security and difficulty from a main city that have an airport to the city will have the base etc. Over 20 criteria like these are determined which are categorized in social, political, economic and military aspects. As a result all the criteria and three alternatives are evaluated by different people who have background and experience to weight the criteria and alternatives as it must be in AHP and ANP evaluation system. The alternatives got their degrees all between 0 – 1 and the total is 1. At the end the DSS advices one of the alternatives as the best one to the decision maker according to the developed model and the evaluations of the experts.

Keywords: analytic hierarchical process, analytic network process, fuzzy logic, naval base place selection, multiple criteria decision making

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28 Human Factors Interventions for Risk and Reliability Management of Defence Systems

Authors: Chitra Rajagopal, Indra Deo Kumar, Ila Chauhan, Ruchi Joshi, Binoy Bhargavan


Reliability and safety are essential for the success of mission-critical and safety-critical defense systems. Humans are part of the entire life cycle of defense systems development and deployment. The majority of industrial accidents or disasters are attributed to human errors. Therefore, considerations of human performance and human reliability are critical in all complex systems, including defense systems. Defense systems are operating from the ground, naval and aerial platforms in diverse conditions impose unique physical and psychological challenges to the human operators. Some of the safety and mission-critical defense systems with human-machine interactions are fighter planes, submarines, warships, combat vehicles, aerial and naval platforms based missiles, etc. Human roles and responsibilities are also going through a transition due to the infusion of artificial intelligence and cyber technologies. Human operators, not accustomed to such challenges, are more likely to commit errors, which may lead to accidents or loss events. In such a scenario, it is imperative to understand the human factors in defense systems for better systems performance, safety, and cost-effectiveness. A case study using Task Analysis (TA) based methodology for assessment and reduction of human errors in the Air and Missile Defense System in the context of emerging technologies were presented. Action-oriented task analysis techniques such as Hierarchical Task Analysis (HTA) and Operator Action Event Tree (OAET) along with Critical Action and Decision Event Tree (CADET) for cognitive task analysis was used. Human factors assessment based on the task analysis helps in realizing safe and reliable defense systems. These techniques helped in the identification of human errors during different phases of Air and Missile Defence operations, leading to meet the requirement of a safe, reliable and cost-effective mission.

Keywords: defence systems, reliability, risk, safety

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27 Comparison of Yb and Tm-Fiber Laser Cutting Processes of Fiber Reinforced Plastics

Authors: Oktay Celenk, Ugur Karanfil, Iskender Demir, Samir Lamrini, Jorg Neumann, Arif Demir


Due to its favourable material characteristics, fiber reinforced plastics are amongst the main topics of all actual lightweight construction megatrends. Especially in transportation trends ranging from aeronautics over the automotive industry to naval transportation (yachts, cruise liners) the expected economic and environmental impact is huge. In naval transportation components like yacht bodies, antenna masts, decorative structures like deck lamps, light houses and pool areas represent cheap and robust solutions. Commercially available laser tools like carbon dioxide gas lasers (CO₂), frequency tripled solid state UV lasers, and Neodymium-YAG (Nd:YAG) lasers can be used. These tools have emission wavelengths of 10 µm, 0.355 µm, and 1.064 µm, respectively. The scientific goal is first of all the generation of a parameter matrix for laser processing of each used material for a Tm-fiber laser system (wavelength 2 µm). These parameters are the heat affected zone, process gas pressure, work piece feed velocity, intensity, irradiation time etc. The results are compared with results obtained with well-known material processing lasers, such as a Yb-fiber lasers (wavelength 1 µm). Compared to the CO₂-laser, the Tm-laser offers essential advantages for future laser processes like cutting, welding, ablating for repair and drilling in composite part manufacturing (components of cruise liners, marine pipelines). Some of these are the possibility of beam delivery in a standard fused silica fiber which enables hand guided processing, eye safety which results from the wavelength, excellent beam quality and brilliance due to the fiber nature. There is one more feature that is economically absolutely important for boat, automotive and military projects manufacturing that the wavelength of 2 µm is highly absorbed by the plastic matrix and thus enables selective removal of it for repair procedures.

Keywords: Thulium (Tm) fiber laser, laser processing of fiber-reinforced plastics (FRP), composite, heat affected zone

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26 Mechanical Design of External Pressure Vessel to an AUV

Authors: Artur Siqueira Nóbrega de Freitas


The Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUV), as well the Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROV), are unmanned technologies used in oceanographic investigations, offshore oil extraction, military applications, among others. Differently from AUVs, ROVs uses a physical connection with the surface for energy supply e data traffic. The AUVs use batteries and embedded data acquisition systems. These technologies have progressed, supported by studies in the areas of robotics, embedded systems, naval engineering, etc. This work presents a methodology for external pressure vessel design, responsible for contain and keep the internal components of the vehicle, such as on-board electronics and sensors, isolated from contact with water, creating a pressure differential between the inner and external regions.

Keywords: vessel, external pressure, AUV, buckling

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25 A 3Y/3Y Pole-Changing Winding of High-Power Asynchronous Motors

Authors: Gábor Kovács


Requirement for pole-changing motors emerged at the very early times of asynchronous motor design. Different solutions have been elaborated and some of them are generally used. An alternative is the so called 3 Y/3 Y pole-changing winding. This paper deals with high power application of this solution. A complete and comprehensive study is introduced, including features and design guidelines. The method presented in this paper is especially suitable for pole numbers being close to each other. The study also reveals that the method is more advantageous then the existing solutions for high power motors with 1:3 pole ratio. Using this motor, a new and complete drive supply system has been proposed as most appropriate arrangement of high power main naval propulsion drive. Further, the method makes possible to extend the pole ratio to 1:6, 1:9, 1:12, etc. At the end, the proposal is further extended to the here so far missing 1:4, 1:5, 1:7 etc. pole ratios. A complete proposal for the theoretically infinite range has been given in this way.

Keywords: induction motor, pole changing 3Y/3Y, pole phase modulation, pole changing 1:3, 1:6

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24 Modern Technologies and Equipment for Modular-Aggregate Installation of Shipborne Equipment

Authors: A. O. Mikhailov, N. I. Gerasimov, K. N. Morozov, I. V. Grachev


The most advanced method of onboard equipment installation on the world shipbuilding practice is modular method, or modularization. The main idea of this is assembly of equipment, pipelines and hull structures in so called assembly units yet at the shopfloor. Those assembly units are thereafter loaded and installed inside the ship's hull. This allows to reduce labour intensiveness and significantly improve assembly quality, due to the fact that a good part of installation work is performed in the shops, instead of restricted onboard premises. Also, this method allows performing equipment installation at very early stages of hull erection. This practice is widely spread in naval submarines building. However, in merchant shipbuilding, equipment is installed mostly individually. To implement modular principles of equipment installation in designing and construction of civil ships and marine rigs, some new technologies are being developed in the following areas. The paper contains main principles and already achieved results in the above mentioned areas.

Keywords: assembly and installation technology, onboard equipment installation, large-scale assembly units, modular method

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23 The Effect of Aromatherapy with Citrus aurantium Blossom Essential Oil on Premenstrual Syndrome in University Students: A Clinical Trial Study

Authors: Neda Jamalimoghadam, Naval Heydari, Maliheh Abootalebi, Maryam Kasraeian, M. Emamghoreishi , Akbarzadeh Marzieh


Background: The aim was to investigate the effect of aromatherapy using Citrus aurantium blossom essential oil on premenstrual syndrome in university students. Methods: In this double-blind clinical trial was controlled on 62 students from March 2016 to February 2017. The intervention with 0.5% of C. Aurantium blossom essential oil and control was inhalation of odorless sweet almond oil in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. The screening questionnaire (PSST) for PMSwas filled out before and also one and two months after the intervention. Results: Mean score of overall symptoms of PMS between the Bitter orange and control groups In the first (p < 0.003) and second months (p < 0.001) of the intervention was significant. Besides, decreased the mean score of psychological symptoms in the intervention group (p < 0.001), but on physical symptoms and social function were not significant (p > 0.05). Conclusion: The aromatherapy with Citrus aurantium blossom improved the symptoms of premenstrual syndrome.

Keywords: aromatherapy, Citrus Aurantium, premenstrual syndrome, oil, students

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22 Improving Communication System through Router Configuration: The Nigerian Navy Experience

Authors: Saidu I. Rambo, Emmanuel O. Ibam, Sunday O. Adewale


The configuration of routers for effective communication in the Nigerian Navy (NN) enables the navy to improve on the current communication systems. The current system is faced with challenges that make the systems partially effective. The major implementation of the system is to configure routers using hierarchical model and obtaining a VSAT option on C-band platform. These routers will act as a link between Naval Headquarters and the Commands under it. The routers main responsibilities are to forward packets from source location to destination using a Link State Routing Protocol (LSRP). Also using the Point to Point Protocol (PPP), creates a strong encrypted password using Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP) which uses one-way hash function of Message Digest 5 (MD5) to provide complete protection against hackers/intruders. Routers can be configured using a Linux operating system or internet work operating system in the Microsoft platform. With this, system packets can be forwarded to various locations more effectively than the present system being used.

Keywords: C-band, communication, router, VSAT

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21 A Macroeconomic Analysis of Defense Industry: Comparisons, Trends and Improvements in Brazil and in the World

Authors: J. Fajardo, J. Guerra, E. Gonzales


This paper will outline a study of Brazil's industrial base of defense (IDB), through a bibliographic research method, combined with an analysis of macroeconomic data from several available public data platforms. This paper begins with a brief study about Brazilian national industry, including analyzes of productivity, income, outcome and jobs. Next, the research presents a study on the defense industry in Brazil, presenting the main national companies that operate in the aeronautical, army and naval branches. After knowing the main points of the Brazilian defense industry, data on the productivity of the defense industry of the main countries and competing companies of the Brazilian industry were analyzed, in order to summarize big cases in Brazil with a comparative analysis. Concerned the methodology, were used bibliographic research and the exploration of historical data series, in order to analyze information, to get trends and to make comparisons along the time. The research is finished with the main trends for the development of the Brazilian defense industry, comparing the current situation with the point of view of several countries.

Keywords: economics of defence, industry, trends, market

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20 Development and Validation of the 'Short Form BASIC Scale' Psychotic Tendencies Subscale

Authors: Chia-Chun Wu, Ying-Yao Cheng


The purpose of this study was developing the 'short-form BASIC scale' psychotic tendencies subscale so as to provide a more efficient, economical and effective way to assess the mental health of recruits. 1749 students from Naval Recruit Training Center participated in this study. The multidimensional constructs of psychotic tendencies subscale include four dimensions: schizophrenic tendencies, manic tendencies, depression tendencies, and suicidal ideation. We cut down the 36-item psychotic tendencies subscale to 25 items by using multidimension Rasch techniques. They were applied to assess model-data fit and to provide the validity evidence of the short form BASIC scale of psychotic tendencies subscale. The person separation reliabilities of the measures from four dimensions were .70, .67, .74 and .57, respectively. In addition, there is a notable correlation between the length version and short version of schizophrenic tendencies (scaled .89), manic tendencies (.96), depression tendencies (.97) and suicidal ideation (.97). The results have indicated that the development of the study of short-form scale sufficient to replace the original scale. Therefore, it is suggested that short-form basic scale is used to assess the mental health with participants being more willing to answer questions to ensure the validation of assessments.

Keywords: BASIC scale, military, Rasch analysis, short-form scale

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19 Development of Al Foam by a Low-Cost Salt Replication Method for Industrial Applications

Authors: B. Soni, S. Biswas


Metal foams of Al find diverse applications in several industrial sectors such as in automotive and sports equipment industry as impact, acoustic and vibration absorbers, the aerospace industry as structural components in turbines and spatial cones, in the naval industry as low frequency vibration absorbers, and in construction industry as sound barriers inside tunnels, as fire proof materials and structure protection systems against explosions and even in heat exchangers, orthopedic components, and decorative items. Here, we report on the development of Al foams by a low cost and convenient technique of salt replication method with efficient control over size, geometry and distribution of the pores. Sodium bicarbonate was used as the foaming agent to form the porous refractory salt pattern. The mixed refractory salt slurry was microwave dried followed by sintering for selected time periods. Molten Al was infiltrated into the salt pattern in an inert atmosphere at a pressure of 2 bars. The final products were obtained by leaching out the refractory salt pattern. Mechanical properties of the derived samples were studied with a universal testing machine. The results were analyzed in correlation with their microstructural features evaluated with a scanning electron microscope (SEM).

Keywords: metal foam, Al, salt replication method, mechanical properties, SEM

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18 Applied Mathematical Approach on “Baut” Special High Performance Metal Aggregate by Formulation and Equations

Authors: J. R. Bhalla, Gautam, Gurcharan Singh, Sanjeev Naval


Mathematics is everywhere behind the every things on the earth as well as in the universe. Predynastic Egyptians of the 5th millennium BC pictorially represented geometric designs. Now a day’s we can made and apply an equation on a complex geometry through applied mathematics. Here we work and focus on to create a formula which apply in the field of civil engineering in new concrete technology. In this paper our target is to make a formula which is applied on “BAUT” Metal Aggregate. In this paper our approach is to make formulation and equation on special “BAUT” Metal Aggregate by Applied Mathematical Study Case 1. BASIC PHYSICAL FORMULATION 2. ADVANCE EQUATION which shows the mechanical performance of special metal aggregates for concrete technology. In case 1. Basic physical formulation shows the surface area and volume manually and in case 2. Advance equation shows the mechanical performance has been discussed, the metal aggregates which had outstandingly qualities to resist shear, tension and compression forces. In this paper coarse metal aggregates is 20 mm which used for making high performance concrete (H.P.C).

Keywords: applied mathematical study case, special metal aggregates, concrete technology, basic physical formulation, advance equation

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17 21st Century Gunboat Diplomacy and Strategic Sea Areas

Authors: Mustafa Avsever


Throughout history, states have attached great importance to seas in terms of economic and security. Advanced civilizations have always founded in coastal regions. Over time, human being has tended to trade and naturally always aimed get more and more. Seas by covering 71% of the earth, provide the greatest economic opportunities for access to raw material resources and the world market. As a result, seas have become the most important areas of conflict over the course of time. Coastal states, use seas as a tool for defense zone, trade, marine transportation and power transfer, they have acquired colonies overseas and increased their capital, raw materials and labor. Societies, have increased their economic prosperity, though their navies in order to retain their welfare and achieve their foreign policy objectives. Sometimes they have imposed their demands through the use or threat of limited naval force in accordance with their interests that is gunboat diplomacy. Today we can see samples of gunboat diplomacy used in the Eastern Mediterranean, during Ukraine crisis, in dispute between North Korea and South Korea and the ongoing power struggle in Asia-Pacific. Gunboat diplomacy has been and continues to be applied consistently in solving problems by the stronger side of the problem. The purpose of this article is to examine using navy under the gunboat diplomacy as an active instrument of foreign policy and security policy and reveal the strategic sea areas in which gunboat diplomacy is used effectively in the matrix of international politics in the 21st century.

Keywords: gunboat diplomacy, maritime strategy, sea power, strategic sea lands

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16 Counter-Terrorism Policies in the Wider Black Sea Region: Evaluating the Robustness of Constantza Port under Potential Terror Attacks

Authors: A. V. Popa, C. Barna, V. Mihalache


Being the largest port at the Black Sea and functioning as a civil and military nodal point between Europe and Asia, Constantza Port has become a potential target on the terrorist international agenda. The authors use qualitative research based on both face-to-face and online semi-structured interviews with relevant stakeholders (top decision-makers in the Romanian Naval Authority, Romanian Maritime Training Centre, National Company "Maritime Ports Administration" and military staff) in order to detect potential vulnerabilities which might be exploited by terrorists in the case of Constantza Port. Likewise, this will enable bringing together the experts’ opinions on potential mitigation measures. Subsequently, this paper formulates various counter-terrorism policies to enhance the robustness of Constantza Port under potential terror attacks and connects them with the attributions in the field of critical infrastructure protection conferred by the law to the lead national authority for preventing and countering terrorism, namely the Romanian Intelligence Service. Extending the national counterterrorism efforts to an international level, the authors propose the establishment – among the experts of the NATO member states of the Wider Black Sea Region – of a platform for the exchange of know-how and best practices in the field of critical infrastructure protection.

Keywords: Constantza Port, counter-terrorism policies, critical infrastructure protection, security, Wider Black Sea Region

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15 Environmental Effects on Coconut Coir Fiber Epoxy Composites Having TiO₂ as Filler

Authors: Srikanth Korla, Mahesh Sharnangat


Composite materials are being widely used in Aerospace, Naval, Defence and other branches of engineering applications. Studies on natural fibers is another emerging research area as they are available in abundance, and also due to their eco-friendly in nature. India being one of the major producer of coir, there is always a scope to study the possibilities of exploring coir as reinforment, and with different combinations of other elements of the composite. In present investigation effort is made to utilize properties possessed by natural fiber and make them enable with polymer/epoxy resin. In natural fiber coconut coir is used as reinforcement fiber in epoxy resin with varying weight percentages of fiber and filler material. Titanium dioxide powder (TiO2) is used as filler material with varying weight percentage including 0%, 2% and 4% are considered for experimentation. Environmental effects on the performance of the composite plate are also studied and presented in this project work; Moisture absorption test for composite specimens is conducted using different solvents including Kerosene, Mineral Water and Saline Water, and its absorption capacity is evaluated. Analysis is carried out in different combinations of Coir as fiber and TiO2 as filler material, and the best suitable composite material considering the strength and environmental effects is identified in this work. Therefore, the significant combination of the composite material is with following composition: 2% TiO2 powder 15% of coir fibre and 83% epoxy, under unique mechanical and environmental conditions considered in the work.

Keywords: composite materials, moisture test, filler material, natural fibre composites

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14 High Performance Concrete Using “BAUT” (Metal Aggregates) the Gateway to New Concrete Technology for Mega Structures

Authors: Arjun, Gautam, Sanjeev Naval


Concrete technology has been changing rapidly and constantly since its discovery. Concrete is the most widely used man-made construction material, versatility of making concrete is the 2nd largest consumed material on earth. In this paper an effort has been made to use metal aggregates in concrete has been discussed, the metal aggregates has been named as “BAUT” which had outstandingly qualities to resist shear, tension and compression forces. In this paper, COARSE BAUT AGGREGATES (C.B.A.) 10mm & 20mm and FINE BAUT AGGREGATES (F.B.A.) 3mm were divided and used for making high performance concrete (H.P.C). This “BAUT” had cutting edge technology through draft and design by the use of Auto CAD, ANSYS software can be used effectively In this research paper we study high performance concrete (H.P.C) with “BAUT” and consider the grade of M65 and finally we achieved the result of 90-95 Mpa (high compressive strength) for mega structures and irregular structures where center of gravity (CG) is not balanced. High Performance BAUT Concrete is the extraordinary qualities like long-term performance, no sorptivity by BAUT AGGREGATES, better rheological, mechanical and durability proportion that conventional concrete. This high strength BAUT concrete using “BAUT” is applied in the construction of mega structure like skyscrapers, dam, marine/offshore structures, nuclear power plants, bridges, blats and impact resistance structures. High Performance BAUT Concrete which is a controlled concrete possesses invariable high strength, reasonable workability and negligibly permeability as compare to conventional concrete by the mix of Super Plasticizers (SMF), silica fume and fly ash.

Keywords: BAUT, High Strength Concrete, High Performance Concrete, Fine BAUT Aggregate, Coarse BAUT Aggregate, metal aggregates, cutting edge technology

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13 Evolving Maritime Geopolitics of the Indo-Pacific

Authors: Pragya Pandey


A major discussion in the 21st -century international affairs has been around the shifting economic and political center of gravity to Asia. In the maritime realm, it translates into a shift in focus from the Atlantic to the Pacific-Indian Ocean region or what is now popularly called the Indo-Pacific region. The Indo-Pacific is rapidly eclipsing once dominant Asia-Pacific as center of trade, investment, competition and cooperation. The growing inter-connectivity between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean is bringing forth the ‘confluence of the two seas’. Therefore, the Indo-Pacific strategic arc is acquiring greater salience in consonance with the changing realities of the time. The region is undergoing unprecedented transformation in its security outlook. At present, the region is at an interesting historic epoch- witnessing the simultaneous rise India and China, their economic growth, naval modernization and power projection capabilities, alongside the continued presence of the United States, particularly with its rebalancing strategy. Besides the interplay among the three major stakeholders, other regional players like Japan, Australia, and Indonesia, would play a crucial role in the geopolitical re-arrangement of the Indo-Pacific region. The region will be the future theater of activities to determine the shifts and distribution of sea power, by the virtue of its strategic location, intrinsic value of the energy resources and significant maritime trade routes of the region. Therefore, the central theme of the paper would be to scrutinize the maritime security environment of the region against the backdrop of the tricky geopolitical landscape, contributing to the change in the regional and global balance of power.

Keywords: China, geopolitics, India, United States

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12 Numerical Simulations of Acoustic Imaging in Hydrodynamic Tunnel with Model Adaptation and Boundary Layer Noise Reduction

Authors: Sylvain Amailland, Jean-Hugh Thomas, Charles Pézerat, Romuald Boucheron, Jean-Claude Pascal


The noise requirements for naval and research vessels have seen an increasing demand for quieter ships in order to fulfil current regulations and to reduce the effects on marine life. Hence, new methods dedicated to the characterization of propeller noise, which is the main source of noise in the far-field, are needed. The study of cavitating propellers in closed-section is interesting for analyzing hydrodynamic performance but could involve significant difficulties for hydroacoustic study, especially due to reverberation and boundary layer noise in the tunnel. The aim of this paper is to present a numerical methodology for the identification of hydroacoustic sources on marine propellers using hydrophone arrays in a large hydrodynamic tunnel. The main difficulties are linked to the reverberation of the tunnel and the boundary layer noise that strongly reduce the signal-to-noise ratio. In this paper it is proposed to estimate the reflection coefficients using an inverse method and some reference transfer functions measured in the tunnel. This approach allows to reduce the uncertainties of the propagation model used in the inverse problem. In order to reduce the boundary layer noise, a cleaning algorithm taking advantage of the low rank and sparse structure of the cross-spectrum matrices of the acoustic and the boundary layer noise is presented. This approach allows to recover the acoustic signal even well under the boundary layer noise. The improvement brought by this method is visible on acoustic maps resulting from beamforming and DAMAS algorithms.

Keywords: acoustic imaging, boundary layer noise denoising, inverse problems, model adaptation

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11 Structural Morphing on High Performance Composite Hydrofoil to Postpone Cavitation

Authors: Fatiha Mohammed Arab, Benoit Augier, Francois Deniset, Pascal Casari, Jacques Andre Astolfi


For the top high performance foiling yachts, cavitation is often a limiting factor for take-off and top speed. This work investigates solutions to delay the onset of cavitation thanks to structural morphing. The structural morphing is based on compliant leading and trailing edge, with effect similar to flaps. It is shown here that the commonly accepted effect of flaps regarding the control of lift and drag forces can also be used to postpone the inception of cavitation. A numerical and experimental study is conducted in order to assess the effect of the geometric parameters of hydrofoil on their hydrodynamic performances and in cavitation inception. The effect of a 70% trailing edge and a 30% leading edge of NACA 0012 is investigated using Xfoil software at a constant Reynolds number 106. The simulations carried out for a range flaps deflections and various angles of attack. So, the result showed that the lift coefficient increase with the increase of flap deflection, but also with the increase of angle of attack and enlarged the bucket cavitation. To evaluate the efficiency of the Xfoil software, a 2D analysis flow over a NACA 0012 with leading and trailing edge flap was studied using Fluent software. The results of the two methods are in a good agreement. To validate the numerical approach, a passive adaptive composite model is built and tested in the hydrodynamic tunnel at the Research Institute of French Naval Academy. The model shows the ability to simulate the effect of flap by a LE and TE structural morphing due to hydrodynamic loading.

Keywords: cavitation, flaps, hydrofoil, panel method, xfoil

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10 Sea Border Dispute between Greece and Turkey in the Mediterrenean: Implications for Turkey’s Maritime Security and Its Military Spending

Authors: Aslihan Caliskan


The term Mediterranean comes from the Latin “mediterraneus” (Medius, "middle" plus Terra, "land, earth"). For the ancient Romans, the Mediterranean was the center of the earth as they knew it. The desire to gain control of the Mediterranean has led to disputes between many nations throughout history, some of which continue to this day. The recent major natural gas discoveries in the Mediterranean have aggravated ongoing tensions in some neighboring countries. The sea border dispute between Turkey and Greece & Greek-Cypriot side is one of the most critical conflicts in the Mediterranean Sea region. This unresolved dispute has many implications for all countries involved, as well as for third parties that have direct or indirect interests in the region. The research question of this context is what are the implications of this controversial sea border problem on the maritime security of Turkey and its military spending. In this paper, the quantitative method is used. Records from the Turkish Defense Ministry, data from the Turkish naval forces have been obtained. In addition, literature research and the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) application cases were evaluated, and an incident analysis was carried out. This research shows that the sea border dispute issue has a significant impact on the Turkish military both in terms of the structures required to ensure maritime and border security, as well as rising military costs and its macroeconomic implications. The paper begins with a brief overview of relevant principles and methods applied for delimiting th esea borders. The paper continues with a brief description and a background of the sea border dispute between Turkey and Greece & Greek-Cypriot side in the light of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS). An analysis of the implications of the dispute on Turkey’s maritime security and its military spending is provided in the following chapters. The paper ends with concluding remarks of the author, including suggestions for the way forward.

Keywords: sea border security, mediterranean sea, greece-turkey dispute, limitation of sea, united nations convention on the law of the sea (UNCLOS)

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9 A Monolithic Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian Finite Element Strategy for Partly Submerged Solid in Incompressible Fluid with Mortar Method for Modeling the Contact Surface

Authors: Suman Dutta, Manish Agrawal, C. S. Jog


Accurate computation of hydrodynamic forces on floating structures and their deformation finds application in the ocean and naval engineering and wave energy harvesting. This manuscript presents a monolithic, finite element strategy for fluid-structure interaction involving hyper-elastic solids partly submerged in an incompressible fluid. A velocity-based Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) formulation has been used for the fluid and a displacement-based Lagrangian approach has been used for the solid. The flexibility of the ALE technique permits us to treat the free surface of the fluid as a Lagrangian entity. At the interface, the continuity of displacement, velocity and traction are enforced using the mortar method. In the mortar method, the constraints are enforced in a weak sense using the Lagrange multiplier method. In the literature, the mortar method has been shown to be robust in solving various contact mechanics problems. The time-stepping strategy used in this work reduces to the generalized trapezoidal rule in the Eulerian setting. In the Lagrangian limit, in the absence of external load, the algorithm conserves the linear and angular momentum and the total energy of the system. The use of monolithic coupling with an energy-conserving time-stepping strategy gives an unconditionally stable algorithm and allows the user to take large time steps. All the governing equations and boundary conditions have been mapped to the reference configuration. The use of the exact tangent stiffness matrix ensures that the algorithm converges quadratically within each time step. The robustness and good performance of the proposed method are demonstrated by solving benchmark problems from the literature.

Keywords: ALE, floating body, fluid-structure interaction, monolithic, mortar method

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