Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 215

Search results for: helical piles

215 Effect of Elastic Modulus Anisotropy on Helical Piles Behavior in Sandy Soil

Authors: Reza Ziaie Moayed, Javad Shamsi Soosahab


Helical piles are being used extensively in engineering applications all over the world. There are insufficient studies on the helical piles' behavior in anisotropic soils. In this paper, numerical modeling was adopted to investigate the effect of elastic modulus anisotropy on helical pile behavior resting on anisotropic sand by using a finite element limit analysis. The load-displacement behavior of helical piles under compression and tension loads is investigated in different relative densities of soils, and the effect of the ratio of horizontal elastic modulus with respect to vertical elastic modulus (EH/EV) is evaluated. The obtained results illustrate that in sandy soils, the anisotropic ratio of elastic modulus (EH/EV) has notable effect on bearing capacity of helical piles in different relative density. Therefore, it may be recommended that the effect of anisotropic condition of soil elastic modulus should be considered in helical piles behavior.

Keywords: helical piles, bearing capacity, numerical modeling, soil anisotropy

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
214 Behavior of Helical Piles as Foundation of Photovoltaic Panels in Tropical Soils

Authors: Andrea J. Alarcón, Maxime Daulat, Raydel Lorenzo, Renato P. Da Cunha, Pierre Breul


Brazil has increased the use of renewable energy during the last years. Due to its sunshine and large surface area, photovoltaic panels founded in helical piles have been used to produce solar energy. Since Brazilian territory is mainly cover by highly porous structured tropical soils, when the helical piles are installed this structure is broken and its soil properties are modified. Considering the special characteristics of these soils, helical foundations behavior must be extensively studied. The first objective of this work is to determine the most suitable method to estimate the tensile capacity of helical piles in tropical soils. The second objective is to simulate the behavior of these piles in tropical soil. To obtain the rupture to assess load-displacement curves and the ultimate load, also a numerical modelling using Plaxis software was conducted. Lastly, the ultimate load and the load-displacements curves are compared with experimental values to validate the implemented model.

Keywords: finite element, helical piles, modelling, tropical soil, uplift capacity

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
213 Analysis of Behaviors of Single and Group Helical Piles in Sands from Experiment Results

Authors: Jongho Park, Junwon Lee, Byeonghyun Choi, Kicheol Lee, Dongwook Kim


The typically-used oil sand plant foundations are driven pile or drilled shaft. With more strict environmental regulations world widely, it became more important to completely remove the foundation during the stage of plant demolition. However, it is difficult to remove driven piles or drilled shafts that are installed at a deeper and stronger depth to gain more bearing pile capacity. The helical pile can be easily removed after its use and recycled; therefore it is suitable for oil sand plant foundation. This study analyzes the behavior of helical piles in sands. Axial pile load tests were carried out the varying spacing of helix plates (helices), rotation speed and weight of axial loading during pile installation. From the experiments, optimal helix plate spacing, rotation speed, axial loading during installation were determined. In addition, the behavior of helical pile groups was examined varying pile spacing. Finally, the behavior of single helical piles and that of group helical piles were compared.

Keywords: oil sand plant, pile load test, helical pile, group helical pile, behavior

Procedia PDF Downloads 81
212 Effect of Elastic Modulus Varieties on Helical Pile Behavior in Sand

Authors: Javad Shamsi Soosahab, Reza Ziaie Moayed


The compressive and tensile bearing capacity of helical piles in sand is investigated by means of numerical modeling. The analyses are carried out using two-dimensional finite-element software, Optum G2. The load–displacement behavior under compression and tension is compared in different relative densities for constant and various elastic modulus. The criterion used to find the ultimate axial load is the load corresponding to 5% of the helical diameter. The results show that relative density of sand plays an essential role in the response of ultimate capacities towards various condition. Increase in elastic modulus with depth is found to play a relatively more significant role to the increase in ultimate compressive load capacities, however tension bearing capacity decreases.

Keywords: helical piles, Optum G2, relative density, constant and various elastic modulus

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
211 Temperature Distribution Simulation of Divergent Fluid Flow with Helical Arrangement

Authors: Ehan Sabah Shukri, Wirachman Wisnoe


Numerical study is performed to investigate the temperature distribution in an annular diffuser fitted with helical tape hub. Different pitches (Y = 20 mm, and Y = 30 mm) for the helical tape are studied with different heights (H = 20 mm, 22 mm, and 24 mm) to be compared. The geometry of the annular diffuser and the inlet condition for both hub arrangements are kept constant. The result obtains that using helical tape insert with different pitches and different heights will force the temperature to distribute in a helical direction; however the use of helical tape hub with height (H = 22 mm) for both pitches enhance the temperature distribution in a good manner.

Keywords: helical tape, divergent fluid flow, temperature distribution, swirl flow, CFD

Procedia PDF Downloads 376
210 Evaluation of Natural Frequency of Single and Grouped Helical Piles

Authors: Maryam Shahbazi, Amy B. Cerato


The importance of a systems’ natural frequency (fn) emerges when the vibration force frequency is equivalent to foundation's fn which causes response amplitude (resonance) that may cause irreversible damage to the structure. Several factors such as pile geometry (e.g., length and diameter), soil density, load magnitude, pile condition, and physical structure affect the fn of a soil-pile system; some of these parameters are evaluated in this study. Although experimental and analytical studies have assessed the fn of a soil-pile system, few have included individual and grouped helical piles. Thus, the current study aims to provide quantitative data on dynamic characteristics of helical pile-soil systems from full-scale shake table tests that will allow engineers to predict more realistic dynamic response under motions with variable frequency ranges. To evaluate the fn of single and grouped helical piles in dry dense sand, full-scale shake table tests were conducted in a laminar box (6.7 m x 3.0 m with 4.6 m high). Two different diameters (8.8 cm and 14 cm) helical piles were embedded in the soil box with corresponding lengths of 3.66m (excluding one pile with length of 3.96) and 4.27m. Different configurations were implemented to evaluate conditions such as fixed and pinned connections. In the group configuration, all four piles with similar geometry were tied together. Simulated real earthquake motions, in addition to white noise, were applied to evaluate the wide range of soil-pile system behavior. The Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) of measured time history responses using installed strain gages and accelerometers were used to evaluate fn. Both time-history records using accelerometer or strain gages were found to be acceptable for calculating fn. In this study, the existence of a pile reduced the fn of the soil slightly. Greater fn occurred on single piles with larger l/d ratios (higher slenderness ratio). Also, regardless of the connection type, the more slender pile group which is obviously surrounded by more soil, yielded higher natural frequencies under white noise, which may be due to exhibiting more passive soil resistance around it. Relatively speaking, within both pile groups, a pinned connection led to a lower fn than a fixed connection (e.g., for the same pile group the fn’s are 5.23Hz and 4.65Hz for fixed and pinned connections, respectively). Generally speaking, a stronger motion causes nonlinear behavior and degrades stiffness which reduces a pile’s fn; even more, reduction occurs in soil with a lower density. Moreover, fn of dense sand under white noise signal was obtained 5.03 which is reduced by 44% when an earthquake with the acceleration of 0.5g was applied. By knowing the factors affecting fn, the designer can effectively match the properties of the soil to a type of pile and structure to attempt to avoid resonance. The quantitative results in this study assist engineers in predicting a probable range of fn for helical pile foundations under potential future earthquake, and machine loading applied forces.

Keywords: helical pile, natural frequency, pile group, shake table, stiffness

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
209 Fin Efficiency of Helical Fin with Fixed Fin Tip Temperature Boundary Condition

Authors: Richard G. Carranza, Juan Ospina


The fin efficiency for a helical fin with a fixed fin tip (or arbitrary) temperature boundary condition is presented. Firstly, the temperature profile throughout the fin is determined via an energy balance around the fin itself. Secondly, the fin efficiency is formulated by integrating across the entire surface of the helical fin. An analytical expression for the fin efficiency is presented and compared with the literature for accuracy.

Keywords: efficiency, fin, heat, helical, transfer

Procedia PDF Downloads 342
208 Behaviour of Laterally Loaded Pile Groups in Cohesionless Soil

Authors: V. K. Arora, Suraj Prakash


Pile foundations are provided to transfer the vertical and horizontal loads of superstructures like high rise buildings, bridges, offshore structures etc. to the deep strata in the soil. These vertical and horizontal loads are due to the loads coming from the superstructure and wind, water thrust, earthquake, and earth pressure, respectively. In a pile foundation, piles are used in groups. Vertical piles in a group of piles are more efficient to take vertical loads as compared to horizontal loads and when the horizontal load per pile exceeds the bearing capacity of the vertical piles in that case batter piles are used with vertical piles because batter piles can take more lateral loads than vertical piles. In this paper, a model study was conducted on three vertical pile group with single positive and negative battered pile subjected to lateral loads. The batter angle for battered piles was ±35◦ with the vertical axis. Piles were spaced at 2.5d (d=diameter of pile) to each other. The soil used for model test was cohesionless soil. Lateral loads were applied in three stages on all the pile groups individually and it was found that under the repeated action of lateral loading, the deflection of the piles increased under the same loading. After comparing the results, it was found that the pile group with positive batter pile fails at 28 kgf and the pile group with negative batter pile fails at 24 kgf so it shows that positive battered piles are stronger than the negative battered piles.

Keywords: vertical piles, positive battered piles, negative battered piles, cohesionless soil, lateral loads, model test

Procedia PDF Downloads 338
207 Temperature Distribution Enhancement in a Conical Diffuser Fitted with Helical Screw-Tape with and without Center-Rod

Authors: Ehan Sabah Shukri, Wirachman Wisnoe


Temperature distribution investigation in a conical diffuser fitted with helical screw-tape with and without center-rod is studied numerically. A helical screw-tape is inserted in the diffuser to create swirl flow that helps to enhance the temperature distribution rate with inlet Reynolds number 4.3 x 104. Three pitch lengths ratios (Y/L = 0.153, 0.23 and 0.307) for the helical screw-tape with and without center-rod are simulated and compared. The geometry of the conical diffuser and the inlet condition for both arrangements are kept constant. Numerical findings show that the helical screw-tape inserts without center-rod perform significantly better than the helical tape inserts with center-rod in the conical diffuser.

Keywords: diffuser, temperature distribution, CFD, pitch ratio

Procedia PDF Downloads 330
206 Load-Settlement Behaviour of Geogrid-Reinforced Sand Bed over Granular Piles

Authors: Sateesh Kumar Pisini, Swetha Priya Darshini Thammadi, Sanjay Kumar Shukla


Granular piles are a popular ground improvement technique in soft cohesive soils as well as for loose non-cohesive soils. The present experimental study has been carried out on granular piles in loose (Relative density = 30%) and medium dense (Relative density = 60%) sands with geogrid reinforcement within the sand bed over the granular piles. A group of five piles were installed in the sand at different spacing, s = 2d, 3d and 4d, d being the diameter of the pile. The length (L = 0.4 m) and diameter (d = 50 mm) of the piles were kept constant for all the series of experiments. The load-settlement behavior of reinforced sand bed and granular piles system was studied by applying the load on a square footing. The results show that the effect of reinforcement increases the load bearing capacity of the piles. It is also found that an increase in spacing between piles decreases the settlement for both loose and medium dense soil.

Keywords: granular pile, load-carrying capacity, settlement, geogrid reinforcement, sand

Procedia PDF Downloads 204
205 An Analytical Approach to Calculate Thermo-Mechanical Stresses in Integral Abutment Bridge Piles

Authors: Jafar Razmi


Integral abutment bridges are bridges that do not have joints. If these bridges are subject to large seasonal and daily temperature variations, the expansion and contraction of the bridge slab is transferred to the piles. Since the piles are deep into the soil, displacement induced by slab can cause bending and stresses in piles. These stresses cause fatigue and failure of piles. A complex mechanical interaction exists between the slab, pile, soil and abutment. This complex interaction needs to be understood in order to calculate the stresses in piles. This paper uses a mechanical approach in developing analytical equations for the complex structure to determine the stresses in piles. The solution to these analytical solutions is developed and compared with finite element analysis results and experimental data. Our comparison shows that using analytical approach can accurately predict the displacement in piles. This approach offers a simplified technique that can be utilized without the need for computationally extensive finite element model.

Keywords: integral abutment bridges, piles, thermo-mechanical stress, stress and strains

Procedia PDF Downloads 97
204 Pullout Capacity of Hybrid Anchor Piles

Authors: P. Hari Krishna, V. Ramana Murty


Different types of foundations are subjected to pullout or tensile loads depending on the soil in which they are embedded or due to the structural loads coming on them. In those circumstances, anchors were generally used to resist these loads. This paper presents the field pullout studies on hybrid anchor piles embedded in different types of soils. The pullout capacity and resistance of the hybrid granular anchor piles installed in the native expansive soil which is available in the campus are compared with similar hybrid concrete anchor piles which were installed in similar field conditions.

Keywords: expansive soil, hybrid concrete anchor piles, hybrid granular anchor piles, pullout tests

Procedia PDF Downloads 309
203 Wetting-Drying Cycles Effect on Piles Embedded in a Very High Expansive Soil

Authors: Bushra Suhail, Laith Kadim


The behavior of model piles embedded in a very high expansive soil was investigated, a specially manufactured saturation-drying tank was used to apply three cycles of wetting and drying to the expansive soil surrounding the model straight shaft and under reamed piles, the relative movement of the piles with respect to the soil surface was recorded with time, also the exerted uplift pressure of the piles due to soil swelling was recorded. The behavior of unloaded straight shaft and under reamed piles was investigated. Two design charts were presented for straight shaft and under reamed piles one for the required pile depth for zero upward movement due to soil swelling, the other for the required pile depth to exert zero uplift pressure when the soil swells. Under reamed piles showed a decrease in upward movement of 20% to 40%, and an uplift pressure decrease of 10% to 30%.

Keywords: expansive soil, piles, under reamed, structural and geotechnical engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
202 The Inversion of Helical Twist Sense in Liquid Crystal by Spectroscopy Methods

Authors: Anna Drzewicz, Marzena Tykarska


The chiral liquid crystal phases form the helicoidal structure, which is characterized by the helical pitch and the helical twist sense. In anticlinic smectic phase with antiferroelectric properties three types of helix temperature dependence have been obtained: increased helical pitch with temperature and right-handed helix, decreased helical pitch with temperature and left-handed helix and the inversion of both. The change of helical twist sense may be observed during the transition from one liquid crystal phase to another or within one phase for the same substance. According to Gray and McDonnell theory, the helical handedness depends on the absolute configuration of the assymetric carbon atom and its position related to the rigid core of the molecule. However, this theory does not explain the inversion of helical twist sense phenomenon. It is supposed, that it may be caused by the presence of different conformers with opposite handendess, which concentration may change with temperature. In this work, the inversion of helical twist sense in the chiral liquid crystals differing in the length of alkyl chain, in the substitution the benzene ring by fluorine atoms and in the type of helix handedness was tested by vibrational spectroscopy (infrared and raman spectroscopy) and by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The results obtained from the vibrational spectroscopy confirm the presence of different conformers. Moreover, the analysis of nuclear magnetic resonance spectra is very useful to check, on which structural fragments the change of conformations are important for the change of helical twist sense.

Keywords: helical twist sense, liquid crystals, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, vibrational spectroscopy

Procedia PDF Downloads 171
201 Influence of Nonlinearity of Concrete and Reinforcement Using Micropiles on the Seismic Interaction of Soil-Piles-Bridge

Authors: Mohanad Alfach, Amjad Al Helwani


Post-seismic observations of recent devastating earthquakes have shown that the behavior of the soil-pile-structure shows strong nonlinearity of soil and concrete under intensive seismic loading. Many of pile ruptures recently observed after the strong earthquake due to structural reasons (development of plastic hinges in the piles). The most likely reason for this rupture is the exceeding of maximum bending moment supported by the pile at several points. An analysis of these problems is necessary to take into account the nonlinearity of concrete, the strategy of strengthening the damaged piles and the interaction of these piles with the proposed strengthening by using micropiles. This study aims to investigate the interaction aspects for soil-piles- micropiles-structure using a global approach with a three dimensional finite difference code Flac 3D (Fast lagrangian analysis of continua in 3 dimensions).

Keywords: interaction, piles, micropiles, concrete, seismic, nonlinear, three-dimensional

Procedia PDF Downloads 165
200 Selective Excitation of Circular Helical Modes in Graded Index Fibers

Authors: S. Al-Sowayan


The impact of selective excitation of circular helical modes of graded-index fibers on its capacity is analyzed using a model for propagation delay variation with launch offset and angle that resulted from misalignment of source and fiber axis. Results show that promising technique to improve graded-index fiber capacities.

Keywords: fiber measurements, fiber optic, communications, circular helical modes

Procedia PDF Downloads 367
199 Optimum Design of Piled-Raft Systems

Authors: Alaa Chasib Ghaleb, Muntadher M. Abbood


This paper presents a study of the problem of the optimum design of piled-raft foundation systems. The study has been carried out using a hypothetic problem and soil investigations of six sites locations in Basrah city to evaluate the adequacy of using the piled-raft foundation concept. Three dimensional finite element analysis method has been used, to perform the structural analysis. The problem is optimized using Hooke and Jeeves method with the total weight of the foundation as objective function and each of raft thickness, piles length, number of piles and piles diameter as design variables. It is found that the total and differential settlement decreases with increasing the raft thickness, the number of piles, the piles length, and the piles diameter. Finally parametric study for load values, load type and raft dimensions have been studied and the results have been discussed.

Keywords: Hooke and Jeeves, optimum design, piled-raft, foundations

Procedia PDF Downloads 170
198 Settlement Analysis of Axially Loaded Bored Piles: A Case History

Authors: M. Mert, M. T. Ozkan


Pile load tests should be applied to check the bearing capacity calculations and to determine the settlement of the pile corresponding to test load. Strain gauges can be installed into pile in order to determine the shaft resistance of the piles for every soil layer respectively. Detailed results can be obtained by means of strain gauges placed at certain levels into test piles. In the scope of this study, pile load test data obtained from two different projects are examined.  Instrumented static pile load tests were applied on totally 7 test bored piles of different diameters (80 cm, 150 cm, and 200 cm) and different lengths (between 30-76 m) in two different project site. Settlement analysis of test piles is done by using some of load transfer methods and finite element method. Plaxis 3D which is a three-dimensional finite element program is also used for settlement analysis of the test piles. In this study, firstly bearing capacity of test piles are determined and compared with strain gauge data which is required for settlement analysis. Then, settlement values of the test piles are estimated by using load transfer methods developed in recent years and finite element method. The aim of this study is to show similarities and differences between the results obtained from settlement analysis methods and instrumented pile load tests.

Keywords: failure, finite element method, monitoring and instrumentation, pile, settlement

Procedia PDF Downloads 95
197 Performance Study of Scraped Surface Heat Exchanger with Helical Ribbons

Authors: S. Ali, M. Baccar


In this work, numerical simulations were carried out using a specific CFD code in order to study the performance of an innovative Scraped Surface Heat Exchanger (SSHE) with helical ribbons for Bingham fluids (threshold fluids). The resolution of three-dimensional form of the conservation equations (continuity, momentum and energy equations) was carried out basing on the finite volume method (FVM). After studying the effect of dimensionless numbers (axial Reynolds, rotational Reynolds and Oldroyd numbers) on the hydrodynamic and thermal behaviors within SSHE, a parametric study was developed, by varying the width of the helical ribbon, the clearance between the stator wall and the tip of the ribbon and the number of turns of the helical ribbon, in order to improve the heat transfer inside the exchanger. The effect of these geometrical numbers on the hydrodynamic and thermal behaviors was discussed.

Keywords: heat transfer, helical ribbons, hydrodynamic behavior, parametric study, SSHE, thermal behavior

Procedia PDF Downloads 113
196 Experimental Study on Weak Cohesion Less Soil Using Granular Piles with Geogrid Reinforcement

Authors: Sateesh Kumar Pisini, Swetha Priya Pisini


Granular piles are becoming popular as a technique of deep ground improvement not only in soft cohesive soils but also in loose cohesionless deposits. The present experimental study has been carried out on granular piles in sand (loose sand and medium dense sand i.e. relative density at 15% and 30%) with geogrid reinforcement. In this experimental study, a group of five piles installed in sand (at different spacing i.e s = 2d, 3d and 4d) the length and diameter of the pile (L = 0.4 m and d= 50 mm) kept as same for all series of experiments. Geogrid reinforcement is provided on granular piles with a limited number of laboratory tests. It has been conducted in laboratory to study the behavior of a granular pile with reinforced geogrid layers supporting a square footing at different s/d ratios. The influence of geogrid layers providing on granular piles investigated through model tests. In this paper the experimental study carried out results in significant increase in load carrying capacity and decrease in settlement reduction of the weak cohesionless soil. Also, the behavior of load carrying capacity and settlement with changing the s/d ratio has been carried out through a parametric study.

Keywords: granular piles, cohesionless soil, geogrid reinforcement, load carrying capacity

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
195 Fouling Mitigation Using Helical Baffle Heat Exchangers and Comparative Analysis Using HTRI Xchanger Suite® Educational Software

Authors: Kiran P. Chadayamuri, Saransh Bagdi


Heat exchangers are devices used to transfer heat from one fluid to another via convection and conduction. The need for effective heat transfer has made their presence vital in hundreds of industries including petroleum refineries, petrochemical plants, fertiliser plants and pharmaceutical companies. Fouling has been one of the major problems hindering efficient transfer of thermal energy in heat exchangers. Several design changes have been coined for fighting fouling. A recent development involves using helical baffles in place of conventional segmented baffles in shell and tube heat exchangers. The aim of this paper is to understand the advantages of helical baffle exchangers, how they aid in fouling mitigation and its corresponding limitations. A comparative analysis was conducted between a helical baffle heat exchanger and a conventional segmented baffle heat exchanger using HTRI Xchanger Suite® Educational software and conclusions were drawn to study how the heat transfer process differs in the two cases.

Keywords: heat transfer, heat exchangers, fouling mitigation, helical baffles

Procedia PDF Downloads 231
194 Effect of Installation Method on the Ratio of Tensile to Compressive Shaft Capacity of Piles in Dense Sand

Authors: A. C. Galvis-Castro, R. D. Tovar, R. Salgado, M. Prezzi


It is generally accepted that the shaft capacity of piles in the sand is lower for tensile loading that for compressive loading. So far, very little attention has been paid to the role of the influence of the installation method on the tensile to compressive shaft capacity ratio. The objective of this paper is to analyze the effect of installation method on the tensile to compressive shaft capacity of piles in dense sand as observed in tests on half-circular model pile tests in a half-circular calibration chamber with digital image correlation (DIC) capability. Model piles are either monotonically jacked, jacked with multiple strokes or pre-installed into the dense sand samples. Digital images of the model pile and sand are taken during both the installation and loading stages of each test and processed using the DIC technique to obtain the soil displacement and strain fields. The study provides key insights into the mobilization of shaft resistance in tensile and compressive loading for both displacement and non-displacement piles.

Keywords: digital image correlation, piles, sand, shaft resistance

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
193 Wear Diagnosis of Diesel Engine Helical Gear

Authors: Surjit Angra, Gajanan Rane, Vinod Kumar, Sushma Rani


This paper presents metallurgical investigation of failed helical gear of diesel engine gear box used in a car. The failure had occurred near the bottomland of the tooth spacing. The failed surface was studied under Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and also visually investigated. The images produced through SEM at various magnifications were studied. Detailed metallurgical study indicates that failure was due to foreign material inclusion which is a casting defect. Further study also revealed pitting, spalling and inter-granular fracture as the causes of gear failure.

Keywords: helical gear, scanning electron microscope, casting defect, pitting

Procedia PDF Downloads 360
192 Shoring System Selection for Deep Excavation

Authors: Faouzi Ahtchi-Ali, Marcus Vitiello


A study was conducted in the east region of the Middle East to assess the constructability of a shoring system for a 12-meter deep excavation. Several shoring systems were considered in this study including secant concrete piling, contiguous concrete piling, and sheet-piling. The excavation was carried out in a very dense sand with the groundwater level located at 3 meters below ground surface. The study included conducting a pilot test for each shoring system listed above. The secant concrete piling included overlapping concrete piles to a depth of 16 meters. Drilling method with full steel casing was utilized to install the concrete piles. The verticality of the piles was a concern for the overlap. The contiguous concrete piling required the installation of micro-piles to seal the gap between the concrete piles. This method revealed that the gap between the piles was not fully sealed as observed by the groundwater penetration to the excavation. The sheet-piling method required pre-drilling due to the high blow count of the penetrated layer of saturated sand. This study concluded that the sheet-piling method with pre-drilling was the most cost effective and recommended a method for the shoring system.

Keywords: excavation, shoring system, middle east, Drilling method

Procedia PDF Downloads 381
191 The Effects of Time and Cyclic Loading to the Axial Capacity for Offshore Pile in Shallow Gas

Authors: Christian H. Girsang, M. Razi B. Mansoor, Noorizal N. Huang


An offshore platform was installed in 1977 at about 260km offshore West Malaysia at the water depth of 73.6m. Twelve (12) piles were installed with four (4) are skirt piles. The piles have 1.219m outside diameter and wall thickness of 31mm and were driven to 109m below seabed. Deterministic analyses of the pile capacity under axial loading were conducted using the current API (American Petroleum Institute) method and the four (4) CPT-based methods: the ICP (Imperial College Pile)-method, the NGI (Norwegian Geotechnical Institute)-Method, the UWA (University of Western Australia)-method and the Fugro-method. A statistical analysis of the model uncertainty associated with each pile capacity method was performed. There were two (2) piles analysed: Pile 1 and piles other than Pile 1, where Pile 1 is the pile that was most affected by shallow gas problems. Using the mean estimate of soil properties, the five (5) methods used for deterministic estimation of axial pile capacity in compression predict an axial capacity from 28 to 42MN for Pile 1 and 32 to 49MN for piles other than Pile 1. These values refer to the static capacity shortly after pile installation. They do not include the effects of cyclic loading during the design storm or time after installation on the axial pile capacity. On average, the axial pile capacity is expected to have increased by about 40% because of ageing since the installation of the platform in 1977. On the other hand, the cyclic loading effects during the design storm may reduce the axial capacity of the piles by around 25%. The study concluded that all piles have sufficient safety factor when the pile aging and cyclic loading effect are considered, as all safety factors are above 2.0 for maximum operating and storm loads.

Keywords: axial capacity, cyclic loading, pile ageing, shallow gas

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
190 Geotechnical Investigation of Soil Foundation for Ramps of Dawar El-Tawheed Bridge in Jizan City, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Authors: Ali H. Mahfouz, Hossam E. M. Sallam, Abdulwali Wazir, Hamod H. Kharezi


The soil profile at site of the bridge project includes soft fine grained soil layer located between 5.0 m to 11.0 m in depth, it has high water content, low SPT no., and low bearing capacity. The clay layer induces high settlement due to surcharge application of earth embankment at ramp T1, ramp T2, and ramp T3 especially at heights from 9m right 3m. Calculated settlement for embankment heights less than 3m may be accepted regarding Saudi Code for soil and foundation. The soil and groundwater at the project site comprise high contents of sulfates and chlorides of high aggressively on concrete and steel bars, respectively. Regarding results of the study, it has been recommended to use stone column piles or new technology named PCC piles as soil improvement to improve the bearing capacity of the weak layer. The new technology is cast in-situ thin wall concrete pipe piles (PCC piles), it has economically advantageous and high workability. The technology can save time of implementation and cost of application is almost 30% of other types of piles.

Keywords: soft foundation soil, bearing capacity, bridge ramps, soil improvement, geogrid, PCC piles

Procedia PDF Downloads 326
189 3 Dimensions Finite Element Analysis of Tunnel-Pile Interaction Scenarios Using Abaqus Software

Authors: Haitham J. M. Odeh


This paper introduced an analysis of the effect of tunneling near pile foundations. Accomplished by three-dimensional finite element modeling. The numerical simulation is conducted using Abaqus finite element software. By examining different Tunnel-pile scenarios. The paper presents the tunnel induced pile responses, Such as pile settlement, pile internal forces, and the comments made on changing the vertical and transversal location of the tunnel related to the piles, the study contains two pile-supported structure cases, single and a group of piles. A comprehensive comparison between real case study results and numerical simulation is presented. The results of the analysis reveal the critical and safe location of tunnel construction and the positive effect of a group of piles existing instead of single piles. Also, demonstrates the changes in pile responses by changing the tunnel location.

Keywords: pile responses, single pile, group of piles, pile-tunnel interaction

Procedia PDF Downloads 20
188 Heat Transfer Analysis of Helical Grooved Passages near the Leading Edge Region in Gas Turbine Blade

Authors: Harishkumar Kamath, Chandrakant R. Kini, N. Yagnesh Sharma


Gas turbines are highly effective engineered prime movers for converting energy from thermal form (combustion stage) to mechanical form – are widely used for propulsion and power generation systems. One method of increasing both the power output and thermal efficiency is to increase the temperature of the gas entering the turbine. In the advanced gas turbines of today, the turbine inlet temperature can be as high as 1500°C; however, this temperature exceeds the melting temperature of the metal blade. With modern gas turbines operating at extremely high temperatures, it is necessary to implement various cooling methods, so the turbine blades and vanes endure in the path of the hot gases. Merely passing coolant air through the blade does not provide adequate cooling; therefore, it is necessary to implement techniques that will further enhance the heat transfer from the blade walls. It is seen that by incorporating helical grooved passages into the leading edge built on turbulence and higher flow rates through the passages, the blade can be cooled effectively. It seen from the analysis helical grooved passages with diameter 5 mm, helical pitch of 50 mm and 8 starts results in better cooling of turbine blade and gives the best thermal performance.

Keywords: blade cooling, helical grooves, leading edge, numerical analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 148
187 Effect of Bored Pile Diameter in Sand on Friction Resistance

Authors: Ashraf Mohammed M. Eid, Hossam El Badry


The bored pile friction resistance may be affected by many factors such as the method of construction, pile length and diameter, the soil properties, as well as the depth below ground level. These factors can be represented analytically to study the influence of diameter on the unit skin friction. In this research, the Egyptian Code of soil mechanics is used to assess the skin friction capacity for either the ordinary pile diameter as well as for the large pile diameter. The later is presented in the code and through the work of some researchers based on the results of investigations adopted for a sufficient number of field tests. The comparative results of these researchers with respect to the Egyptian Code are used to check the adequacy of both methods. Based on the results of this study, the traditional static formula adopted for piles of diameter less than 60 cm may be continually used for larger piles by correlating the analyzed formulae. Accordingly, the corresponding modified angle of internal friction is concluded demonstrating a reduction of shear strength due to soil disturbance along the pile shaft. Based on this research the difference between driven piles and bored piles constructed in same soil can be assessed and a better understanding can be evaluated for the effect of different factors on pile skin friction capacity.

Keywords: large piles, static formula, friction piles, sandy soils

Procedia PDF Downloads 390
186 Use of Short Piles for Stabilizing the Side Slope of the Road Embankment along the Canal

Authors: Monapat Sasingha, Suttisak Soralump


This research presents the behavior of slope of the road along the canal stabilized by short piles. In this investigation, the centrifuge machine was used, modelling the condition of the water levels in the canal. The centrifuge tests were performed at 35 g. To observe the movement of the soil, visual analysis was performed to evaluate the failure behavior. Conclusively, the use of short piles to stabilize the canal slope proved to be an effective solution. However, the certain amount of settlement was found behind the short pile rows.

Keywords: centrifuge test, slope failure, embankment, stability of slope

Procedia PDF Downloads 189