Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6164

Search results for: building penetration loss

6164 Path loss Signals Determination in a Selected Buildings in Kazaure

Authors: Musefiu Aderinola, F. A. Amuda

Abstract:

Outages of GSM signals may be experienced at some indoor locations even when there are strong outdoor receptions. This is often traced to the building penetration loss, which account for increased attenuation of received GSM signals level when a mobile signal device is moved indoor from outdoor. In this work, measurement of two existing GSM operators signal level were made outside and inside two selected buildings- mud and block which represent the prevalent building types in Kazaure, Jigawa State, Nigeria. A gionee P2 mobile phone with RF signal tracker software installed in it was used and the result shows that an average loss of 10.62dBm and 4.25dBm for mud and block buildings respectively.

Keywords: penetration loss, outdoor reception, Gionee P2, RF signal tracker, mud and block building

Procedia PDF Downloads 242
6163 Measurement and Analysis of Building Penetration Loss for Mobile Networks in Tripoli Area

Authors: Tammam A. Benmusa, Mohamed A. Shlibek, Rawad M. Swesi

Abstract:

The investigation of Buildings Penetration Loss (BPL) of radio signal is getting more and more important. It plays an important role in calculating the indoor coverage for wireless communication networks. In this paper, the theory behind BPL and its mechanisms have been reviewed. The operating frequency, coverage area type, climate condition, time of measurement, and other factors affecting the values of BPL have been discussed. The practical part of this work was conducting 4000 measurements of BPL in different areas in the Libyan capital, Tripoli, to get empirical model for this loss. The measurements were taken for 2 different types of wireless communication networks; mobile telephone network (for Almadar company), which operates at 900 MHz and WiMAX network (LTT company) which operates at 2500 MHz. The results for each network were summarized and presented in several graphs. The graphs are showing how the BPL affected by: time of measurement, morphology (type of area), and climatic environment.

Keywords: building penetration loss, wireless network, mobile network, link budget, indoor network performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
6162 Effect of Welding Parameters on Penetration and Bead Width for Variable Plate Thickness in Submerged Arc Welding

Authors: Harish K. Arya, Kulwant Singh, R. K. Saxena

Abstract:

The heat flow in weldment changes its nature from 2D to 3D with the increase in plate thickness. For welding of thicker plates the heat loss in thickness direction increases the cooling rate of plate. Since the cooling rate changes, the various bead parameters like bead penetration, bead height and bead width also got affected by it. The present study incorporates the effect of variable plate thickness on penetration and bead width. The penetration reduces with increase in plate thickness due to heat loss in thickness direction for same heat input, while bead width increases for thicker plate due to faster cooling.

Keywords: submerged arc welding, plate thickness, bead geometry, cooling rate

Procedia PDF Downloads 200
6161 Modeling Approach for Evaluating Infiltration Rate of a Large-Scale Housing Stock

Authors: Azzam Alosaimi

Abstract:

Different countries attempt to reduce energy demands and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions to mitigate global warming potential. They set different building codes to regulate excessive building’s energy losses. Energy losses occur due to pressure difference between the indoor and outdoor environments, and thus, heat transfers from one region to another. One major sources of energy loss is known as building airtightness. Building airtightness is the fundamental feature of the building envelope that directly impacts infiltration. Most of international building codes require minimum performance for new construction to ensure acceptable airtightness. The execution of airtightness required standards has become more challenging in recent years due to a lack of expertise and equipment, making it costly and time-consuming. Hence, researchers have developed predictive models to predict buildings infiltration rates to meet building codes and to reduce energy and cost. This research applies a theoretical modeling approach using Matlab software to predict mean infiltration rate distributions and total heat loss of Saudi Arabia’s housing stock.

Keywords: infiltration rate, energy demands, heating loss, cooling loss, carbon emissions

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6160 Evaluation of Expected Annual Loss Probabilities of RC Moment Resisting Frames

Authors: Saemee Jun, Dong-Hyeon Shin, Tae-Sang Ahn, Hyung-Joon Kim

Abstract:

Building loss estimation methodologies which have been advanced considerably in recent decades are usually used to estimate socio and economic impacts resulting from seismic structural damage. In accordance with these methods, this paper presents the evaluation of an annual loss probability of a reinforced concrete moment resisting frame designed according to Korean Building Code. The annual loss probability is defined by (1) a fragility curve obtained from a capacity spectrum method which is similar to a method adopted from HAZUS, and (2) a seismic hazard curve derived from annual frequencies of exceedance per peak ground acceleration. Seismic fragilities are computed to calculate the annual loss probability of a certain structure using functions depending on structural capacity, seismic demand, structural response and the probability of exceeding damage state thresholds. This study carried out a nonlinear static analysis to obtain the capacity of a RC moment resisting frame selected as a prototype building. The analysis results show that the probability of being extensive structural damage in the prototype building is expected to 0.004% in a year.

Keywords: expected annual loss, loss estimation, RC structure, fragility analysis

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6159 Determination of the Optimal DG PV Interconnection Location Using Losses and Voltage Regulation as Assessment Indicators Case Study: ECG 33 kV Sub-Transmission Network

Authors: Ekow A. Kwofie, Emmanuel K. Anto, Godfred Mensah

Abstract:

In this paper, CYME Distribution software has been used to assess the impacts of solar Photovoltaic (PV) distributed generation (DG) plant on the Electricity Company of Ghana (ECG) 33 kV sub-transmission network at different PV penetration levels. As ECG begins to encourage DG PV interconnections within its network, there has been the need to assess the impacts on the sub-transmission losses and voltage contribution. In Tema, a city in Accra - Ghana, ECG has a 33 kV sub-transmission network made up of 20 No. 33 kV buses that was modeled. Three different locations were chosen: The source bus, a bus along the sub-transmission radial network and a bus at the tail end to determine the optimal location for DG PV interconnection. The optimal location was determined based on sub-transmission technical losses and voltage impact. PV capacities at different penetration levels were modeled at each location and simulations performed to determine the optimal PV penetration level. Interconnection at a bus along (or in the middle of) the sub-transmission network offered the highest benefits at an optimal PV penetration level of 80%. At that location, the maximum voltage improvement of 0.789% on the neighboring 33 kV buses and maximum loss reduction of 6.033% over the base case scenario were recorded. Hence, the optimal location for DG PV integration within the 33 kV sub-transmission utility network is at a bus along the sub-transmission radial network.

Keywords: distributed generation photovoltaic (DG PV), optimal location, penetration level, sub–transmission network

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6158 Effect of Welding Parameters on Dilution and Bead Height for Variable Plate Thickness in Submerged Arc Welding

Authors: Harish Kumar Arya, Kulwant Singh, R. K Saxena, Deepti Jaiswal

Abstract:

The heat flow in weldment changes its nature from 2D to 3D with the increase in plate thickness. For welding of thicker plates the heat loss in thickness direction increases the cooling rate of plate. Since the cooling rate changes, the various bead parameters like bead penetration, bead height and bead width also got affected by it. The present study incorporates the effect of variable plate thickness on bead geometry and dilution. The penetration reduces with increase in plate thickness due to heat loss in thickness direction, while bead width and reinforcement increases for thicker plate due to faster cooling.

Keywords: submerged arc welding, plate thickness, bead geometry, cooling rate

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6157 Multi-Agent System Based Distributed Voltage Control in Distribution Systems

Authors: A. Arshad, M. Lehtonen. M. Humayun

Abstract:

With the increasing Distributed Generation (DG) penetration, distribution systems are advancing towards the smart grid technology for least latency in tackling voltage control problem in a distributed manner. This paper proposes a Multi-agent based distributed voltage level control. In this method a flat architecture of agents is used and agents involved in the whole controlling procedure are On Load Tap Changer Agent (OLTCA), Static VAR Compensator Agent (SVCA), and the agents associated with DGs and loads at their locations. The objectives of the proposed voltage control model are to minimize network losses and DG curtailments while maintaining voltage value within statutory limits as close as possible to the nominal. The total loss cost is the sum of network losses cost, DG curtailment costs, and voltage damage cost (which is based on penalty function implementation). The total cost is iteratively calculated for various stricter limits by plotting voltage damage cost and losses cost against varying voltage limit band. The method provides the optimal limits closer to nominal value with minimum total loss cost. In order to achieve the objective of voltage control, the whole network is divided into multiple control regions; downstream from the controlling device. The OLTCA behaves as a supervisory agent and performs all the optimizations. At first, a token is generated by OLTCA on each time step and it transfers from node to node until the node with voltage violation is detected. Upon detection of such a node, the token grants permission to Load Agent (LA) for initiation of possible remedial actions. LA will contact the respective controlling devices dependent on the vicinity of the violated node. If the violated node does not lie in the vicinity of the controller or the controlling capabilities of all the downstream control devices are at their limits then OLTC is considered as a last resort. For a realistic study, simulations are performed for a typical Finnish residential medium-voltage distribution system using Matlab ®. These simulations are executed for two cases; simple Distributed Voltage Control (DVC) and DVC with optimized loss cost (DVC + Penalty Function). A sensitivity analysis is performed based on DG penetration. The results indicate that costs of losses and DG curtailments are directly proportional to the DG penetration, while in case 2 there is a significant reduction in total loss. For lower DG penetration, losses are reduced more or less 50%, while for higher DG penetration, loss reduction is not very significant. Another observation is that the newer stricter limits calculated by cost optimization moves towards the statutory limits of ±10% of the nominal with the increasing DG penetration as for 25, 45 and 65% limits calculated are ±5, ±6.25 and 8.75% respectively. Observed results conclude that the novel voltage control algorithm proposed in case 1 is able to deal with the voltage control problem instantly but with higher losses. In contrast, case 2 make sure to reduce the network losses through proposed iterative method of loss cost optimization by OLTCA, slowly with time.

Keywords: distributed voltage control, distribution system, multi-agent systems, smart grids

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6156 Numerical Study on the Effect of Spudcan Penetration on the Jacket Platform

Authors: Xiangming Ge, Bing Pan, Wei He, Hao Chen, Yong Zhou, Jiayao Wu, Weijiang Chu

Abstract:

How the extraction and penetration of spudcan affect the performance of the adjacent pile foundation supporting the jacket platform was studied in the program FLAC3D depending on a wind farm project in Bohai sea. The simulations were conducted at the end of the spudcan penetration, which induced a pockmark in the seabed. The effects of the distance between the pile foundation and the pockmark were studied. The displacement at the mudline arose when the pockmark was closer. The bearing capacity of this jacket platform with deep pile foundations has been less influenced by the process of spudcan penetration, which can induce severe stresses on the pile foundation. The induced rotation was also satisfied with the rotation-controlling criteria.

Keywords: offshore foundation, pile-soil interaction, spudcan penetration, FLAC3D

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6155 Probabilistic Seismic Loss Assessment of Reinforced Concrete (RC) Frame Buildings Pre- and Post-Rehabilitation

Authors: A. Flora, A. Di Lascio, D. Cardone, G. Gesualdi, G. Perrone

Abstract:

This paper considers the seismic assessment and retrofit of a pilotis-type RC frame building, which was designed for gravity loads only, prior to the introduction of seismic design provisions. Pilotis-type RC frame buildings, featuring an uniform infill throughout the height and an open ground floor, were, and still are, quite popular all over the world, as they offer large open areas very suitable for retail space at the ground floor. These architectural advantages, however, are of detriment to the building seismic behavior, as they can determine a soft-storey collapse mechanism. Extensive numerical analyses are carried out to quantify and benchmark the performance of the selected building, both in terms of overall collapse capacity and expected losses. Alternative retrofit strategies are then examined, including: (i) steel jacketing of RC columns and beam-column joints, (ii) steel bracing and (iv) seismic isolation. The Expected Annual Loss (EAL) of the selected case-study building, pre- and post-rehabilitation, is evaluated, following a probabilistic approach. The breakeven time of each solution is computed, comparing the initial cost of the retrofit intervention with expected benefit in terms of EAL reduction.

Keywords: expected annual loss, reinforced concrete buildings, seismic loss assessment, seismic retrofit

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6154 Three-Dimensional, Non-Linear Finite Element Analysis of Bullet Penetration through Thin AISI 4340 Steel Target Plate

Authors: Abhishek Soni, A. Kumaraswamy, M. S. Mahesh

Abstract:

Bullet penetration in steel plate is investigated with the help of three-dimensional, non-linear, transient, dynamic, finite elements analysis using explicit time integration code LSDYNA. The effect of large strain, strain-rate and temperature at very high velocity regime was studied from number of simulations of semi-spherical nose shape bullet penetration through single layered circular plate with 2 mm thickness at impact velocities of 500, 1000, and 1500 m/s with the help of Johnson Cook material model. Mie-Gruneisen equation of state is used in conjunction with Johnson Cook material model to determine pressure-volume relationship at various points of interests. Two material models viz. Plastic-Kinematic and Johnson- Cook resulted in different deformation patterns in steel plate. It is observed from the simulation results that the velocity drop and loss of kinetic energy occurred very quickly up to perforation of plate, after that the change in velocity and changes in kinetic energy are negligibly small. The physics behind this kind of behaviour is presented in the paper.

Keywords: AISI 4340 steel, ballistic impact simulation, bullet penetration, non-linear FEM

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6153 Penetration Depth Study of Linear Siloxanes through Human Skin

Authors: K. Szymkowska, K. Mojsiewicz- Pieńkowska

Abstract:

Siloxanes are a common ingredients in medicinal products used on the skin, as well as cosmetics. It is widely believed that the silicones are not capable of overcoming the skin barrier. The aim of the study was to verify the possibility of penetration and permeation of linear siloxanes through human skin and determine depth penetration limit of these compounds. Based on the results it was found that human skin is not a barrier for linear siloxanes. PDMS 50 cSt was not identified in the dermis suggests that this molecular size of silicones (3780Da) is safe when it is used in the skin formulations.

Keywords: linear siloxanes, methyl siloxanes, skin penetration, skin permeation

Procedia PDF Downloads 313
6152 The Effect of Collapse Structure on Economic Growth and Influence of Soil Investigation

Authors: Fatai Shola Afolabi

Abstract:

The study identified and evaluates the causes of building failure and examined the effects of building failure with respect to cost in Lagos State, Nigeria. The method employed in the collection of data includes the administration of questionnaire to professionals in the construction industry and case studies for the sites. A purposive sampling technique was used for selecting the sites visited, and selecting the construction professionals. Descriptive statistical techniques such as frequency distribution and percentages and mean response analysis were used to analyze data. The study revealed that the major causes of building failures were bad design, faulty construction, over loading, non-possession of approved drawings, Possession of approved drawings but non-compliance, and the use of quarks. In the two case studies considered, the total direct loss to the building owners was thirty eight million three hundred and eight five thousand, seven hundred and twenty one naira (38,385,721) which is about One hundred and ninety four thousand, eighty hundred and fifty one dollars ($194,851) at one hundred and ninety seven naira to one US dollars, central bank Nigeria of exchange rate as at 14th March, 2015.

Keywords: building structures, building failure, building collapse, structural failure, cost, direct loss

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6151 Lubricating Grease from Waste Cooking Oil and Waste Motor Sludge

Authors: Aseem Rajvanshi, Pankaj Kumar Pandey

Abstract:

Increase in population has increased the demand of energy to fulfill all its needs. This will result in burden on fossil fuels especially crude oil. Waste oil due to its disposal problem creates environmental degradation. In this context, this paper studies utilization of waste cooking oil and waste motor sludge for making lubricating grease. Experimental studies have been performed by variation in time and concentration of mixture of waste cooking oil and waste motor sludge. The samples were analyzed using penetration test (ASTM D-217), dropping point (ASTM D-566), work penetration (ASTM D-217) and copper strip test (ASTM D-408). Among 6 samples, sample 6 gives the best results with a good drop point and a fine penetration value. The dropping point and penetration test values were found to be 205 °C and 315, respectively. The penetration value falls under the category of NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) consistency number 1.

Keywords: crude oil, copper strip corrosion test, dropping point, penetration test

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6150 The Evaluation of Soil Liquefaction Potential Using Shear Wave Velocity

Authors: M. Nghizaderokni, A. Janalizadechobbasty, M. Azizi, M. Naghizaderokni

Abstract:

The liquefaction resistance of soils can be evaluated using laboratory tests such as cyclic simple shear, cyclic triaxial, cyclic tensional shear, and field methods such as Standard Penetration Test (SPT), Cone Penetration Test (CPT), and Shear Wave Velocity (Vs). This paper outlines a great correlation between shear wave velocity and standard penetration resistance of granular soils was obtained. Using Seeds standard penetration test (SPT) based soil liquefaction charts, new charts of soil liquefaction evaluation based on shear wave velocity data were developed for various magnitude earthquakes.

Keywords: soil, liquefaction, shear wave velocity, standard penetration resistance

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6149 Bioincision of Gmelina Arborea Roxb. Heartwood with Inonotus Dryophilus (Berk.) Murr. for Improved Chemical Uptake and Penetration

Authors: A. O. Adenaiya, S. F. Curling, O. Y. Ogunsanwo, G . A. Ormondroyd

Abstract:

Treatment of wood with chemicals in order to prolong its service life may prove difficult in some refractory wood species. This impermeability in wood is usually due to biochemical changes which occur during heartwood formation. Bioincision, which is a short-term, controlled microbial decomposition of wood, is one of the promising approaches capable of improving the amenability of refractory wood to chemical treatments. Gmelina Arborea, a mainstay timber species in Nigeria, has impermeable heartwood due to the excessive tyloses which occlude its vessels. Therefore, the chemical uptake and penetration in Gmelina arborea heartwood bioincised with Inonotus dryophilus fungus was investigated. Five mature Gmelina Arborea trees were harvested at the Departmental plantation in Ajibode, Ibadan, Nigeria and a bolt of 300 cm was obtained from the basal portion of each tree. The heartwood portion of the bolts was extracted and converted into dimensions 20 mm x 20 mm x 60 mm and subsequently conditioned (200C at 65% Relative Humidity). Twenty wood samples each were bioincised with the white-rot fungus Inonotus dryophilus (ID, 999) for 3, 5, 7 and 9 weeks using standard procedure, while a set of sterile control samples were prepared. Ten of each bioincised and control sample were pressure-treated with 5% tanalith preservative, while the other ten of each bioincised and control samples were pressure-treated with a liquid dye for easy traceability of the chemical in the wood, both using a full cell treatment process. The bioincised and control samples were evaluated for their Weight Loss before chemical treatment (WL, %), Preservative Absorption (PA, Kg/m3), Preservative Retention (PR, Kg/m3), Axial Absorption (AA, Kg/m3), Lateral Absorption (LA, Kg/m3), Axial Penetration Depth (APD, mm), Radial Penetration Depth (RPD, mm), and Tangential Penetration Depth (TPD, mm). The data obtained were analyzed using ANOVA at α0.05. Results show that the weight loss was least in the samples bioincised for three weeks (0.09%) and highest after 7 weeks of bioincision (0.48%). The samples bioincised for 3 weeks had the least PA (106.72 Kg/m3) and PR (5.87 Kg/m3), while the highest PA (134.9 Kg/m3) and PR were observed after 7 weeks of bioincision (7.42 Kg/m3). The AA ranged from 27.28 Kg/m3 (3 weeks) to 67.05 Kg/m3 (5 weeks), while the LA was least after 5 weeks of incubation (28.1 Kg/m3) and highest after 9 weeks (71.74 Kg/m3). Significantly lower APD was observed in control samples (6.97 mm) than in the samples bioincised after 9weeks (19.22 mm). The RPD increased from 0.08 mm (control samples) to 3.48 mm (5 weeks), while TPD ranged from 0.38 mm (control samples) to 0.63 mm (9 weeks), implying that liquid flow in the wood was predominantly through the axial pathway. Bioincising G. arborea heartwood with I. dryophilus fungus for 9 weeks is capable of enhancing chemical uptake and deeper penetration of chemicals in the wood through the degradation of the occluding vessel tyloses, which is accompanied by a minimal degradation of the polymeric wood constituents.

Keywords: Bioincision, chemical uptake, penetration depth, refractory wood, tyloses

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6148 Resistance to Chloride Penetration of High Strength Self-Compacting Concretes: Pumice and Zeolite Effect

Authors: Kianoosh Samimi, Siham Kamali-Bernard, Ali Akbar Maghsoudi

Abstract:

This paper aims to contribute to the characterization and the understanding of fresh state, compressive strength and chloride penetration tendency of high strength self-compacting concretes (HSSCCs) where Portland cement type II is partially substituted by 10% and 15% of natural pumice and zeolite. First, five concrete mixtures with a control mixture without any pozzolan are prepared and tested in both fresh and hardened states. Then, resistance to chloride penetration for all formulation is investigated in non-steady state and steady state by measurement of chloride penetration and diffusion coefficient. In non-steady state, the correlation between initial current and chloride penetration with diffusion coefficient is studied. Moreover, the relationship between diffusion coefficient in non-steady state and electrical resistivity is determined. The concentration of free chloride ions is also measured in steady state. Finally, chloride penetration for all formulation is studied in immersion and tidal condition. The result shows that, the resistance to chloride penetration for HSSCC in immersion and tidal condition increases by incorporating pumice and zeolite. However, concrete with zeolite displays a better resistance. This paper shows that the HSSCC with 15% pumice and 10% zeolite is suitable in fresh, hardened, and durability characteristics.

Keywords: Chloride penetration, immersion, pumice, HSSCC, tidal, zeolite

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6147 Downtime Modelling for the Post-Earthquake Building Assessment Phase

Authors: S. Khakurel, R. P. Dhakal, T. Z. Yeow

Abstract:

Downtime is one of the major sources (alongside damage and injury/death) of financial loss incurred by a structure in an earthquake. The length of downtime associated with a building after an earthquake varies depending on the time taken for the reaction (to the earthquake), decision (on the future course of action) and execution (of the decided course of action) phases. Post-earthquake assessment of buildings is a key step in the decision making process to decide the appropriate safety placarding as well as to decide whether a damaged building is to be repaired or demolished. The aim of the present study is to develop a model to quantify downtime associated with the post-earthquake building-assessment phase in terms of two parameters; i) duration of the different assessment phase; and ii) probability of different colour tagging. Post-earthquake assessment of buildings includes three stages; Level 1 Rapid Assessment including a fast external inspection shortly after the earthquake, Level 2 Rapid Assessment including a visit inside the building and Detailed Engineering Evaluation (if needed). In this study, the durations of all three assessment phases are first estimated from the total number of damaged buildings, total number of available engineers and the average time needed for assessing each building. Then, probability of different tag colours is computed from the 2010-11 Canterbury earthquake Sequence database. Finally, a downtime model for the post-earthquake building inspection phase is proposed based on the estimated phase length and probability of tag colours. This model is expected to be used for rapid estimation of seismic downtime within the Loss Optimisation Seismic Design (LOSD) framework.

Keywords: assessment, downtime, LOSD, Loss Optimisation Seismic Design, phase length, tag color

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6146 Seismic Performance Assessment of Pre-70 RC Frame Buildings with FEMA P-58

Authors: D. Cardone

Abstract:

Past earthquakes have shown that seismic events may incur large economic losses in buildings. FEMA P-58 provides engineers a practical tool for the performance seismic assessment of buildings. In this study, FEMA P-58 is applied to two typical Italian pre-1970 reinforced concrete frame buildings, characterized by plain rebars as steel reinforcement and masonry infills and partitions. Given that suitable tools for these buildings are missing in FEMA P- 58, specific fragility curves and loss functions are first developed. Next, building performance is evaluated following a time-based assessment approach. Finally, expected annual losses for the selected buildings are derived and compared with past applications to old RC frame buildings representative of the US building stock. 

Keywords: FEMA P-58, RC frame buildings, plain rebars, Masonry infills, fragility functions, loss functions, expected annual loss

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6145 Advanced Hybrid Particle Swarm Optimization for Congestion and Power Loss Reduction in Distribution Networks with High Distributed Generation Penetration through Network Reconfiguration

Authors: C. Iraklis, G. Evmiridis, A. Iraklis

Abstract:

Renewable energy sources and distributed power generation units already have an important role in electrical power generation. A mixture of different technologies penetrating the electrical grid, adds complexity in the management of distribution networks. High penetration of distributed power generation units creates node over-voltages, huge power losses, unreliable power management, reverse power flow and congestion. This paper presents an optimization algorithm capable of reducing congestion and power losses, both described as a function of weighted sum. Two factors that describe congestion are being proposed. An upgraded selective particle swarm optimization algorithm (SPSO) is used as a solution tool focusing on the technique of network reconfiguration. The upgraded SPSO algorithm is achieved with the addition of a heuristic algorithm specializing in reduction of power losses, with several scenarios being tested. Results show significant improvement in minimization of losses and congestion while achieving very small calculation times.

Keywords: congestion, distribution networks, loss reduction, particle swarm optimization, smart grid

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
6144 Infrared Thermography as an Informative Tool in Energy Audit and Software Modelling of Historic Buildings: A Case Study of the Sheffield Cathedral

Authors: Ademuyiwa Agbonyin, Stamatis Zoras, Mohammad Zandi

Abstract:

This paper investigates the extent to which building energy modelling can be informed based on preliminary information provided by infrared thermography using a thermal imaging camera in a walkthrough audit. The case-study building is the Sheffield Cathedral, built in the early 1400s. Based on an informative qualitative report generated from the thermal images taken at the site, the regions showing significant heat loss are input into a computer model of the cathedral within the integrated environmental solution (IES) virtual environment software which performs an energy simulation to determine quantitative heat losses through the building envelope. Building data such as material thermal properties and building plans are provided by the architects, Thomas Ford and Partners Ltd. The results of the modelling revealed the portions of the building with the highest heat loss and these aligned with those suggested by the thermal camera. Retrofit options for the building are also considered, however, may not see implementation due to a desire to conserve the architectural heritage of the building. Results show that thermal imaging in a walk-through audit serves as a useful guide for the energy modelling process. Hand calculations were also performed to serve as a 'control' to estimate losses, providing a second set of data points of comparison.

Keywords: historic buildings, energy retrofit, thermal comfort, software modelling, energy modelling

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6143 Accurate Calculation of the Penetration Depth of a Bullet Using ANSYS

Authors: Eunsu Jang, Kang Park

Abstract:

In developing an armored ground combat vehicle (AGCV), it is a very important step to analyze the vulnerability (or the survivability) of the AGCV against enemy’s attack. In the vulnerability analysis, the penetration equations are usually used to get the penetration depth and check whether a bullet can penetrate the armor of the AGCV, which causes the damage of internal components or crews. The penetration equations are derived from penetration experiments which require long time and great efforts. However, they usually hold only for the specific material of the target and the specific type of the bullet used in experiments. Thus, penetration simulation using ANSYS can be another option to calculate penetration depth. However, it is very important to model the targets and select the input parameters in order to get an accurate penetration depth. This paper performed a sensitivity analysis of input parameters of ANSYS on the accuracy of the calculated penetration depth. Two conflicting objectives need to be achieved in adopting ANSYS in penetration analysis: maximizing the accuracy of calculation and minimizing the calculation time. To maximize the calculation accuracy, the sensitivity analysis of the input parameters for ANSYS was performed and calculated the RMS error with the experimental data. The input parameters include mesh size, boundary condition, material properties, target diameter are tested and selected to minimize the error between the calculated result from simulation and the experiment data from the papers on the penetration equation. To minimize the calculation time, the parameter values obtained from accuracy analysis are adjusted to get optimized overall performance. As result of analysis, the followings were found: 1) As the mesh size gradually decreases from 0.9 mm to 0.5 mm, both the penetration depth and calculation time increase. 2) As diameters of the target decrease from 250mm to 60 mm, both the penetration depth and calculation time decrease. 3) As the yield stress which is one of the material property of the target decreases, the penetration depth increases. 4) The boundary condition with the fixed side surface of the target gives more penetration depth than that with the fixed side and rear surfaces. By using above finding, the input parameters can be tuned to minimize the error between simulation and experiments. By using simulation tool, ANSYS, with delicately tuned input parameters, penetration analysis can be done on computer without actual experiments. The data of penetration experiments are usually hard to get because of security reasons and only published papers provide them in the limited target material. The next step of this research is to generalize this approach to anticipate the penetration depth by interpolating the known penetration experiments. This result may not be accurate enough to be used to replace the penetration experiments, but those simulations can be used in the early stage of the design process of AGCV in modelling and simulation stage.

Keywords: ANSYS, input parameters, penetration depth, sensitivity analysis

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6142 The Effects of Stoke's Drag, Electrostatic Force and Charge on Penetration of Nanoparticles through N95 Respirators

Authors: Jacob Schwartz, Maxim Durach, Aniruddha Mitra, Abbas Rashidi, Glen Sage, Atin Adhikari

Abstract:

NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) approved N95 respirators are commonly used by workers in construction sites where there is a large amount of dust being produced from sawing, grinding, blasting, welding, etc., both electrostatically charged and not. A significant portion of airborne particles in construction sites could be nanoparticles created beside coarse particles. The penetration of the particles through the masks may differ depending on the size and charge of the individual particle. In field experiments relevant to this current study, we found that nanoparticles of medium size ranges are penetrating more frequently than nanoparticles of smaller and larger sizes. For example, penetration percentages of nanoparticles of 11.5 – 27.4 nm into a sealed N95 respirator on a manikin head ranged from 0.59 to 6.59%, whereas nanoparticles of 36.5 – 86.6 nm ranged from 7.34 to 16.04%. The possible causes behind this increased penetration of mid-size nanoparticles through mask filters are not yet explored. The objective of this study is to identify causes behind this unusual behavior of mid-size nanoparticles. We have considered such physical factors as Boltzmann distribution of the particles in thermal equilibrium with the air, kinetic energy of the particles at impact on the mask, Stoke’s drag force, and electrostatic forces in the mask stopping the particles. When the particles collide with the mask, only the particles that have enough kinetic energy to overcome the energy loss due to the electrostatic forces and the Stokes’ drag in the mask can pass through the mask. To understand this process, the following assumptions were made: (1) the effect of Stoke’s drag depends on the particles’ velocity at entry into the mask; (2) the electrostatic force is proportional to the charge on the particles, which in turn is proportional to the surface area of the particles; (3) the general dependence on electrostatic charge and thickness means that for stronger electrostatic resistance in the masks and thicker the masks’ fiber layers the penetration of particles is reduced, which is a sensible conclusion. In sampling situations where one mask was soaked in alcohol eliminating electrostatic interaction the penetration was much larger in the mid-range than the same mask with electrostatic interaction. The smaller nanoparticles showed almost zero penetration most likely because of the small kinetic energy, while the larger sized nanoparticles showed almost negligible penetration most likely due to the interaction of the particle with its own drag force. If there is no electrostatic force the fraction for larger particles grows. But if the electrostatic force is added the fraction for larger particles goes down, so diminished penetration for larger particles should be due to increased electrostatic repulsion, may be due to increased surface area and therefore larger charge on average. We have also explored the effect of ambient temperature on nanoparticle penetrations and determined that the dependence of the penetration of particles on the temperature is weak in the range of temperatures in the measurements 37-42°C, since the factor changes in the range from 3.17 10-3K-1 to 3.22 10-3K-1.

Keywords: respiratory protection, industrial hygiene, aerosol, electrostatic force

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6141 The Damage Assessment of Industrial Buildings Located on Clayey Soils Using in-Situ Tests

Authors: Ismail Akkaya, Mucip Tapan, Ali Ozvan

Abstract:

Some of the industrially prefabricated buildings located on clayey soils were damaged due to soil conditions. The reasons of these damages are generally due to different settlement capacity, the different plasticity of soils and the level of ground water. The aim of this study is to determine the source of these building damages by conducting in situ tests. Therefore, pressuremeter test, which is one of the borehole loading test conducted to determine the properties of soils under the foundations and Standart Penetration Test (SPT). The results of these two field tests were then used to accurately obtain the consistency and firmness of soils. Pressuremeter Deformation Module (EM) and Net Limiting Pressure (PL) of soils were calculated after the pressuremeter tests. These values were then compared with the SPT (N30) and SPT (N60) results. An empirical equation was developed to obtain EM and PL values of such soils from SPT test results. These values were then used to calculate soil bearing capacity as well as the soil settlement. Finally, the relationship between the foundation settlement and the damage of these buildings were checked. It was found that calculated settlement values were almost the same as measured settlement values.

Keywords: damaged building, pressuremeter, standard penetration test, low and high plasticity clay

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6140 Penetration Analysis for Composites Applicable to Military Vehicle Armors, Aircraft Engines and Nuclear Power Plant Structures

Authors: Dong Wook Lee

Abstract:

This paper describes a method for analyzing penetration for composite material using an explicit nonlinear Finite Element Analysis (FEA). This method may be used in the early stage of design for the protection of military vehicles, aircraft engines and nuclear power plant structures made of composite materials. This paper deals with simple ballistic penetration tests for composite materials and the FEA modeling method and results. The FEA was performed to interpret the ballistic field test phenomenon regarding the damage propagation in the structure subjected to local foreign object impact.

Keywords: computer aided engineering, finite element analysis, impact analysis, penetration analysis, composite material

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6139 Analysis of Thermal Damping in Si Based Torsional Micromirrors

Authors: R. Resmi, M. R. Baiju

Abstract:

The thermal damping of a dynamic vibrating micromirror is an important factor affecting the design of MEMS based actuator systems. In the development process of new micromirror systems, assessing the extent of energy loss due to thermal damping accurately and predicting the performance of the system is very essential. In this paper, the depth of the thermal penetration layer at different eigenfrequencies and the temperature variation distributions surrounding a vibrating micromirror is analyzed. The thermal penetration depth corresponds to the thermal boundary layer in which energy is lost which is a measure of the thermal damping is found out. The energy is mainly dissipated in the thermal boundary layer and thickness of the layer is an important parameter. The detailed thermoacoustics is used to model the air domain surrounding the micromirror. The thickness of the boundary layer, temperature variations and thermal power dissipation are analyzed for a Si based torsional mode micromirror. It is found that thermal penetration depth decreases with eigenfrequency and hence operating the micromirror at higher frequencies is essential for reducing thermal damping. The temperature variations and thermal power dissipations at different eigenfrequencies are also analyzed. Both frequency-response and eigenfrequency analyses are done using COMSOL Multiphysics software.

Keywords: Eigen frequency analysis, micromirrors, thermal damping, thermoacoustic interactions

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6138 Analyses of Copper Nanoparticles Impregnated Wood and Its Fungal Degradation Performance

Authors: María Graciela Aguayo, Laura Reyes, Claudia Oviedo, José Navarrete, Liset Gómez, Hugo Torres

Abstract:

Most wood species used in construction deteriorate when exposed to environmental conditions that favor wood-degrading organisms’ growth. Therefore, chemical protection by impregnation allows more efficient use of forest resources extending the wood's useful life. A wood protection treatment which has attracted considerable interest of the scientific community during the last decade is wood impregnation with nanocompounds. Radiata pine is the main wood species used in the Chilean construction industry, with total availability of 8 million m³ sawn timber. According to the requirements of the American Wood Protection Association (AWPA) and the Chilean Standards (NCh), radiata pine timber used in construction must be protected due to its low natural durability. In this work, the impregnation with copper nanoparticles (CuNP) was studied in terms of penetration and its protective effect against wood rot fungi. Two concentrations: 1 and 3 g/L of NPCu were applied by impregnation on radiata pine sapwood. Test penetration under AWPA A3-91 standard was carried out, and wood decay tests were performed according to EN 113, with slight modifications. The results of penetration for 1 g/L CuNP showed an irregular total penetration, and the samples impregnated with 3 g/L showed a total penetration with uniform concentration (blue color in all cross-sections). The impregnation wood mass losses due to fungal exposure were significantly reduced, regardless of the concentration of the solution or the fungus. In impregnated wood samples, exposure to G. trabeum resulted in ML values of 2.70% and 1.19% for 1 g/L and 3 g/L CuNP, respectively, and exposure to P. placenta resulted in 4.02% and 0.70%-ML values for 1 g/L and 3 g/L CuNP, respectively. In this study, the penetration analysis confirmed a uniform distribution inside the wood, and both concentrations were effective against the tested fungi, giving mass loss values lower than 5%. Therefore, future research in wood preservatives should focus on new nanomaterials that are more efficient and environmentally friendly. Acknowledgments: CONICYT FONDEF IDeA I+D 2019, grant number ID19I10122.

Keywords: copper nanoparticles, fungal degradation, radiata pine wood, wood preservation

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6137 A Comparative Case Study of the Impact of Square and Yurt-Shape Buildings on Energy Efficiency

Authors: Valeriya Tyo, Serikbolat Yessengabulov

Abstract:

Regions with extreme climate conditions such as Astana city require energy saving measures to increase the energy performance of buildings which are responsible for more than 40% of total energy consumption. Identification of optimal building geometry is one of the key factors to be considered. The architectural form of a building has the impact on space heating and cooling energy use, however, the interrelationship between the geometry and resultant energy use is not always readily apparent. This paper presents a comparative case study of two prototypical buildings with compact building shape to assess its impact on energy performance.

Keywords: building geometry, energy efficiency, heat gain, heat loss

Procedia PDF Downloads 417
6136 Analysis of Tilting Cause of a Residential Building in Durres by the Use of Cptu Test

Authors: Neritan Shkodrani

Abstract:

On November 26, 2019, an earthquake hit the central western part of Albania. It was assessed as Mw 6.4. Its epicenter was located offshore north western Durrës, about 7 km north of the city. In this paper, the consequences of settlements of very soft soils have been discussed for the case of a residential building, mentioned as “K Building”, which was suffering a significant tilting after the earthquake. “KBuilding” is an RC framed building having 12+1 (basement) storiesand a floor area of 21000 m2. The construction of the building was completed in 2012. “KBuilding”, located in Durres city, suffered severe non-structural damage during November 26, 2019, Durrës Earthquake sequences. During the in-site inspections immediately after the earthquake, the general condition of the buildings, the presence of observable settlements on the ground, and the crack situation in the structure were determined, and damage inspection were performed. It was significant to note that the “K Building” presented tilting that might be attributed, as it was believed at the beginning, partially to the failure of the columns of the ground floor and partially to liquefaction phenomena, but it did not collapse. At the first moment was not clear if the foundation had a bearing capacity failure or the foundation failed because of the soil liquefaction. Geotechnical soil investigations by using CPTU test were executed, and their data are usedto evaluatebearing capacity, consolidation settlement of the mat foundation, and soil liquefaction since they were believed to be the main reasons of this building tilting.Geotechnical soil investigation consist in 5 (five) Static Cone Penetration tests with pore pressure measurement (piezocone test). They reached a penetration depth of 20.0 m to 30.0 mand, clearly shown the presence of very soft and organic soils in the soil profile of the site. Geotechnical CPT based analysis of bearing capacity, consolidation, and secondary settlement are applied, and results are reported for each test. These results shown very small values of allowable bearing capacity and very high values of consolidation and secondary settlements. Liquefaction analysis based on the data of CPTU tests and the characteristics of ground shaking of the mentioned earthquake has shown the possibility of liquefaction for some layers of the considered soil profile, but the estimated vertical settlements are at a small range and clearly shown that the main reason of the building tilting was not related to the consequences of liquefaction, but was an existing settlement caused from the applied bearing pressure of this building. All the CPTU tests were carried out on August 2021, almost two years after the November 26, 2019, Durrës Earthquake and when the building itself was demolished. After removing the mat foundation on September 2021, it was possible to carry out CPTU tests even on the footprint of the existing building, which made possible to observe the effects of long time applied of foundation bearing pressure to the consolidation on the considered soil profile.

Keywords: bearing capacity, cone penetration test, consolidation settlement, secondary settlement, soil liquefaction, etc

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6135 Wind Energy Loss Phenomenon Over Volumized Building Envelope with Porous Air Portals

Authors: Ying-chang Yu, Yuan-lung Lo

Abstract:

More and more building envelopes consist of the construction of balconies, canopies, handrails, sun-shading, vertical planters or gardens, maintenance platforms, display devices, lightings, ornaments, and also the most commonly seen double skin system. These components form a uniform but three-dimensional disturbance structure and create a complex surface wind field in front of the actual watertight building interface. The distorted wind behavior would affect the façade performance and building ventilation. Comparing with sole windscreen walls, these three-dimensional structures perform like distributed air portal assembly, and each portal generates air turbulence and consume wind pressure and energy simultaneously. In this study, we attempted to compare the behavior of 2D porous windscreens without internal construction, porous tubular portal windscreens, porous tapered portal windscreens, and porous coned portal windscreens. The wind energy reduction phenomenon is then compared to the different distributed air portals. The experiments are conducted in a physical wind tunnel with 1:25 in scale to simulate the three-dimensional structure of a real building envelope. The experimental airflow was set up to smooth flow. The specimen is designed as a plane with a distributed tubular structure behind, and the control group uses different tubular shapes but the same fluid volume to observe the wind damping phenomenon of various geometries.

Keywords: volumized building envelope, porous air portal, wind damping, wind tunnel test, wind energy loss

Procedia PDF Downloads 53