Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 2050

Search results for: fragility functions

2050 Seismic Loss Assessment for Peruvian University Buildings with Simulated Fragility Functions

Authors: Jose Ruiz, Jose Velasquez, Holger Lovon


Peruvian university buildings are critical structures for which very little research about its seismic vulnerability is available. This paper develops a probabilistic methodology that predicts seismic loss for university buildings with simulated fragility functions. Two university buildings located in the city of Cusco were analyzed. Fragility functions were developed considering seismic and structural parameters uncertainty. The fragility functions were generated with the Latin Hypercube technique, an improved Montecarlo-based method, which optimizes the sampling of structural parameters and provides at least 100 reliable samples for every level of seismic demand. Concrete compressive strength, maximum concrete strain and yield stress of the reinforcing steel were considered as the key structural parameters. The seismic demand is defined by synthetic records which are compatible with the elastic Peruvian design spectrum. Acceleration records are scaled based on the peak ground acceleration on rigid soil (PGA) which goes from 0.05g to 1.00g. A total of 2000 structural models were considered to account for both structural and seismic variability. These functions represent the overall building behavior because they give rational information regarding damage ratios for defined levels of seismic demand. The university buildings show an expected Mean Damage Factor of 8.80% and 19.05%, respectively, for the 0.22g-PGA scenario, which was amplified by the soil type coefficient and resulted in 0.26g-PGA. These ratios were computed considering a seismic demand related to 10% of probability of exceedance in 50 years which is a requirement in the Peruvian seismic code. These results show an acceptable seismic performance for both buildings.

Keywords: fragility functions, university buildings, loss assessment, Montecarlo simulation, latin hypercube

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2049 Seismic Fragility Functions of RC Moment Frames Using Incremental Dynamic Analyses

Authors: Seung-Won Lee, JongSoo Lee, Won-Jik Yang, Hyung-Joon Kim


A capacity spectrum method (CSM), one of methodologies to evaluate seismic fragilities of building structures, has been long recognized as the most convenient method, even if it contains several limitations to predict the seismic response of structures of interest. This paper proposes the procedure to estimate seismic fragility curves using an incremental dynamic analysis (IDA) rather than the method adopting a CSM. To achieve the research purpose, this study compares the seismic fragility curves of a 5-story reinforced concrete (RC) moment frame obtained from both methods, an IDA method and a CSM. Both seismic fragility curves are similar in slight and moderate damage states whereas the fragility curve obtained from the IDA method presents less variation (or uncertainties) in extensive and complete damage states. This is due to the fact that the IDA method can properly capture the structural response beyond yielding rather than the CSM and can directly calculate higher mode effects. From these observations, the CSM could overestimate seismic vulnerabilities of the studied structure in extensive or complete damage states.

Keywords: seismic fragility curve, incremental dynamic analysis, capacity spectrum method, reinforced concrete moment frame

Procedia PDF Downloads 347
2048 Seismic Fragility Curves Methodologies for Bridges: A Review

Authors: Amirmozafar Benshams, Khatere Kashmari, Farzad Hatami, Mesbah Saybani


As a part of the transportation network, bridges are one of the most vulnerable structures. In order to investigate the vulnerability and seismic evaluation of bridges performance, identifying of bridge associated with various state of damage is important. Fragility curves provide important data about damage states and performance of bridges against earthquakes. The development of vulnerability information in the form of fragility curves is a widely practiced approach when the information is to be developed accounting for a multitude of uncertain source involved. This paper presents the fragility curve methodologies for bridges and investigates the practice and applications relating to the seismic fragility assessment of bridges.

Keywords: fragility curve, bridge, uncertainty, NLTHA, IDA

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
2047 Seismic Performance Assessment of Pre-70 RC Frame Buildings with FEMA P-58

Authors: D. Cardone


Past earthquakes have shown that seismic events may incur large economic losses in buildings. FEMA P-58 provides engineers a practical tool for the performance seismic assessment of buildings. In this study, FEMA P-58 is applied to two typical Italian pre-1970 reinforced concrete frame buildings, characterized by plain rebars as steel reinforcement and masonry infills and partitions. Given that suitable tools for these buildings are missing in FEMA P- 58, specific fragility curves and loss functions are first developed. Next, building performance is evaluated following a time-based assessment approach. Finally, expected annual losses for the selected buildings are derived and compared with past applications to old RC frame buildings representative of the US building stock. 

Keywords: FEMA P-58, RC frame buildings, plain rebars, Masonry infills, fragility functions, loss functions, expected annual loss

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2046 Seismic Fragility for Sliding Failure of Weir Structure Considering the Process of Concrete Aging

Authors: HoYoung Son, Ki Young Kim, Woo Young Jung


This study investigated the change of weir structure performances when durability of concrete, which is the main material of weir structure, decreased due to their aging by mean of seismic fragility analysis. In the analysis, it was assumed that the elastic modulus of concrete was reduced by 10% in order to account for their aged deterioration. Additionally, the analysis of seismic fragility was based on Monte Carlo Simulation method combined with a 2D nonlinear finite element in ABAQUS platform with the consideration of deterioration of concrete. Finally, the comparison of seismic fragility of model pre- and post-deterioration was made to study the performance of weir. Results show that the probability of failure in moderate damage for deteriorated model was found to be larger than pre-deterioration model when peak ground acceleration (PGA) passed 0.4 g.

Keywords: weir, FEM, concrete, fragility, aging

Procedia PDF Downloads 358
2045 Evaluation of Wind Fragility for Set Anchor Used in Sign Structure in Korea

Authors: WooYoung Jung, Buntheng Chhorn, Min-Gi Kim


Recently, damage to domestic facilities by strong winds and typhoons are growing. Therefore, this study focused on sign structure among various vulnerable facilities. The evaluation of the wind fragility was carried out considering the destruction of the anchor, which is one of the various failure modes of the sign structure. The performance evaluation of the anchor was carried out to derive the wind fragility. Two parameters were set and four anchor types were selected to perform the pull-out and shear tests. The resistance capacity was estimated based on the experimental results. Wind loads were estimated using Monte Carlo simulation method. Based on these results, we derived the wind fragility according to anchor type and wind exposure category. Finally, the evaluation of the wind fragility was performed according to the experimental parameters such as anchor length and anchor diameter. This study shows that the depth of anchor was more significant for the safety of structure compare to diameter of anchor.

Keywords: sign structure, wind fragility, set anchor, pull-out test, shear test, Monte Carlo simulation

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2044 A Review of Current Knowledge on Assessment of Precast Structures Using Fragility Curves

Authors: E. Akpinar, A. Erol, M.F. Cakir


Precast reinforced concrete (RC) structures are excellent alternatives for construction world all over the globe, thanks to their rapid erection phase, ease mounting process, better quality and reasonable prices. Such structures are rather popular for industrial buildings. For the sake of economic importance of such industrial buildings as well as significance of safety, like every other type of structures, performance assessment and structural risk analysis are important. Fragility curves are powerful tools for damage projection and assessment for any sort of building as well as precast structures. In this study, a comparative review of current knowledge on fragility analysis of industrial precast RC structures were presented and findings in previous studies were compiled. Effects of different structural variables, parameters and building geometries as well as soil conditions on fragility analysis of precast structures are reviewed. It was aimed to briefly present the information in the literature about the procedure of damage probability prediction including fragility curves for such industrial facilities. It is found that determination of the aforementioned structural parameters as well as selecting analysis procedure are critically important for damage prediction of industrial precast RC structures using fragility curves.

Keywords: damage prediction, fragility curve, industrial buildings, precast reinforced concrete structures

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2043 Comparison of Wind Fragility for Window System in the Simplified 10 and 15-Story Building Considering Exposure Category

Authors: Viriyavudh Sim, WooYoung Jung


Window system in high rise building is occasionally subjected to an excessive wind intensity, particularly during typhoon. The failure of window system did not affect overall safety of structural performance; however, it could endanger the safety of the residents. In this paper, comparison of fragility curves for window system of two residential buildings was studied. The probability of failure for individual window was determined with Monte Carlo Simulation method. Then, lognormal cumulative distribution function was used to represent the fragility. The results showed that windows located on the edge of leeward wall were more susceptible to wind load and the probability of failure for each window panel increased at higher floors.

Keywords: wind fragility, window system, high rise building, wind disaster

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2042 Fragility Assessment for Torsionally Asymmetric Buildings in Plan

Authors: S. Feli, S. Tavousi Tafreshi, A. Ghasemi


The present paper aims at evaluating the response of three-dimensional buildings with in-plan stiffness irregularities that have been subjected to two-way excitation ground motion records simultaneously. This study is broadly-based fragility assessment with greater emphasis on structural response at in-plan flexible and stiff sides. To this end, three type of three-dimensional 5-story steel building structures with stiffness eccentricities, were subjected to extensive nonlinear incremental dynamic analyses (IDA) utilizing Ibarra-Krawinkler deterioration models. Fragility assessment was implemented for different configurations of braces to investigate the losses in buildings with center of resisting (CR) eccentricities.

Keywords: Ibarra-Krawinkler, fragility assessment, flexible and stiff side, center of resisting

Procedia PDF Downloads 141
2041 Seismic Fragility of Weir Structure Considering Aging Degradation of Concrete Material

Authors: HoYoung Son, DongHoon Shin, WooYoung Jung


This study presented the seismic fragility framework of concrete weir structure subjected to strong seismic ground motions and in particular, concrete aging condition of the weir structure was taken into account in this study. In order to understand the influence of concrete aging on the weir structure, by using probabilistic risk assessment, the analytical seismic fragility of the weir structure was derived for pre- and post-deterioration of concrete. The performance of concrete weir structure after five years was assumed for the concrete aging or deterioration, and according to after five years’ condition, the elastic modulus was simply reduced about one–tenth compared with initial condition of weir structures. A 2D nonlinear finite element analysis was performed considering the deterioration of concrete in weir structures using ABAQUS platform, a commercial structural analysis program. Simplified concrete degradation was resulted in the increase of almost 45% of the probability of failure at Limit State 3, in comparison to initial construction stage, by analyzing the seismic fragility.

Keywords: weir, FEM, concrete, fragility, aging

Procedia PDF Downloads 403
2040 Wind Fragility of Window Glass in 10-Story Apartment with Two Different Window Models

Authors: Viriyavudh Sim, WooYoung Jung


Damage due to high wind is not limited to load resistance components such as beam and column. The majority of damage is due to breach in the building envelope such as broken roof, window, and door. In this paper, wind fragility of window glass in residential apartment was determined to compare the difference between two window configuration models. Monte Carlo Simulation method had been used to derive damage data and analytical fragilities were constructed. Fragility of window system showed that window located in leeward wall had higher probability of failure, especially those close to the edge of structure. Between the two window models, Model 2 had higher probability of failure, this was due to the number of panel in this configuration.

Keywords: wind fragility, glass window, high rise building, wind disaster

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2039 Wind Fragility for Soundproof Wall with the Variation of Section Shape of Frame

Authors: Seong Do Kim, Woo Young Jung


Recently, damages due to typhoons and strong wind are on the rise. Considering this issue, we evaluated the performance of soundproofing walls based on the strong wind fragility by means of numerical analysis. Among the components of the soundproof wall, aluminum frame was the most vulnerable member, thus we have considered different section of aluminum frame in the determination of wind fragility. Wind load was randomly generated using Monte Carlo Simulation method. Moreover, limit state was based on the test standard of road construction soundproofing wall. In this study, the strong wind fragility was determined by considering the influence factors of wind exposure category, soundproof wall’s installation position, and shape of aluminum frame section. Results of this study could be used to determine the section shape of the frame that has high resistance to the wind during construction of the soundproofing wall.

Keywords: aluminum frame soundproofing wall, Monte Carlo simulation, numerical simulation, wind fragility

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
2038 Selection of Intensity Measure in Probabilistic Seismic Risk Assessment of a Turkish Railway Bridge

Authors: M. F. Yilmaz, B. Ö. Çağlayan


Fragility curve is an effective common used tool to determine the earthquake performance of structural and nonstructural components. Also, it is used to determine the nonlinear behavior of bridges. There are many historical bridges in the Turkish railway network; the earthquake performances of these bridges are needed to be investigated. To derive fragility curve Intensity measures (IMs) and Engineering demand parameters (EDP) are needed to be determined. And the relation between IMs and EDP are needed to be derived. In this study, a typical simply supported steel girder riveted railway bridge is studied. Fragility curves of this bridge are derived by two parameters lognormal distribution. Time history analyses are done for selected 60 real earthquake data to determine the relation between IMs and EDP. Moreover, efficiency, practicality, and sufficiency of three different IMs are discussed. PGA, Sa(0.2s) and Sa(1s), the most common used IMs parameters for fragility curve in the literature, are taken into consideration in terms of efficiency, practicality and sufficiency.

Keywords: railway bridges, earthquake performance, fragility analyses, selection of intensity measures

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2037 Feasibility of an Extreme Wind Risk Assessment Software for Industrial Applications

Authors: Francesco Pandolfi, Georgios Baltzopoulos, Iunio Iervolino


The impact of extreme winds on industrial assets and the built environment is gaining increasing attention from stakeholders, including the corporate insurance industry. This has led to a progressively more in-depth study of building vulnerability and fragility to wind. Wind vulnerability models are used in probabilistic risk assessment to relate a loss metric to an intensity measure of the natural event, usually a gust or a mean wind speed. In fact, vulnerability models can be integrated with the wind hazard, which consists of associating a probability to each intensity level in a time interval (e.g., by means of return periods) to provide an assessment of future losses due to extreme wind. This has also given impulse to the world- and regional-scale wind hazard studies.Another approach often adopted for the probabilistic description of building vulnerability to the wind is the use of fragility functions, which provide the conditional probability that selected building components will exceed certain damage states, given wind intensity. In fact, in wind engineering literature, it is more common to find structural system- or component-level fragility functions rather than wind vulnerability models for an entire building. Loss assessment based on component fragilities requires some logical combination rules that define the building’s damage state given the damage state of each component and the availability of a consequence model that provides the losses associated with each damage state. When risk calculations are based on numerical simulation of a structure’s behavior during extreme wind scenarios, the interaction of component fragilities is intertwined with the computational procedure. However, simulation-based approaches are usually computationally demanding and case-specific. In this context, the present work introduces the ExtReMe wind risk assESsment prototype Software, ERMESS, which is being developed at the University of Naples Federico II. ERMESS is a wind risk assessment tool for insurance applications to industrial facilities, collecting a wide assortment of available wind vulnerability models and fragility functions to facilitate their incorporation into risk calculations based on in-built or user-defined wind hazard data. This software implements an alternative method for building-specific risk assessment based on existing component-level fragility functions and on a number of simplifying assumptions for their interactions. The applicability of this alternative procedure is explored by means of an illustrative proof-of-concept example, which considers four main building components, namely: the roof covering, roof structure, envelope wall and envelope openings. The application shows that, despite the simplifying assumptions, the procedure can yield risk evaluations that are comparable to those obtained via more rigorous building-level simulation-based methods, at least in the considered example. The advantage of this approach is shown to lie in the fact that a database of building component fragility curves can be put to use for the development of new wind vulnerability models to cover building typologies not yet adequately covered by existing works and whose rigorous development is usually beyond the budget of portfolio-related industrial applications.

Keywords: component wind fragility, probabilistic risk assessment, vulnerability model, wind-induced losses

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2036 Derivation of Fragility Functions of Marine Drilling Risers Under Ocean Environment

Authors: Pranjal Srivastava, Piyali Sengupta


The performance of marine drilling risers is crucial in the offshore oil and gas industry to ensure safe drilling operation with minimum downtime. Experimental investigations on marine drilling risers are limited in the literature owing to the expensive and exhaustive test setup required to replicate the realistic riser model and ocean environment in the laboratory. Therefore, this study presents an analytical model of marine drilling riser for determining its fragility under ocean environmental loading. In this study, the marine drilling riser is idealized as a continuous beam having a concentric circular cross-section. Hydrodynamic loading acting on the marine drilling riser is determined by Morison’s equations. By considering the equilibrium of forces on the marine drilling riser for the connected and normal drilling conditions, the governing partial differential equations in terms of independent variables z (depth) and t (time) are derived. Subsequently, the Runge Kutta method and Finite Difference Method are employed for solving the partial differential equations arising from the analytical model. The proposed analytical approach is successfully validated with respect to the experimental results from the literature. From the dynamic analysis results of the proposed analytical approach, the critical design parameters peak displacements, upper and lower flex joint rotations and von Mises stresses of marine drilling risers are determined. An extensive parametric study is conducted to explore the effects of top tension, drilling depth, ocean current speed and platform drift on the critical design parameters of the marine drilling riser. Thereafter, incremental dynamic analysis is performed to derive the fragility functions of shallow water and deep-water marine drilling risers under ocean environmental loading. The proposed methodology can also be adopted for downtime estimation of marine drilling risers incorporating the ranges of uncertainties associated with the ocean environment, especially at deep and ultra-deepwater.

Keywords: drilling riser, marine, analytical model, fragility

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2035 Efficient Wind Fragility Analysis of Concrete Chimney under Stochastic Extreme Wind Incorporating Temperature Effects

Authors: Soumya Bhattacharjya, Avinandan Sahoo, Gaurav Datta


Wind fragility analysis of chimney is often carried out disregarding temperature effect. However, the combined effect of wind and temperature is the most critical limit state for chimney design. Hence, in the present paper, an efficient fragility analysis for concrete chimney is explored under combined wind and temperature effect. Wind time histories are generated by Davenports Power Spectral Density Function and using Weighed Amplitude Wave Superposition Technique. Fragility analysis is often carried out in full Monte Carlo Simulation framework, which requires extensive computational time. Thus, in the present paper, an efficient adaptive metamodelling technique is adopted to judiciously approximate limit state function, which will be subsequently used in the simulation framework. This will save substantial computational time and make the approach computationally efficient. Uncertainty in wind speed, wind load related parameters, and resistance-related parameters is considered. The results by the full simulation approach, conventional metamodelling approach and proposed adaptive metamodelling approach will be compared. Effect of disregarding temperature in wind fragility analysis will be highlighted.

Keywords: adaptive metamodelling technique, concrete chimney, fragility analysis, stochastic extreme wind load, temperature effect

Procedia PDF Downloads 135
2034 Fragility Analysis of Weir Structure Subjected to Flooding Water Damage

Authors: Oh Hyeon Jeon, WooYoung Jung


In this study, seepage analysis was performed by the level difference between upstream and downstream of weir structure for safety evaluation of weir structure against flooding. Monte Carlo Simulation method was employed by considering the probability distribution of the adjacent ground parameter, i.e., permeability coefficient of weir structure. Moreover, by using a commercially available finite element program (ABAQUS), modeling of the weir structure is carried out. Based on this model, the characteristic of water seepage during flooding was determined at each water level with consideration of the uncertainty of their corresponding permeability coefficient. Subsequently, fragility function could be constructed based on this response from numerical analysis; this fragility function results could be used to determine the weakness of weir structure subjected to flooding disaster. They can also be used as a reference data that can comprehensively predict the probability of failur,e and the degree of damage of a weir structure.

Keywords: weir structure, seepage, flood disaster fragility, probabilistic risk assessment, Monte-Carlo simulation, permeability coefficient

Procedia PDF Downloads 272
2033 Seismic Fragility Curves for Shallow Circular Tunnels under Different Soil Conditions

Authors: Siti Khadijah Che Osmi, Syed Mohd Ahmad


This paper presents a methodology to develop fragility curves for shallow tunnels so as to describe a relationship between seismic hazard and tunnel vulnerability. Emphasis is given to the influence of surrounding soil material properties because the dynamic behaviour of the tunnel mostly depends on it. Four ground properties of soils ranging from stiff to soft soils are selected. A 3D nonlinear time history analysis is used to evaluate the seismic response of the tunnel when subjected to five real earthquake ground intensities. The derived curves show the future probabilistic performance of the tunnels based on the predicted level of damage states corresponding to the peak ground acceleration. A comparison of the obtained results with the previous literature is provided to validate the reliability of the proposed fragility curves. Results show the significant role of soil properties and input motions in evaluating the seismic performance and response of shallow tunnels.

Keywords: fragility analysis, seismic performance, tunnel lining, vulnerability

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2032 Seismic Fragility of Base-Isolated Multi-Story Piping System in Critical Facilities

Authors: Bu Seog Ju, Ho Young Son, Yong Hee Ryu


This study is focused on the evaluation of seismic fragility of multi-story piping system installed in critical structures, isolated with triple friction pendulum bearing. The concept of this study is to isolate the critical building structure as well as nonstructural component, especially piping system in order to mitigate the earthquake damage and achieve the reliable seismic design. Then, the building system and multi-story piping system was modeled in OpenSees. In particular, the triple friction pendulum isolator was accounted for the vertical and horizontal coupling behavior in the building system subjected to seismic ground motions. Consequently, in order to generate the seismic fragility of base-isolated multi-story piping system, 21 selected seismic ground motions were carried out, by using Monte Carlo Simulation accounted for the uncertainties in demand. Finally, the system-level fragility curves corresponding to the limit state of the piping system was conducted at each T-joint system, which was commonly failure points in piping systems during and after an earthquake. Additionally, the system-level fragilities were performed to the first floor and second floor level in critical structures.

Keywords: fragility, friction pendulum bearing, nonstructural component, seismic

Procedia PDF Downloads 79
2031 Seismic Fragility Assessment of Continuous Integral Bridge Frames with Variable Expansion Joint Clearances

Authors: P. Mounnarath, U. Schmitz, Ch. Zhang


Fragility analysis is an effective tool for the seismic vulnerability assessment of civil structures in the last several years. The design of the expansion joints according to various bridge design codes is almost inconsistent, and only a few studies have focused on this problem so far. In this study, the influence of the expansion joint clearances between the girder ends and the abutment backwalls on the seismic fragility assessment of continuous integral bridge frames is investigated. The gaps (ranging from 60 mm, 150 mm, 250 mm and 350 mm) are designed by following two different bridge design code specifications, namely, Caltrans and Eurocode 8-2. Five bridge models are analyzed and compared. The first bridge model serves as a reference. This model uses three-dimensional reinforced concrete fiber beam-column elements with simplified supports at both ends of the girder. The other four models also employ reinforced concrete fiber beam-column elements but include the abutment backfill stiffness and four different gap values. The nonlinear time history analysis is performed. The artificial ground motion sets, which have the peak ground accelerations (PGAs) ranging from 0.1 g to 1.0 g with an increment of 0.05 g, are taken as input. The soil-structure interaction and the P-Δ effects are also included in the analysis. The component fragility curves in terms of the curvature ductility demand to the capacity ratio of the piers and the displacement demand to the capacity ratio of the abutment sliding bearings are established and compared. The system fragility curves are then obtained by combining the component fragility curves. Our results show that in the component fragility analysis, the reference bridge model exhibits a severe vulnerability compared to that of other sophisticated bridge models for all damage states. In the system fragility analysis, the reference curves illustrate a smaller damage probability in the earlier PGA ranges for the first three damage states, they then show a higher fragility compared to other curves in the larger PGA levels. In the fourth damage state, the reference curve has the smallest vulnerability. In both the component and the system fragility analysis, the same trend is found that the bridge models with smaller clearances exhibit a smaller fragility compared to that with larger openings. However, the bridge model with a maximum clearance still induces a minimum pounding force effect.

Keywords: expansion joint clearance, fiber beam-column element, fragility assessment, time history analysis

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2030 A New Approach to Retrofit Steel Moment Resisting Frame Structures after Mainshock

Authors: Amir H. Farivarrad, Kiarash M. Dolatshahi


During earthquake events, aftershocks can significantly increase the probability of collapse of buildings, especially for those with induced damages during the mainshock. In this paper, a practical approach is proposed for seismic rehabilitation of mainshock-damaged buildings that can be easily implemented within few days after the mainshock. To show the efficacy of the proposed method, a case study nine story steel moment frame building is chosen which was designed to pre-Northridge codes. The collapse fragility curve for the aftershock is presented for both the retrofitted and non-retrofitted structures. Comparison of the collapse fragility curves shows that the proposed method is indeed applicable to reduce the seismic collapse risk.

Keywords: aftershock, the collapse fragility curve, seismic rehabilitation, seismic retrofitting

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2029 Wind Fragility for Honeycomb Roof Cladding Panels Using Screw Pull-Out Capacity

Authors: Viriyavudh Sim, Woo Young Jung


The failure of roof cladding mostly occurs due to the failing of the connection between claddings and purlins, which is the pull-out of the screw connecting the two parts when the pull-out load, i.e. typhoon, is higher than the resistance of the connection screw. As typhoon disasters in Korea are constantly on the rise, probability risk assessment (PRA) has become a vital tool to evaluate the performance of civil structures. In this study, we attempted to determine the fragility of roof cladding with the screw connection. Experimental study was performed to evaluate the pull-out resistance of screw joints between honeycomb panels and back frames. Subsequently, by means of Monte Carlo Simulation method, probability of failure for these types of roof cladding was determined. The results that the failure of roof cladding was depends on their location on the roof, for example, the edge most panel has the highest probability of failure.

Keywords: Monte Carlo Simulation, roof cladding, screw pull-out strength, wind fragility

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2028 Piping Fragility Composed of Different Materials by Using OpenSees Software

Authors: Woo Young Jung, Min Ho Kwon, Bu Seog Ju


A failure of the non-structural component can cause significant damages in critical facilities such as nuclear power plants and hospitals. Historically, it was reported that the damage from the leakage of sprinkler systems, resulted in the shutdown of hospitals for several weeks by the 1971 San Fernando and 1994 North Ridge earthquakes. In most cases, water leakages were observed at the cross joints, sprinkler heads, and T-joint connections in piping systems during and after the seismic events. Hence, the primary objective of this study was to understand the seismic performance of T-joint connections and to develop an analytical Finite Element (FE) model for the T-joint systems of 2-inch fire protection piping system in hospitals subjected to seismic ground motions. In order to evaluate the FE models of the piping systems using OpenSees, two types of materials were used: 1) Steel 02 materials and 2) Pinching 4 materials. Results of the current study revealed that the nonlinear moment-rotation FE models for the threaded T-joint reconciled well with the experimental results in both FE material models. However, the system-level fragility determined from multiple nonlinear time history analyses at the threaded T-joint was slightly different. The system-level fragility at the T-joint, determined by Pinching 4 material was more conservative than that of using Steel 02 material in the piping system.

Keywords: fragility, t-joint, piping, leakage, sprinkler

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2027 Evaluation of Expected Annual Loss Probabilities of RC Moment Resisting Frames

Authors: Saemee Jun, Dong-Hyeon Shin, Tae-Sang Ahn, Hyung-Joon Kim


Building loss estimation methodologies which have been advanced considerably in recent decades are usually used to estimate socio and economic impacts resulting from seismic structural damage. In accordance with these methods, this paper presents the evaluation of an annual loss probability of a reinforced concrete moment resisting frame designed according to Korean Building Code. The annual loss probability is defined by (1) a fragility curve obtained from a capacity spectrum method which is similar to a method adopted from HAZUS, and (2) a seismic hazard curve derived from annual frequencies of exceedance per peak ground acceleration. Seismic fragilities are computed to calculate the annual loss probability of a certain structure using functions depending on structural capacity, seismic demand, structural response and the probability of exceeding damage state thresholds. This study carried out a nonlinear static analysis to obtain the capacity of a RC moment resisting frame selected as a prototype building. The analysis results show that the probability of being extensive structural damage in the prototype building is expected to 0.004% in a year.

Keywords: expected annual loss, loss estimation, RC structure, fragility analysis

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2026 The Behavior of The Zeros of Bargmann Analytic Functions for Multiple-Mode Systems

Authors: Muna Tabuni


The paper contains an investigation of the behavior of the Zeros of Bargmann functions for one and two-mode systems. A brief introduction to Harmonic oscillator formalism for one and two-mode is given. The Bargmann analytic representation for one and two-mode has been studied. The zeros of Bargmann analytic function for one-mode are considered. The Q Husimi functions are introduced. The Bargmann functions and the Husimi functions have the same zeros. The Bargmann functions f(z) have exactly q zeros. The evolution time of the zeros are discussed. The zeros of Bargmann analytic functions for two-mode are introduced. Various examples have been given.

Keywords: Bargmann functions, two-mode, zeros, harmonic oscillator

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2025 An Investigation into the Crystallization Tendency/Kinetics of Amorphous Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients: A Case Study with Dipyridamole and Cinnarizine

Authors: Shrawan Baghel, Helen Cathcart, Biall J. O'Reilly


Amorphous drug formulations have great potential to enhance solubility and thus bioavailability of BCS class II drugs. However, the higher free energy and molecular mobility of the amorphous form lowers the activation energy barrier for crystallization and thermodynamically drives it towards the crystalline state which makes them unstable. Accurate determination of the crystallization tendency/kinetics is the key to the successful design and development of such systems. In this study, dipyridamole (DPM) and cinnarizine (CNZ) has been selected as model compounds. Thermodynamic fragility (m_T) is measured from the heat capacity change at the glass transition temperature (Tg) whereas dynamic fragility (m_D) is evaluated using methods based on extrapolation of configurational entropy to zero 〖(m〗_(D_CE )), and heating rate dependence of Tg 〖(m〗_(D_Tg)). The mean relaxation time of amorphous drugs was calculated from Vogel-Tammann-Fulcher (VTF) equation. Furthermore, the correlation between fragility and glass forming ability (GFA) of model drugs has been established and the relevance of these parameters to crystallization of amorphous drugs is also assessed. Moreover, the crystallization kinetics of model drugs under isothermal conditions has been studied using Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (JMA) approach to determine the Avrami constant ‘n’ which provides an insight into the mechanism of crystallization. To further probe into the crystallization mechanism, the non-isothermal crystallization kinetics of model systems was also analysed by statistically fitting the crystallization data to 15 different kinetic models and the relevance of model-free kinetic approach has been established. In addition, the crystallization mechanism for DPM and CNZ at each extent of transformation has been predicted. The calculated fragility, glass forming ability (GFA) and crystallization kinetics is found to be in good correlation with the stability prediction of amorphous solid dispersions. Thus, this research work involves a multidisciplinary approach to establish fragility, GFA and crystallization kinetics as stability predictors for amorphous drug formulations.

Keywords: amorphous, fragility, glass forming ability, molecular mobility, mean relaxation time, crystallization kinetics, stability

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2024 Seismic Performance of a Framed Structure Retrofitted with Damped Cable Systems

Authors: Asad Naeem, Minsung Kim, Jinkoo Kim


In this work, the effectiveness of damped cable systems (DCS) on the mitigation of earthquake-induced response of a framed structure is investigated. The seismic performance of DCS is investigated using fragility analysis and life cycle cost evaluation of an existing building retrofitted with DCS, and the results are compared with those of the structure retrofitted with viscous dampers. The comparison of the analysis results reveals that, due to the self-centering capability of the DCS, residual displacement becomes nearly zero in the structure retrofitted with the DCS. According to the fragility analysis, the structure retrofitted with the DCS has smaller probability of reaching a limit states compared to the structure with viscous dampers. It is also observed that both the initial and life cycle costs of the DCS method required for the seismic retrofit is smaller than those of the structure retrofitted with viscous dampers. Acknowledgment: This research was supported by a grant (17CTAP-C132889-01) from Technology Advancement Research Program (TARP) funded by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, and Transport of Korean government.

Keywords: damped cable system, seismic retrofit, self centering, fragility analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 368
2023 Some Inequalities Related with Starlike Log-Harmonic Mappings

Authors: Melike Aydoğan, Dürdane Öztürk


Let H(D) be the linear space of all analytic functions defined on the open unit disc. A log-harmonic mappings is a solution of the nonlinear elliptic partial differential equation where w(z) ∈ H(D) is second dilatation such that |w(z)| < 1 for all z ∈ D. The aim of this paper is to define some inequalities of starlike logharmonic functions of order α(0 ≤ α ≤ 1).

Keywords: starlike log-harmonic functions, univalent functions, distortion theorem

Procedia PDF Downloads 433
2022 RAFU Functions in Robotics and Automation

Authors: Alicia C. Sanchez


This paper investigates the implementation of RAFU functions (radical functions) in robotics and automation. Specifically, the main goal is to show how these functions may be useful in lane-keeping control and the lateral control of autonomous machines, vehicles, robots or the like. From the knowledge of several points of a certain route, the RAFU functions are used to achieve the lateral control purpose and maintain the lane-keeping errors within the fixed limits. The stability that these functions provide, their ease of approaching any continuous trajectory and the control of the possible error made on the approximation may be useful in practice.

Keywords: automatic navigation control, lateral control, lane-keeping control, RAFU approximation

Procedia PDF Downloads 132
2021 Comparative Fragility Analysis of Shallow Tunnels Subjected to Seismic and Blast Loads

Authors: Siti Khadijah Che Osmi, Mohammed Ahmad Syed


Underground structures are crucial components which required detailed analysis and design. Tunnels, for instance, are massively constructed as transportation infrastructures and utilities network especially in urban environments. Considering their prime importance to the economy and public safety that cannot be compromised, thus any instability to these tunnels will be highly detrimental to their performance. Recent experience suggests that tunnels become vulnerable during earthquakes and blast scenarios. However, a very limited amount of studies has been carried out to study and understanding the dynamic response and performance of underground tunnels under those unpredictable extreme hazards. In view of the importance of enhancing the resilience of these structures, the overall aims of the study are to evaluate probabilistic future performance of shallow tunnels subjected to seismic and blast loads by developing detailed fragility analysis. Critical non-linear time history numerical analyses using sophisticated finite element software Midas GTS NX have been presented about the current methods of analysis, taking into consideration of structural typology, ground motion and explosive characteristics, effect of soil conditions and other associated uncertainties on the tunnel integrity which may ultimately lead to the catastrophic failure of the structures. The proposed fragility curves for both extreme loadings are discussed and compared which provide significant information the performance of the tunnel under extreme hazards which may beneficial for future risk assessment and loss estimation.

Keywords: fragility analysis, seismic loads, shallow tunnels, blast loads

Procedia PDF Downloads 266