Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8239

Search results for: bonding social capital

8239 The Relation Between Social Capital and Trust with Social Network Analysis (SNA)

Authors: Safak Baykal

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is analyzing the relationship between self leadership and social capital of people with using Social Network Analysis. In this study, two aspects of social capital will be focused: bonding, homophilous social capital (BoSC) which implies better, strong, dense or closed network ties, and bridging, heterophilous social capital (BrSC) which implies weak ties, bridging the structural holes. The other concept of the study is Trust (Tr), namely interpersonal trust, willingness to ascribe good intentions to and have confidence in the words and actions of other people. In this study, the sample group, 61 people, was selected from a private firm from the defense industry. The relation between BoSC/BrSC and Tr is shown by using Social Network Analysis (SNA) and statistical analysis with Likert type-questionnaire. The results of the analysis show the Cronbach’s alpha value is 0.73 and social capital values (BoSC/BrSC) is highly correlated with Tr values of the people.

Keywords: bonding social capital, bridging social capital, trust, social network analysis (SNA)

Procedia PDF Downloads 440
8238 Associations between Game Users and Life Satisfaction: The Role of Self-Esteem, Self- Efficacy and Social Capital

Authors: Hye Rim Lee, Eui Jun Jeong, Ji Hye Yoo

Abstract:

This study makes an integrated investigation on how life satisfaction is associated with the Korean game users' psychological variables (self-esteem, game and life self- efficacy), social variables (bonding and bridging social capital), and demographic variables (age, gender). The data used for the empirical analysis came from a representative sample survey conducted in South Korea. Results show that self-esteem and game efficacy were an important antecedent to the degree of users’ life satisfaction. Both bonding social capital and bridging social capital enhance the level of the users’ life satisfaction. The importance of perspectives as well as their implications for the game users and further associated research, are explored.

Keywords: life satisfaction, self-esteem, game efficacy, life-efficacy, social capital

Procedia PDF Downloads 501
8237 Building Social Capital for Social Inclusion: The Use of Social Networks in Government

Authors: Suha Alawadhi, Malak Alrasheed

Abstract:

In the recent past, public participation in governments has been declined to a great extent, as citizens have been isolated from community life and their ability to articulate demands for good government has been noticeably decreased. However, the Internet has introduced new forms of interaction that could enhance different types of relationships, including government-public relationship. In fact, technology-enabled government has become a catalyst for enabling social inclusion. This exploratory study seeks to investigate public perceptions in Kuwait regarding the use of social media networks in government where social capital is built to achieve social inclusion. Social capital has been defined as social networks and connections amongst individuals, that are based on shared trust, ideas and norms, enable participants of a network to act effectively to pursue a shared objective. The quantitative method was used to generate empirical evidence. A questionnaire was designed to address the research objective and reflect the identified constructs: social capital dimensions (bridging, bonding and maintaining social capital), social inclusion, and social equality. In this pilot study, data was collected from a random sample of 61 subjects. The results indicate that all participants have a positive attitude towards the dimensions of social capital (bridging, bonding and maintaining), social inclusion and social equality constructs. Tests of identified constructs against demographic characteristics indicate that there are significant differences between male and female as they perceived bonding and maintaining social capital, social inclusion and social equality whereas no difference was identified in their perceptions of bridging social capital. Also, those who are aged 26-30 perceived bonding and maintaining social capital, social inclusion and social equality negatively compared to those aged 20-25, 31-35, and 40-above whose perceptions were positive. With regard to education, the results also show that those holding high school, university degree and diploma perceived maintaining social capital positively higher than with those who hold graduate degrees. Moreover, a regression model is proposed to study the effect of bridging, bonding, and maintaining social capital on social inclusion via social equality as a mediator. This exploratory study is necessary for testing the validity and reliability of the questionnaire which will be used in the main study that aims to investigate the perceptions of individuals towards building social capital to achieve social inclusion.

Keywords: government, social capital, social inclusion, social networks

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8236 How Do You Blow Off Steam? : The Impact of Therapeutic Catharsis Seeking, Self-Construal, and Social Capital in Gaming Context

Authors: Hye Rim Lee, Eui Jun Jeong, Ju Woo Kim

Abstract:

This study will examine how the therapeutic factors (therapeutic catharsis-seeking and game-efficacy of the game player) and self-construal factors (independent and interdependent self-construal of the game player) as well as social capital factors (bonding and bridging social capital of the game player) affect trait aggression in the game. Results show that both therapeutic catharsis-seeking and game self-efficacy are particularly important to the players since they cause the game players’ aggressive tendencies to be greatly diminished. Independent self-construal reduces the level of the players’ aggression. Interestingly enough, the bonding social capital enhances the level of the players’ aggression, while individuals with bridging social capital did not show any significant effects. The results and implications will be discussed herein.

Keywords: aggression catharsis, game self-efficacy, self-construal, social capital, therapeutic catharsis seeking

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8235 How Social Capital Mediates the Relationships between Interpersonal Interaction and Health: Location-Based Augmented Reality Games

Authors: Chechen Liao, Pui-Lai To, Yi-Hui Wang

Abstract:

Recently location-based augmented reality games (LBS+AR) have become increasingly popular as a major form of entertainment. Location-based augmented reality games have provided a lot of opportunities for face-to-face interaction among players. Prior studies also indicate that the social side of location-based augmented reality games are one of the major reasons for players to engage in the games. However, the impact of the usage of location-based augmented reality games has not been well explored. The study examines how interpersonal interaction affects social capital and health through playing location-based augmented reality games. The study also investigates how social capital mediates the relationships between interpersonal interaction and health. The study uses survey method to collect data. Six-hundred forty-seven questionnaires are collected. Structural equation modeling is used to investigate the relationships among variables. The causal relationships between variables in the research model are tested. The results of the study indicated that four interpersonal attraction attributes, including ability, proximity, similarity, and familiarity, are identified by ways of factor analysis. Interpersonal attraction is important for location-based augmented reality game-players to develop bonding and bridging social capital. Bonding and bridging social capital have a positive impact on the mental and social health of game-players. The results of the study provide academic and practical implications for future growth of location-based augmented reality games.

Keywords: health, interpersonal interaction, location-based augmented reality games, social capital

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8234 The Essential but Uncertain Role of the Vietnamese Association of Cities of Vietnam in Promoting Community-Based Housing Upgrading

Authors: T. Nguyen, H. Rennie, S. Vallance, M. Mackay

Abstract:

Municipal Associations, also called Unions, Leagues or Federations of municipalities have been established worldwide to represent the interests and needs of urban governments in the face of increasing urban issues. In 2008, the Association of Cities of Vietnam (ACVN) joined the Asian Coalition of Community Action Program (ACCA program) and introduced the community-based upgrading approach to help Vietnamese cities to address urban upgrading issues. While this community-based upgrading approach has only been implemented in a small number of Vietnamese cities and its replication has faced certain challenges, it is worthy to explore insights on how the Association of cities of Vietnam played its role in implementing some reportedly successful projects. This paper responds to this inquiry and presents results extracted from the author’s PhD study that sets out with a general objective to critically examine how social capital dimensions (i.e., bonding, bridging and linking) were formed, mobilized and maintained in a local collective and community-based upgrading process. Methodologically, the study utilized the given general categorization of bonding, bridging and linking capitals to explore and confirm how social capital operated in the real context of a community-based upgrading process, particularly in the context of Vietnam. To do this, the study conducted two exploratory and qualitative case studies of housing projects in Friendship neighbourhood (Vinh city) and Binh Dong neighbourhood (Tan An city). This paper presents the findings of the Friendship neighbourhood case study, focusing on the role of the Vietnamese municipal association in forming, mobilizing and maintaining bonding, bridging and linking capital for a community-based upgrading process. The findings highlight the essential but uncertain role of ACVN - the organization that has a hybrid legitimacy status - in such a process. The results improve our understanding both practically and theoretically. Practically, the results offer insights into the performance of a municipal association operating in a transitioning socio-political context of Vietnam. Theoretically, the paper questions the necessity of categorizing social capital dimensions (i.e., bonding, bridging and linking) by suggesting a holistic approach of looking at social capital for urban governance issues within the Vietnamese context and perhaps elsewhere.

Keywords: bonding capital, bridging capital, municipal association, linking capital, social capital, housing upgrading

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8233 Social Capital and Human Capital: An OECD Countries' Analysis

Authors: Shivani Khare

Abstract:

It is of paramount concern for economists to uncover the factors that determine human capital development, considered now to be one of the major factors behind economic growth and development. However, no human action is isolated but rather works within the set-up of the society. In recent years, a new field of investigation has come up that analyses the relationships that exist between social and human capital. Along these lines, this paper explores the effect of social capital on the indicators of human capital development – life expectancy at birth, mean years of schooling, and per capita income. The applied part of the analysis is performed using a panel data model for OECD countries and by using a series of chronological periods that within the 2005–2020 time frame.

Keywords: social capital, human capital development, trust, social networks, socioeconomics

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8232 Innovative Communication for Promoting Tourism in Southern Thailand

Authors: Pitimanus Bunlue

Abstract:

This research aim (1) to determine the content of communication, social capital and cultural capital to promote tourism in the province to create awareness, motivation and desire to tourists visiting Thailand (2) to evaluate the performance of innovation communication social capital and cultural capital to promote tourism southern of Thailand. This research is a qualitative research. A research synthesis projects on social capital and cultural capital by use focus group discussions with media professionals and academics to communicate using a random sample specific. The result show that (1) Innovative communication, social capital and cultural capital and effective communication innovations after everyone wants to travel to Ranong province is the very highest level. (2) Information and experience about Ranong at a high level. (3) The data shows the strengths of each of the attractions at a high level. (4) The data shows a lifestyle that is unique to the province is moderate.

Keywords: innovative communication, promoting tourism, southern of Thailand, social capital

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
8231 The Structure of the Intangible Capital

Authors: Kolesnikova Julia, Fakhrutdinova Elena, Zagidullina Venera, Kamasheva Anastasia

Abstract:

The article deals with the structure of intangible capital. A significant share of intangible capital is associated with a person as such and can be considered as human capital, which in turn also has a complex structure, including intellectual, social, organizational, client, reputational capital. We have allocated a separate category of intangible capital - unidentifiable capital, including a variety of synergistic interaction effects, etc. the structure of intangible capital. A significant share of intangible capital is associated with a person as such and can be considered as human capital, which in turn also has a complex structure, including intellectual, social, organizational, client, reputational capital. We have allocated unidentifiable capital as a separate category of intangible capital, including a variety of synergistic interaction effects and other.

Keywords: intangible capital, intangible property, object of intangible property, reputation capital

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8230 Importance of Health and Social Capital to Employment Status of Indigenous Peoples in Canada

Authors: Belayet Hossain, Laura Lamb

Abstract:

The study investigates the importance of health and social capital in determining the labour force status of Canada’s Indigenous population using data from 2006 Aboriginal Peoples Survey. An instrumental variable ordered probit model has been specified and estimated. The study finds that health status and social capital are important in determining Indigenous peoples’ employment status along with other factors. The results of the study imply that human resource development initiatives of Indigenous Peoples need to be broadened by including health status and social capital. Poor health and low degree of inclusion of the Indigenous Peoples need to be addressed in order to improve employment status of Canada’s Indigenous Peoples.

Keywords: labour force, human capital, social capital, aboriginal people, Canada

Procedia PDF Downloads 204
8229 A Study on the Relationship between Transaction Fairness, Social Capital, Supply Chain Integration and Sustainability: Focusing on Manufacturing Companies of South Korea

Authors: Sung-Min Park, Chan Kwon Park, Chae-Bogk Kim

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship between transaction fairness, social capital, supply chain integration and sustainability. Based on the previous studies, measurement items were determined by using SPSS 22 and exploratory factor analysis was performed, and again, using AMOS 21 for confirmatory factor analysis and path analysis was performed by using study items that satisfy reliability, validity, and appropriateness of measurement model. It has shown that transaction fairness has a (+) significant effect on social capital, social capital on supply chain integration, supply chain integration on economic sustainability and social sustainability, and has a (+), but not significant effect on environmental sustainability. It has shown that supply chain integration has been proven to play a role as a parameter between social capital and economic and social sustainability, but not as a parameter between environmental sustainability. Through this study, it is suggested that clearly examining the relationship between fairness of trade, social capital, supply chain integration and sustainability, maintaining fairness of the transaction make formation of social capital, and further integration of supply chain, and achieve sustainability of entire supply chain.

Keywords: transaction fairness, social capital, supply chain integration, sustainability

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8228 The Quality of Human Capital as a Factor of Social and Economic Development of the Region

Authors: O. Gubnitsyna, O. Zakoretskaya, O. Russova

Abstract:

It is generally recognized that the main task of modern society is human development. The quality of human capital has been identified as a key driver of economic development in the region. In this article, considered the quality of human capital as one of the main types of social and economic potential for the region’s development. The phenomenon of human capital represents both material and intellectual components of human activity. It is show that the necessary population characterized by certain quantitative and qualitative indicators (qualification and professional structure, education or social general condition and others) and is an necessary resource for the development of the regional economy. The connection of the regional goals with the quality of human capital is discussed in the article and a number of recommendations on its improvement were given. Solving the tasks stated in the article, the authors used analytical and statistical methods of research, scientific publications of domestic and foreign scientists on this issue. The results can be used in this implementation of the concept of regional development.

Keywords: human capital, the quality of human capital, economic development, social general condition

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8227 A Mediation Analysis of Social Capital: Direct and Indirect Effects of Community Influences on Civic Engagement among the Household-Header and Non-Household Header Volunteers in Thai Rural Communities

Authors: Aphiradee Wongsiri

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of social capital in the relationships between community influences consisting of community attachment and community support on civic engagement among the household-header and non-household header volunteers. The data were collected from 216 household header volunteers and 204 non-household header volunteers across rural communities in seven sub-districts in Nong Khai Province, Thailand. A good fit structural equation modeling (SEM) was tested for both groups. The findings indicate that the SEM model for the group of household header volunteers, social capital had a direct effect on civic engagement, while community support had an indirect effect on civic engagement through social capital. On the other hand, the SEM model for the group of non-household header volunteers shows that social capital had a direct effect on civic engagement. Also, community attachment and community support had indirect effects on civic engagement through social capital. Therefore, social capital in this study played an important role as a mediator in the relationships between community influences and civic engagement in both groups.

Keywords: social capital, civic engagement, volunteer, rural development

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8226 Understanding How Posting and Replying Behaviors in Social Media Differentiate the Social Capital Cultivation Capabilities of Users

Authors: Jung Lee

Abstract:

This study identifies how the cultivation capabilities of social capital influence the overall attitudes of social media users and how these influences differ across user groups. First, the cultivation capabilities of social capital are identified from three aspects, namely, social capital accessibility, potentiality and sensitivity. These three types of social capital acquisition capabilities collectively represent how the social media users perceive the social media environment in terms of possibilities for social capital creation. These three capabilities are hypothesized to influence social media satisfaction and continuing use intention. Next, two essential activities in social media are identified, namely, posting and replying, to categorise social media users based on behavioral patterns. Various social media activities consist of the combinations of these two basic activities. Posting represents the broadcasting aspect of social media, whereas replying represents the communicative aspect of social media. We categorize users into four from communicators to observers by using these two behaviors to develop usage pattern matrix. By applying the usage pattern matrix to the capability model, we argue that posting behavior generally has a positive moderating effect on the attitudes of social media users, whereas replying behavior occasionally exhibits the negative moderating effect. These different moderating effects of posting and replying behavior are explained based on the different levels of social capital sensitivity and expectation of individuals. When a person is highly expecting social capital from social media, he or she would post actively. However, when one is highly sensitive to social capital, he or she would actively respond and reply to postings of other people because such an act would create a longer and more interactive relationship. A total of 512 social media users are invited to answer the survey. They were asked about their attitudes toward the social media and how they expect social capital through this practice. They were asked to check their general social media usage pattern for user categorization. Result confirmed that most of the hypotheses were supported. Three types of social capital cultivation capabilities are significant determinants of social media attitudes, and two social media activities (i.e., posting and replying) exhibited different moderating effects on attitudes. This study provides following discussions. First, three types of social capital cultivation capabilities were identified. Despite the numerous concerns about social media, such as whether it is a decent and real environment that produces social capital, this study confirms that people explicitly expect and experience social capital values from social media. Second, posting and replying activities are two building blocks of social media activities. These two activities are useful in explaining different the attitudes of social media users and predict future usage.

Keywords: social media, social capital, social media satisfaction, social media use intention

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8225 Losing Benefits from Social Network Sites Usage: An Approach to Estimate the Relationship between Social Network Sites Usage and Social Capital

Authors: Maoxin Ye

Abstract:

This study examines the relationship between social network sites (SNS) usage and social capital. Because SNS usage can expand the users’ networks, and people who are connected in this networks may become resources to SNS users and lead them to advantage in some situation, it is important to estimate the relationship between SNS usage and ‘who’ is connected or what resources the SNS users can get. Additionally, ‘who’ can be divided in two aspects – people who possess high position and people who are different, hence, it is important to estimate the relationship between SNS usage and high position people and different people. This study adapts Lin’s definition of social capital and the measurement of position generator which tells us who was connected, and can be divided into the same two aspects as well. A national data of America (N = 2,255) collected by Pew Research Center is utilized to do a general regression analysis about SNS usage and social capital. The results indicate that SNS usage is negatively associated with each factor of social capital, and it suggests that, in fact, comparing with non-users, although SNS users can get more connections, the variety and resources of these connections are fewer. For this reason, we could lose benefits through SNS usage.

Keywords: social network sites, social capital, position generator, general regression

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8224 Social Capital in Housing Reconstruction Post Disaster Case of Yogyakarta Post Earthquake

Authors: Ikaputra

Abstract:

This paper will focus on the concept of social capital for especially housing reconstruction Post Disaster. The context of the study is Indonesia and Yogyakarta Post Earthquake 2006 as a case, but it is expected that the concept can be adopted in general post disaster reconstruction. The discussion will begin by addressing issues on House Reconstruction Post Disaster in Indonesia and Yogyakarta; defining Social Capital as a concept for effective management capacity based on community; Social Capital Post Java Earthquake utilizing Gotong Royong—community mutual self-help, and Approach and Strategy towards Community-based Reconstruction.

Keywords: community empowerment, Gotong Royong, post disaster, reconstruction, social capital, Yogyakarta-Indonesia

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8223 Invisible and Visible Helpers in Negotiating Child Parenting by Single Mothers: A Comparative Analysis of South Africa and Germany

Authors: Maud Mthembu, Tanusha Raniga, Michael Boecker

Abstract:

In South Africa and Germany, countless number of children are raised by single mothers with little or no support from the biological fathers. As evidenced in literature, having an involved father living at home can have a positive influence in the life of a child and the mother can be supported in her role. Often single parenting is seen as a causative factor in numerous psychological and social challenges which are faced by children from single-parent households, which is an indication of a pathological lens of viewing single parenting. The empirical data from our study reveals that single mothers in formal employment experience social, economic and emotional hardships of parenting. However, a sense of determination to raise healthy and well-balanced children using economic and social capital accessible to them was one of the key findings. The participants reported visible and invisible sources of support which creates an enabling environment for them to negotiate the challenges of parenting without support from non-residence fathers. Using a qualitative paradigm, a total of twenty professional single mothers were interviewed in Germany and South Africa. Four key themes emerged from the data analysis namely; internal locus of control, positive new experiences, access to economic capital and dependable social support. This study suggests that single mothers who are economically self-reliant and have access to bonding social capital are able to cope with the demands of single parenting. Understanding this multi-dimensional experience of parenting by single parents in formal employment is important to advocate for supportive working conditions for mothers.

Keywords: child parenting, child protection, single parenting, social capital

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8222 Understanding Ambivalent Behaviors of Social Media Users toward the 'Like' Function: A Social Capital Perspective

Authors: Jung Lee, L. G. Pee

Abstract:

The 'Like' function in social media platforms represents the immediate responses of social media users to postings and other users. A large number of 'likes' is often attributed to fame, agreement, and support from others that many users are proud of and happy with. However, what 'like' implies exactly in social media context is still in discussion. Some argue that it is an accurate parameter of the preferences of social media users, whereas others refute that it is merely an instant reaction that is volatile and vague. To address this gap, this study investigates how social media users perceive the 'like' function and behave differently based on their perceptions. This study posits the following arguments. First, 'like' is interpreted as a quantified form of social capital that resides in social media platforms. This incarnated social capital rationalizes the attraction of people to social media and belief that social media platforms bring benefits to their relationships with others. This social capital is then conceptualized into cognitive and emotive dimensions, where social capital in the cognitive dimension represents the awareness of the 'likes' quantitatively, whereas social capital in the emotive dimension represents the receptions of the 'likes' qualitatively. Finally, the ambivalent perspective of the social media users on 'like' (i.e., social capital) is applied. This view rationalizes why social media users appreciate the reception of 'likes' from others but are aware that those 'likes' can distort the actual responses of other users by sending erroneous signals. The rationale on this ambivalence is based on whether users perceive social media as private or public spheres. When social media is more publicized, the ambivalence is more strongly observed. By combining the ambivalence and dimensionalities of the social capital, four types of social media users with different mechanisms on liking behaviors are identified. To validate this work, a survey with 300 social media users is conducted. The analysis results support most of the hypotheses and confirm that people have ambivalent perceptions on 'like' as a social capital and that perceptions influence behavioral patterns. The implication of the study is clear. First, this study explains why social media users exhibit different behaviors toward 'likes' in social media. Although most of the people believe that the number of 'likes' is the simplest and most frank measure of supports from other social media users, this study introduces the users who do not trust the 'likes' as a stable and reliable parameter of social media. In addition, this study links the concept of social media openness to explain the different behaviors of social media users. Social media openness has theoretical significance because it defines the psychological boundaries of social media from the perspective of users.

Keywords: ambivalent attitude, like function, social capital, social media

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8221 Features Valuation of Intellectual Capital in the Organization

Authors: H. M. Avanesyan

Abstract:

Economists have been discussing the importance of intangible assets for the success of organization for many years. The term intellectual capital was popularized in the 1990s by Thomas Stewart. “Intellectual capital is the knowledge, applied experience, enterprise processes and technology customer relationship and professional skills which are valuable assets to an organization.” Human capital – includes employee brainpower, competence, skills, experience and knowledge. Customer capital – includes relations and networks with partners, suppliers, distributors, and customers. The objective of the article is to assess one of the key components of organizational culture – organizational values. The focus of the survey was on assessing how intellectual capital presented in these values of the organization. In the conclusion section the article refers to underestimation of intellectual capital by the organization management and the various possible negative effects of the latter.

Keywords: human capital, intellectual capital, organizational culture, management, social identity, organization

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8220 A Study on Temperature and Drawing Speed for Diffusion Bonding Enhancement in Drawing of Hot Lined Pipes by FEM Analysis

Authors: M. T. Ahn, J. H. Park, S. H. Park, S. H. Ha

Abstract:

Diffusion bonding has been continuously studied. Temperature and pressure are the most important factors to increase the strength between diffusion bonded interfaces. Diffusion bonding is an important factor affecting the bonding strength of the lined pipe. The increase of the diffusion bonding force results in a high formability clad pipe. However, in the case of drawing, it is difficult to obtain a high pressure between materials due to a relatively small reduction in cross-section, and it is difficult to prevent elongation or to tear of material in hot drawing even if the reduction in the section is increased. In this paper, to increase the diffusion bonding force, we derive optimal temperature and pressure to suppress material stretching and realize precise thickness precision.

Keywords: diffusion bonding, temperature, pressure, drawing speed

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8219 Neighborhood Linking Social Capital as a Predictor of Drug Abuse: A Swedish National Cohort Study

Authors: X. Li, J. Sundquist, C. Sjöstedt, M. Winkleby, K. S. Kendler, K. Sundquist

Abstract:

Aims: This study examines the association between the incidence of drug abuse (DA) and linking (communal) social capital, a theoretical concept describing the amount of trust between individuals and societal institutions. Methods: We present results from an 8-year population-based cohort study that followed all residents in Sweden, aged 15-44, from 2003 through 2010, for a total of 1,700,896 men and 1,642,798 women. Social capital was conceptualized as the proportion of people in a geographically defined neighborhood who voted in local government elections. Multilevel logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and between-neighborhood variance. Results: We found robust associations between linking social capital (scored as a three level variable) and DA in men and women. For men, the OR for DA in the crude model was 2.11 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.02-2.21] for those living in areas with the lowest vs. highest level of social capital. After accounting for neighborhood-level deprivation, the OR fell to 1.59 (1.51-1-68), indicating that neighborhood deprivation lies in the pathway between linking social capital and DA. The ORs remained significant after accounting for age, sex, family income, marital status, country of birth, education level, and region of residence, and after further accounting for comorbidities and family history of comorbidities and family history of DA. For women, the OR decreased from 2.15 (2.03-2.27) in the crude model to 1.31 (1.22-1.40) in the final model, adjusted for multiple neighborhood-level and individual-level variables. Conclusions: Our study suggests that low linking social capital may have important independent effects on DA.

Keywords: drug abuse, social linking capital, environment, family

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8218 The Relationship Between Inspirational Leadership Style and Perceived Social Capital by Mediation of the Development of Organizational Knowledge Resources

Authors: Farhad Shafiepour Motlagh, Narges Salehi

Abstract:

The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between inspirational leadership style and perceived social capital through the mediation of organizational knowledge resource development. The research method was descriptive-correlational. The statistical population consisted of all 3537 secondary school teachers in Isfahan. Sample selection was based on Cochran's formula volume formula for 338 people and multi-stage random sampling. The research instruments included a researcher-made inspirational leadership style questionnaire, a perceived social capital questionnaire (Putnam, 1999), and a researcher-made questionnaire of perceived organizational knowledge resources. Kolmogorov statistical tests, Pearson correlation, stepwise multiple regression, and structural equation modeling were used to analyze the data. In general, the results showed that there is a significant relationship between inspirational leadership style and the use of perceived social capital at the level of P <0.05. Also, the development of organizational knowledge resources mediates the relationship between inspirational leadership style and the use of perceived social capital at the level of P <0.05.

Keywords: inspirational leadership style, perceived social capital, perceived organizational knowledge

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8217 Intellectual Capital and Transparency in Universities: An Empirical Study

Authors: Yolanda Ramirez, Angel Tejada, Agustin Baidez

Abstract:

This paper shows the general perceptions of Spanish university stakeholders in relation to the university’s annual reports and the adequacy and potential of intellectual capital reporting. To this end, a questionnaire was designed and sent to every member of the Social Councils of Spanish public universities. It was thought that these participants would provide a good example of the attitude of university stakeholders since they represent the different social groups connected with universities. From the results of this study we are in the position of confirming the need for universities to offer information on intellectual capital in their accounting information model.

Keywords: intellectual capital, disclosure, stakeholders, universities, annual report

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8216 Analysing Industry Clustering to Develop Competitive Advantage for Wualai Silver Handicraft

Authors: Khanita Tumphasuwan

Abstract:

The Wualai community of Northern Thailand represents important intellectual and social capital and their silver handicraft products are desirable tourist souvenirs within Chiang Mai Province. This community has been in danger of losing this social and intellectual capital due to the application of an improper tool, the Scottish Enterprise model of clustering. This research aims to analyze and increase its competitive advantages for preventing the loss of social and intellectual capital. To improve the Wualai’s competitive advantage, analysis is undertaken using a Porterian cluster approach, including the diamond model, five forces model and cluster mapping. Research results suggest that utilizing the community’s Buddhist beliefs can foster collaboration between community members and is the only way to improve cluster effectiveness, increase competitive advantage, and in turn conserve the Wualai community.

Keywords: industry clustering, silver handicraft, competitive advantage, intellectual capital, social capital

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8215 Working Capital Efficiency and Firm Profitability: Nigeria and Kenya

Authors: Lucian J. Pitt

Abstract:

The primary purpose of this study is to understand the differences in the relationship between working capital management efficiency, working capital investment decisions and working capital finance decisions and the profitability of firms within the context of two African developing economies, Kenya and Nigeria. The study finds that there is a significant difference in the relationship between the firm’s profitability and the working capital variables which suggests different challenges for working capital management in each of these countries.

Keywords: working capital management, working capital investment, working capital finance, profitability, cash conversion cycle

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8214 The Role of Human Capital, Structural Capital, and Relation Capital towards Company Performance Using Partial Least Square

Authors: Novawiguna Kemalasari, Ahmad Badawi Saluy

Abstract:

Recent economic developments are more dependent on the value created by intangible assets than tangible company's assets. Intangible assets in question is intellectual capital that is recognized as the basis of individual, organizational, and general competition in the 21st century. The rapid global economy and technological innovations that have led to tough competition in the business world, make IC creation, management, measurement, and evaluation an important indicator in improving company performance that will affect the value of the company in the future. This study aims to determine the strong influence of intellectual capital on corporate performance, and how the influence of human capital on structural capital and relation capital. By distributing questionnaires to 100 employees of banking companies in Jakarta with middle and upper positions. Approach method used is Partial Least Square (PLS) Based on research that has been done, it can be concluded that human capital has influence on relation capital and structural capital. Similarly, the influence on the performance of the company turned out to human capital and relation capital has a significant influence, but structural capital has a non-significant effect on company performance.

Keywords: human capital, structural capital, relation capital, corporate performance

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8213 Theoretical Aspects and Practical Approach in the Research of the Human Capital of Student Volunteer Community

Authors: Kalinina Anatasiia, Pevnaya Mariya

Abstract:

The article concerns theoretical basis in the research of student volunteering, identifies references of student volunteering as a social community, classifies human capital indicators of student volunteers. Also there are presented the results of research of 450 student volunteers in Russia concerning the correlation between international volunteering and indicators of human capital of youth. Findings include compared characteristics of human capital of “potential” and “real” international student volunteers. Factor analysis revealed two categories of active students categories of active students.

Keywords: human capital, international volunteering, student volunteering, social community, youth volunteering, youth politics

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8212 Challenges in Creating Social Capital: A Perspective of Muslim Female Managers in Malaysia

Authors: Zubeida Rossenkhan, Pervaiz K. Ahmed, Wee Chan Au

Abstract:

In view of cross cultural career experiences, to the author’s best knowledge, the crucial role of culture and religious traditions in Asia remains understudied. Drawing on the notion of social capital as an invaluable resource needed for manager’s to progress, the purpose of this study is to probe the contextual experiences of Muslim women to elucidate unique challenges associated with social capital and career progress. Twenty-three in-depth interviews with top level Malay managers were conducted to probe experiences of upward career mobility and inequities in the workplace. Interpretive phenomenology was used to surface unique challenges and processes of creating and leveraging social capital. The study uncovers the unique challenges of Muslim women in Malaysia. Narratives of participants highlight not only generic forms of gender discrimination, but also culturally specific stereotypes and social expectations limiting their advancement. Interestingly, the findings identify a gender-religion handicap in the form of perceived inequality and restrictions rooted from the women manager’s gender and religion. The analysis also reveals how these Muslim women managers’ negotiate their challenges, especially how they access social capital and progress their careers. The research offers a unique perspective on the career experiences of Malay women managers’ in top management. The research provides insight into the unique processes of developing social capital utilized by this group of women for career success.

Keywords: career success, gender discrimination, malaysia, Muslim women, social capital

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8211 Transit-Oriented Development as a Tool for Building Social Capital

Authors: Suneet Jagdev

Abstract:

Rapid urbanization has resulted in informal settlements on the periphery of nearly all big cities in the developing world due to lack of affordable housing options in the city. Residents of these communities have to travel long distances to get to work or search for jobs in these cities, and women, children and elderly people are excluded from urban opportunities. Affordable and safe public transport facilities can help them expand their possibilities. The aim of this research is to identify social capital as another important element of livable cities that can be protected and nurtured through transit-oriented development, as a tool to provide real resources that can help these transit-oriented communities become self-sustainable. Social capital has been referred to the collective value of all social networks and the inclinations that arise from these networks to do things for each other. It is one of the key component responsible to build and maintain democracy. Public spaces, pedestrian amenities and social equity are the other essential part of Transit Oriented Development models that will be analyzed in this research. The data has been collected through the analysis of several case studies, the urban design strategies implemented and their impact on the perception and on the community´s experience, and, finally, how these focused on the social capital. Case studies have been evaluated on several metrics, namely ecological, financial, energy consumption, etc. A questionnaire and other tools were designed to collect data to analyze the research objective and reflect the dimension of social capital. The results of the questionnaire indicated that almost all the participants have a positive attitude towards this dimensions of building a social capital with the aid of transit-oriented development. Statistical data of the identified key motivators against against demographic characteristics have been generated based on the case studies used for the paper. The findings suggested that there is a direct relation between urbanization, transit-oriented developments, and social capital.

Keywords: better opportunities, low-income settlements, social capital, social inclusion, transit oriented development

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8210 Urban Design and Social Capital in Spontaneous Settlements

Authors: Vilar, Katila

Abstract:

Rapid urbanization have made of spontaneous settlements one of the dominant´s social subjects of the XXIst century. Currently, it´s recognized that these territories cannot easily be eradicated and are a way of life to many populations of emergent countries. Since late 90s, there is an urgent concern in finding planning and efficient urban design strategies to poverty reduction, spatial integration and social inclusion of low-income communities. The article aims to identify, understand and evaluate the social inclusion´s processes through the urban transformation that has been undertaken in Moravia and how they affected the community´s social capital. To achieve this objective, we start to analyse the PPMIM´s planning discourse in which prevails the sustainability´s concept, to further identify, through the analysis of the project carried out, the urban design strategies implemented and their impact on the perception and on the community´s experience, and, finally, how these focused on the social capital. It relies on concepts such as urban design, social capital, local development and sustainability. At the urban design level it starts on the current principles of “making places”, on the new urbanism concepts and on the practices on the ground carried out by a new generation of architects/planners whose have the main ethical approach in order to create more opportunities and greater social impact to these territories. At the social capital´s level and on the development´s theory, relies on authors such as Coleman, Putman Kliksberg and Amartya Sen. Finally, it aims to address a general discussion about the positive and negative implications of slum upgrading programmes and some necessary recommendations for urban design and social capital can really be translated into real resources for the self sustainable development of low-income communities and their future generations.

Keywords: local and sustainable development, social capital, spontaneous settlements, urban design

Procedia PDF Downloads 410