Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 151

Search results for: perforating vein

151 Numerical Investigation of Blood Flow around a Leaflet Valve through a Perforating Vein

Authors: Zohreh Sheidaei, Farhad Sadegh Moghanlou, Rahim Vesal


Diseases related to leg venous system are common worldwide. An incompetent vein with deformed wall and insufficient valves affects flow field of blood and disrupts the process of blood circulating system. Having enough knowledge about the flow field through veins will help find new ways to cure the related diseases. In the present study, blood flow around a leaflet valve of a perforating vein is investigated numerically by Finite Element Method. Flow behavior and vortexes, generated around the leaflet valves, are studied considering valve opening percentage. Obtained velocity and pressure fields show mechanical stresses on vein wall and these valves and consequently introduce the regions susceptible to deformation.

Keywords: fluid flow, leaflet valve, numerical investigation, perforating vein

Procedia PDF Downloads 295
150 Anomalous Course of Left Ovarian Vein Associated with Pelvic Congestion Syndrome

Authors: Viyango Pandian, Kumaresh Athiyappan


Pelvic congestion Syndrome (PCS) is usually seen in multiparous women who give history of chronic dull-aching pelvic pain. We report a case of a 17 year old unmarried female, who presented with acute onset of chronic dull-aching abdominal pain in the left iliac fossa, which particularly increased during menstruation and was finally diagnosed to be pelvic congestion syndrome. On ultrasonography, multiple tortuous and dilated veins were observed in the left adnexa. Both ovaries appeared normal in size, volume and echotexture. Computed tomography (CT) angiography was performed to precisely delineate the venous pathway and to assess any associated abnormality; which showed a dilated and tortuous left ovarian vein with an anomalous course around the left kidney and draining into the left renal vein. Clinical parameters and hormonal levels were within normal limits. This is a rare case of anomalous course of left ovarian vein associated with pelvic congestion syndrome.

Keywords: anomalous course of ovarian vein, computed tomography, pelvic congestion syndrome, ultrasonography

Procedia PDF Downloads 149
149 Gross Anatomical Study on the Tributaries of the Hepatic Portal Vein in Cattle Egret (Bubulcus Ibis)

Authors: Elsayed Fath Khalifa, Samer Mohamed Daghash


The aim of the current work study to increase the anatomical knowledge about the cattle egret which considered economically important for farmers. The study was carried out on ten adult, apparently healthy cattle egrets of both sexes. Each bird was exsanguinated; the caudal vena cava was cannulated and flushed with warm normal saline solution (0.9%) then injected with blue colored neoprine (60%) latex in order to study the tributaries of the hepatic portal vein. The origin, course and tributaries of the right and left hepatic portal veins were studied. The hepatic portal venous system collected venous blood from the abdominal viscera including; glandular and muscular stomachs, liver, pancreas, spleen, small intestine and large intestine. The hepatic portal vein was formed by the left and the right hepatic portal veins. The smaller left one drained blood from the glandular and muscular stomachs through the ventral and the left proventriculus as well as the left gastric veins. The most tributaries of the right hepatic portal vein drained blood from the rest of the gastrointestinal tract and the spleen by the proventriculosplenic, the gastropancreaticoduodenal and the common mesenteric veins.

Keywords: cattle egret, common mesenteric vein, hepatic portal vein, anatomy

Procedia PDF Downloads 315
148 Optimal Feature Extraction Dimension in Finger Vein Recognition Using Kernel Principal Component Analysis

Authors: Amir Hajian, Sepehr Damavandinejadmonfared


In this paper the issue of dimensionality reduction is investigated in finger vein recognition systems using kernel Principal Component Analysis (KPCA). One aspect of KPCA is to find the most appropriate kernel function on finger vein recognition as there are several kernel functions which can be used within PCA-based algorithms. In this paper, however, another side of PCA-based algorithms -particularly KPCA- is investigated. The aspect of dimension of feature vector in PCA-based algorithms is of importance especially when it comes to the real-world applications and usage of such algorithms. It means that a fixed dimension of feature vector has to be set to reduce the dimension of the input and output data and extract the features from them. Then a classifier is performed to classify the data and make the final decision. We analyze KPCA (Polynomial, Gaussian, and Laplacian) in details in this paper and investigate the optimal feature extraction dimension in finger vein recognition using KPCA.

Keywords: biometrics, finger vein recognition, principal component analysis (PCA), kernel principal component analysis (KPCA)

Procedia PDF Downloads 208
147 Human Coronary Sinus Venous System as a Target for Clinical Procedures

Authors: Wiesława Klimek-Piotrowska, Mateusz K. Hołda, Mateusz Koziej, Katarzyna Piątek, Jakub Hołda


Introduction: The coronary sinus venous system (CSVS), which has always been overshadowed by the coronary arterial tree, has recently begun to attract more attention. Since it is a target for clinicians the knowledge of its anatomy is essential. Cardiac resynchronization therapy, catheter ablation of cardiac arrhythmias, defibrillation, perfusion therapy, mitral valve annuloplasty, targeted drug delivery, and retrograde cardioplegia administration are commonly used therapeutic methods involving the CSVS. The great variability in the course of coronary veins and tributaries makes the diagnostic and therapeutic processes difficult. Our aim was to investigate detailed anatomy of most common clinically used CSVS`s structures: the coronary sinus with its ostium, great cardiac vein, posterior vein of the left ventricle, middle cardiac vein and oblique vein of the left atrium. Methodology: This is a prospective study of 70 randomly selected autopsied hearts dissected from adult humans (Caucasian) aged 50.1±17.6 years old (24.3% females) with BMI=27.6±6.7 kg/m2. The morphology of the CSVS was assessed as well as its precise measurements were performed. Results: The coronary sinus (CS) with its ostium was present in all hearts. The mean CS ostium diameter was 9.9±2.5mm. Considered ostium was covered by its valve in 87.1% with mean valve height amounted 5.1±3.1mm. The mean percentage coverage of the CS ostium by the valve was 56%. The Vieussens valve was present in 71.4% and was unicuspid in 70%, bicuspid in 26% and tricuspid in 4% of hearts. The great cardiac vein was present in all cases. The oblique vein of the left atrium was observed in 84.3% of hearts with mean length amounted 20.2±9.3mm and mean ostium diameter 1.4±0.9mm. The average length of the CS (from the CS ostium to the Vieussens valve) was 31.1±9.5mm or (from the CS ostium to the ostium of the oblique vein of the left atrium) 28.9±10.1mm and both were correlated with the heart weight (r=0.47; p=0.00 and r=0.38; p=0.006 respectively). In 90.5% the ostium of the oblique vein of the left atrium was located proximally to the Vieussens valve, in remaining cases was distally. The middle cardiac vein was present in all hearts and its valve was noticed in more than half of all the cases (52.9%). The posterior vein of the left ventricle was observed in 91.4% of cases. Conclusions: The CSVS is vastly variable and none of basic hearts parameters is a good predictor of its morphology. The Vieussens valve could be a significant obstacle during CS cannulation. Caution should be exercised in this area to avoid coronary sinus perforation. Because of the higher incidence of the presence of the oblique vein of the left atrium than the Vieussens valve, the vein orifice is more useful in determining the CS length.

Keywords: cardiac resynchronization therapy, coronary sinus, Thebesian valve, Vieussens valve

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
146 Deep Mill Level Zone (DMLZ) of Ertsberg East Skarn System, Papua; Correlation between Structure and Mineralization to Determined Characteristic Orebody of DMLZ Mine

Authors: Bambang Antoro, Lasito Soebari, Geoffrey de Jong, Fernandy Meiriyanto, Michael Siahaan, Eko Wibowo, Pormando Silalahi, Ruswanto, Adi Budirumantyo


The Ertsberg East Skarn System (EESS) is located in the Ertsberg Mining District, Papua, Indonesia. EESS is a sub-vertical zone of copper-gold mineralization hosted in both diorite (vein-style mineralization) and skarn (disseminated and vein style mineralization). Deep Mill Level Zone (DMLZ) is a mining zone in the lower part of East Ertsberg Skarn System (EESS) that product copper and gold. The Deep Mill Level Zone deposit is located below the Deep Ore Zone deposit between the 3125m to 2590m elevation, measures roughly 1,200m in length and is between 350 and 500m in width. DMLZ planned start mined on Q2-2015, being mined at an ore extraction rate about 60,000 tpd by the block cave mine method (the block cave contain 516 Mt). Mineralization and associated hydrothermal alteration in the DMLZ is hosted and enclosed by a large stock (The Main Ertsberg Intrusion) that is barren on all sides and above the DMLZ. Late porphyry dikes that cut through the Main Ertsberg Intrusion are spatially associated with the center of the DMLZ hydrothermal system. DMLZ orebody hosted in diorite and skarn, both dominantly by vein style mineralization. Percentage Material Mined at DMLZ compare with current Reserves are diorite 46% (with 0.46% Cu; 0.56 ppm Au; and 0.83% EqCu); Skarn is 39% (with 1.4% Cu; 0.95 ppm Au; and 2.05% EqCu); Hornfels is 8% (with 0.84% Cu; 0.82 ppm Au; and 1.39% EqCu); and Marble 7 % possible mined waste. Correlation between Ertsberg intrusion, major structure, and vein style mineralization is important to determine characteristic orebody in DMLZ Mine. Generally Deep Mill Level Zone has 2 type of vein filling mineralization from both hosted (diorite and skarn), in diorite hosted the vein system filled by chalcopyrite-bornite-quartz and pyrite, in skarn hosted the vein filled by chalcopyrite-bornite-pyrite and magnetite without quartz. Based on orientation the stockwork vein at diorite hosted and shallow vein in skarn hosted was generally NW-SE trending and NE-SW trending with shallow-moderate dipping. Deep Mill Level Zone control by two main major faults, geologist founded and verified local structure between major structure with NW-SE trending and NE-SW trending with characteristics slickenside, shearing, gauge, water-gas channel, and some has been re-healed.

Keywords: copper-gold, DMLZ, skarn, structure

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145 A Structural Constitutive Model for Viscoelastic Rheological Behavior of Human Saphenous Vein Using Experimental Assays

Authors: Rassoli Aisa, Abrishami Movahhed Arezu, Faturaee Nasser, Seddighi Amir Saeed, Shafigh Mohammad


Cardiovascular diseases are one of the most common causes of mortality in developed countries. Coronary artery abnormalities and carotid artery stenosis, also known as silent death, are among these diseases. One of the treatment methods for these diseases is to create a deviatory pathway to conduct blood into the heart through a bypass surgery. The saphenous vein is usually used in this surgery to create the deviatory pathway. Unfortunately, a re-surgery will be necessary after some years due to ignoring the disagreement of mechanical properties of graft tissue and/or applied prostheses with those of host tissue. The objective of the present study is to clarify the viscoelastic behavior of human saphenous tissue. The stress relaxation tests in circumferential and longitudinal direction were done in this vein by exerting 20% and 50% strains. Considering the stress relaxation curves obtained from stress relaxation tests and the coefficients of the standard solid model, it was demonstrated that the saphenous vein has a non-linear viscoelastic behavior. Thereafter, the fitting with Fung’s quasilinear viscoelastic (QLV) model was performed based on stress relaxation time curves. Finally, the coefficients of Fung’s QLV model, which models the behavior of saphenous tissue very well, were presented.

Keywords: Viscoelastic behavior, stress relaxation test, uniaxial tensile test, Fung’s quasilinear viscoelastic (QLV) model, strain rate

Procedia PDF Downloads 214
144 Preprocessing and Fusion of Multiple Representation of Finger Vein patterns using Conventional and Machine Learning techniques

Authors: Tomas Trainys, Algimantas Venckauskas


Application of biometric features to the cryptography for human identification and authentication is widely studied and promising area of the development of high-reliability cryptosystems. Biometric cryptosystems typically are designed for patterns recognition, which allows biometric data acquisition from an individual, extracts feature sets, compares the feature set against the set stored in the vault and gives a result of the comparison. Preprocessing and fusion of biometric data are the most important phases in generating a feature vector for key generation or authentication. Fusion of biometric features is critical for achieving a higher level of security and prevents from possible spoofing attacks. The paper focuses on the tasks of initial processing and fusion of multiple representations of finger vein modality patterns. These tasks are solved by applying conventional image preprocessing methods and machine learning techniques, Convolutional Neural Network (SVM) method for image segmentation and feature extraction. An article presents a method for generating sets of biometric features from a finger vein network using several instances of the same modality. Extracted features sets were fused at the feature level. The proposed method was tested and compared with the performance and accuracy results of other authors.

Keywords: bio-cryptography, biometrics, cryptographic key generation, data fusion, information security, SVM, pattern recognition, finger vein method.

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143 Biomechanical Prediction of Veins and Soft Tissues beneath Compression Stockings Using Fluid-Solid Interaction Model

Authors: Chongyang Ye, Rong Liu


Elastic compression stockings (ECSs) have been widely applied in prophylaxis and treatment of chronic venous insufficiency of lower extremities. The medical function of ECS is to improve venous return and increase muscular pumping action to facilitate blood circulation, which is largely determined by the complex interaction between the ECS and lower limb tissues. Understanding the mechanical transmission of ECS along the skin surface, deeper tissues, and vascular system is essential to assess the effectiveness of the ECSs. In this study, a three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) model of the leg-ECS system integrated with a 3D fluid-solid interaction (FSI) model of the leg-vein system was constructed to analyze the biomechanical properties of veins and soft tissues under different ECS compression. The Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the human leg was divided into three regions, including soft tissues, bones (tibia and fibula) and veins (peroneal vein, great saphenous vein, and small saphenous vein). The ECSs with pressure ranges from 15 to 26 mmHg (Classes I and II) were adopted in the developed FE-FSI model. The soft tissue was assumed as a Neo-Hookean hyperelastic model with the fixed bones, and the ECSs were regarded as an orthotropic elastic shell. The interfacial pressure and stress transmission were simulated by the FE model, and venous hemodynamics properties were simulated by the FSI model. The experimental validation indicated that the simulated interfacial pressure distributions were in accordance with the pressure measurement results. The developed model can be used to predict interfacial pressure, stress transmission, and venous hemodynamics exerted by ECSs and optimize the structure and materials properties of ECSs design, thus improving the efficiency of compression therapy.

Keywords: elastic compression stockings, fluid-solid interaction, tissue and vein properties, prediction

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142 Budd-Chiari Syndrome: Common Presentation, Rare Disease

Authors: Aadil Khan, Yasser Chomayil, P. P. Venugopalan


Background: Budd-Chiari syndrome is caused by thrombosis of the hepatic veins and/or the thrombosis of the intrahepatic or suprahepatic IVC. The etiology remains idiopathic in 16% -35% of cases. Malignancy, rheumatological disorder, myeloproliferative disease, inheritable coagulopathy, infection or hyperestrogen state can be identified in many cases. Methodology: Review of case records of the patient presented to Aster Medcity, Emergency Department, Cochin. Introduction:17 years old female was presented to ED with fever, jaundice and abdominal distention since 1 week. O/E: Pallor+, icterus+. Abdomen- gross distension+, shifting dullness+, generalized anasarca+. USG abdomen showed hepatomegaly with mild coarse echotexture and moderate to gross ascites. CT abdomen and chest showed hepatomegaly with thrombosis of all three hepatic vein and moderate ascites suggestive of Budd-Chiari syndrome. Patient was taken for catheter vein thrombolysis. Venogram done the next day revealed almost > 50% opening of the right hepatic vein. Concurrent doppler showed colour and doppler signals in middle hepatic veins. She gradually improved and was discharged home on anticoagulant and adviced regular follow up. Conclusion: Being a rare disease in this young population, high suspicion is required when evaluating young patients with abdominal pain and jaundice.

Keywords: Budd-Chiari syndrome, rare disease, abdominal pain, India

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141 The Distributed Pattern of the Neurovascular Structures under Clavicle to Minimize Structural Injury in Clinical Field: Anatomical Study

Authors: Anna Jeon, Seung-Ho Han, Je-Hun Lee


The aim of this study was to determine the location and distribution pattern of neurovascular structures superior and inferior to the clavicle by detailed dissection. Fifteen adult non-embalmed cadavers with a mean age of 71.5 years were studied. For measurements, the most prominent point of the sternal end of the clavicle (SEC) on anterior view and the most prominent point of the acromial end of the clavicle (AEC) were identified before dissection. A line connecting the SEC and AEC was used as a reference line. The surrounding neurovascular structures were investigated. The supraclavicular nerve was densely distributed at 71.73% on the reference line. Branches of the thoracoacromial artery were located at 76.92%. Branches of subclavian vein were evenly distributed at all sections. The subclavian vein and artery and brachial plexus were located from 31.3% to 57.5%. That area needs caution because major neurovascular structures run underneath the clavicle.

Keywords: clavicle, ORIF, neurovascular structure, anatomical study

Procedia PDF Downloads 90
140 Advanced Real-Time Fluorescence Imaging System for Rat's Femoral Vein Thrombosis Monitoring

Authors: Sang Hun Park, Chul Gyu Song


Artery and vein occlusion changes observed in patients and experimental animals are unexplainable symptoms. As the fat accumulated in cardiovascular ruptures, it causes vascular blocking. Likewise, early detection of cardiovascular disease can be useful for treatment. In this study, we used the mouse femoral occlusion model to observe the arterial and venous occlusion changes without darkroom. We observed the femoral arterial flow pattern changes by proposed fluorescent imaging system using an animal model of thrombosis. We adjusted the near-infrared light source current in order to control the intensity of the fluorescent substance light. We got the clear fluorescent images and femoral artery flow pattern were measured by a 5-minute interval. The result showed that the fluorescent substance flowing in the femoral arteries were accumulated in thrombus as time passed, and the fluorescence of other vessels gradually decreased.

Keywords: thrombus, fluorescence, femoral, arteries

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139 Dissection of Genomic Loci for Yellow Vein Mosaic Virus Resistance in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentas)

Authors: Rakesh Kumar Meena, Tanushree Chatterjee


Okra (Abelmoschus esculentas L. Moench) or lady’s finger is an important vegetable crop belonging to the Malvaceae family. Unfortunately, production and productivity of Okra are majorly affected by Yellow Vein mosaic virus (YVMV). The AO: 189 (resistant parent) X AO: 191(susceptible parent) used for the development of mapping population. The mapping population has 143 individuals (F₂:F₃). Population was characterized by physiological and pathological observations. Screening of 360 DNA markers was performed to survey for parental polymorphism between the contrasting parents’, i.e., AO: 189 and AO: 191. Out of 360; 84 polymorphic markers were used for genotyping of the mapping population. Total markers were distributed into four linkage groups (LG1, LG2, LG3, and LG4). LG3 covered the longest span (106.8cM) with maximum number of markers (27) while LG1 represented the smallest linkage group in terms of length (71.2cM). QTL identification using the composite interval mapping approach detected two prominent QTLs, QTL1 and QTL2 for resistance against YVMV disease. These QTLs were placed between the marker intervals of NBS-LRR72-Path02 and NBS-LRR06- NBS-LRR65 on linkage group 02 and linkage group 04 respectively. The LOD values of QTL1 and QTL2 were 5.7 and 6.8 which accounted for 19% and 27% of the total phenotypic variation, respectively. The findings of this study provide two linked markers which can be used as efficient diagnostic tools to distinguish between YVMV resistant and susceptible Okra cultivars/genotypes. Lines identified as highly resistant against YVMV infection can be used as donor lines for this trait. This will be instrumental in accelerating the trait improvement program in Okra and will substantially reduce the yield losses due to this viral disease.

Keywords: Okra, yellow vein mosaic virus, resistant, linkage map, QTLs

Procedia PDF Downloads 126
138 A Reminder of a Rare Anatomical Variant of the Spinal Accessory Nerve Encountered During Routine Neck Dissection: A Case Report and Updated Review of the Literature

Authors: Sophie Mills, Constantinos Aristotelous, Leila L. Touil, Richard C. W. James


Objectives: Historical studies of the anatomy of the spinal accessory nerve (SAN) have reported conflicting results regarding its relationship with the internal jugular vein (IJV). A literature review was undertaken to establish the prevalence of anatomical variations of the SAN encountered during routine neck dissection surgery in order to increase awareness and reduce morbidity associated with iatrogenic SAN injury. Materials and Methods: The largest systematic review to date was performed using PRISMA-ScR guidelines, which yielded nine articles following the application of inclusion and exclusion criteria. A case report is also included, which demonstrates the rare anatomical relationship of the SAN traversing a fenestrated IJV, seen for the first time in the senior author’s career. Results: The mean number of dissections per study was 119, of which 55.6% (n=5) studies were performed on cadaver subjects, and 44.4% (n=4) were surgical dissections. Incidences of the SAN lateral to the IJV and medial to the IJV ranged from 38.9%-95.7% and 2.8%-57.4%, respectively. Over half of the studies reported incidences of the SAN traversing the IJV in 0.9%-2.8% of dissections. One study reported an isolated variant of the SAN dividing around the IJV with a prevalence of 0.5%. Conclusion: At the level of the posterior belly of the digastric muscle, the surgeon can anticipate the identification of the SAN lateral to the IJV in approximately three-quarters of cases, whilst around one-quarter are estimated to be medial. A mean of 1.6% of SANs traverses a fenestration of the vein. It is essential for surgeons to be aware of these anatomical variations and their prevalence to prevent injury to vital structures during surgery.

Keywords: anatomical variant, internal jugular vein, neck dissection, spinal accessory nerve

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
137 Gross Morphological Study on Heart of Yellow Bellied Sea Snake

Authors: Jonnalagadda Naveen, M. P. S. Tomar, Putluru Satish, Palanisamy Dharani


Present investigation was carried out on a single specimen of the heart of yellow-bellied sea snake, which accidentally came to the seashore with the fisherman’s net. After the death, these specimens was preserved in 10% neutral buffered formalin and observe for its morphology. The literature cited revealed that meager information was available on the anatomy of the heart of this species of snake thus present study was planned on the gross anatomy of the heart of yellow-bellied sea snake. The heart of yellow-bellied sea snake was located between 28-35th rib in an oblique direction in the pericardial sac. It was three chambered with the complete division of atria but the ventricular cavity was incompletely divided. The apex did not show any gubernaculum cordis. The sinus venosus was the common cavity for confluence of anterior and posterior vana cava and the jugular vein was opened with anterior vena cava. The opening of posterior vena cava was slit-like and it was guarded by membranous valves whereas no valve could be observed at the opening of anterior vana cava and the jugular vein. Both the caval veins ran along the right border of the heart. Pulmonary vein was single which later divided into two branches. The length-width index for the atria was 1.33 whereas it was 1.67 for the ventricle. The atrioventricular canal was situated slightly towards the left of the midline of the heart and was divided into a right cavum pulmonale and left cavum arteriosum of which the right one was slightly larger and longer than the left. The cavum venosum was present in between the cavum pulmonale and the cavum arteriosum. The Ventricle was elongated triangle muscular compartment with ventrally located apex. Internally the cavity of ventricle was divided into two partial chambers dorsally by a muscular ridge and ventrally by an incomplete inter ventricular septum.

Keywords: aorta, atrium, heart, sea snake, sinus venosus, ventricle

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136 Fluid Inclusions Analysis of Fluorite from the Hammam Jedidi District, North-Eastern Tunisia

Authors: Miladi Yasmine, Bouhlel Salah, Garnit Hechmi


Hydrothermal vein-type deposits of the Hammam Jedidi F-Ba(Pb-Zn-Cu) are hosted in Lower Jurassic, Cretaceous and Tertiary series, and located near a very important structural lineament (NE-SW) corresponding to the Hammam Jedidi Fault in the Tunisian Dorsale. The circulation of the ore forming fluid is triggered by a regional tectonic compressive phase which occurred during the miocène time. Mineralization occurs as stratabound and vein-type orebodies adjacent to the Triassic salt diapirs and within fault in Jurassic limestone. Fluid inclusions data show that two distinct fluids were involved in the mineralisation deposition: a warmer saline fluid (180°C, 20 wt % NaCl equivalent) and cooler less saline fluid (126°C, 5wt%NaCl equivalent). The contrasting salinities and halogen ratios suggest that this two fluid derived from one of the brine originated after the dissolution of halite as suggested by its high salinity. The other end member, as indicated by the low Cl/Br ratios, acquired its low salinity by dilution of Br enriched evaporated seawater. These results are compatible with Mississippi-Valley- type mineralization.

Keywords: Jebel Oust, fluid inclusions, North Eastern Tunisia, mineralization

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135 Detection of Intravenous Infiltration Using Impedance Parameters in Patients in a Long-Term Care Hospital

Authors: Ihn Sook Jeong, Eun Joo Lee, Jae Hyung Kim, Gun Ho Kim, Young Jun Hwang


This study investigated intravenous (IV) infiltration using bioelectrical impedance for 27 hospitalized patients in a long-term care hospital. Impedance parameters showed significant differences before and after infiltration as follows. First, the resistance (R) after infiltration significantly decreased compared to the initial resistance. This indicates that the IV solution flowing from the vein due to infiltration accumulates in the extracellular fluid (ECF). Second, the relative resistance at 50 kHz was 0.94 ± 0.07 in 9 subjects without infiltration and was 0.75 ± 0.12 in 18 subjects with infiltration. Third, the magnitude of the reactance (Xc) decreased after infiltration. This is because IV solution and blood components released from the vein tend to aggregate in the cell membrane (and acts analogously to the linear/parallel circuit), thereby increasing the capacitance (Cm) of the cell membrane and reducing the magnitude of reactance. Finally, the data points plotted in the R-Xc graph were distributed on the upper right before infiltration but on the lower left after infiltration. This indicates that the infiltration caused accumulation of fluid or blood components in the epidermal and subcutaneous tissues, resulting in reduced resistance and reactance, thereby lowering integrity of the cell membrane. Our findings suggest that bioelectrical impedance is an effective method for detection of infiltration in a noninvasive and quantitative manner.

Keywords: intravenous infiltration, impedance, parameters, resistance, reactance

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134 Geochemical and Petrological Survey in Northern Ethiopia Basement Rocks for Investigation of Gold and Base Metal Mineral Potential in Finarwa, Southeast Tigray, Ethiopia

Authors: Siraj Beyan Mohamed, Woldia University


The study is accompanied in northern Ethiopian basement rocks, Finarwa area, and its surrounding areas, south eastern Tigray. From the field observations, the geology of the area haven been described and mapped based on mineral composition, texture, structure, and colour of both fresh and weather rocks. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) have conducted to analysis gold and base metal mineralization. The ore mineral under microscope are commonly base metal sulphides pyrrhotite, Chalcopyrite, pentilanditeoccurring in variable proportions. Galena, chalcopyrite, pyrite, and gold mineral are hosted in quartz vein. Pyrite occurs both in quartz vein and enclosing rocks as a primary mineral. The base metal sulfides occur as disseminated, vein filling, and replacement. Geochemical analyses result determination of the threshold of geochemical anomalies is directly related to the identification of mineralization information. From samples, stream sediment samples and the soil samples indicated that the most promising mineralization occur in the prospect area are gold(Au), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn). This is also supported by the abundance of chalcopyrite and sphalerite in some highly altered samples. The stream sediment geochemical survey data shows relatively higher values for zinc compared to Pb and Cu. The moderate concentration of the base metals in some of the samples indicates availability base metal mineralization in the study area requiring further investigation. The rock and soil geochemistry shows the significant concentration of gold with maximum value of 0.33ppm and 0.97 ppm in the south western part of the study area. In Finarwa, artisanal gold mining has become an increasingly widespread economic activity of the local people undertaken by socially differentiated groups with a wide range of education levels and economic backgrounds incorporating a wide variety of ‘labour intensive activities without mechanisation.

Keywords: gold, base metal, anomaly, threshold

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133 Fabrication and Analysis of Simplified Dragonfly Wing Structures Created Using Balsa Wood and Red Prepreg Fibre Glass for Use in Biomimetic Micro Air Vehicles

Authors: Praveena Nair Sivasankaran, Thomas Arthur Ward, Rubentheren Viyapuri


Paper describes a methodology to fabricate a simplified dragonfly wing structure using balsa wood and red prepreg fibre glass. These simplified wing structures were created for use in Biomimetic Micro Air Vehicles (BMAV). Dragonfly wings are highly corrugated and possess complex vein structures. In order to mimic the wings function and retain its properties, a simplified version of the wing was designed. The simplified dragonfly wing structure was created using a method called spatial network analysis which utilizes Canny edge detection method. The vein structure of the wings were carved out in balsa wood and red prepreg fibre glass. Balsa wood and red prepreg fibre glass was chosen due to its ultra- lightweight property and hence, highly suitable to be used in our application. The fabricated structure was then immersed in a nanocomposite solution containing chitosan as a film matrix, reinforced with chitin nanowhiskers and tannic acid as a crosslinking agent. These materials closely mimic the membrane of a dragonfly wing. Finally, the wings were subjected to a bending test and comparisons were made with previous research for verification. The results had a margin of difference of about 3% and thus the structure was validated.

Keywords: dragonfly wings, simplified, Canny edge detection, balsa wood, red prepreg, chitin, chitosan, tannic acid

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
132 Comparison of Central Light Reflex Width-to-Retinal Vessel Diameter Ratio between Glaucoma and Normal Eyes by Using Edge Detection Technique

Authors: P. Siriarchawatana, K. Leungchavaphongse, N. Covavisaruch, K. Rojananuangnit, P. Boondaeng, N. Panyayingyong


Glaucoma is a disease that causes visual loss in adults. Glaucoma causes damage to the optic nerve and its overall pathophysiology is still not fully understood. Vasculopathy may be one of the possible causes of nerve damage. Photographic imaging of retinal vessels by fundus camera during eye examination may complement clinical management. This paper presents an innovation for measuring central light reflex width-to-retinal vessel diameter ratio (CRR) from digital retinal photographs. Using our edge detection technique, CRRs from glaucoma and normal eyes were compared to examine differences and associations. CRRs were evaluated on fundus photographs of participants from Mettapracharak (Wat Raikhing) Hospital in Nakhon Pathom, Thailand. Fifty-five photographs from normal eyes and twenty-one photographs from glaucoma eyes were included. Participants with hypertension were excluded. In each photograph, CRRs from four retinal vessels, including arteries and veins in the inferotemporal and superotemporal regions, were quantified using edge detection technique. From our finding, mean CRRs of all four retinal arteries and veins were significantly higher in persons with glaucoma than in those without glaucoma (0.34 vs. 0.32, p < 0.05 for inferotemporal vein, 0.33 vs. 0.30, p < 0.01 for inferotemporal artery, 0.34 vs. 0.31, p < 0.01 for superotemporal vein, and 0.33 vs. 0.30, p < 0.05 for superotemporal artery). From these results, an increase in CRRs of retinal vessels, as quantitatively measured from fundus photographs, could be associated with glaucoma.

Keywords: glaucoma, retinal vessel, central light reflex, image processing, fundus photograph, edge detection

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
131 Novel Recombinant Betasatellite Associated with Vein Thickening Symptoms on Okra Plants in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Adel M. Zakri, Mohammed A. Al-Saleh, Judith. K. Brown, Ali M. Idris


Betasatellites are small circular single stranded DNA molecules found associated with begomoviruses on field symptomatic plants. Their genome size is about half that of the helper begomovirus, ranging between 1.3 and 1.4 kb. The helper begomoviruses are usually members of the family Geminiviridae. Okra leaves showing vein thickening were collected from okra plants growing in Jazan, Saudi Arabia. Total DNA was extracted from leaves and used as a template to amplify circular DNA using rolling circle amplification (RCA) technology. Products were digested with PstI to linearize the helper viral genome(s), and associated DNA satellite(s), yielding a 2.8kbp and 1.4kbp fragment, respectively. The linearized fragments were cloned into the pGEM-5Zf (+) vector and subjected to DNA sequencing. The 2.8 kb fragment was identified as Cotton leaf curl Gezira virus genome, at 2780bp, an isolate closely related to strains reported previously from Saudi Arabia. A clone obtained from the 1.4 kb fragments he 1.4kb was blasted to GeneBank database found to be a betasatellite. The genome of betasatellite was 1357-bp in size. It was found to be a recombinant containing one fragment (877-bp) that shared 91% nt identity with Cotton leaf curl Gezira betasatellite [KM279620], and a smaller fragment [133--bp) that shared 86% nt identity with Tomato leaf curl Sudan virus [JX483708]. This satellite is thus a recombinant between a malvaceous-infecting satellite and a solanaceous-infecting begomovirus.

Keywords: begomovirus, betasatellites, cotton leaf curl Gezira virus, okra plants

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130 The Femoral Eversion Endarterectomy Technique with Transection: Safety and Efficacy

Authors: Hansraj Riteesh Bookun, Emily Maree Stevens, Jarryd Leigh Solomon, Anthony Chan


Objective: This was a retrospective cross-sectional study evaluating the safety and efficacy of femoral endarterectomy using the eversion technique with transection as opposed to the conventional endarterectomy technique with either vein or synthetic patch arterioplasty. Methods: Between 2010 to mid 2017, 19 patients with mean age of 75.4 years, underwent eversion femoral endarterectomy with transection by a single surgeon. There were 13 males (68.4%), and the comorbid burden was as follows: ischaemic heart disease (53.3%), diabetes (43.8%), stage 4 kidney impairment (13.3%) and current or ex-smoking (73.3%). The indications were claudication (45.5%), rest pain (18.2%) and tissue loss (36.3%). Results: The technical success rate was 100%. One patient required a blood transfusion following bleeding from intraoperative losses. Two patients required blood transfusions from low post operative haemogloblin concentrations – one of them in the context of myelodysplastic syndrome. There were no unexpected returns to theatre. The mean length of stay was 11.5 days with two patients having inpatient stays of 36 and 50 days respectively due to the need for rehabilitation. There was one death unrelated to the operation. Conclusion: The eversion technique with transection is safe and effective with low complication rates and a normally expected length of stay. It poses the advantage of not requiring a synthetic patch. This technique features minimal extraneous dissection as there is no need to harvest vein for a patch. Additionally, future endovascular interventions can be performed by puncturing the native vessel. There is no change to the femoral bifurcation anatomy after this technique. We posit that this is a useful adjunct to the surgeon’s panoply of vascular surgical techniques.

Keywords: endarterectomy, eversion, femoral, vascular

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129 Long Term Follow-Up, Clinical Outcomes and Quality of Life after Total Arterial Revascularisation versus Conventional Coronary Surgery: A Retrospective Study

Authors: Jitendra Jain, Cassandra Hidajat, Hansraj Riteesh Bookun


Graft patency underpins long-term prognosis after coronary artery bypass grafting surgery (CABG). The benefits of the combined use of only the left internal mammary artery and radial artery, referred to as total arterial revascularisation (TAR), on long-term clinical outcomes and quality of life are relatively unknown. The aim of this study was to identify whether there were differences in long term clinical outcomes between recipients of TAR compared to a cohort of mostly arterial revascularization involving the left internal mammary, at least one radial artery and at least one saphenous vein graft. A retrospective analysis was performed on all patients who underwent TAR or were re-vascularized with supplementary saphenous vein graft from February 1996 to December 2004. Telephone surveys were conducted to obtain clinical outcome parameters including major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) and Short Form (SF-36v2) Health Survey responses. A total of 176 patients were successfully contacted to obtain postop follow up results. The mean follow-up length from time of surgery in our study was TAR 12.4±1.8 years and conventional 12.6±2.1. PCS score was TAR 45.9±8.8 vs LIMA/Rad/ SVG 44.9±9.2 (p=0.468) and MCS score was TAR 52.0±8.9 vs LIMA/Rad/SVG 52.5±9.3 (p=0.723). There were no significant differences between groups for NYHA class 3+ TAR 9.4% vs. LIMA/Rad/SVG 6.6%; or CCS 3+ TAR 2.35% vs. LIMA/Rad/SVG 0%.

Keywords: CABG; MACCEs; quality of life; total arterial revascularisation

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128 Effects of the Supplementation of Potassium Humate at Different Levels to the Dairy Cows' Concentrated Mix during Dry Period on Early Lactation Yield Parameters and Dam/Calf Immunity

Authors: Cangir Uyarlar, E. Eren Gultepe, I. Sadi Cetingul, Ismail Bayram


This study was conducted to investigate the effect of humic acid (Potassium Humate) at different levels on rations on the effects of both maternal and offspring health, metabolic parameters and immunity levels in transition dairy cows. For this purpose, 50 Holstein dairy cows divided 5 trial groups. Experimental groups were designed as follows: A) Control (0% Humas); B) 0.5 Humas (0,5% in concentrated diet); C) 1 Humas (1% in concentrated diet), D) 1,5 Humas (1,5% in concentrated diet), E) 2 Humas (2% in concentrated diet), respectively. The study lasted from the first day of the dry period to postpartum 30th day. Diets were prepared as isocaloric and isonitrogenic. In the experiment, the day on which the animals gave birth was accepted as ‘0 (zero)’ and blood was taken from tail vein (v. coccygea) at -60, -53, -46, -39, -32, -25, -18, -11, -4, 0, ; Colostrum samples were taken on days 0, 1 and 2; Blood samples were taken on days 0, 1, 2, 15 and 30 from the juguler vein (v. jugularis) of the new born calves. Total blood leukocyte, Lymphocyte, Monocyte, granulocytes, Hemoglobin, Hematocrit, MCV, MCH, MWC, RDW, PLT, MPV, PDW, PCT, NEFA, BHBA, Glucose, Total Cholesterol , Triglyceride, LDL, HDL, VLDL, ALT, AST, ALP, GGT and Total IgG levels and colostrum IgG levels were determined in this experiment. The results suggest that although the supplementation of humic acid at 2% level adversely affected to production parameters, the addition of humic acid (potassium humate) to the concentrate mix during the dry period (particularly 0.5 and 1% levels) may provide an increasing on mother and the offspring immunity, some improving on serum metabolism parameters and enhancing the milk production.

Keywords: humic acid, dairy cow, calf, immunity

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127 Cadaveric Study of Lung Anatomy: A Surgical Overview

Authors: Arthi Ganapathy, Rati Tandon, Saroj Kaler


Introduction: A thorough knowledge of variations in lung anatomy is of prime significance during surgical procedures like lobectomy, pneumonectomy, and segmentectomy of lungs. The arrangement of structures in the lung hilum act as a guide in performing such procedures. The normal pattern of arrangement of hilar structures in the right lung is eparterial bronchus, pulmonary artery, hyparterial bronchus and pulmonary veins from above downwards. In the left lung, it is pulmonary artery, principal bronchus and pulmonary vein from above downwards. The arrangement of hilar structures from anterior to posterior in both the lungs is pulmonary vein, pulmonary artery, and principal bronchus. The bronchial arteries are very small and usually the posterior most structures in the hilum of lungs. Aim: The present study aims at reporting the variations in hilar anatomy (arrangement and number) of lungs. Methodology: 75 adult formalin fixed cadaveric lungs from the department of Anatomy AIIMS New Delhi were observed for variations in the lobar anatomy. Arrangement of pulmonary hilar structures was meticulously observed, and any deviation in the pattern of presentation was recorded. Results: Among the 75 adult lung specimens observed 36 specimens were of right lung and the rest of left lung. Seven right lung specimens showed only 2 lobes with an oblique fissure dividing them and one left lung showed 3 lobes. The normal pattern of arrangement of hilar structures was seen in 22 right lungs and 23 left lungs. Rest of the lung specimens (14 right and 16 left) showed a varied pattern of arrangement of hilar structures. Some of them showed alterations in the sequence of arrangement of pulmonary artery, pulmonary veins, bronchus, and others in the number of these structures. Conclusion: Alterations in the pattern of arrangement of structures in the lung hilum are quite frequent. A compromise in knowledge of such variations will result in inadvertent complications like intraoperative bleeding during surgical procedures.

Keywords: fissures, hilum, lobes, pulmonary

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126 Risk Assessment Tools Applied to Deep Vein Thrombosis Patients Treated with Warfarin

Authors: Kylie Mueller, Nijole Bernaitis, Shailendra Anoopkumar-Dukie


Background: Vitamin K antagonists particularly warfarin is the most frequently used oral medication for deep vein thrombosis (DVT) treatment and prophylaxis. Time in therapeutic range (TITR) of the international normalised ratio (INR) is widely accepted as a measure to assess the quality of warfarin therapy. Multiple factors can affect warfarin control and the subsequent adverse outcomes including thromboembolic and bleeding events. Predictor models have been developed to assess potential contributing factors and measure the individual risk of these adverse events. These predictive models have been validated in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients, however, there is a lack of literature on whether these can be successfully applied to other warfarin users including DVT patients. Therefore, the aim of the study was to assess the ability of these risk models (HAS BLED and CHADS2) to predict haemorrhagic and ischaemic incidences in DVT patients treated with warfarin. Methods: A retrospective analysis of DVT patients receiving warfarin management by a private pathology clinic was conducted. Data was collected from November 2007 to September 2014 and included demographics, medical and drug history, INR targets and test results. Patients receiving continuous warfarin therapy with an INR reference range between 2.0 and 3.0 were included in the study with mean TITR calculated using the Rosendaal method. Bleeding and thromboembolic events were recorded and reported as incidences per patient. The haemorrhagic risk model HAS BLED and ischaemic risk model CHADS2 were applied to the data. Patients were then stratified into either the low, moderate, or high-risk categories. The analysis was conducted to determine if a correlation existed between risk assessment tool and patient outcomes. Data was analysed using GraphPad Instat Version 3 with a p value of <0.05 considered to be statistically significant. Patient characteristics were reported as mean and standard deviation for continuous data and categorical data reported as number and percentage. Results: Of the 533 patients included in the study, there were 268 (50.2%) female and 265 (49.8%) male patients with a mean age of 62.5 years (±16.4). The overall mean TITR was 78.3% (±12.7) with an overall haemorrhagic incidence of 0.41 events per patient. For the HAS BLED model, there was a haemorrhagic incidence of 0.08, 0.53, and 0.54 per patient in the low, moderate and high-risk categories respectively showing a statistically significant increase in incidence with increasing risk category. The CHADS2 model showed an increase in ischaemic events according to risk category with no ischaemic events in the low category, and an ischaemic incidence of 0.03 in the moderate category and 0.47 high-risk categories. Conclusion: An increasing haemorrhagic incidence correlated to an increase in the HAS BLED risk score in DVT patients treated with warfarin. Furthermore, a greater incidence of ischaemic events occurred in patients with an increase in CHADS2 category. In an Australian population of DVT patients, the HAS BLED and CHADS2 accurately predicts incidences of haemorrhage and ischaemic events respectively.

Keywords: anticoagulant agent, deep vein thrombosis, risk assessment, warfarin

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125 Gentrification in Istanbul: The Twin Paradox

Authors: Tugce Caliskan


The gentrification literature in Turkey provided important insights regarding the analysis of the socio-spatial change in İstanbul mostly through the existing gentrification theories which were produced in Anglo-American literature. Yet early researches focused on the classical gentrification while failing to notice other place-specific forms of the phenomena. It was only after the mid-2000s that scholarly attention shifted to the recent discussions in the mainstream such as the neoliberal urban policies, government involvement, and resistance. Although these studies have considerable potential to contribute to the geography of gentrification, it seems that copying the linear timeline of Anglo-American conceptualization limited the space to introduce contextually nuanced way of process in Turkey. More specifically, the gentrification literature in Turkey acknowledged the linear timeline of the process drawing on the mainstream studies, and, made the spontaneous classical gentrification as the starting point in İstanbul at the expense of contextually specific forms of the phenomenon that took place in the same years. This paper is an attempt to understand place-specific forms of gentrification through the abandonment of the linear understanding of time. In this vein, this paper approaches the process as moving both linear and cyclical rather than the waves succeeded each other. Maintaining a dialectical relationship between the cyclical and the linear time, this paper investigates how the components of gentrification have been taken place in the cyclical timeline while becoming bolder in the linear timeline. This paper argues that taking the (re)investment in the secondary circuit of capital and class transformation as the core characteristics of gentrification, and accordingly, searching for these components beyond the linear timeline provide strategic value to decenter the perspectives, not merely for Turkish studies. In this vein, this strategy revealed that Western experience of gentrification did not travel, adopted or copied in Turkey but gentrification -as an abstract and general concept- has emerged as a product of different contextual, historical and temporal forces which must be considered within the framework of state-led urbanization as early as 1980 differing from the Global North trajectories.

Keywords: comparative urbanism, geography of gentrification, linear and cyclical timeline, state-led gentrification

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124 The Dead Alexandrian Historic Vein: The Revitalization of Mahmoudiyah Canal 'The Forgotten Environmental Asset'

Authors: Sara S. Fouad, Omneya Messallam


In 1818, a seventy-five kilometer long canal was dug (called the Mahmoudiyah canal) connecting between Alexandria city in Egypt and the western branch of the Nile. It was a productive resource and vital to its environment, context, transportation, and recreation. It played a significant role in people’s lives and Alexandria city’s shape. The canal, which was the main vein of goods’ transporting from Alexandria’s seaport to the different parts of Egypt, was still in use today as a major source of clear water in the city. But nowadays, Mahmoudiyah canal is converting into ‘dead waterway’. The canal became sources of pollution as a result of solid and industrial waste thus causing many diseases, destroying communities and biodiversity, with urban invasion, the loss of community aesthetic value and healthy environment. Therefore, this paper aims to propose an urban strategy, as a solution to revive the forgotten canal, through recreating a cultural promenade on its shore. The main aim of this research is to formulate decent quality of life, unpolluted space, an area gathering the city space for nature, tourism and investments. As a case study, this paper investigates Mahmoudiyah canal through urban and ecological analyses, aiming to design an urban strategy for reviving it by creating a cultural promenade enriched with public spaces and green areas, which can most probably enhance the quality of life, city re-living and development. Community participation is also considered as vital and intrinsic implementation stage. The empirical research involved using several data assembly methods such as interviews, mental mapping, structural observations and questionnaires. The paper ends with a set of conclusions leading to proposals for the Mahmoudiyah canal revitalization considering the complex challenges and processes of sustainable regeneration focusing on city’s rehabilitation and lost identity.

Keywords: Mahmoudiyah canal, community aesthetic value, city re-living, cultural promenade

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123 Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis In Brazil

Authors: Elisangela Sobreira, Denise Teixeira


Visceral leishmaniasis is a public health problem in Brazil, it is the main reservoir dog. In the period 2012-2016 78 diagnoses were performed in dogs suspected. Blood samples were collected from the cephalic vein obtaining serum used for the indirect immunofluorescence test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, while it collected a drop of blood for the rapid chromatographic immunoassay. Obtained in 32 dogs positive. The test is important for the control of this disease and is used routinely in the Zoonoses Control Center.

Keywords: Brazil, dogs, Leismaniasis, Zoonoses center

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122 Concentration Conditions of Industrially Valuable Accumulations of Gold Ore Mineralization of the Tulallar Ore-Bearing Structure

Authors: Narmina Ismayilova, Shamil Zabitov, Fuad Askerzadeh, Raqif Seyfullayev


Tulallar volcano-tectonic structure is located in the conjugation zone of the Gekgel horst-uplift, Dashkesan, and Agzhakend synclinorium. Regionally, these geological structures are an integral part of the Lok-Karabakh island arc system. Tulallar field is represented by three areas (Central, East, West). The area of the ore field is located within a partially eroded oblong volcano-tectonic depression. In the central part, the core is divided by the deep Tulallar-Chiragdara-Toganalinsky fault with arcuate fragments of the ring structure into three blocks -East, Central, and West, within which the same areas of the Tulallar field are located. In general, for the deposit, the position of both ore-bearing vein zones and ore-bearing blocks is controlled by fractures of two systems - sub-latitudinal and near-meridional orientations. Mineralization of gold-sulfide ores is confined to these zones of disturbances. The zones have a northwestern and northeastern (near-meridian) strike with a steep dip (70-85◦) to the southwest and southeast. The average thickness of the zones is 35 m; they are traced for 2.5 km along the strike and 500 m along with the dip. In general, for the indicated thickness, the zones contain an average of 1.56 ppm Au; however, areas enriched in noble metal are distinguished within them. The zones are complicated by postore fault tectonics. Gold mineralization is localized in the Kimmeridgian volcanics of andesi-basalt-porphyritic composition and their vitrolithoclastic, agglomerate tuffs, and tuff breccias. For the central part of the Tulallar ore field, a map of geochemical anomalies was built on the basis of analysis data carried out in an international laboratory. The total gold content ranges from 0.1-5 g/t, and in some places, even more than 5 g/t. The highest gold content is observed in the monoquartz facies among the secondary quartzites with quartz veins. The smallest amount of gold content appeared in the quartz-kaolin facies. And also, anomalous values of gold content are located in the upper part of the quartz vein. As a result, an en-echelon arrangement of anomalous values of gold along the strike and dip was revealed.

Keywords: geochemical anomaly, gold deposit, mineralization, Tulallar

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