Commenced in January 2007
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Paper Count: 2

Search results for: A. Al-Ali

2 Hybrid Data-Driven Drilling Rate of Penetration Optimization Scheme Guided by Geological Formation and Historical Data

Authors: Ammar Alali, Mahmoud Abughaban, William Contreras Otalvora


Optimizing the drilling process for cost and efficiency requires the optimization of the rate of penetration (ROP). ROP is the measurement of the speed at which the wellbore is created, in units of feet per hour. It is the primary indicator of measuring drilling efficiency. Maximization of the ROP can indicate fast and cost-efficient drilling operations; however, high ROPs may induce unintended events, which may lead to nonproductive time (NPT) and higher net costs. The proposed ROP optimization solution is a hybrid, data-driven system that aims to improve the drilling process, maximize the ROP, and minimize NPT. The system consists of two phases: (1) utilizing existing geological and drilling data to train the model prior, and (2) real-time adjustments of the controllable dynamic drilling parameters [weight on bit (WOB), rotary speed (RPM), and pump flow rate (GPM)] that direct influence on the ROP. During the first phase of the system, geological and historical drilling data are aggregated. After, the top-rated wells, as a function of high instance ROP, are distinguished. Those wells are filtered based on NPT incidents, and a cross-plot is generated for the controllable dynamic drilling parameters per ROP value. Subsequently, the parameter values (WOB, GPM, RPM) are calculated as a conditioned mean based on physical distance, following Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) interpolation methodology. The first phase is concluded by producing a model of drilling best practices from the offset wells, prioritizing the optimum ROP value. This phase is performed before the commencing of drilling. Starting with the model produced in phase one, the second phase runs an automated drill-off test, delivering live adjustments in real-time. Those adjustments are made by directing the driller to deviate two of the controllable parameters (WOB and RPM) by a small percentage (0-5%), following the Constrained Random Search (CRS) methodology. These minor incremental variations will reveal new drilling conditions, not explored before through offset wells. The data is then consolidated into a heat-map, as a function of ROP. A more optimum ROP performance is identified through the heat-map and amended in the model. The validation process involved the selection of a planned well in an onshore oil field with hundreds of offset wells. The first phase model was built by utilizing the data points from the top-performing historical wells (20 wells). The model allows drillers to enhance decision-making by leveraging existing data and blending it with live data in real-time. An empirical relationship between controllable dynamic parameters and ROP was derived using Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). The adjustments resulted in improved ROP efficiency by over 20%, translating to at least 10% saving in drilling costs. The novelty of the proposed system lays is its ability to integrate historical data, calibrate based geological formations, and run real-time global optimization through CRS. Those factors position the system to work for any newly drilled well in a developing field event.

Keywords: drilling optimization, geological formations, machine learning, rate of penetration

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1 Geophysical Methods and Machine Learning Algorithms for Stuck Pipe Prediction and Avoidance

Authors: Ammar Alali, Mahmoud Abughaban


Cost reduction and drilling optimization is the goal of many drilling operators. Historically, stuck pipe incidents were a major segment of non-productive time (NPT) associated costs. Traditionally, stuck pipe problems are part of the operations and solved post-sticking. However, the real key to savings and success is in predicting the stuck pipe incidents and avoiding the conditions leading to its occurrences. Previous attempts in stuck-pipe predictions have neglected the local geology of the problem. The proposed predictive tool utilizes geophysical data processing techniques and Machine Learning (ML) algorithms to predict drilling activities events in real-time using surface drilling data with minimum computational power. The method combines two types of analysis: (1) real-time prediction, and (2) cause analysis. Real-time prediction aggregates the input data, including historical drilling surface data, geological formation tops, and petrophysical data, from wells within the same field. The input data are then flattened per the geological formation and stacked per stuck-pipe incidents. The algorithm uses two physical methods (stacking and flattening) to filter any noise in the signature and create a robust pre-determined pilot that adheres to the local geology. Once the drilling operation starts, the Wellsite Information Transfer Standard Markup Language (WITSML) live surface data are fed into a matrix and aggregated in a similar frequency as the pre-determined signature. Then, the matrix is correlated with the pre-determined stuck-pipe signature for this field, in real-time. The correlation used is a machine learning Correlation-based Feature Selection (CFS) algorithm, which selects relevant features from the class and identifying redundant features. The correlation output is interpreted as a probability curve of stuck pipe incidents prediction in real-time. Once this probability passes a fixed-threshold defined by the user, the other component, cause analysis, alerts the user of the expected incident based on set pre-determined signatures. A set of recommendations will be provided to reduce the associated risk. The validation process involved feeding of historical drilling data as live-stream, mimicking actual drilling conditions, of an onshore oil field. Pre-determined signatures were created for three problematic geological formations in this field prior. Three wells were processed as case studies, and the stuck-pipe incidents were predicted successfully, with an accuracy of 76%. This accuracy of detection could have resulted in around 50% reduction in NPT, equivalent to 9% cost saving in comparison with offset wells. The prediction of stuck pipe problem requires a method to capture geological, geophysical and drilling data, and recognize the indicators of this issue at a field and geological formation level. This paper illustrates the efficiency and the robustness of the proposed cross-disciplinary approach in its ability to produce such signatures and predicting this NPT event.

Keywords: drilling optimization, hazard prediction, machine learning, stuck pipe

Procedia PDF Downloads 86