Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 341

Search results for: bipartite graph

341 Matching on Bipartite Graphs with Applications to School Course Registration Systems

Authors: Zhihan Li


Nowadays, most universities use the course enrollment system considering students’ registration orders. However, the students’ preference level to certain courses is also one important factor to consider. In this research, the possibility of applying a preference-first system has been discussed and analyzed compared to the order-first system. A bipartite graph is applied to resemble the relationship between students and courses they tend to register. With the graph set up, we apply Ford-Fulkerson (F.F.) Algorithm to maximize parings between two sets of nodes, in our case, students and courses. Two models are proposed in this paper: the one considered students’ order first, and the one considered students’ preference first. By comparing and contrasting the two models, we highlight the usability of models which potentially leads to better designs for school course registration systems.

Keywords: bipartite graph, Ford-Fulkerson (F.F.) algorithm, graph theory, maximum matching

Procedia PDF Downloads 37
340 Comparing Community Detection Algorithms in Bipartite Networks

Authors: Ehsan Khademi, Mahdi Jalili


Despite the special features of bipartite networks, they are common in many systems. Real-world bipartite networks may show community structure, similar to what one can find in one-mode networks. However, the interpretation of the community structure in bipartite networks is different as compared to one-mode networks. In this manuscript, we compare a number of available methods that are frequently used to discover community structure of bipartite networks. These networks are categorized into two broad classes. One class is the methods that, first, transfer the network into a one-mode network, and then apply community detection algorithms. The other class is the algorithms that have been developed specifically for bipartite networks. These algorithms are applied on a model network with prescribed community structure.

Keywords: community detection, bipartite networks, co-clustering, modularity, network projection, complex networks

Procedia PDF Downloads 427
339 A New Bound on the Average Information Ratio of Perfect Secret-Sharing Schemes for Access Structures Based on Bipartite Graphs of Larger Girth

Authors: Hui-Chuan Lu


In a perfect secret-sharing scheme, a dealer distributes a secret among a set of participants in such a way that only qualified subsets of participants can recover the secret and the joint share of the participants in any unqualified subset is statistically independent of the secret. The access structure of the scheme refers to the collection of all qualified subsets. In a graph-based access structures, each vertex of a graph G represents a participant and each edge of G represents a minimal qualified subset. The average information ratio of a perfect secret-sharing scheme realizing a given access structure is the ratio of the average length of the shares given to the participants to the length of the secret. The infimum of the average information ratio of all possible perfect secret-sharing schemes realizing an access structure is called the optimal average information ratio of that access structure. We study the optimal average information ratio of the access structures based on bipartite graphs. Based on some previous results, we give a bound on the optimal average information ratio for all bipartite graphs of girth at least six. This bound is the best possible for some classes of bipartite graphs using our approach.

Keywords: secret-sharing scheme, average information ratio, star covering, deduction, core cluster

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
338 Web Proxy Detection via Bipartite Graphs and One-Mode Projections

Authors: Zhipeng Chen, Peng Zhang, Qingyun Liu, Li Guo


With the Internet becoming the dominant channel for business and life, many IPs are increasingly masked using web proxies for illegal purposes such as propagating malware, impersonate phishing pages to steal sensitive data or redirect victims to other malicious targets. Moreover, as Internet traffic continues to grow in size and complexity, it has become an increasingly challenging task to detect the proxy service due to their dynamic update and high anonymity. In this paper, we present an approach based on behavioral graph analysis to study the behavior similarity of web proxy users. Specifically, we use bipartite graphs to model host communications from network traffic and build one-mode projections of bipartite graphs for discovering social-behavior similarity of web proxy users. Based on the similarity matrices of end-users from the derived one-mode projection graphs, we apply a simple yet effective spectral clustering algorithm to discover the inherent web proxy users behavior clusters. The web proxy URL may vary from time to time. Still, the inherent interest would not. So, based on the intuition, by dint of our private tools implemented by WebDriver, we examine whether the top URLs visited by the web proxy users are web proxies. Our experiment results based on real datasets show that the behavior clusters not only reduce the number of URLs analysis but also provide an effective way to detect the web proxies, especially for the unknown web proxies.

Keywords: bipartite graph, one-mode projection, clustering, web proxy detection

Procedia PDF Downloads 169
337 Topological Indices of Some Graph Operations

Authors: U. Mary


Let be a graph with a finite, nonempty set of objects called vertices together with a set of unordered pairs of distinct vertices of called edges. The vertex set is denoted by and the edge set by. Given two graphs and the wiener index of, wiener index for the splitting graph of a graph, the first Zagreb index of and its splitting graph, the 3-steiner wiener index of, the 3-steiner wiener index of a special graph are explored in this paper.

Keywords: complementary prism graph, first Zagreb index, neighborhood corona graph, steiner distance, splitting graph, steiner wiener index, wiener index

Procedia PDF Downloads 420
336 Survey Paper on Graph Coloring Problem and Its Application

Authors: Prateek Chharia, Biswa Bhusan Ghosh


Graph coloring is one of the prominent concepts in graph coloring. It can be defined as a coloring of the various regions of the graph such that all the constraints are fulfilled. In this paper various graphs coloring approaches like greedy coloring, Heuristic search for maximum independent set and graph coloring using edge table is described. Graph coloring can be used in various real time applications like student time tabling generation, Sudoku as a graph coloring problem, GSM phone network.

Keywords: graph coloring, greedy coloring, heuristic search, edge table, sudoku as a graph coloring problem

Procedia PDF Downloads 430
335 A New Graph Theoretic Problem with Ample Practical Applications

Authors: Mehmet Hakan Karaata


In this paper, we first coin a new graph theocratic problem with numerous applications. Second, we provide two algorithms for the problem. The first solution is using a brute-force techniques, whereas the second solution is based on an initial identification of the cycles in the given graph. We then provide a correctness proof of the algorithm. The applications of the problem include graph analysis, graph drawing and network structuring.

Keywords: algorithm, cycle, graph algorithm, graph theory, network structuring

Procedia PDF Downloads 268
334 Complete Tripartite Graphs with Spanning Maximal Planar Subgraphs

Authors: Severino Gervacio, Velimor Almonte, Emmanuel Natalio


A simple graph is planar if it there is a way of drawing it in the plane without edge crossings. A planar graph which is not a proper spanning subgraph of another planar graph is a maximal planar graph. We prove that for complete tripartite graphs of order at most 9, the only ones that contain a spanning maximal planar subgraph are K1,1,1, K2,2,2, K2,3,3, and K3,3,3. The main result gives a necessary and sufficient condition for the complete tripartite graph Kx,y,z to contain a spanning maximal planar subgraph.

Keywords: complete tripartite graph, graph, maximal planar graph, planar graph, subgraph

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
333 Literature Review and Biomechanical Findings in Patients with Bipartite Medial Cuneiforms

Authors: Aliza Lee, Mark Wilt, John Bonk, Scott Floyd, Bradley Hoffman, Karen Uchmanowicz


Bipartite medial cuneiforms are relatively rare but may play a significant role in biomechanical and gait abnormalities. It is believed that a bipartite medial cuneiform may alter the available range of motion due to its larger morphological variant, thus limiting the metatarsal plantarflexion needed to achieve adequate hallux dorsiflexion for normal gait. Radiographic and clinical assessments were performed on 2 patients who reported foot pain along the first ray. Both patients had visible bipartite medial cuneiforms on MRI. Using gait plate and Metascan™ analysis, both were noted to have four measurements far beyond the expected range. Medial and lateral heel peak pressure, hallux peak pressure, and 1st metatarsal peak pressure were all noted to be increased. These measurements are believed to be increased due to the hindrance placed on the available ROM of the 1st ray by the increased size of the medial cuneiform. A larger patient population would be needed to fully understand this developmental anomaly.

Keywords: bipartite medial cuneiforms, cuneiform, developmental anomaly, gait abnormality

Procedia PDF Downloads 76
332 Efficient Filtering of Graph Based Data Using Graph Partitioning

Authors: Nileshkumar Vaishnav, Aditya Tatu


An algebraic framework for processing graph signals axiomatically designates the graph adjacency matrix as the shift operator. In this setup, we often encounter a problem wherein we know the filtered output and the filter coefficients, and need to find out the input graph signal. Solution to this problem using direct approach requires O(N3) operations, where N is the number of vertices in graph. In this paper, we adapt the spectral graph partitioning method for partitioning of graphs and use it to reduce the computational cost of the filtering problem. We use the example of denoising of the temperature data to illustrate the efficacy of the approach.

Keywords: graph signal processing, graph partitioning, inverse filtering on graphs, algebraic signal processing

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
331 Improvement a Lower Bound of Energy for Some Family of Graphs, Related to Determinant of Adjacency Matrix

Authors: Saieed Akbari, Yousef Bagheri, Amir Hossein Ghodrati, Sima Saadat Akhtar


Let G be a simple graph with the vertex set V (G) and with the adjacency matrix A (G). The energy E (G) of G is defined to be the sum of the absolute values of all eigenvalues of A (G). Also let n and m be number of edges and vertices of the graph respectively. A regular graph is a graph where each vertex has the same number of neighbours. Given a graph G, its line graph L(G) is a graph such that each vertex of L(G) represents an edge of G; and two vertices of L(G) are adjacent if and only if their corresponding edges share a common endpoint in G. In this paper we show that for every regular graphs and also for every line graphs such that (G) 3 we have, E(G) 2nm + n 1. Also at the other part of the paper we prove that 2 (G) E(G) for an arbitrary graph G.

Keywords: eigenvalues, energy, line graphs, matching number

Procedia PDF Downloads 98
330 Graph Similarity: Algebraic Model and Its Application to Nonuniform Signal Processing

Authors: Nileshkumar Vishnav, Aditya Tatu


A recent approach of representing graph signals and graph filters as polynomials is useful for graph signal processing. In this approach, the adjacency matrix plays pivotal role; instead of the more common approach involving graph-Laplacian. In this work, we follow the adjacency matrix based approach and corresponding algebraic signal model. We further expand the theory and introduce the concept of similarity of two graphs. The similarity of graphs is useful in that key properties (such as filter-response, algebra related to graph) get transferred from one graph to another. We demonstrate potential applications of the relation between two similar graphs, such as nonuniform filter design, DTMF detection and signal reconstruction.

Keywords: graph signal processing, algebraic signal processing, graph similarity, isospectral graphs, nonuniform signal processing

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
329 Metric Dimension on Line Graph of Honeycomb Networks

Authors: M. Hussain, Aqsa Farooq


Let G = (V,E) be a connected graph and distance between any two vertices a and b in G is a−b geodesic and is denoted by d(a, b). A set of vertices W resolves a graph G if each vertex is uniquely determined by its vector of distances to the vertices in W. A metric dimension of G is the minimum cardinality of a resolving set of G. In this paper line graph of honeycomb network has been derived and then we calculated the metric dimension on line graph of honeycomb network.

Keywords: Resolving set, Metric dimension, Honeycomb network, Line graph

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
328 Speedup Breadth-First Search by Graph Ordering

Authors: Qiuyi Lyu, Bin Gong


Breadth-First Search(BFS) is a core graph algorithm that is widely used for graph analysis. As it is frequently used in many graph applications, improve the BFS performance is essential. In this paper, we present a graph ordering method that could reorder the graph nodes to achieve better data locality, thus, improving the BFS performance. Our method is based on an observation that the sibling relationships will dominate the cache access pattern during the BFS traversal. Therefore, we propose a frequency-based model to construct the graph order. First, we optimize the graph order according to the nodes’ visit frequency. Nodes with high visit frequency will be processed in priority. Second, we try to maximize the child nodes overlap layer by layer. As it is proved to be NP-hard, we propose a heuristic method that could greatly reduce the preprocessing overheads. We conduct extensive experiments on 16 real-world datasets. The result shows that our method could achieve comparable performance with the state-of-the-art methods while the graph ordering overheads are only about 1/15.

Keywords: breadth-first search, BFS, graph ordering, graph algorithm

Procedia PDF Downloads 48
327 On the Zeros of the Degree Polynomial of a Graph

Authors: S. R. Nayaka, Putta Swamy


Graph polynomial is one of the algebraic representations of the Graph. The degree polynomial is one of the simple algebraic representations of graphs. The degree polynomial of a graph G of order n is the polynomial Deg(G, x) with the coefficients deg(G,i) where deg(G,i) denotes the number of vertices of degree i in G. In this article, we investigate the behavior of the roots of some families of Graphs in the complex field. We investigate for the graphs having only integral roots. Further, we characterize the graphs having single roots or having real roots and behavior of the polynomial at the particular value is also obtained.

Keywords: degree polynomial, regular graph, minimum and maximum degree, graph operations

Procedia PDF Downloads 152
326 From Convexity in Graphs to Polynomial Rings

Authors: Ladznar S. Laja, Rosalio G. Artes, Jr.


This paper introduced a graph polynomial relating convexity concepts. A graph polynomial is a polynomial representing a graph given some parameters. On the other hand, a subgraph H of a graph G is said to be convex in G if for every pair of vertices in H, every shortest path with these end-vertices lies entirely in H. We define the convex subgraph polynomial of a graph G to be the generating function of the sequence of the numbers of convex subgraphs of G of cardinalities ranging from zero to the order of G. This graph polynomial is monic since G itself is convex. The convex index which counts the number of convex subgraphs of G of all orders is just the evaluation of this polynomial at 1. Relationships relating algebraic properties of convex subgraphs polynomial with graph theoretic concepts are established.

Keywords: convex subgraph, convex index, generating function, polynomial ring

Procedia PDF Downloads 121
325 An Application of Graph Theory to The Electrical Circuit Using Matrix Method

Authors: Samai'la Abdullahi


A graph is a pair of two set and so that a graph is a pictorial representation of a system using two basic element nodes and edges. A node is represented by a circle (either hallo shade) and edge is represented by a line segment connecting two nodes together. In this paper, we present a circuit network in the concept of graph theory application and also circuit models of graph are represented in logical connection method were we formulate matrix method of adjacency and incidence of matrix and application of truth table.

Keywords: euler circuit and path, graph representation of circuit networks, representation of graph models, representation of circuit network using logical truth table

Procedia PDF Downloads 460
324 Building 1-Well-Covered Graphs by Corona, Join, and Rooted Product of Graphs

Authors: Vadim E. Levit, Eugen Mandrescu


A graph is well-covered if all its maximal independent sets are of the same size. A well-covered graph is 1-well-covered if deletion of every vertex of the graph leaves it well-covered. It is known that a graph without isolated vertices is 1-well-covered if and only if every two disjoint independent sets are included in two disjoint maximum independent sets. Well-covered graphs are related to combinatorial commutative algebra (e.g., every Cohen-Macaulay graph is well-covered, while each Gorenstein graph without isolated vertices is 1-well-covered). Our intent is to construct several infinite families of 1-well-covered graphs using the following known graph operations: corona, join, and rooted product of graphs. Adopting some known techniques used to advantage for well-covered graphs, one can prove that: if the graph G has no isolated vertices, then the corona of G and H is 1-well-covered if and only if H is a complete graph of order two at least; the join of the graphs G and H is 1-well-covered if and only if G and H have the same independence number and both are 1-well-covered; if H satisfies the property that every three pairwise disjoint independent sets are included in three pairwise disjoint maximum independent sets, then the rooted product of G and H is 1-well-covered, for every graph G. These findings show not only how to generate some more families of 1-well-covered graphs, but also that, to this aim, sometimes, one may use graphs that are not necessarily 1-well-covered.

Keywords: maximum independent set, corona, concatenation, join, well-covered graph

Procedia PDF Downloads 96
323 Nullity of t-Tupple Graphs

Authors: Khidir R. Sharaf, Didar A. Ali


The nullity η (G) of a graph is the occurrence of zero as an eigenvalue in its spectra. A zero-sum weighting of a graph G is real valued function, say f from vertices of G to the set of real numbers, provided that for each vertex of G the summation of the weights f (w) over all neighborhood w of v is zero for each v in G.A high zero-sum weighting of G is one that uses maximum number of non-zero independent variables. If G is graph with an end vertex, and if H is an induced sub-graph of G obtained by deleting this vertex together with the vertex adjacent to it, then, η(G)= η(H). In this paper, a high zero-sum weighting technique and the end vertex procedure are applied to evaluate the nullity of t-tupple and generalized t-tupple graphs are derived and determined for some special types of graphs. Also, we introduce and prove some important results about the t-tupple coalescence, Cartesian and Kronecker products of nut graphs.

Keywords: graph theory, graph spectra, nullity of graphs, statistic

Procedia PDF Downloads 146
322 Improoving Readability for Tweet Contextualization Using Bipartite Graphs

Authors: Amira Dhokar, Lobna Hlaoua, Lotfi Ben Romdhane


Tweet contextualization (TC) is a new issue that aims to answer questions of the form 'What is this tweet about?' The idea of this task was imagined as an extension of a previous area called multi-document summarization (MDS), which consists in generating a summary from many sources. In both TC and MDS, the summary should ideally contain the most relevant information of the topic that is being discussed in the source texts (for MDS) and related to the query (for TC). Furthermore of being informative, a summary should be coherent, i.e. well written to be readable and grammatically compact. Hence, coherence is an essential characteristic in order to produce comprehensible texts. In this paper, we propose a new approach to improve readability and coherence for tweet contextualization based on bipartite graphs. The main idea of our proposed method is to reorder sentences in a given paragraph by combining most expressive words detection and HITS (Hyperlink-Induced Topic Search) algorithm to make up a coherent context.

Keywords: bipartite graphs, readability, summarization, tweet contextualization

Procedia PDF Downloads 93
321 Existence and Construction of Maximal Rectangular Duals

Authors: Krishnendra Shekhawat


Given a graph G = (V, E), a rectangular dual of G represents the vertices of G by a set of interior-disjoint rectangles such that two rectangles touch if and only if there is an edge between the two corresponding vertices in G. Rectangular duals do not exist for every graph, so we can define maximal rectangular duals. A maximal rectangular dual is a rectangular dual of a graph G such that there exists no graph G ′ with a rectangular dual where G is a subgraph of G ′. In this paper, we enumerate all maximal rectangular duals (or, to be precise, the corresponding planar graphs) up to six nodes and presents a necessary condition for the existence of a rectangular dual. This work allegedly has applications in integrated circuit design and architectural floor plans.

Keywords: adjacency, degree sequence, dual graph, rectangular dual

Procedia PDF Downloads 138
320 Characterising Stable Model by Extended Labelled Dependency Graph

Authors: Asraful Islam


Extended dependency graph (EDG) is a state-of-the-art isomorphic graph to represent normal logic programs (NLPs) that can characterize the consistency of NLPs by graph analysis. To construct the vertices and arcs of an EDG, additional renaming atoms and rules besides those the given program provides are used, resulting in higher space complexity compared to the corresponding traditional dependency graph (TDG). In this article, we propose an extended labeled dependency graph (ELDG) to represent an NLP that shares an equal number of nodes and arcs with TDG and prove that it is isomorphic to the domain program. The number of nodes and arcs used in the underlying dependency graphs are formulated to compare the space complexity. Results show that ELDG uses less memory to store nodes, arcs, and cycles compared to EDG. To exhibit the desirability of ELDG, firstly, the stable models of the kernel form of NLP are characterized by the admissible coloring of ELDG; secondly, a relation of the stable models of a kernel program with the handles of the minimal, odd cycles appearing in the corresponding ELDG has been established; thirdly, to our best knowledge, for the first time an inverse transformation from a dependency graph to the representing NLP w.r.t. ELDG has been defined that enables transferring analytical results from the graph to the program straightforwardly.

Keywords: normal logic program, isomorphism of graph, extended labelled dependency graph, inverse graph transforma-tion, graph colouring

Procedia PDF Downloads 118
319 Hamiltonian Paths and Cycles Passing through Prescribed Edges in the Balanced Hypercubes

Authors: Dongqin Cheng


The n-dimensional balanced hypercube BHn (n ≥ 1) has been proved to be a bipartite graph. Let P be a set of edges whose induced subgraph consists of pairwise vertex-disjoint paths. For any two vertices u, v from different partite sets of V (BHn). In this paper, we prove that if |P| ≤ 2n − 2 and the subgraph induced by P has neither u nor v as internal vertices, or both of u and v as end-vertices, then BHn contains a Hamiltonian path joining u and v passing through P. As a corollary, if |P| ≤ 2n−1, then the BHn contains a Hamiltonian cycle passing through P.

Keywords: interconnection network, balanced hypercube, Hamiltonian cycle, prescribed edges

Procedia PDF Downloads 110
318 Hypergraph for System of Systems modeling

Authors: Haffaf Hafid


Hypergraphs, after being used to model the structural organization of System of Sytems (SoS) at macroscopic level, has recent trends towards generalizing this powerful representation at different stages of complex system modelling. In this paper, we first describe different applications of hypergraph theory, and step by step, introduce multilevel modeling of SoS by means of integrating Constraint Programming Langages (CSP) dealing with engineering system reconfiguration strategy. As an application, we give an A.C.T Terminal controlled by a set of Intelligent Automated Vehicle.

Keywords: hypergraph model, structural analysis, bipartite graph, monitoring, system of systems, reconfiguration analysis, hypernetwork

Procedia PDF Downloads 415
317 Introduction to Paired Domination Polynomial of a Graph

Authors: Puttaswamy, Anwar Alwardi, Nayaka S. R.


One of the algebraic representation of a graph is the graph polynomial. In this article, we introduce the paired-domination polynomial of a graph G. The paired-domination polynomial of a graph G of order n is the polynomial Dp(G, x) with the coefficients dp(G, i) where dp(G, i) denotes the number of paired dominating sets of G of cardinality i and γpd(G) denotes the paired-domination number of G. We obtain some properties of Dp(G, x) and its coefficients. Further, we compute this polynomial for some families of standard graphs. Further, we obtain some characterization for some specific graphs.

Keywords: domination polynomial, paired dominating set, paired domination number, paired domination polynomial

Procedia PDF Downloads 145
316 Eccentric Connectivity Index, First and Second Zagreb Indices of Corona Graph

Authors: A. Kulandai Therese


The eccentric connectivity index based on degree and eccentricity of the vertices of a graph is a widely used graph invariant in mathematics.In this paper, we present the explicit eccentric connectivity index, first and second Zagreb indices for a Corona graph and sub division-related corona graphs.

Keywords: corona graph, degree, eccentricity, eccentric connectivity index, first zagreb index, second zagreb index, subdivision graphs

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
315 2D Structured Non-Cyclic Fuzzy Graphs

Authors: T. Pathinathan, M. Peter


Fuzzy graphs incorporate concepts from graph theory with fuzzy principles. In this paper, we make a study on the properties of fuzzy graphs which are non-cyclic and are of two-dimensional in structure. In particular, this paper presents 2D structure or the structure of double layer for a non-cyclic fuzzy graph whose underlying crisp graph is non-cyclic. In any graph structure, introducing 2D structure may lead to an inherent cycle. We propose relevant conditions for 2D structured non-cyclic fuzzy graphs. These conditions are extended even to fuzzy graphs of the 3D structure. General theoretical properties that are studied for any fuzzy graph are verified to 2D structured or double layered fuzzy graphs. Concepts like Order, Degree, Strong and Size for a fuzzy graph are studied for 2D structured or double layered non-cyclic fuzzy graphs. Using different types of fuzzy graphs, the proposed concepts relating to 2D structured fuzzy graphs are verified.

Keywords: double layered fuzzy graph, double layered non–cyclic fuzzy graph, order, degree and size

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
314 Multi-Stream Graph Attention Network for Recommendation with Knowledge Graph

Authors: Zhifei Hu, Feng Xia


In recent years, Graph neural network has been widely used in knowledge graph recommendation. The existing recommendation methods based on graph neural network extract information from knowledge graph through entity and relation, which may not be efficient in the way of information extraction. In order to better propose useful entity information for the current recommendation task in the knowledge graph, we propose an end-to-end Neural network Model based on multi-stream graph attentional Mechanism (MSGAT), which can effectively integrate the knowledge graph into the recommendation system by evaluating the importance of entities from both users and items. Specifically, we use the attention mechanism from the user's perspective to distil the domain nodes information of the predicted item in the knowledge graph, to enhance the user's information on items, and generate the feature representation of the predicted item. Due to user history, click items can reflect the user's interest distribution, we propose a multi-stream attention mechanism, based on the user's preference for entities and relationships, and the similarity between items to be predicted and entities, aggregate user history click item's neighborhood entity information in the knowledge graph and generate the user's feature representation. We evaluate our model on three real recommendation datasets: Movielens-1M (ML-1M), LFM-1B 2015 (LFM-1B), and Amazon-Book (AZ-book). Experimental results show that compared with the most advanced models, our proposed model can better capture the entity information in the knowledge graph, which proves the validity and accuracy of the model.

Keywords: graph attention network, knowledge graph, recommendation, information propagation

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313 Bounds on the Laplacian Vertex PI Energy

Authors: Ezgi Kaya, A. Dilek Maden


A topological index is a number related to graph which is invariant under graph isomorphism. In theoretical chemistry, molecular structure descriptors (also called topological indices) are used for modeling physicochemical, pharmacologic, toxicologic, biological and other properties of chemical compounds. Let G be a graph with n vertices and m edges. For a given edge uv, the quantity nu(e) denotes the number of vertices closer to u than v, the quantity nv(e) is defined analogously. The vertex PI index defined as the sum of the nu(e) and nv(e). Here the sum is taken over all edges of G. The energy of a graph is defined as the sum of the eigenvalues of adjacency matrix of G and the Laplacian energy of a graph is defined as the sum of the absolute value of difference of laplacian eigenvalues and average degree of G. In theoretical chemistry, the π-electron energy of a conjugated carbon molecule, computed using the Hückel theory, coincides with the energy. Hence results on graph energy assume special significance. The Laplacian matrix of a graph G weighted by the vertex PI weighting is the Laplacian vertex PI matrix and the Laplacian vertex PI eigenvalues of a connected graph G are the eigenvalues of its Laplacian vertex PI matrix. In this study, Laplacian vertex PI energy of a graph is defined of G. We also give some bounds for the Laplacian vertex PI energy of graphs in terms of vertex PI index, the sum of the squares of entries in the Laplacian vertex PI matrix and the absolute value of the determinant of the Laplacian vertex PI matrix.

Keywords: energy, Laplacian energy, laplacian vertex PI eigenvalues, Laplacian vertex PI energy, vertex PI index

Procedia PDF Downloads 150
312 Graph Codes - 2D Projections of Multimedia Feature Graphs for Fast and Effective Retrieval

Authors: Stefan Wagenpfeil, Felix Engel, Paul McKevitt, Matthias Hemmje


Multimedia Indexing and Retrieval is generally designed and implemented by employing feature graphs. These graphs typically contain a significant number of nodes and edges to reflect the level of detail in feature detection. A higher level of detail increases the effectiveness of the results but also leads to more complex graph structures. However, graph-traversal-based algorithms for similarity are quite inefficient and computation intensive, especially for large data structures. To deliver fast and effective retrieval, an efficient similarity algorithm, particularly for large graphs, is mandatory. Hence, in this paper, we define a graph-projection into a 2D space (Graph Code) as well as the corresponding algorithms for indexing and retrieval. We show that calculations in this space can be performed more efficiently than graph-traversals due to a simpler processing model and a high level of parallelization. In consequence, we prove that the effectiveness of retrieval also increases substantially, as Graph Codes facilitate more levels of detail in feature fusion. Thus, Graph Codes provide a significant increase in efficiency and effectiveness (especially for Multimedia indexing and retrieval) and can be applied to images, videos, audio, and text information.

Keywords: indexing, retrieval, multimedia, graph algorithm, graph code

Procedia PDF Downloads 60