Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1081

Search results for: Metric dimension

1081 Metric Dimension on Line Graph of Honeycomb Networks

Authors: M. Hussain, Aqsa Farooq


Let G = (V,E) be a connected graph and distance between any two vertices a and b in G is a−b geodesic and is denoted by d(a, b). A set of vertices W resolves a graph G if each vertex is uniquely determined by its vector of distances to the vertices in W. A metric dimension of G is the minimum cardinality of a resolving set of G. In this paper line graph of honeycomb network has been derived and then we calculated the metric dimension on line graph of honeycomb network.

Keywords: Resolving set, Metric dimension, Honeycomb network, Line graph

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1080 On the Influence of the Metric Space in the Critical Behavior of Magnetic Temperature

Authors: J. C. Riaño-Rojas, J. D. Alzate-Cardona, E. Restrepo-Parra


In this work, a study of generic magnetic nanoparticles varying the metric space is presented. As the metric space is changed, the nanoparticle form and the inner product are also varied, since the energetic scale is not conserved. This study is carried out using Monte Carlo simulations combined with the Wolff embedding and Metropolis algorithms. The Metropolis algorithm is used at high temperature regions to reach the equilibrium quickly. The Wolff embedding algorithm is used at low and critical temperature regions in order to reduce the critical slowing down phenomenon. The ions number is kept constant for the different forms and the critical temperatures using finite size scaling are found. We observed that critical temperatures don't exhibit significant changes when the metric space was varied. Additionally, the effective dimension according the metric space was determined. A study of static behavior for reaching the static critical exponents was developed. The objective of this work is to observe the behavior of the thermodynamic quantities as energy, magnetization, specific heat, susceptibility and Binder's cumulants at the critical region, in order to demonstrate if the magnetic nanoparticles describe their magnetic interactions in the Euclidean space or if there is any correspondence in other metric spaces.

Keywords: nanoparticles, metric, Monte Carlo, critical behaviour

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1079 A Combinatorial Representation for the Invariant Measure of Diffusion Processes on Metric Graphs

Authors: Michele Aleandri, Matteo Colangeli, Davide Gabrielli


We study a generalization to a continuous setting of the classical Markov chain tree theorem. In particular, we consider an irreducible diffusion process on a metric graph. The unique invariant measure has an atomic component on the vertices and an absolutely continuous part on the edges. We show that the corresponding density at x can be represented by a normalized superposition of the weights associated to metric arborescences oriented toward the point x. A metric arborescence is a metric tree oriented towards its root. The weight of each oriented metric arborescence is obtained by the product of the exponential of integrals of the form ∫a/b², where b is the drift and σ² is the diffusion coefficient, along the oriented edges, for a weight for each node determined by the local orientation of the arborescence around the node and for the inverse of the diffusion coefficient at x. The metric arborescences are obtained by cutting the original metric graph along some edges.

Keywords: diffusion processes, metric graphs, invariant measure, reversibility

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1078 Nadler's Fixed Point Theorem on Partial Metric Spaces and its Application to a Homotopy Result

Authors: Hemant Kumar Pathak


In 1994, Matthews (S.G. Matthews, Partial metric topology, in: Proc. 8th Summer Conference on General Topology and Applications, in: Ann. New York Acad. Sci., vol. 728, 1994, pp. 183-197) introduced the concept of a partial metric as a part of the study of denotational semantics of data flow networks. He gave a modified version of the Banach contraction principle, more suitable in this context. In fact, (complete) partial metric spaces constitute a suitable framework to model several distinguished examples of the theory of computation and also to model metric spaces via domain theory. In this paper, we introduce the concept of almost partial Hausdorff metric. We prove a fixed point theorem for multi-valued mappings on partial metric space using the concept of almost partial Hausdorff metric and prove an analogous to the well-known Nadler’s fixed point theorem. In the sequel, we derive a homotopy result as an application of our main result.

Keywords: fixed point, partial metric space, homotopy, physical sciences

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1077 Metric Suite for Schema Evolution of a Relational Database

Authors: S. Ravichandra, D. V. L. N. Somayajulu


Requirement of stakeholders for adding more details to the database is the main cause of the schema evolution in the relational database. Further, this schema evolution causes the instability to the database. Hence, it is aimed to define a metric suite for schema evolution of a relational database. The metric suite will calculate the metrics based on the features of the database, analyse the queries on the database and measures the coupling, cohesion and component dependencies of the schema for existing and evolved versions of the database. This metric suite will also provide an indicator for the problems related to the stability and usability of the evolved database. The degree of change in the schema of a database is presented in the forms of graphs that acts as an indicator and also provides the relations between various parameters (metrics) related to the database architecture. The acquired information is used to defend and improve the stability of database architecture. The challenges arise in incorporating these metrics with varying parameters for formulating a suitable metric suite are discussed. To validate the proposed metric suite, an experimentation has been performed on publicly available datasets.

Keywords: cohesion, coupling, entropy, metric suite, schema evolution

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1076 Cognitive Weighted Polymorphism Factor: A New Cognitive Complexity Metric

Authors: T. Francis Thamburaj, A. Aloysius


Polymorphism is one of the main pillars of the object-oriented paradigm. It induces hidden forms of class dependencies which may impact software quality, resulting in higher cost factor for comprehending, debugging, testing, and maintaining the software. In this paper, a new cognitive complexity metric called Cognitive Weighted Polymorphism Factor (CWPF) is proposed. Apart from the software structural complexity, it includes the cognitive complexity on the basis of type. The cognitive weights are calibrated based on 27 empirical studies with 120 persons. A case study and experimentation of the new software metric shows positive results. Further, a comparative study is made and the correlation test has proved that CWPF complexity metric is a better, more comprehensive, and more realistic indicator of the software complexity than Abreu’s Polymorphism Factor (PF) complexity metric.

Keywords: cognitive complexity metric, object-oriented metrics, polymorphism factor, software metrics

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1075 Some Classes of Lorentzian Alpha-Sasakian Manifolds with Respect to Quarter-Symmetric Metric Connection

Authors: Santu Dey, Arindam Bhattacharyya


The object of the present paper is to study a quarter-symmetric metric connection in a Lorentzian α-Sasakian manifold. We study some curvature properties of Lorentzian α-Sasakian manifold with respect to quarter-symmetric metric connection. We investigate quasi-projectively at, Φ-symmetric, Φ-projectively at Lorentzian α-Sasakian manifolds with respect to quarter-symmetric metric connection. We also discuss Lorentzian α-Sasakian manifold admitting quartersymmetric metric connection satisfying P.S = 0, where P denote the projective curvature tensor with respect to quarter-symmetric metric connection.

Keywords: quarter-symmetric metric connection, Lorentzian alpha-Sasakian manifold, quasi-projectively flat Lorentzian alpha-Sasakian manifold, phi-symmetric manifold

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1074 A Basic Metric Model: Foundation for an Evidence-Based HRM System

Authors: K. M. Anusha, R. Krishnaveni


Crossing a decade of the 21st century, the paradigm of human resources can be seen evolving with the strategic gene induced into it. There seems to be a radical shift descending as the corporate sector calls on its HR team to become strategic rather than administrative. This transferal eventually requires the metrics employed by these HR teams not to be just operationally reactive but to be aligned to an evidence-based strategic thinking. Realizing the growing need for a prescriptive metric model for effective HR analytics, this study has designed a conceptual framework for a basic metric model that can assist IT-HRM professionals to transition to a practice of evidence-based decision-making to enhance organizational performance.

Keywords: metric model, evidence based HR, HR analytics, strategic HR practices, IT sector

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1073 Lacunarity measures on Mammographic Image Applying Fractal Dimension and Lacunarity Measures

Authors: S. Sushma, S. Balasubramanian, K. C. Latha, R. Sridhar


Structural texture measures are used to address the aspect of breast cancer risk assessment in screening mammograms. The current study investigates whether texture properties characterized by local Fractal Dimension (FD) and lacunarity contribute to assess breast cancer risk. Fractal Dimension represents the complexity while the lacunarity characterize the gap of a fractal dimension. In this paper, we present our result confirming that the lacunarity value resulted in algorithm using mammogram images states that level of lacunarity will be low when the Fractal Dimension value will be high.

Keywords: breast cancer, fractal dimension, image analysis, lacunarity, mammogram

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1072 Box Counting Dimension of the Union L of Trinomial Curves When α ≥ 1

Authors: Kaoutar Lamrini Uahabi, Mohamed Atounti


In the present work, we consider one category of curves denoted by L(p, k, r, n). These curves are continuous arcs which are trajectories of roots of the trinomial equation zn = αzk + (1 − α), where z is a complex number, n and k are two integers such that 1 ≤ k ≤ n − 1 and α is a real parameter greater than 1. Denoting by L the union of all trinomial curves L(p, k, r, n) and using the box counting dimension as fractal dimension, we will prove that the dimension of L is equal to 3/2.

Keywords: feasible angles, fractal dimension, Minkowski sausage, trinomial curves, trinomial equation

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1071 Introduction of Artificial Intelligence for Estimating Fractal Dimension and Its Applications in the Medical Field

Authors: Zerroug Abdelhamid, Danielle Chassoux


Various models are given to simulate homogeneous or heterogeneous cancerous tumors and extract in each case the boundary. The fractal dimension is then estimated by least squares method and compared to some previous methods.

Keywords: simulation, cancerous tumor, Markov fields, fractal dimension, extraction, recovering

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1070 Relation between Energy Absorption and Box Dimension of Rock Fragments under Impact Loading

Authors: Li Hung-Hui, Chen Chi-Chieh, Yang Zon-Yee


This study aims to explore the impact energy absorption in the fragmented processes of rock samples during the split-Hopkinson-pressure-bar tests. Three kinds of rock samples including granite, marble and sandstone were tested. The impact energy absorptions were calculated according to the incident, reflected and transmitted strain wave histories measured by a oscilloscope. The degree of fragment rocks after tests was quantified by the box dimension of the fractal theory. The box dimension of rock fragments was obtained from the particle size distribution curve by the sieve analysis. The results can be concluded that: (1) the degree of rock fragments after tests can be well described by the value of box dimension; (2) with the impact energy absorption increasing, the degrees of rock fragments are varied from the very large fragments to very small fragments, and the corresponding box dimension varies from 2.9 to 1.2.

Keywords: SHPB test, energy absorption, rock fragments, impact loading, box dimension

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1069 The Role of Tempo in the Perception of Musical Grouping

Authors: Marina B. Cottrell


Tempo plays a significant role in the perception of metrical groupings, with faster tempi tending to increase the number of beats in a given metrical unit. Previous research has shown a correlation between the perception of metric grouping and native language, but little is currently known about other possible musical factors that contribute to metric grouping tendencies. This study aims to find the tempo boundaries at which the perceptual groupings of a melodic pattern changes and to correlate these regions with self-reported musical experience. Participants were presented with looping melodies (divided between major and minor keys). Using a slider bar that controlled the tempo, subjects were asked to locate the point at which they heard the metric grouping doubled or halved. This region was shown to primarily be affected by the mode and time signature of the stimulus. The results also suggest a correlation between the level of musical training and the region of perceived grouping change.

Keywords: meter, metric grouping, mode, tempo

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1068 A New Fixed Point Theorem for Almost θ-Contraction

Authors: Hichem Ramoul


In this work, we introduce a new type of contractive maps and we establish a new fixed point theorem for the class of almost θ-contractions (more general than the class of almost contractions) in a complete generalized metric space. The major novelty of our work is to prove a new fixed point result by weakening some hypotheses imposed on the function θ which will change completely the classical technique used in the literature review to prove fixed point theorems for almost θ-contractions in a complete generalized metric space.

Keywords: almost contraction, almost θ-contraction, fixed point, generalized metric space

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1067 A Multimodal Approach to Improve the Performance of Biometric System

Authors: Chander Kant, Arun Kumar


Biometric systems automatically recognize an individual based on his/her physiological and behavioral characteristics. There are also some traits like weight, age, height etc. that may not provide reliable user recognition because of there common and temporary nature. These traits are called soft bio metric traits. Although soft bio metric traits are lack of permanence to uniquely and reliably identify an individual, yet they provide some beneficial evidence about the user identity and may improve the system performance. Here in this paper, we have proposed an approach for integrating the soft bio metrics with fingerprint and face to improve the performance of personal authentication system. In our approach we have proposed a combined architecture of three different sensors to elevate the system performance. The approach includes, soft bio metrics, fingerprint and face traits. We have also proven the efficiency of proposed system regarding FAR (False Acceptance Ratio) and total response time, with the help of MUBI (Multimodal Bio metrics Integration) software.

Keywords: FAR, minutiae point, multimodal bio metrics, primary bio metric, soft bio metric

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1066 Towards a Goal-Question-Metric Based Approach to Assess Social Sustainability of Software Systems

Authors: Rahma Amri, Narjès Bellamine Ben Saoud


Sustainable development or sustainability is one of the most urgent issues in actual debate in almost domains. Particularly the significant way the software pervades our live should make it in the center of sustainability concerns. The social aspects of sustainability haven’t been well studied in the context of software systems and still immature research field that needs more interest among researchers’ community. This paper presents a Goal-Question-Metric based approach to assess social sustainability of software systems. The approach is based on a generic social sustainability model taken from Social sciences.

Keywords: software assessment approach, social sustainability, goal-question-metric paradigm, software project metrics

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1065 The Introduction of the Revolution Einstein’s Relative Energy Equations in Even 2n and Odd 3n Light Dimension Energy States Systems

Authors: Jiradeach Kalayaruan, Tosawat Seetawan


This paper studied the energy of the nature systems by looking at the overall image throughout the universe. The energy of the nature systems was developed from the Einstein’s energy equation. The researcher used the new ideas called even 2n and odd 3n light dimension energy states systems, which were developed from Einstein’s relativity energy theory equation. In this study, the major methodology the researchers used was the basic principle ideas or beliefs of some religions such as Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, or Tao in order to get new discoveries. The basic beliefs of each religion - Nivara, God, Ether, Atman, and Tao respectively, were great influential ideas on the researchers to use them greatly in the study to form new ideas from philosophy. Since the philosophy of each religion was alive with deep insight of the physical nature relative energy, it connected the basic beliefs to light dimension energy states systems. Unfortunately, Einstein’s original relative energy equation showed only even 2n light dimension energy states systems (if n = 1,…,∞). But in advance ideas, the researchers multiplied light dimension energy by Einstein’s original relative energy equation and get new idea of theoritical physics in odd 3n light dimension energy states systems (if n = 1,…,∞). Because from basic principle ideas or beliefs of some religions philosophy of each religion, you had to add the media light dimension energy into Einstein’s original relative energy equation. Consequently, the simple meaning picture in deep insight showed that you could touch light dimension energy of Nivara, God, Ether, Atman, and Tao by light dimension energy. Since light dimension energy was transferred by Nivara, God, Ether, Atman and Tao, the researchers got the new equation of odd 3n light dimension energy states systems. Moreover, the researchers expected to be able to solve overview problems of all light dimension energy in all nature relative energy, which are developed from Eistein’s relative energy equation.The finding of the study was called 'super nature relative energy' ( in odd 3n light dimension energy states systems (if n = 1,…,∞)). From the new ideas above you could do the summation of even 2n and odd 3n light dimension energy states systems in all of nature light dimension energy states systems. In the future time, the researchers will expect the new idea to be used in insight theoretical physics, which is very useful to the development of quantum mechanics, all engineering, medical profession, transportation, communication, scientific inventions, and technology, etc.

Keywords: 2n light dimension energy states systems effect, Ether, even 2n light dimension energy states systems, nature relativity, Nivara, odd 3n light dimension energy states systems, perturbation points energy, relax point energy states systems, stress perturbation energy states systems effect, super relative energy

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1064 An Inventory Management Model to Manage the Stock Level for Irregular Demand Items

Authors: Riccardo Patriarca, Giulio Di Gravio, Francesco Costantino, Massimo Tronci


An accurate inventory management policy acquires a crucial role in the several high-availability sectors. In these sectors, due to the high-cost of spares and backorders, an (S-1, S) replenishment policy is necessary for high-availability items. The policy enables the shipment of a substitute efficient item anytime the inventory size decreases by one. This policy can be modelled following the Multi-Echelon Technique for Recoverable Item Control (METRIC). The METRIC is a system-based technique that allows defining the optimum stock level in a multi-echelon network, adopting measures in line with the decision-maker’s perspective. The METRIC defines an availability-cost function with inventory costs and required service levels, using as inputs data about the demand trend, the supplying and maintenance characteristics of the network and the budget/availability constraints. The traditional METRIC relies on the hypothesis that a Poisson distribution well represents the demand distribution in case of items with a low failure rate. However, in this research, we will explore the effects of using a Poisson distribution to model the demand of low failure rate items characterized by an irregular demand trend. This characteristic of a demand is not included in the traditional METRIC formulation leading to the need of revising its traditional formulation. Using the CV (Coefficient of Variation) and ADI (Average inter-Demand Interval) classification, we will define the inherent flaws of Poisson-based METRIC for irregular demand items, defining an innovative ad hoc distribution which can better fit the irregular demands. This distribution will allow defining proper stock levels to reduce stocking and backorder costs due to the high irregularities in the demand trend. A case study in the aviation domain will clarify the benefits of this innovative METRIC approach.

Keywords: METRIC, inventory management, irregular demand, spare parts

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1063 A Review of Fractal Dimension Computing Methods Applied to Wear Particles

Authors: Manish Kumar Thakur, Subrata Kumar Ghosh


Various types of particles found in lubricant may be characterized by their fractal dimension. Some of the available methods are: yard-stick method or structured walk method, box-counting method. This paper presents a review of the developments and progress in fractal dimension computing methods as applied to characteristics the surface of wear particles. An overview of these methods, their implementation, their advantages and their limits is also present here. It has been accepted that wear particles contain major information about wear and friction of materials. Morphological analysis of wear particles from a lubricant is a very effective way for machine condition monitoring. Fractal dimension methods are used to characterize the morphology of the found particles. It is very useful in the analysis of complexity of irregular substance. The aim of this review is to bring together the fractal methods applicable for wear particles.

Keywords: fractal dimension, morphological analysis, wear, wear particles

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1062 Generalized Approach to Linear Data Transformation

Authors: Abhijith Asok


This paper presents a generalized approach for the simple linear data transformation, Y=bX, through an integration of multidimensional coordinate geometry, vector space theory and polygonal geometry. The scaling is performed by adding an additional ’Dummy Dimension’ to the n-dimensional data, which helps plot two dimensional component-wise straight lines on pairs of dimensions. The end result is a set of scaled extensions of observations in any of the 2n spatial divisions, where n is the total number of applicable dimensions/dataset variables, created by shifting the n-dimensional plane along the ’Dummy Axis’. The derived scaling factor was found to be dependent on the coordinates of the common point of origin for diverging straight lines and the plane of extension, chosen on and perpendicular to the ’Dummy Axis’, respectively. This result indicates the geometrical interpretation of a linear data transformation and hence, opportunities for a more informed choice of the factor ’b’, based on a better choice of these coordinate values. The paper follows on to identify the effect of this transformation on certain popular distance metrics, wherein for many, the distance metric retained the same scaling factor as that of the features.

Keywords: data transformation, dummy dimension, linear transformation, scaling

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1061 PathoPy2.0: Application of Fractal Geometry for Early Detection and Histopathological Analysis of Lung Cancer

Authors: Rhea Kapoor


Fractal dimension provides a way to characterize non-geometric shapes like those found in nature. The purpose of this research is to estimate Minkowski fractal dimension of human lung images for early detection of lung cancer. Lung cancer is the leading cause of death among all types of cancer and an early histopathological analysis will help reduce deaths primarily due to late diagnosis. A Python application program, PathoPy2.0, was developed for analyzing medical images in pixelated format and estimating Minkowski fractal dimension using a new box-counting algorithm that allows windowing of images for more accurate calculation in the suspected areas of cancerous growth. Benchmark geometric fractals were used to validate the accuracy of the program and changes in fractal dimension of lung images to indicate the presence of issues in the lung. The accuracy of the program for the benchmark examples was between 93-99% of known values of the fractal dimensions. Fractal dimension values were then calculated for lung images, from National Cancer Institute, taken over time to correctly detect the presence of cancerous growth. For example, as the fractal dimension for a given lung increased from 1.19 to 1.27 due to cancerous growth, it represents a significant change in fractal dimension which lies between 1 and 2 for 2-D images. Based on the results obtained on many lung test cases, it was concluded that fractal dimension of human lungs can be used to diagnose lung cancer early. The ideas behind PathoPy2.0 can also be applied to study patterns in the electrical activity of the human brain and DNA matching.

Keywords: fractals, histopathological analysis, image processing, lung cancer, Minkowski dimension

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1060 Fractal Analysis of Some Bifurcations of Discrete Dynamical Systems in Higher Dimensions

Authors: Lana Horvat Dmitrović


The main purpose of this paper is to study the box dimension as fractal property of bifurcations of discrete dynamical systems in higher dimensions. The paper contains the fractal analysis of the orbits near the hyperbolic and non-hyperbolic fixed points in discrete dynamical systems. It is already known that in one-dimensional case the orbit near the hyperbolic fixed point has the box dimension equal to zero. On the other hand, the orbit near the non-hyperbolic fixed point has strictly positive box dimension which is connected to the non-degeneracy condition of certain bifurcation. One of the main results in this paper is the generalisation of results about box dimension near the hyperbolic and non-hyperbolic fixed points to higher dimensions. In the process of determining box dimension, the restriction of systems to stable, unstable and center manifolds, Lipschitz property of box dimension and the notion of projective box dimension are used. The analysis of the bifurcations in higher dimensions with one multiplier on the unit circle is done by using the normal forms on one-dimensional center manifolds. This specific change in box dimension of an orbit at the moment of bifurcation has already been explored for some bifurcations in one and two dimensions. It was shown that specific values of box dimension are connected to appropriate bifurcations such as fold, flip, cusp or Neimark-Sacker bifurcation. This paper further explores this connection of box dimension as fractal property to some specific bifurcations in higher dimensions, such as fold-flip and flip-Neimark-Sacker. Furthermore, the application of the results to the unit time map of continuous dynamical system near hyperbolic and non-hyperbolic singularities is presented. In that way, box dimensions which are specific for certain bifurcations of continuous systems can be obtained. The approach to bifurcation analysis by using the box dimension as specific fractal property of orbits can lead to better understanding of bifurcation phenomenon. It could also be useful in detecting the existence or nonexistence of bifurcations of discrete and continuous dynamical systems.

Keywords: bifurcation, box dimension, invariant manifold, orbit near fixed point

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1059 Experimental Options for the Role of Dynamic Torsion in General Relativity

Authors: Ivan Ravlich, Ivan Linscott, Sigrid Close


The experimental search for spin coupling in General Relativity via torsion has been inconclusive. In this work, further experimental avenues to test dynamic torsion are proposed and evaluated. In the extended theory, by relaxing the torsion free condition on the metric connection, general relativity is reformulated to relate the spin density of particles to a new quantity, the torsion tensor. In torsion theories, the spin tensor and torsion tensor are related in much the same way as the stress-energy tensor is related to the metric connection. Similarly, as the metric is the field associated with the metric connection, fields can be associated with the torsion tensor resulting in a field that is either propagating or static. Experimental searches for static torsion have thus far been inconclusive, and currently, there have been no experimental tests for propagating torsion. Experimental tests of propagating theories of torsion are proposed utilizing various spin densities of matter, such as interfaces in superconducting materials and plasmas. The experimental feasibility and observable bounds are estimated, and the most viable candidates are selected to pursue in detail in a future work.

Keywords: general relativity, gravitation, propagating torsion, spin density

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1058 A Note on the Fractal Dimension of Mandelbrot Set and Julia Sets in Misiurewicz Points

Authors: O. Boussoufi, K. Lamrini Uahabi, M. Atounti


The main purpose of this paper is to calculate the fractal dimension of some Julia Sets and Mandelbrot Set in the Misiurewicz Points. Using Matlab to generate the Julia Sets images that match the Misiurewicz points and using a Fractal software, we were able to find different measures that characterize those fractals in textures and other features. We are actually focusing on fractal dimension and the error calculated by the software. When executing the given equation of regression or the log-log slope of image a Box Counting method is applied to the entire image, and chosen settings are available in a FracLAc Program. Finally, a comparison is done for each image corresponding to the area (boundary) where Misiurewicz Point is located.

Keywords: box counting, FracLac, fractal dimension, Julia Sets, Mandelbrot Set, Misiurewicz Points

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1057 A New Verification Based Congestion Control Scheme in Mobile Networks

Authors: P. K. Guha Thakurta, Shouvik Roy, Bhawana Raj


A congestion control scheme in mobile networks is proposed in this paper through a verification based model. The model proposed in this work is represented through performance metric like buffer Occupancy, latency and packet loss rate. Based on pre-defined values, each of the metric is introduced in terms of three different states. A Markov chain based model for the proposed work is introduced to monitor the occurrence of the corresponding state transitions. Thus, the estimation of the network status is obtained in terms of performance metric. In addition, the improved performance of our proposed model over existing works is shown with experimental results.

Keywords: congestion, mobile networks, buffer, delay, call drop, markov chain

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1056 Foliation and the First Law of Thermodynamics for the Kerr Newman Black Hole

Authors: Syed M. Jawwad Riaz


There has been a lot of interest in exploring the thermodynamic properties at the horizon of a black hole geometry. Earlier, it has been shown, for different spacetimes, that the Einstein field equations at the horizon can be expressed as a first law of black hole thermodynamics. In this paper, considering r = constant slices, for the Kerr-Newman black hole, shown that the Einstein field equations for the induced 3-metric of the hypersurface is expressed in thermodynamic quantities under the virtual displacements of the hypersurfaces. As expected, it is found that the field equations of the induced metric corresponding to the horizon can only be written as a first law of black hole thermodynamics. It is to be mentioned here that the procedure adopted is much easier, to obtain such results, as here one has to essentially deal with (n - 1)-dimensional induced metric for an n-dimensional spacetime.

Keywords: black hole space-times, Einstein's field equation, foliation, hyper-surfaces

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1055 Gaze Behaviour of Individuals with and without Intellectual Disability for Nonaccidental and Metric Shape Properties

Authors: S. Haider, B. Bhushan


Eye Gaze behaviour of individuals with and without intellectual disability are investigated in an eye tracking study in terms of sensitivity to Nonaccidental (NAPs) and Metric (MPs) shape properties. Total fixation time is used as an indirect measure of attention allocation. Studies have found Mean reaction times for non accidental properties (NAPs) to be shorter than for metric (MPs) when the MP and NAP differences were equalized. METHODS: Twenty-five individuals with intellectual disability (mild and moderate level of Mental Retardation) and twenty-seven normal individuals were compared on mean total fixation duration, accuracy level and mean reaction time for mild NAPs, extreme NAPs and metric properties of images. 2D images of cylinders were adapted and made into forced choice match-to-sample tasks. Tobii TX300 Eye Tracker was used to record total fixation duration and data obtained from the Areas of Interest (AOI). Variable trial duration (total reaction time of each participant) and fixed trail duration (data taken at each second from one to fifteen seconds) data were used for analyses. Both groups did not differ in terms of fixation times (fixed as well as variable) across any of the three image manipulations but differed in terms of reaction time and accuracy. Normal individuals had longer reaction time compared to individuals with intellectual disability across all types of images. Both the groups differed significantly on accuracy measure across all image types. Normal individuals performed better across all three types of images. Mild NAPs vs. Metric differences: There was significant difference between mild NAPs and metric properties of images in terms of reaction times. Mild NAPs images had significantly longer reaction time compared to metric for normal individuals but this difference was not found for individuals with intellectual disability. Mild NAPs images had significantly better accuracy level compared to metric for both the groups. In conclusion, type of image manipulations did not result in differences in attention allocation for individuals with and without intellectual disability. Mild Nonaccidental properties facilitate better accuracy level compared to metric in both the groups but this advantage is seen only for normal group in terms of mean reaction time.

Keywords: eye gaze fixations, eye movements, intellectual disability, stimulus properties

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1054 Decision Trees Constructing Based on K-Means Clustering Algorithm

Authors: Loai Abdallah, Malik Yousef


A domain space for the data should reflect the actual similarity between objects. Since objects belonging to the same cluster usually share some common traits even though their geometric distance might be relatively large. In general, the Euclidean distance of data points that represented by large number of features is not capturing the actual relation between those points. In this study, we propose a new method to construct a different space that is based on clustering to form a new distance metric. The new distance space is based on ensemble clustering (EC). The EC distance space is defined by tracking the membership of the points over multiple runs of clustering algorithm metric. Over this distance, we train the decision trees classifier (DT-EC). The results obtained by applying DT-EC on 10 datasets confirm our hypotheses that embedding the EC space as a distance metric would improve the performance.

Keywords: ensemble clustering, decision trees, classification, K nearest neighbors

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1053 Discover a New Technique for Cancer Recognition by Analysis and Determination of Fractal Dimension Images in Matlab Software

Authors: Saeedeh Shahbazkhany


Cancer is a terrible disease that, if not diagnosed early, therapy can be difficult while it is easily medicable if it is diagnosed in early stages. So it is very important for cancer diagnosis that medical procedures are performed. In this paper we introduce a new method. In this method, we only need pictures of healthy cells and cancer cells. In fact, where we suspect cancer, we take a picture of cells or tissue in that area, and then take some pictures of the surrounding tissues. Then, fractal dimension of images are calculated and compared. Cancer can be easily detected by comparing the fractal dimension of images. In this method, we use Matlab software.

Keywords: Matlab software, fractal dimension, cancer, surrounding tissues, cells or tissue, new method

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1052 Adaptive Few-Shot Deep Metric Learning

Authors: Wentian Shi, Daming Shi, Maysam Orouskhani, Feng Tian


Whereas currently the most prevalent deep learning methods require a large amount of data for training, few-shot learning tries to learn a model from limited data without extensive retraining. In this paper, we present a loss function based on triplet loss for solving few-shot problem using metric based learning. Instead of setting the margin distance in triplet loss as a constant number empirically, we propose an adaptive margin distance strategy to obtain the appropriate margin distance automatically. We implement the strategy in the deep siamese network for deep metric embedding, by utilizing an optimization approach by penalizing the worst case and rewarding the best. Our experiments on image recognition and co-segmentation model demonstrate that using our proposed triplet loss with adaptive margin distance can significantly improve the performance.

Keywords: few-shot learning, triplet network, adaptive margin, deep learning

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