Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2365

Search results for: optical waveguide sensors

2365 Spectral Broadening in an InGaAsP Optical Waveguide with χ(3) Nonlinearity Including Two Photon Absorption

Authors: Keigo Matsuura, Isao Tomita


We have studied a method to widen the spectrum of optical pulses that pass through an InGaAsP waveguide for application to broadband optical communication. In particular, we have investigated the competitive effect between spectral broadening arising from nonlinear refraction (optical Kerr effect) and shrinking due to two photon absorption in the InGaAsP waveguide with chi^(3) nonlinearity. The shrunk spectrum recovers broadening by the enhancement effect of the nonlinear refractive index near the bandgap of InGaAsP with a bandgap wavelength of 1490 nm. The broadened spectral width at around 1525 nm (196.7 THz) becomes 10.7 times wider than that at around 1560 nm (192.3 THz) without the enhancement effect, where amplified optical pulses with a pulse width of 2 ps and a peak power of 10 W propagate through a 1-cm-long InGaAsP waveguide with a cross-section of 4 um^2.

Keywords: InGaAsP waveguide, Chi^(3) nonlinearity, spectral broadening, photon absorption

Procedia PDF Downloads 557
2364 Semiconductor Device of Tapered Waveguide for Broadband Optical Communications

Authors: Keita Iwai, Isao Tomita


To expand the optical spectrum for use in broadband optical communications, we study the properties of a semiconductor waveguide device with a tapered structure including its third-order optical nonlinearity. Spectral-broadened output by the tapered structure has the potential to create a compact, built-in device for optical communications. Here we deal with a compound semiconductor waveguide, the material of which is the same as that of laser diodes used in the communication systems, i.e., InₓGa₁₋ₓAsᵧP₁₋ᵧ, which has large optical nonlinearity. We confirm that our structure widens the output spectrum sufficiently by controlling its taper form factor while utilizing the large nonlinear refraction of InₓGa₁₋ₓAsᵧP₁₋ᵧ. We also examine the taper effect for nonlinear optical loss.

Keywords: InₓGa₁₋ₓAsᵧP₁₋ᵧ, waveguide, nonlinear refraction, spectral spreading, taper device

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2363 Compact Low Loss Design of SOI 1x2 Y-Branch Optical Power Splitter with S-Bend Waveguide and Study on the Variation of Transmitted Power with Various Waveguide Parameters

Authors: Nagaraju Pendam, C. P. Vardhani


A simple technology–compatible design of silicon-on-insulator based 1×2 optical power splitter is proposed. For developing large area Opto-electronic Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) devices, the power splitter is a key passive device. The SOI rib- waveguide dimensions (height, width, and etching depth, refractive indices, length of waveguide) leading simultaneously to single mode propagation. In this paper a low loss optical power splitter is designed by using R Soft cad tool and simulated by Beam propagation method, here s-bend waveguides proposed. We concentrate changing the refractive index difference, branching angle, width of the waveguide, free space wavelength of the waveguide and observing transmitted power, effective refractive index in the designed waveguide, and choosing the best simulated results to be fabricated on silicon-on insulator platform. In this design 1550 nm free spacing are used.

Keywords: beam propagation method, insertion loss, optical power splitter, rib waveguide, transmitted power

Procedia PDF Downloads 588
2362 Planar Plasmonic Terahertz Waveguides for Sensor Applications

Authors: Maidul Islam, Dibakar Roy Chowdhury, Gagan Kumar


We investigate sensing capabilities of a planar plasmonic THz waveguide. The waveguide is comprised of one dimensional array of periodically arranged sub wavelength scale corrugations in the form of rectangular dimples in order to ensure the plasmonic response. The THz waveguide transmission is observed for polyimide (as thin film) substance filling the dimples. The refractive index of the polyimide film is varied to examine various sensing parameters such as frequency shift, sensitivity and Figure of Merit (FoM) of the fundamental plasmonic resonance supported by the waveguide. In efforts to improve sensing characteristics, we also examine sensing capabilities of a plasmonic waveguide having V shaped corrugations and compare results with that of rectangular dimples. The proposed study could be significant in developing new terahertz sensors with improved sensitivity utilizing the plasmonic waveguides.

Keywords: plasmonics, sensors, sub-wavelength structures, terahertz

Procedia PDF Downloads 133
2361 Characterization of the Dispersion Phenomenon in an Optical Biosensor

Authors: An-Shik Yang, Chin-Ting Kuo, Yung-Chun Yang, Wen-Hsin Hsieh, Chiang-Ho Cheng


Optical biosensors have become a powerful detection and analysis tool for wide-ranging applications in biomedical research, pharmaceuticals and environmental monitoring. This study carried out the computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-based simulations to explore the dispersion phenomenon in the microchannel of a optical biosensor. The predicted time sequences of concentration contours were utilized to better understand the dispersion development occurred in different geometric shapes of microchannels. The simulation results showed the surface concentrations at the sensing probe (with the best performance of a grating coupler) in respect of time to appraise the dispersion effect and therefore identify the design configurations resulting in minimum dispersion.

Keywords: CFD simulations, dispersion, microfluidic, optical waveguide sensors

Procedia PDF Downloads 377
2360 Study of Waveguide Silica Glasses by Raman Spectroscopy

Authors: Mohamed Abdelmounim Bakkali, Mustapha El Mataouy, Abellatif Aaliti, Mouhamed Khaddor


In the paper, we study the effects of introducing hafnium oxide on Raman spectra of silica glass planar waveguide activated by 0.3 mol% Er3+ ions. This work compares Raman spectra measured for three thin films deposited on silicon substrate. The films were prepared with different molar ratio of Si/Hf using sol-gel method and deposited by dip coating technique. The effect of hafnium oxide incorporation on the waveguides shows the evolution of the structure of this material. This structural information is useful to understand the luminescence intensity by means of ion–ion interaction mechanisms.

Keywords: optical amplifiers, non-bridging oxygen, erbium, sol-gel, waveguide, silica-hafnia

Procedia PDF Downloads 213
2359 Polydimethylsiloxane Applications in Interferometric Optical Fiber Sensors

Authors: Zeenat Parveen, Ashiq Hussain


This review paper consists of applications of PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) materials for enhanced performance, optical fiber sensors in acousto-ultrasonic, mechanical measurements, current applications, sensing, measurements and interferometric optical fiber sensors. We will discuss the basic working principle of fiber optic sensing technology, various types of fiber optic and the PDMS as a coating material to increase the performance. Optical fiber sensing methods for detecting dynamic strain signals, including general sound and acoustic signals, high frequency signals i.e. ultrasonic/ultrasound, and other signals such as acoustic emission and impact induced dynamic strain. Optical fiber sensors have Industrial and civil engineering applications in mechanical measurements. Sometimes it requires different configurations and parameters of sensors. Optical fiber current sensors are based on Faraday Effect due to which we obtain better performance as compared to the conventional current transformer. Recent advancement and cost reduction has simulated interest in optical fiber sensing. Optical techniques are also implemented in material measurement. Fiber optic interferometers are used to sense various physical parameters including temperature, pressure and refractive index. There are four types of interferometers i.e. Fabry–perot, Mach-Zehnder, Michelson, and Sagnac. This paper also describes the future work of fiber optic sensors.

Keywords: fiber optic sensing, PDMS materials, acoustic, ultrasound, current sensor, mechanical measurements

Procedia PDF Downloads 315
2358 Study on Intensity Modulated Non-Contact Optical Fiber Vibration Sensors of Different Configurations

Authors: Dinkar Dantala, Kishore Putha, Padmavathi Manchineelu


Optical fibers are widely used in the measurement of several physical parameters like temperature, pressure, vibrations etc. Measurement of vibrations plays a vital role in machines. In this paper, three fiber optic non-contact vibration sensors were discussed, which are designed based on the principle of light intensity modulation. The Dual plastic optical fiber, Fiber optic fused 1x2 coupler and Fiber optic fused 2x2 coupler vibration sensors are compared based on range of frequency, resolution and sensitivity. It is to conclude that 2x2 coupler configuration shows better response than other two sensors.

Keywords: fiber optic, PMMA, vibration sensor, intensity-modulated

Procedia PDF Downloads 278
2357 Sensitivity Improvement of Optical Ring Resonator for Strain Analysis with the Direction of Strain Recognition Possibility

Authors: Tayebeh Sahraeibelverdi, Ahmad Shirazi Hadi Veladi, Mazdak Radmalekshah


Optical sensors became attractive due to preciseness, low power consumption, and intrinsic electromagnetic interference-free characteristic. Among the waveguide optical sensors, cavity-based ones attended for the high Q-factor. Micro ring resonators as a potential platform have been investigated for various applications as biosensors to pressure sensors thanks to their sensitive ring structure responding to any small change in the refractive index. Furthermore, these small micron size structures can come in an array, bringing the opportunity to have any of the resonance in a specific wavelength and be addressed in this way. Another exciting application is applying a strain to the ring and making them an optical strain gauge where the traditional ones are based on the piezoelectric material. Making them in arrays needs electrical wiring and about fifty times bigger in size. Any physical element that impacts the waveguide cross-section, Waveguide elastic-optic property change, or ring circumference can play a role. In comparison, ring size change has a larger effect than others. Here an engineered ring structure is investigated to study the strain effect on the ring resonance wavelength shift and its potential for more sensitive strain devices. At the same time, these devices can measure any strain by mounting on the surface of interest. The idea is to change the" O" shape ring to a "C" shape ring with a small opening starting from 2π/360 or one degree. We used the Mode solution of Lumbrical software to investigate the effect of changing the ring's opening and the shift induced by applied strain. The designed ring radius is a three Micron silicon on isolator ring which can be fabricated by standard complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) micromachining. The measured wavelength shifts from1-degree opening of the ring to a 6-degree opening have been investigated. Opening the ring for 1-degree affects the ring's quality factor from 3000 to 300, showing an order of magnitude Q-factor reduction. Assuming a strain making the ring-opening from 1 degree to 6 degrees, our simulation results showing negligible Q-factor reduction from 300 to 280. A ring resonator quality factor can reach up to 108 where an order of magnitude reduction is negligible. The resonance wavelength shift showed a blue shift and was obtained to be 1581, 1579,1578,1575nm for 1-, 2-, 4- and 6-degree ring-opening, respectively. This design can find the direction of the strain-induced by applying the opening on different parts of the ring. Moreover, by addressing the specified wavelength, we can precisely find the direction. We can open a significant opportunity to find cracks and any surface mechanical property very specifically and precisely. This idea can be implemented on polymer ring resonators while they can come with a flexible substrate and can be very sensitive to any strain making the two ends of the ring in the slit part come closer or further.

Keywords: optical ring resonator, strain gauge, strain sensor, surface mechanical property analysis

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2356 All-Silicon Raman Laser with Quasi-Phase-Matched Structures and Resonators

Authors: Isao Tomita


The principle of all-silicon Raman lasers for an output wavelength of 1.3 μm is presented, which employs quasi-phase-matched structures and resonators to enhance the output power. 1.3-μm laser beams for GE-PONs in FTTH systems generated from a silicon device are very important because such a silicon device can be monolithically integrated with the silicon planar lightwave circuits (Si PLCs) used in the GE-PONs. This reduces the device fabrication processes and time and also optical losses at the junctions between optical waveguides of the Si PLCs and Si laser devices when compared with 1.3-μm III-V semiconductor lasers set on the Si PLCs employed at present. We show that the quasi-phase-matched Si Raman laser with resonators can produce about 174 times larger laser power at 1.3 μm (at maximum) than that without resonators for a Si waveguide of Raman gain 20 cm/GW and optical loss 1.2 dB/cm, pumped at power 10 mW, where the length of the waveguide is 3 mm and its cross-section is (1.5 μm)2.

Keywords: All-Silicon Raman Laser, FTTH, GE-PON, Quasi-Phase-Matched Structure, resonator

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2355 Control of Oxide and Silicon Loss during Exposure of Silicon Waveguide

Authors: Gu Zhonghua


Control method of bulk silicon dioxide etching process to approach then expose silicon waveguide has been developed. It has been demonstrated by silicon waveguide of photonics devices. It is also able to generalize other applications. Use plasma dry etching to etch bulk silicon dioxide and approach oxide-silicon interface accurately, then use dilute HF wet etching to etch silicon dioxide residue layer to expose the silicon waveguide as soft landing. Plasma dry etch macro loading effect and endpoint technology was used to determine dry etch time accurately with a low wafer expose ratio.

Keywords: waveguide, etch, control, silicon loss

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2354 Sol-Gel Erbium-Doped Silica-Hafnia Planar Waveguides

Authors: Mustapha El Mataouy, Abellatif Aaliti, Mouhamed Khaddor


Erbium actived silica-hafnia planar waveguides have been prepared by sol-gel route. The films were deposited on vitreous silica substrates using dip-coating technique. The parameters of preparation have been chosen to optimize the waveguides for operation in the near infrared (NIR) region, and to increase the luminescence efficiency of the metastable 4I13/2 state of Erbium ions. The waveguides properties were determined by m-lines spectroscopy, loss measurements. Waveguide Raman and luminescence spectroscopy were used to obtain information about the structure of the prepared films and about the dynamical process related to the emission in the C telecom band (1530nm-1565nm) of the Erbium ions. The results are discussed with the aim of comparing the structural and optical properties of Erbium activated silica-hafnia planar waveguides with different molar ratio of Si / Hf.

Keywords: erbium, optical amplifiers, silica-hafnia, sol-gel, waveguide

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2353 Semiconductor Variable Wavelength Generator of Near-Infrared-to-Terahertz Regions

Authors: Isao Tomita


Power characteristics are obtained for laser beams of near-infrared and terahertz wavelengths when produced by difference-frequency generation with a quasi-phase-matched (QPM) waveguide made of gallium phosphide (GaP). A refractive-index change of the QPM GaP waveguide is included in computations with Sellmeier’s formula for varying input wavelengths, where optical loss is also included. Although the output power decreases with decreasing photon energy as the beam wavelength changes from near-infrared to terahertz wavelengths, the beam generation with such greatly different wavelengths, which is not achievable with an ordinary laser diode without the replacement of semiconductor material with a different bandgap one, can be made with the same semiconductor (GaP) by changing the QPM period, where a way of changing the period is provided.

Keywords: difference-frequency generation, gallium phosphide, quasi-phase-matching, waveguide

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2352 Localization Problem in Optical Fiber Sensors

Authors: M. Zyczkowski, P. Markowski, M. Karol


The security industry is making many efforts to lower the costs of system installation. However, the dominant technique is the application of fiber optic sensors. It is necessary to determine the location of the disorder of long optical fiber cables. For a number of years, many research centers developed their own solutions. The article presents the construction of the sensor systems with the possibility of disorder location. We present a methodology for determining location of the disorder. The aim of investigations is to answer the question of which of optical sensor configuration offer the best performance for location of the disorder.

Keywords: fiber optic sensor, security sensor, fiber cables, system instillation

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2351 Preparation of Nanophotonics LiNbO3 Thin Films and Studying Their Morphological and Structural Properties by Sol-Gel Method for Waveguide Applications

Authors: A. Fakhri Makram, Marwa S. Alwazni, Al-Douri Yarub, Evan T. Salim, Hashim Uda, Chin C. Woei


Lithium niobate (LiNbO3) nanostructures are prepared on quartz substrate by the sol-gel method. They have been deposited with different molarity concentration and annealed at 500°C. These samples are characterized and analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The measured results showed an importance increasing in molarity concentrations that indicate the structure starts to become crystal, regular, homogeneous, well crystal distributed, which made it more suitable for optical waveguide application.

Keywords: lithium niobate, morphological properties, thin film, pechini method, XRD

Procedia PDF Downloads 317
2350 Dynamic Foot Pressure Measurement System Using Optical Sensors

Authors: Tanapon Keatsamarn, Chuchart Pintavirooj


Foot pressure measurement provides necessary information for diagnosis diseases, foot insole design, disorder prevention and other application. In this paper, dynamic foot pressure measurement is presented for pressure measuring with high resolution and accuracy. The dynamic foot pressure measurement system consists of hardware and software system. The hardware system uses a transparent acrylic plate and uses steel as the base. The glossy white paper is placed on the top of the transparent acrylic plate and covering with a black acrylic on the system to block external light. Lighting from LED strip entering around the transparent acrylic plate. The optical sensors, the digital cameras, are underneath the acrylic plate facing upwards. They have connected with software system to process and record foot pressure video in avi file. Visual Studio 2017 is used for software system using OpenCV library.

Keywords: foot, foot pressure, image processing, optical sensors

Procedia PDF Downloads 158
2349 Compact Optical Sensors for Harsh Environments

Authors: Branislav Timotijevic, Yves Petremand, Markus Luetzelschwab, Dara Bayat, Laurent Aebi


Optical miniaturized sensors with remote readout are required devices for the monitoring in harsh electromagnetic environments. As an example, in turbo and hydro generators, excessively high vibrations of the end-windings can lead to dramatic damages, imposing very high, additional service costs. A significant change of the generator temperature can also be an indicator of the system failure. Continuous monitoring of vibrations, temperature, humidity, and gases is therefore mandatory. The high electromagnetic fields in the generators impose the use of non-conductive devices in order to prevent electromagnetic interferences and to electrically isolate the sensing element to the electronic readout. Metal-free sensors are good candidates for such systems since they are immune to very strong electromagnetic fields and given the fact that they are non-conductive. We have realized miniature optical accelerometer and temperature sensors for a remote sensing of the harsh environments using the common, inexpensive silicon Micro Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) platform. Both devices show highly linear response. The accelerometer has a deviation within 1% from the linear fit when tested in a range 0 – 40 g. The temperature sensor can provide the measurement accuracy better than 1 °C in a range 20 – 150 °C. The design of other type of sensors for the environments with high electromagnetic interferences has also been discussed.

Keywords: optical MEMS, temperature sensor, accelerometer, remote sensing, harsh environment

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2348 Self-Action of Pyroelectric Spatial Soliton in Undoped Lithium Niobate Samples with Pyroelectric Mechanism of Nonlinear Response

Authors: Anton S. Perin, Vladimir M. Shandarov


Compensation for the nonlinear diffraction of narrow laser beams with wavelength of 532 and the formation of photonic waveguides and waveguide circuits due to the contribution of pyroelectric effect to the nonlinear response of lithium niobate crystal have been experimentally demonstrated. Complete compensation for the linear and nonlinear diffraction broadening of light beams is obtained upon uniform heating of an undoped sample from room temperature to 55 degrees Celsius. An analysis of the light-field distribution patterns and the corresponding intensity distribution profiles allowed us to estimate the spacing for the channel waveguides. The observed behavior of bright soliton beams may be caused by their coherent interaction, which manifests itself in repulsion for anti-phase light fields and in attraction for in-phase light fields. The experimental results of this study showed a fundamental possibility of forming optically complex waveguide structures in lithium niobate crystals with pyroelectric mechanism of nonlinear response. The topology of these structures is determined by the light field distribution on the input face of crystalline sample. The optical induction of channel waveguide elements by interacting spatial solitons makes it possible to design optical systems with a more complex topology and a possibility of their dynamic reconfiguration.

Keywords: self-action, soliton, lithium niobate, piroliton, photorefractive effect, pyroelectric effect

Procedia PDF Downloads 91
2347 Application of MoM-GEC Method for Electromagnetic Study of Planar Microwave Structures: Shielding Application

Authors: Ahmed Nouainia, Mohamed Hajji, Taoufik Aguili


In this paper, an electromagnetic analysis is presented for describing the influence of shielding in a rectangular waveguide. A hybridization based on the method of moments combined to the generalized equivalent circuit MoM-GEC is used to model the problem. This is validated by applying the MoM-GEC hybridization to investigate a diffraction structure. It consists of electromagnetic diffraction by an iris in a rectangular waveguide. Numerical results are shown and discussed and a comparison with FEM and Marcuvitz methods is achieved.

Keywords: method MoM-GEC, waveguide, shielding, equivalent circuit

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2346 Design of Smart Catheter for Vascular Applications Using Optical Fiber Sensor

Authors: Lamiek Abraham, Xinli Du, Yohan Noh, Polin Hsu, Tingting Wu, Tom Logan, Ifan Yen


In the field of minimally invasive, smart medical instruments such as catheters and guidewires are typically used at a remote distance to gain access to the diseased artery, often negotiating tortuous, complex, and diseased vessels in the process. Three optical fiber sensors with a diameter of 1.5mm each that are 120° apart from each other is proposed to be mounted into a catheter-based pump device with a diameter of 10mm. These sensors are configured to solve the challenges surgeons face during insertion through curvy major vessels such as the aortic arch. Moreover, these sensors deal with providing information on rubbing the walls and shape sensing. This study presents an experimental and mathematical models of the optical fiber sensors with 2 degrees of freedom. There are two eight gear-shaped tubes made up of 3D printed thermoplastic Polyurethane (TPU) material that are connected. The optical fiber sensors are mounted inside the first tube for protection from external light and used TPU material as a prototype for a catheter. The second tube is used as a flat reflection for the light intensity modulation-based optical fiber sensors. The first tube is attached to the linear guide for insertion and withdrawal purposes and can manually turn it 45° by manipulating the tube gear. A 3D hard material phantom was developed that mimics the aortic arch anatomy structure in which the test was carried out. During the insertion of the sensors into the 3D phantom, datasets are obtained in terms of voltage, distance, and position of the sensors. These datasets reflect the characteristics of light intensity modulation of the optical fiber sensors with a plane project of the aortic arch structure shape. Mathematical modeling of the light intensity was carried out based on the projection plane and experiment set-up. The performance of the system was evaluated in terms of its accuracy in navigating through the curvature and information on the position of the sensors by investigating 40 single insertions of the sensors into the 3D phantom. The experiment demonstrated that the sensors were effectively steered through the 3D phantom curvature and to desired target references in all 2 degrees of freedom. The performance of the sensors echoes the reflectance of light theory, where the smaller the radius of curvature, the more of the shining LED lights are reflected and received by the photodiode. A mathematical model results are in good agreement with the experiment result and the operation principle of the light intensity modulation of the optical fiber sensors. A prototype of a catheter using TPU material with three optical fiber sensors mounted inside has been developed that is capable of navigating through the different radius of curvature with 2 degrees of freedom. The proposed system supports operators with pre-scan data to make maneuverability and bendability through curvy major vessels easier, accurate, and safe. The mathematical modelling accurately fits the experiment result.

Keywords: Intensity modulated optical fiber sensor, mathematical model, plane projection, shape sensing.

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2345 Plate-Laminated Slotted-Waveguide Fed 2×3 Planar Inverted F Antenna Array

Authors: Badar Muneer, Waseem Shabir, Faisal Karim Shaikh


Substrate Integrated waveguide based 6-element array of Planar Inverted F antenna (PIFA) has been presented and analyzed parametrically in this paper. The antenna is fed with coupled transverse slots on a plate laminated waveguide cavity to ensure wide bandwidth and simplicity of feeding network. The two-layer structure has one layer dedicated for feeding network and the top layer dedicated for radiating elements. It has been demonstrated that the presented feeding technique for feeding such class of array antennas can be far simple in structure and miniaturized in size when it comes to designing large phased array antenna systems. A good return loss and standing wave ratio of 2:1 has been achieved while maintaining properties of typical PIFA.

Keywords: feeding network, laminated waveguide, PIFA, transverse slots

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2344 Design and Development of Optical Sensor Based Ground Reaction Force Measurement Platform for GAIT and Geriatric Studies

Authors: K. Chethana, A. S. Guru Prasad, S. N. Omkar, B. Vadiraj, S. Asokan


This paper describes an ab-initio design, development and calibration results of an Optical Sensor Ground Reaction Force Measurement Platform (OSGRFP) for gait and geriatric studies. The developed system employs an array of FBG sensors to measure the respective ground reaction forces from all three axes (X, Y and Z), which are perpendicular to each other. The novelty of this work is two folded. One is in its uniqueness to resolve the tri axial resultant forces during the stance in to the respective pure axis loads and the other is the applicability of inherently advantageous FBG sensors which are most suitable for biomechanical instrumentation. To validate the response of the FBG sensors installed in OSGRFP and to measure the cross sensitivity of the force applied in other directions, load sensors with indicators are used. Further in this work, relevant mathematical formulations are presented for extracting respective ground reaction forces from wavelength shifts/strain of FBG sensors on the OSGRFP. The result of this device has implications in understanding the foot function, identifying issues in gait cycle and measuring discrepancies between left and right foot. The device also provides a method to quantify and compare relative postural stability of different subjects under test, which has implications in post surgical rehabilitation, geriatrics and optimizing training protocols for sports personnel.

Keywords: balance and stability, gait analysis, FBG applications, optical sensor ground reaction force platform

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2343 On Transferring of Transient Signals along Hollow Waveguide

Authors: E. Eroglu, S. Semsit, E. Sener, U.S. Sener


In Electromagnetics, there are three canonical boundary value problem with given initial conditions for the electromagnetic field sought, namely: Cavity Problem, Waveguide Problem, and External Problem. The Cavity Problem and Waveguide Problem were rigorously studied and new results were arised at original works in the past decades. In based on studies of an analytical time domain method Evolutionary Approach to Electromagnetics (EAE), electromagnetic field strength vectors produced by a time dependent source function are sought. The fields are took place in L2 Hilbert space. The source function that performs signal transferring, energy and surplus of energy has been demonstrated with all clarity. Depth of the method and ease of applications are emerged needs of gathering obtained results. Main discussion is about perfect electric conductor and hollow waveguide. Even if well studied time-domain modes problems are mentioned, specifically, the modes which have a hollow (i.e., medium-free) cross-section domain are considered.

Keywords: evolutionary approach to electromagnetics, time-domain waveguide mode, Neumann problem, Dirichlet boundary value problem, Klein-Gordon

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2342 Crystalline Silicon Optical Whispering Gallery Mode (WGM) Resonators for Precision Measurements

Authors: Igor Bilenko, Artem Shitikov, Michael Gorodetsky


Optical whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonators combine very high optical quality factor (Q) with small size. Resonators made from low loss crystalline fluorites (CaF2, MgF2) may have Q as high as 1010 that make them unique devices for modern applications including ultrasensitive sensors, frequency control, and precision spectroscopy. While silicon is a promising material transparent from near infrared to terahertz frequencies, fundamental limit for Si WGM quality factor was not reached yet. In our paper, we presented experimental results on the preparation and testing of resonators at 1550 nm wavelength made from crystalline silicon grown and treated by different techniques. Q as high as 3x107 was demonstrated. Future steps need to reach a higher value and possible applications are discussed.

Keywords: optical quality factor, silicon optical losses, silicon optical resonator, whispering gallery modes

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2341 Defect Modes in Multilayered Piezoelectric Structures

Authors: D. G. Piliposyan


Propagation of electro-elastic waves in a piezoelectric waveguide with finite stacks and a defect layer is studied using a modified transfer matrix method. The dispersion equation for a periodic structure consisting of unit cells made up from two piezoelectric materials with metallized interfaces is obtained. An analytical expression, for the transmission coefficient for a waveguide with finite stacks and a defect layer, that is found can be used to accurately detect and control the position of the passband within a stopband. The result can be instrumental in constructing a tunable waveguide made of layers of different or identical piezoelectric crystals and separated by metallized interfaces.

Keywords: piezoelectric layered structure, periodic phononic crystal, bandgap, bloch waves

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2340 Investigation on Properties and Applications of Graphene as Single Layer of Carbon Atoms

Authors: Ali Ashjaran


Graphene is undoubtedly emerging as one of the most promising materials because of its unique combination of superb properties, which opens a way for its exploitation in a wide spectrum of applications ranging from electronics to optics, sensors, and biodevices. In addition, Graphene-based nanomaterials have many promising applications in energy-related areas. Graphene a single layer of carbon atoms, combines several exceptional properties, which makes it uniquely suited as a coating material: transparency, excellent mechanical stability, low chemical reactivity, Optical, impermeability to most gases, flexibility, and very high thermal and electrical conductivity. Graphene is a material that can be utilized in numerous disciplines including, but not limited to: bioengineering, composite materials, energy technology and nanotechnology, biological engineering, optical electronics, ultrafiltration, photovoltaic cells. This review aims to provide an overiew of graphene structure, properties and some applications.

Keywords: graphene, carbon, anti corrosion, optical and electrical properties, sensors

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2339 Model Based Fault Diagnostic Approach for Limit Switches

Authors: Zafar Mahmood, Surayya Naz, Nazir Shah Khattak


The degree of freedom relates to our capability to observe or model the energy paths within the system. Higher the number of energy paths being modeled leaves to us a higher degree of freedom, but increasing the time and modeling complexity rendering it useless for today’s world’s need for minimum time to market. Since the number of residuals that can be uniquely isolated are dependent on the number of independent outputs of the system, increasing the number of sensors required. The examples of discrete position sensors that may be used to form an array include limit switches, Hall effect sensors, optical sensors, magnetic sensors, etc. Their mechanical design can usually be tailored to fit in the transitional path of an STME in a variety of mechanical configurations. The case studies into multi-sensor system were carried out and actual data from sensors is used to test this generic framework. It is being investigated, how the proper modeling of limit switches as timing sensors, could lead to unified and neutral residual space while keeping the implementation cost reasonably low.

Keywords: low-cost limit sensors, fault diagnostics, Single Throw Mechanical Equipment (STME), parameter estimation, parity-space

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2338 Nanofocusing of Surface Plasmon Polaritons by Partially Metal- Coated Dielectric Conical Probe: Optimal Asymmetric Distance

Authors: Ngo Thi Thu, Kazuo Tanaka, Masahiro Tanaka, Dao Ngoc Chien


Nanometric superfocusing of optical intensity near the tip of partially metal- coated dielectric conical probe of the convergent surface plasmon polariton wave is investigated by the volume integral equation method. It is possible to perform nanofocusing using this probe by using both linearly and radially polarized Gaussian beams as the incident waves. Strongly localized and enhanced optical near-fields can be created on the tip of this probe for the cases of both incident Gaussian beams. However the intensity distribution near the probe tip was found to be very sensitive to the shape of the probe tip.

Keywords: waveguide, surface plasmons, electromagnetic theory

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2337 Sensitivity Enhancement of Photonic Crystal Fiber Biosensor

Authors: Mohamed Farhat O. Hameed, Yasamin K. A. Alrayk, A. A Shaalan, S. S. A. Obayya


The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors are widely used due to its high sensitivity with molecular labels free. The commercial SPR sensors depend on the conventional prism-coupled configuration. However, this type of configuration suffers from miniaturization and integration. Therefore, the search for compact, portable and highly sensitive SPR sensors becomes mandatory.In this paper, sensitivity enhancement of a novel photonic crystal fiber biosensoris introduced and studied. The suggested design has microstructure of air holes in the core region surrounded by two large semicircular metallized channels filled with the analyte. The inner surfaces of the two channels are coated by a silver layer followed by a gold layer.The simulation results are obtained using full vectorial finite element methodwith perfect matched layer (PML) boundary conditions. The proposed design depends on bimetallic configuration to enhance the biosensor sensitivity. Additionally, the suggested biosensor can be used for multi-channel/multi-analyte sensing. In this study, the sensor geometrical parameters are studied to maximize the sensitivity for the two polarized modes. The numerical results show that high refractive index sensitivity of 4750 nm/RIU (refractive index unit) and 4300 nm/RIU can be achieved for the quasi (transverse magnetic) TM and quasi (transverse electric) TE modes of the proposed biosensor, respectively. The reportedbiosensor has advantages of integration of microfluidics setup, waveguide and metallic layers into a single structure. As a result, compact biosensor with better integration compared to conventional optical fiber SPR biosensors can be obtained.

Keywords: photonic crystal fibers, gold, silver, surface plasmon, biosensor

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2336 Efficient Study of Substrate Integrated Waveguide Devices

Authors: J. Hajri, H. Hrizi, N. Sboui, H. Baudrand


This paper presents a study of SIW circuits (Substrate Integrated Waveguide) with a rigorous and fast original approach based on Iterative process (WCIP). The theoretical suggested study is validated by the simulation of two different examples of SIW circuits. The obtained results are in good agreement with those of measurement and with software HFSS.

Keywords: convergence study, HFSS, modal decomposition, SIW circuits, WCIP method

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