Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 507

Search results for: FGD wastes

507 The Effects of Agricultural Waste Compost Applications on Soil Properties

Authors: Ilker Sönmez, Mustafa Kaplan

Abstract:

The wastes that come out as a result of agricultural productions are disposed randomly and always by burning. Agricultural wastes have a great volume and agricultural wastes cause environmental pollution. Spent mushroom compost and cut flower carnation wastes have a serious potential in Turkey and especially in Antalya. One of the best evaluation methods of agricultural wastes is composting methods and so agricultural wastes transformed for a new product. In this study, agricultural wastes were evaluated the effects of compost and organic material on soil pH, EC, soil organic matter, and macro-micro nutrient contents of soil that it growth carnation. The effects of compost applications on soils were found to be statistically significant. Organic material applications have caused an increase in all physical and chemical parameters except for pH that pH decreased with compost added in soils. The best results among the compost applications were determined R1 compost that R1 compost included %75 Carnation Wastes + %25 Spent Mushroom Compost. The structural properties of soils can be improved with reusing of agricultural wastes by composting so it can be provided that decreasing the harmful effects of organic wastes on the environment.

Keywords: agricultural wastes, carnation wastes, composting, organic material, spent mushroom compost

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506 A Review on the Usage of Ceramic Wastes in Concrete Production

Authors: O. Zimbili, W. Salim, M. Ndambuki

Abstract:

Construction and Demolition (C&D) wastes contribute the highest percentage of wastes worldwide (75%). Furthermore, ceramic materials contribute the highest percentage of wastes within the C&D wastes (54%). The current option for disposal of ceramic wastes is landfill. This is due to unavailability of standards, avoidance of risk, lack of knowledge and experience in using ceramic wastes in construction. The ability of ceramic wastes to act as a pozzolanic material in the production of cement has been effectively explored. The results proved that temperatures used in the manufacturing of these tiles (about 900 ⁰C) are sufficient to activate pozzolanic properties of clay. They also showed that, after optimization (11-14% substitution), the cement blend performs better, with no morphological differences between the cement blended with ceramic waste, and that blended with other pozzolanic materials. Sanitary ware and electrical insulator porcelain wastes are some wastes investigated for usage as aggregates in concrete production. When optimized, both produced good results, better than when natural aggregates are used. However, the research on ceramic wastes as partial substitute for fine aggregates or cement has not been overly exploited as the other areas. This review has been concluded with focus on investigating whether ceramic wall tile wastes used as partial substitute for cement and fine aggregates could prove to be beneficial since the two materials are the most high-priced during concrete production.

Keywords: blended, morphological, pozzolanic, waste

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505 Wastes of Oil Drilling: Treatment Techniques and Their Effectiveness

Authors: Abbas Hadj Abbas, Hacini Massaoud, Aiad Lahcen

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In Hassi-Messoud’s oil industry, the systems which are water based (WBM) are generally used for drilling in the first phase. For the rest of the well, the oil mud systems are employed (OBM). In the field of oil exploration, panoply of chemical products is employed in the drilling fluids formulation. These components of different natures and whose toxicity and biodegradability are of ill-defined parameters are; however, thrown into nature. In addition to the hydrocarbon (HC, such as diesel) which is a major constituent of oil based mud, we also can notice spills as well as a variety of other products and additives on the drilling sites. These wastes are usually stored in places called (crud wastes). These may cause major problems to the ecosystem. To treat these wastes, we have considered two methods which are: solidification/ stabilization (chemical) and thermal. So that we can evaluate the techniques of treatment, a series of analyses are performed on dozens of specimens of wastes before treatment. After that, and on the basis of our analyses of wastes, we opted for diagnostic treatments of pollution before and after solidification and stabilization. Finally, we have done some analyses before and after the thermal treatment to check the efficiency of the methods followed in the study.

Keywords: wastes treatment, the oil pollution, the norms, wastes drilling

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504 Agricultural Solid Wastes Generation in Nigeria and Their Recycling Potentials into Building Materials

Authors: Usman Aliyu Jalam, Shuaibu Alolo Sumaila, Sa’adiya Iliyasu Muhammed

Abstract:

Modern building industry lays much emphasis on sophisticated materials that have high embodied energy with intrinsic distinctiveness for damaging the environment. But today, advances in solid waste management have resulted in alternative building materials as partial or complete replacement of the conventional materials like cement, aggregate etc particularly for low cost housing. Investigations carried out revealed that an estimated 18.0 million tonnes of agricultural solid wastes are being generated in Nigeria annually. This constitutes a problem not only to the natural environment but also to the built environment more particularly with the way the wastes are being dispose of. The paper has discussed the present status on the generation and utilisation of agricultural solid wastes, their recycling potentials and environmental implications. It further discovered that although considerable quantity of these wastes were found to have the potentials of being recycled as building materials, the availability of the appropriate technology remains a big challenge in the country. Moreover, majority of the wastes type have gained popularity as fuel. As such, the economic and environmental benefits of recycling the wastes and the use of the wastes as fuel need further investigation.

Keywords: agricultural waste, building, environment, materials, Nigeria

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503 Research on Eco-Sustainable Recycling of Industrial Wastes

Authors: Liliana Crăc, Nicolae Giorgi, Gheorghe Fometescu

Abstract:

In Romania, billions of tonnes of wastes are generated yearly, an important amount being stored within industrial dumps that covers high soil areas and affects the environment quality, especially of ground and surface waters. Landfill represents in Romania the most important way for wastes removal, over 75% being generated every year, the costs with the dumps construction being considerable. In most of the cases, the wastes generated mainly by the energy industry, oil exploitation and metallurgy, are still considered wastes with NO-use, and their removal and neutralization represent for transport, handling and storing, high non-productive expenses which raise the cost of the useful products obtained. The paper presents a recycling idea of three types of wastes in order to use them for building materials manufacturing, by promoting ECOWASTES LIFE+ project, whose aim is to demonstrate that the recycling of waste from energy industry (coal combustion waste), petroleum extraction (drilling mud) and metallurgy (steelmaking slag) is technically feasible.

Keywords: fly ash, drilled solid wastes, metallurgical slag, recycling, building materials

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502 Estimation of Desktop E-Wastes in Delhi Using Multivariate Flow Analysis

Authors: Sumay Bhojwani, Ashutosh Chandra, Mamita Devaburman, Akriti Bhogal

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This article uses the Material flow analysis for estimating e-wastes in the Delhi/NCR region. The Material flow analysis is based on sales data obtained from various sources. Much of the data available for the sales is unreliable because of the existence of a huge informal sector. The informal sector in India accounts for more than 90%. Therefore, the scope of this study is only limited to the formal one. Also, for projection of the sales data till 2030, we have used regression (linear) to avoid complexity. The actual sales in the years following 2015 may vary non-linearly but we have assumed a basic linear relation. The purpose of this study was to know an approximate quantity of desktop e-wastes that we will have by the year 2030 so that we start preparing ourselves for the ineluctable investment in the treatment of these ever-rising e-wastes. The results of this study can be used to install a treatment plant for e-wastes in Delhi.

Keywords: e-wastes, Delhi, desktops, estimation

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501 Legal Regulation and Critical Analysis for an Effectively Treatment of Pharmaceutical Waste

Authors: Merita Dauti, Edita Alili-Idrizi, Sihana Ahmeti –Lika, Ledjan Malaj

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The extermination and proper disposal of pharmaceutical wastes from expired and unused medications remains a disputable issue due to their specific nature and characteristics. Even though the hazards from these wastes are already well known in terms of environment and human health, people still treat them as usual wastes. At a national level, in many countries the management of pharmaceutical and medical wastes has been one of the main objectives in order to protect people’s health and the environment. Even though many legal regulations exist in this respect, there has not been a single law that would clearly explain the procedures of returning medicines, ways of selection, treatment and extermination of pharmaceutical wastes. This paper aims at analyzing the practices of pharmaceutical waste management and treatment in some European countries as well as a review of the legislation and official guidelines in managing these kinds of wastes and protecting the environment and human health. A suitable treatment and management of expired medications and other similar wastes would be in the interest of public health in the first place, as well as in the interest of healthcare institutions and other bodies engaged in environment protection.

Keywords: pharmaceutical waste, legal regulation, proper disposal, environment pollution

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500 3D Modeling of Tunis Soft Soil Settlement Reinforced with Plastic Wastes

Authors: Aya Rezgui, Lasaad Ajam, Belgacem Jalleli

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The Tunis soft soils present a difficult challenge as construction sites and for Geotechnical works. Currently, different techniques are used to improve such soil properties taking into account the environmental considerations. One of the recent methods is involving plastic wastes as a reinforcing materials. The present study pertains to the development of a numerical model for predicting the behavior of Tunis Soft soil (TSS) improved with recycled Monobloc chair wastes.3D numerical models for unreinforced TSS and reinforced TSS aims to evaluate settlement reduction and the values of consolidation times in oedometer conditions.

Keywords: Tunis soft soil, settlement, plastic wastes, finte -difference, FLAC3D modeling

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499 Lagrangian Approach for Modeling Marine Litter Transport

Authors: Sarra Zaied, Arthur Bonpain, Pierre Yves Fravallo

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The permanent supply of marine litter implies their accumulation in the oceans, which causes the presence of more compact wastes layers. Their Spatio-temporal distribution is never homogeneous and depends mainly on the hydrodynamic characteristics of the environment and the size and location of the wastes. As part of optimizing collect of marine plastic wastes, it is important to measure and monitor their evolution over time. For this, many research studies have been dedicated to describing the wastes behavior in order to identify their accumulation in oceans areas. Several models are therefore developed to understand the mechanisms that allow the accumulation and the displacements of marine litter. These models are able to accurately simulate the drift of wastes to study their behavior and stranding. However, these works aim to study the wastes behavior over a long period of time and not at the time of waste collection. This work investigates the transport of floating marine litter (FML) to provide basic information that can help in optimizing wastes collection by proposing a model for predicting their behavior during collection. The proposed study is based on a Lagrangian modeling approach that uses the main factors influencing the dynamics of the waste. The performance of the proposed method was assessed on real data collected from the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service (CMEMS). Evaluation results in the Java Sea (Indonesia) prove that the proposed model can effectively predict the position and the velocity of marine wastes during collection.

Keywords: floating marine litter, lagrangian transport, particle-tracking model, wastes drift

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498 Physicochemical Characterization of Waste from Vegetal Extracts Industry for Use as Briquettes

Authors: Maíra O. Palm, Cintia Marangoni, Ozair Souza, Noeli Sellin

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Wastes from a vegetal extracts industry (cocoa, oak, Guarana and mate) were characterized by particle size, proximate and ultimate analysis, lignocellulosic fractions, high heating value, thermal analysis (Thermogravimetric analysis – TGA, and Differential thermal analysis - DTA) and energy density to evaluate their potential as biomass in the form of briquettes for power generation. All wastes presented adequate particle sizes to briquettes production. The wastes showed high moisture content, requiring previous drying for use as briquettes. Cocoa and oak wastes had the highest volatile matter contents with maximum mass loss at 310 ºC and 450 ºC, respectively. The solvents used in the aroma extraction process influenced in the moisture content of the wastes, which was higher for mate due to water has been used as solvent. All wastes showed an insignificant loss mass after 565 °C, hence resulting in low ash content. High carbon and hydrogen contents and low sulfur and nitrogen contents were observed ensuring a low generation of sulfur and nitrous oxides. Mate and cocoa exhibited the highest carbon and lignin content, and high heating value. The dried wastes had high heating value, from 17.1 MJ/kg to 20.8 MJ/kg. The results indicate the energy potential of wastes for use as fuel in power generation.

Keywords: agro-industrial waste, biomass, briquettes, combustion

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497 A Multi-Objective Methodology for Selecting Lean Initiatives in Modular Construction Companies

Authors: Saba Shams Bidhendi, Steven Goh, Andrew Wandel

Abstract:

The implementation of lean manufacturing initiatives has produced significant impacts in improving operational performance and reducing manufacturing wastes in the production process. However, selecting an appropriate set of lean strategies is critical to avoid misapplication of the lean manufacturing techniques and consequential increase in non-value-adding activities. To the author’s best knowledge, there is currently no methodology to select lean strategies that considers their impacts on manufacturing wastes and performance metrics simultaneously. In this research, a multi-objective methodology is proposed that suggests an appropriate set of lean initiatives based on their impacts on performance metrics and manufacturing wastes and within manufacturers’ resource limitation. The proposed methodology in this research suggests the best set of lean initiatives for implementation that have highest impacts on identified critical performance metrics and manufacturing wastes. Therefore, manufacturers can assure that implementing suggested lean tools improves their production performance and reduces manufacturing wastes at the same time. A case study was conducted to show the effectiveness and validate the proposed model and methodologies.

Keywords: lean manufacturing, lean strategies, manufacturing wastes, manufacturing performance, optimisation, decision making

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496 Using Construction Wastes and Recyclable Materials in Sustainable Concrete Manufacture

Authors: Mohamed T. El-Hawary, Carsten Koenke, Amr M. El-Nemr, Nagy F. Hanna

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Sustainable construction materials using solid construction wastes are of great environmental and economic significance. Construction wastes, demolishing wastes, and wastes coming out from the preparation of traditional materials could be used in sustainable concrete manufacture, which is the main scope of this paper. Ceramics, clay bricks, marble, recycled concrete, and many other materials should be tested and validated for use in the manufacture of green concrete. Introducing waste materials in concrete helps in reducing the required landfills, leaving more space for land investments, and decrease the environmental impact of the concrete buildings industry in both stages -construction and demolition-. In this paper, marble aggregate is used as a replacement for the natural aggregate in sustainable green concrete production. The results showed that marble aggregates can be used as a full replacement for the natural aggregates in eco-friendly green concrete.

Keywords: coarse aggregate replacement, economical designs, green concrete, marble aggregates, sustainability, waste management

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495 Reduction Conditions of Briquetted Solid Wastes Generated by the Integrated Iron and Steel Plant

Authors: Gökhan Polat, Dicle Kocaoğlu Yılmazer, Muhlis Nezihi Sarıdede

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Iron oxides are the main input to produce iron in integrated iron and steel plants. During production of iron from iron oxides, some wastes with high iron content occur. These main wastes can be classified as basic oxygen furnace (BOF) sludge, flue dust and rolling scale. Recycling of these wastes has a great importance for both environmental effects and reduction of production costs. In this study, recycling experiments were performed on basic oxygen furnace sludge, flue dust and rolling scale which contain 53.8%, 54.3% and 70.2% iron respectively. These wastes were mixed together with coke as reducer and these mixtures are pressed to obtain cylindrical briquettes. These briquettes were pressed under various compacting forces from 1 ton to 6 tons. Also, both stoichiometric and twice the stoichiometric cokes were added to investigate effect of coke amount on reduction properties of the waste mixtures. Then, these briquettes were reduced at 1000°C and 1100°C during 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 min in a muffle furnace. According to the results of reduction experiments, the effect of compacting force, temperature and time on reduction ratio of the wastes were determined. It is found that 1 ton compacting force, 150 min reduction time and 1100°C are the optimum conditions to obtain reduction ratio higher than 75%.

Keywords: Coke, iron oxide wastes, recycling, reduction

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494 Conical Spouted Bed Combustor for Combustion of Vine Shoots Wastes

Authors: M. J. San José, S. Alvarez, R. López

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In order to prove the applicability of a conical spouted bed combustor for the thermal exploitation of vineyard pruning wastes, the flow regimes of beds consisting of vine shoot beds and an inert bed were established under different operating conditions. The effect of inlet air temperature on the minimum spouted velocity was evaluated. Batch combustion of vine shoots in a conical spouted bed combustor was conducted at temperatures in the range 425-550 ºC with an inert bed. The experimental values of combustion efficiency of vine shoot calculated from the concentration the exhaust gases were assessed. The high experimental combustion efficiency obtained evidenced the proper suitability of the conical spouted bed combustor for the thermal combustion of vine shoots.

Keywords: biomass wastes, thermal combustion, conical spouted beds, vineyard wastes

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493 Sustainable Use of Agricultural Waste to Enhance Food Security and Conserve the Environment

Authors: M. M. Tawfik, Ezzat M. Abd El Lateef, B. B. Mekki, Amany A. Bahr, Magda H. Mohamed, Gehan S. Bakhoom

Abstract:

The rapid increase in the world’s population coupled by decrease the arable land per capita has resulted into an increased demand for food which has in turn led to the production of large amounts of agricultural wastes, both at the farmer, municipality and city levels. Agricultural wastes can be a valuable resource for improving food security. Unfortunately, agricultural wastes are likely to cause pollution to the environment or even harm to human health. This calls for increased public awareness on the benefits and potential hazards of agricultural wastes, especially in developing countries. Agricultural wastes (residual stalks, straw, leaves, roots, husks, shells etcetera) and animal waste (manures) are widely available, renewable and virtually free, hence they can be an important resource. They can be converted into heat, steam, charcoal, methanol, ethanol, bio diesel as well as raw materials (animal feed, composting, energy and biogas construction etcetera). agricultural wastes are likely to cause pollution to the environment or even harm to human health, if it is not used in a sustainable manner. Organic wastes could be considered an important source of biofertilizer for enhancing food security in the small holder farming communities that would not afford use of expensive inorganic fertilizers. Moreover, these organic wastes contain high levels of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and organic matter important for improving nutrient status of soils in urban agriculture. Organic compost leading to improved crop yields and its nutritional values as compared with inorganic fertilization. This paper briefly reviews how agricultural wastes can be used to enhance food security and conserve the environment.

Keywords: agricultural waste, organic compost, environment, valuable resources

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492 Anaerobic Digestion of Organic Wastes for Biogas Production

Authors: Ayhan Varol, Aysenur Ugurlu

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Due to the depletion of fossil fuels and climate change, there is a rising interest in renewable energy sources. In this concept, a wide range of biomass (energy crops, animal manure, solid wastes, etc.) are used for energy production. There has been a growing interest in biomethane production from biomass. Biomethane production from organic wastes is a promising alternative for waste management by providing organic matter stabilization. Anaerobic digestion of organic material produces biogas, and organic substrate is degraded into a more stable material. Therefore, anaerobic digestion technology helps reduction of carbon emissions and produces renewable energy. The hydraulic retention time (HRT) and organic loading rate (OLR), as well as TS (VS) loadings, influences the anaerobic digestion of organic wastes significantly. The optimum range for HRT varies between 15 days to 30 days, whereas OLR differs between 0.5 to 5 g/L.d depending on the substrate type and its lipid, protein and carbohydrate contents. The organic wastes have biogas production potential through anaerobic digestion. In this study, biomethane production potential of wastes like sugar beet bagasse, agricultural residues, food wastes, olive mill pulp, and dairy manure having different characteristics was investigated in mesophilic CSTR reactor, and their performances were compared. The reactor was mixed in order to provide homogenized content at a rate of 80 rpm. The organic matter content of these wastes was between 85 to 94 % with 61% (olive pulp) to 22 % (food waste) dry matter content. The hydraulic retention time changed between 20-30 days. High biogas productions, 13.45 to 5.70 mL/day, were achieved from the wastes studied when operated at 9 to 10.5% TS loadings where OLR varied between 2.92 and 3.95 gVS/L.day. The results showed that food wastes have higher specific methane production rate and volumetric methane production potential than the other wastes studied, under the similar OLR values. The SBP was 680, 585, 540, 390 and 295 mL/g VS for food waste, agricultural residues, sugar beet bagasse, olive pulp and dairy manure respectively. The methane content of the biogas varied between 72 and 60 %. The volatile solids conversion rate for food waste was 62%.

Keywords: biogas production, organic wastes, biomethane, anaerobic digestion

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491 A Study of Lean Principles Implementation in the Libyan Healthcare and Industry Sectors

Authors: Nasser M. Amaitik, Ngwan F. Elsagzli

Abstract:

The Lean technique is very important in the service and industrial fields. It is defined as an effective tool to eliminate the wastes. In lean the wastes are defined as anything which does not add value to the end product. There are wastes that can be avoided, but some are unavoidable to many reasons. The present study aims to apply the principles of lean in two different sectors, healthcare, and industry. Two case studies have been selected to apply the experimental work. The first case was Al-Jalaa Hospital while the second case study was the Technical Company of Aluminum Sections in Benghazi, Libya. In both case studies the Value Stream Map (VSM) of the current state has been constructed. The proposed plans have been implemented by merging or eliminating procedures or processes. The results obtained from both case studies showed improvement in capacity, idle time and utilized time.

Keywords: healthcare service delivery, idle time, lean principles, utilized time, value stream mapping, wastes

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490 Investigation of Biochar from Banana Peel

Authors: Anurita Selvarajoo, Svenja Hanson

Abstract:

Growing energy needs and increasing environmental issues are creating awareness for alternative energy which substitutes the non-renewable and polluting fossil fuels. Agricultural wastes are a good feedstock for biochar production through the pyrolysis process. There is potential to generate solid fuel from agricultural wastes, as there are large quantities of agricultural wastes available in Malaysia. This paper outlines the experimental study on the pyrolysis of banana peel. The effects of pyrolysis temperatures on the yield of biochar from the banana peel were investigated. Banana peel was pyrolysed in a horizontal tubular reactor under inert atmosphere by varying the temperatures between 300 and 700 0C. With increasing temperature, the total biochar yield decreased with increased heating value. It was found that the pyrolysis temperature had major effect on the yield of biochar product. It also exerted major influence on the heating value and C,H and O composition. The obtained biochar ranged between 31.9 to 56.7 %wt, at different pyrolysis temperatures. The optimum biochar yield was obtained at 325 0C. Biochar yield obtained at optimum temperature was 47 % wt with a heating value of 25.9 MJ kg-1. The study has been performed in order to demonstrate that agricultural wastes like banana peel are also important source of solid fuel.

Keywords: agricultural Wastes, banana peel, biochar, pyrolysis

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489 Biosorption of Gold from Chloride Media in a Simultaneous Adsorption-Reduction Process

Authors: Shafiq Alam, Yen Ning Lee

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Conventional hydrometallurgical processing of metals involves the use of large quantities of toxic chemicals. Realizing a need to develop sustainable technologies, extensive research studies are being carried out to recover and recycle base, precious and rare earth metals from their pregnant leach solutions (PLS) using green chemicals/biomaterials prepared from biomass wastes derived from agriculture, marine and forest resources. Our innovative research showed that bio-adsorbents prepared from such biomass wastes can effectively adsorb precious metals, especially gold after conversion of their functional groups in a very simple process. The highly effective ‘Adsorption-coupled-Reduction’ phenomenon witnessed appears promising for the potential use of this gold biosorption process in the mining industry. Proper management and effective use of biomass wastes as value added green chemicals will not only reduce the volume of wastes being generated every day in our society, but will also have a high-end value to the mining and mineral processing industries as those biomaterials would be cheap, but very selective for gold recovery/recycling from low grade ore, leach residue or e-wastes.

Keywords: biosorption, hydrometallurgy, gold, adsorption, reduction, biomass, sustainability

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488 Highway Waste Management in Zambia Policy Preparedness and Remedies: The Case of Great East Road

Authors: Floyd Misheck Mwanza, Paul Boniface Majura

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The paper looked at highways/ roadside waste generation, disposal and the consequent environmental impacts. The dramatic increase in vehicular and paved roads in the recent past in Zambia, has given rise to the indiscriminate disposal of litter that now poses a threat to health and the environment. Primary data was generated by carrying out oral interviews and field observations for holistic and in–depth assessment of the environment and the secondary data was obtained from desk review method, information on effects of roadside wastes on environment were obtained from relevant literatures. The interviews were semi structured and a purposive sampling method was adopted and analyzed descriptively. The results of the findings showed that population growth and unplanned road expansion has exceeded the expected limit in recent time with resultant poor system of roadside wastes disposal. Roadside wastes which contain both biodegradable and non-biodegradable roadside wastes are disposed at the shoulders of major highways in temporary dumpsites and are never collected by a road development agency (RDA). There is no organized highway to highway or street to street collection of the wastes in Zambia by the key organization the RDA. The study revealed that roadside disposal of roadside wastes has serious impacts on the environment. Some of these impacts include physical nuisance of the wastes to the environment, the waste dumps also serve as hideouts for rodents and snakes which are dangerous. Waste are blown around by wind making the environment filthy, most of the wastes are also been washed by overland flow during heavy downpour to block drainage channels and subsequently lead to flooding of the environment. Most of the non- biodegradable wastes contain toxic chemicals which have serious implications on the environmental sustainability and human health. The paper therefore recommends that Government/ RDA should come up with proper orientation and environmental laws should be put in place for the general public and also to provide necessary facilities and arrange for better methods of collection of wastes.

Keywords: biodegradable, disposal, environment, impacts

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487 Synthesis of Iron-Based Perovskite Type Catalysts from Rust Wastes as a Source of Iron

Authors: M. P. Joshi, F. Deganello, L. F. Liotta, V. La Parola, G. Pantaleo

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For the first time, commercial iron nitrate was replaced by rust wastes, as a source of Iron for the preparation of LaFeO₃ powders by solution combustion synthesis (SCS). A detailed comparison with a reference powder obtained by SCS, starting from a commercial iron nitrate, was also performed. Several techniques such as X-ray diffraction combined with Rietveld refinement, mass plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption measurements, temperature programmed reduction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform analysis and scanning electron microscopy were used for the characterization of the rust wastes as well as of the perovskite powders. The performance of this ecofriendly material was evaluated by testing the activity and selectivity in the propylene oxidation, in order to use it for the benefit of the environment. Characterization and performance results clearly evidenced limitations and peculiarities of this new approach.

Keywords: perovskite type catalysts, solution combustion synthesis, X-ray diffraction, rust wastes

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486 Synthesis of Magnesium Borates from the Slurries of Magnesium Wastes by Microwave Energy

Authors: N. Tugrul, F. T. Senberber, A. S. Kipcak, E. Moroydor Derun, S. Piskin

Abstract:

In this research, it is aimed not only microwave synthesis of magnesium borates but also evaluation of magnesium wastes. Synthesis process can be described with the reaction of Mg wastes and boric acid using microwave energy. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) were applied to synthesized minerals. According to XRD results, magnesium borate hydrate mixtures were obtained as mcallisterite (pdf# = 01-070-1902, Mg2(B6O7(OH)6)2.9(H2O)) at higher crystallinity properties was achieved at the mole ratio raw material 1:1. Also, other kinds of magnesium borate hydrates were obtained at lower crystallinity such as admontite (pdf # = 01-076-0540, MgO(B2O3)3.7(H2O)), inderite (pdf # = 01-072-2308, 2MgO.3B2O3.15(H2O)) and magnesium borate hydrates (pdf # = 01-076-0539, MgO(B2O3)3.6(H2O)). FT-IR spectrums indicated that minor changes were seen at the band values of characteristic stretching in each experiment. At the end of experiments it is seen that using microwave energy may contribute positive effects to design of synthesis process such as reducing reaction time and products at higher crystallinity.

Keywords: magnesium wastes, boric acid, magnesium borate, microwave energy

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485 Study of Management of Waste Construction Materials in Civil Engineering Projects

Authors: Jalindar R. Patil, Harish P. Gayakwad

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The increased economic growth across the globe as well as urbanization in developing countries have led into extensive construction activities that generate large amounts of wastes. Material wastage in construction projects resulted into huge financial setbacks to builders and contractors. In addition to this, it may also cause significant effects over aesthetics, health, and the general environment. However in many cities across the globe where construction wastes material management is still a problem. In this paper, the discussion is all about the method for the management of waste construction materials. The objectives of this seminar are to identify the significant source of construction waste globally, to improve the performance of by extracting the major barriers construction waste management and to determine the cost impact on the construction project. These wastes needs to be managed as well as their impacts needs to be ascertained to pave way for their proper management. The seminar includes the details of construction waste management with the reference to construction project. The application of construction waste management in the civil engineering projects is to describe the reduction in the construction wastes.

Keywords: civil engineering, construction materials, waste management, construction activities

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484 Solid Waste Management through Mushroom Cultivation: An Eco Friendly Approach

Authors: Mary Josephine

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Waste of certain process can be the input source of other sectors in order to reduce environmental pollution. Today there are more and more solid wastes are generated, but only very small amount of those are recycled. So, the threatening of environmental pressure to public health is very serious. The methods considered for the treatment of solid waste are biogas tanks or processing to make animal feed and fertilizer, however, they did not perform well. An alternative approach is growing mushrooms on waste residues. This is regarded as an environmental friendly solution with potential economic benefit. The substrate producers do their best to produce quality substrate at low cost. Apart from other methods, this can be achieved by employing biologically degradable wastes used as the resource material component of the substrate. Mushroom growing is a significant tool for the restoration, replenishment and remediation of Earth’s overburdened ecosphere. One of the rational methods of waste utilization involves locally available wastes. The present study aims to find out the yield of mushroom grown on locally available waste for free and to conserve our environment by recycling wastes.

Keywords: biodegradable, environment, mushroom, remediation

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483 Mechanical Testing on Bioplastics Obtained from Banana and Potato Peels in the City of Bogotá, Colombia

Authors: Juan Eduardo Rolon Rios, Fredy Alejandro Orjuela, Alexander Garcia Mariaca

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For banana and potato wastes, their peels are processed in order to make animal food with the condition that those wastes must not have started the decomposition process. One alternative to taking advantage of those wastes is to obtain a bioplastic based on starch from banana and potato shells. These products are 100% biodegradables, and researchers have been studying them for different applications, helping in the reduction of organic wastes and ordinary plastic wastes. Without petroleum affecting the prices of bioplastics, bioplastics market has a growing tendency and it is seen that it can keep this tendency in the medium term up to 350%. In this work, it will be shown the results for elasticity module and percent elongation for bioplastics obtained from a mixture of starch of bananas and potatoes peels, with glycerol as plasticizer. The experimental variables were the plasticizer percentage and the mixture between banana starch and potato starch. The results show that the bioplastics obtained can be used in different applications such as plastic bags or sorbets, verifying their admissible degradation percentages for each one of these applications. The results also show that they agree with the data found in the literature due to the fact that mixtures with a major amount of potato starch had the best mechanical properties because of the potato starch characteristics.

Keywords: bioplastics, fruit waste, mechanical testing, mechanical properties

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482 Ecotoxicity Evaluation Methodology for Metallurgical and Steel Wastes

Authors: G. Pelozo, N. Quaranta

Abstract:

The assessment of environmental hazard and ecotoxicological potential of industrial wastes has become an issue of concern in many countries. Therefore, the aim of this work is to develop a methodology, adapting an Argentinian standard, which allows analyze the ecotoxicological effect of various metallurgical and steel wastes. Foundry sand, white mud, red mud, electric arc furnace dust, converter slag, among others, are the studied wastes. The species used to analyze the ecotoxicological effects of wastes is rye grass (Lolium Perenne). The choice of this kind lies, among other things, in its easy and rapid germination making it possible to develop the test in a few days. Moreover, since the processes involved are general for most seeds, the obtained results with this kind are representative, in general, of the effects on seeds or seedlings. Since the studied residues are solids, prior to performing the assay, an eluate is obtained by stirring for 2 hours and subsequent filtration of a solution of waste in water in a relationship of 1:4. This represents 100% of eluate from which two dilutions in water (25% and 50%) are prepared. A sample with untreated solid waste and water is also performed. The test is performed by placing two filter papers in a Petri dish that are saturated with 3.5ml of the prepared dilutions. After that 20 rye grass seeds are placed, and the Petri dishes are covered and the seeds are incubated for 120 hours at 24 °C. Reference controls are carried out by distilled water. Three replicates are performed for each concentration. Once the exposure period is finished, inhibiting elongation of the root is measured (IR). The results of this test show that all the studied wastes produce an unfavorable effect on the development of the seedlings, being the electric arc furnace dust which more affects the germination.

Keywords: ecotoxicity, industrial wastes, environmental hazard, seeds

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481 Waste Management in a Hot Laboratory of Japan Atomic Energy Agency – 2: Condensation and Solidification Experiments on Liquid Waste

Authors: Sou Watanabe, Hiromichi Ogi, Atsuhiro Shibata, Kazunori Nomura

Abstract:

As a part of STRAD project conducted by JAEA, condensation of radioactive liquid waste containing various chemical compounds using reverse osmosis (RO) membrane filter was examined for efficient and safety treatment of the liquid wastes accumulated inside hot laboratories. NH4+ ion in the feed solution was successfully concentrated, and NH4+ ion involved in the effluents became lower than target value; 100 ppm. Solidification of simulated aqueous and organic liquid wastes was also tested. Those liquids were successfully solidified by adding cement or coagulants. Nevertheless, optimization in materials for confinement of chemicals is required for long time storage of the final solidified wastes.

Keywords: condensation, radioactive liquid waste, solidification, STRAD project

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480 Use of Industrial Wastes for Production of Low-Cost Building Material

Authors: Frank Aneke, Elizabeth Theron

Abstract:

Demand for building materials in the last decade due to growing population, has caused scarcity of low-cost housing in South Africa. The investigation thoroughly examined dolomitic waste (DW), silica fume (SF) and River sand (RS) effects on the geotechnical behaviour of fly ash bricks. Bricks samples were prepared at different ratios as follows: I. FA1 contained FA70% + RS30%, II. FA2 contained FA60% + DW10%+RS30%, III. FA3 has a mix proportion of FA50% + DW20%+RS30%, IV. FA4 has a mix ratio FA40% + DW30%+RS30%, V. FA5 contained FA20% + DW40% + SF10%+RS30% by mass percentage of the FA material. However, utilization of this wastes in production of bricks, does not only produce a valuable commercial product that is cost effective, but also reduces a major waste disposal problem from the surrounding environment.

Keywords: bricks, dolomite, fly ash, industrial wastes

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479 Performance of Self-Compacting Mortars Containing Foam Glass Granulate

Authors: Brahim Safi, Djamila Aboutaleb, Mohammed Saidi, Abdelbaki Benmounah, Fahima Benbrahim

Abstract:

The inorganic wastes are currently used in the manufacture of concretes as mineral additions by cement substitution or as fine/coarse aggregates by replacing traditional aggregates. In this respect, this study aims to valorize the mineral wastes in particular glass wastes to produce granulated foam glass (as fine aggregates). Granulated foam glasses (GFG) were prepared from the glass powder (glass cullet) and foaming agent (limestone) according to applied manufacturing of GFG (at a heat treatment 850 ° C for 20min). After, self-compacting mortars were elaborated with fine aggregate (sand) and other variant mortars with granulated foam glass at volume ratio (0, 30, 50 and 100 %). Rheological characterization tests (fluidity) and physic-mechanical (density, porosity /absorption of water and mechanical tests) were carried out on studied mortars. The results obtained show that a slightly decreasing of compressive strength of mortars having lightness very important for building construction.

Keywords: glass wastes, lightweight aggregate, mortar, fluidity, density, mechanical strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 168
478 Usage of Palm Oil Industrial Wastes as Construction Materials

Authors: Mohammad Momeenul Islam, U. Johnson Alengaram, Mohd Zamin Jumaat, Iftekhair Ibnul Bashar

Abstract:

Palm oil industry produces millions of tonnes of industrial wastes and these wastes create huge storage and environmental problems. In order to solve these problems various research works have been performed for past decades. The commonly available wastes are Oil palm shells (OPS) and Palm oil fuel ash (POFA). These materials have already acquired well recognition as alternate of conventional construction materials. OPS has been used as coarse aggregate and compressive strength was found up to 56 MPa for 56-day. It is said that 30 grade Oil Palm shell concrete (OPSC) is possible without adding any cementitious materials. The maximum modulus of elasticity for OPSC was found 18.6 GPa. The Oil palm shell concrete (OPSC) are used in country areas and nearby areas where the palm oil factories are located for houses, road-kerbs, drain blocks, etc. In case of superstructure like beams and slab are also produced by utilizing OPS. Many experimental works have been performed to establish POFA as a substituting binding material in replace of Ordinary Portland cement (OPC). Throughout the research it has been showed that up to 20% of cement by mass can be replaced by POFA. POFA is one of the most enriched pozzolanic materials. The main purpose of this review is to discuss the usage and opportunity of the palm oil industrial wastes as construction materials following the previous experimental research work.

Keywords: construction materials, oil palm shells (OPS), palm oil fuel ash (POFA), aggregates

Procedia PDF Downloads 258