Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

Search results for: C. H. Muthukumar Muthuchamy

4 Harnessing of Electricity from Distillery Effluent and Simultaneous Effluent Treatment by Microbial Fuel Cell

Authors: Hanish Mohammed, C. H. Muthukumar Muthuchamy

Abstract:

The advancement in the science and technology has made it possible to convert electrical energy into any desired form. It has given electrical energy a place of pride in the modern world. The survival of industrial undertakings and our social structure depends primarily upon low cost and uninterrupted supply of electrical energy. Microbial fuel cell (MFC) is a promising and emerging technique for sustainable bioelectricity generation and wastewater treatment. MFCs are devices which are capable of converting organic matter to electricity/hydrogen with help of microorganisms. Different kinds of wastewater could be used in this technique, distillery effluent is one of the most troublesome and complex and strong organic effluent with high chemical oxygen demand of 1,53,846 mg/L. A single cell MFC unit was designed and fabricated for the distillery effluent treatment and to generate electricity. Due to the high COD value of the distillery effluent helped in the production of energy for 74 days. The highest voltage got from the fuel cell is 206 mV on the 30th day. A maximum power density obtained from the MFC was 9.8 mW, treatment efficiency was evaluated in terms of COD removal and other parameters. COD removal efficiencies were around 68.5 % and other parameters such as Total Hardness (81.5%), turbidity (70 %), chloride (66%), phosphate (79.5%), Nitrate (77%) and sulphate (71%). MFC using distillery effluent is a promising new unexplored substrate for the power generation and sustainable treatment technique through harnessing of bioelectricity.

Keywords: microbial fuel cell (MFC), bioelectricity, distillery effluent, wastewater treatment

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3 Climate Change Adaptation Strategy Recommended for the Conservation of Biodiversity in Western Ghats, India

Authors: Mukesh Lal Das, Muthukumar Muthuchamy

Abstract:

Climate change Adaptation strategy (AS) is a scientific approach to dealing with the impacts of climate change (CC). Efforts are being made to contain the global emission of greenhouse gas within threshold limits, thereby limiting the rise of global temperature to an optimal level. Global Climate change is a spontaneous process; therefore, reversing the damage would take decades. The climate change adaptation strategy recommended by various stakeholders could be a key to resilience for biodiversity. The Indian Government has constituted the panel to synthesize the climate change action report at the federal and state levels. This review scavenged the published literature on the Western Ghats hotspots. And highlight the adaptation strategy recommended by diverse scientific actors to conserve biodiversity. It also reviews the grey literature adopted by state and federal governments and its effectiveness in mitigating the impacts on biodiversity. We have narrowed the scope of interest to the state action report by 6 Indian states such as Gujarat, Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu, which host Western Ghats global biodiversity hotspot. Western Ghats(WGs) act as the water tower to the peninsular part of India, and its extensive watershed caters to the water demand of the Industry sector, Agriculture and urban community. Conservation of WGs is the key to the prosperity of Peninsular India. The global scientific community suggested more than 600+ Climate change adaptation strategies for the policymakers, stakeholders, and other state actors to take proactive actions. The preliminary analysis of the federal and the state action plan on climate change in the wake of CC indicate inadequacy in motion as per recommended scientific adaptation strategies. Tamil Nadu and Kerala state constitute nine effective adaptation strategies out of the 40+ recommended for Western Ghats conservation. And other four states' adaptation strategies are deficient, confusing and vague. Western Ghats' resilience capacity will soon or might have reached its threshold, and the frequency of severe drought and flash floods might upsurge manifold in the decades to come. The lack of a clear roadmap to climate change adaptation strategies in the federal and state action stirred us to identify the gap and address it by offering a holistic approach to WGs biodiversity conservation.

Keywords: adaptation strategy, biodiversity conservation, climate change, resilience, Western Ghats

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2 Collagen Scaffold Incorporated with Macrotyloma uniflorum Plant Extracts as a–Burn/Wound Dressing Material, in Vitro and in Vivo Evaluation

Authors: Thangavelu Muthukumar, Thotapalli Parvathaleswara Sastry

Abstract:

Collagen is the most abundantly available connective tissue protein, which is being used as a biomaterial for various biomedical applications. Presently, fish wastes are disposed improperly which is causing serious environmental pollution resulting in offensive odour. Fish scales are promising source of Type I collagen. Medicinal plants have been used since time immemorial for treatment of various ailments of skin and dermatological disorders especially cuts, wounds, and burns. Developing biomaterials from the natural sources which are having wound healing properties within the search of a common man is the need of hour, particularly in developing and third world countries. With these objectives in view we have developed a wound dressing material containing fish scale collagen (FSC) incorporated with Macrotyloma uniflorum plant extract (PE). The wound dressing composite was characterized for its physiochemical properties using conventional methods. SEM image revealed that the composite has fibrous and porous surface which helps in transportation of oxygen as well as absorbing wound fluids. The biomaterial has shown 95% biocompatibility with required mechanical strength and has exhibited antimicrobial properties. This biomaterial has been used as a wound dressing material in experimental wounds of rats. The healing pattern was evaluated by macroscopic observations, panimetric studies, biochemical, histopathological observations. The results showed faster healing pattern in the wounds treated with CSPE compared to the other composites used in this study and untreated control. These experiments clearly suggest that CSPE can be used as wound/burn dressing materials.

Keywords: collagen, wound dressing, Macrotyloma uniflorum, burn dressing

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1 Fed-Batch Mixotrophic Cultivation of Microalgae Scenedesmus sp., Using Airlift Photobioreactor

Authors: Lakshmidevi Rajendran, Bharathidasan Kanniappan, Gopi Raja, Muthukumar Karuppan

Abstract:

This study investigates the feasibility of fed-batch mixotrophic cultivation of microalgae Scenedesmus sp. in a 3-litre airlift photobioreactor under standard operating conditions. The results of this study suggest the algae species may serve as an excellent feed for aquatic species using organic byproducts. Microalgae Scenedesmus sp., was cultured using a synthetic wastewater by stepwise addition of crude glycerol concentration ranging from 2-10g/l under fed-batch mixotrophic mode for a period of 15 days. The attempts were made with the stepwise addition of crude glycerol as a carbon source in the initial growth phase to evade the inhibitory nature of high glycerol concentration on the growth of Scenedesmus sp. Crude glycerol was chosen since it is readily accessible as byproduct from biodiesel production sectors. Highest biomass concentration was achieved to be 2.43 g/l at the crude glycerol concentration of 6g/l after 10 days which is 3 fold times the increase in the biomass concentration compared with the control medium without the addition of glycerol. Biomass growth data obtained for the microalgae Scenedesmus sp. was fitted well with the modified Logistic equation. Substrate utilization kinetics was also employed to model the biomass productivity with respect to the various crude glycerol concentration. The results indicated that the supplement of crude glycerol to the mixotrophic culture of Scenedesmus sp., enhances the biomass concentration, chlorophyll and lutein productivity. Thus the application of fed-batch mixotrophic cultivation with stepwise addition of crude glycerol to Scenedesmus sp., provides a subtle way to reduce the production cost and improvisation in the large-scale cultivation along with biochemical compound synthesis.

Keywords: airlift photobioreactor, crude glycerol, microalgae Scenedesmus sp., mixotrophic cultivation, lutein production

Procedia PDF Downloads 105