Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4602

Search results for: next generation networks

4602 Reliable Multicast Communication in Next Generation Networks

Authors: Muazzam Ali Khan Khattak

Abstract:

Next Generation Network is combination of different networks having different technologies. Due to mobile nature of nodes the movement of nodes occurs from one network to another network. Multicasting in such networks is still a hot issue of research because the user in today's world wants reliable communication wherever it lies. Due to heterogeneity of NGN it is very difficult to handle reliable multicast communication. In this paper we proposed an improved scheme for reliable multicast communication in next generation networks. Because multicast communication is very important to deliver same data packets to multiple receivers and minimize the network traffic. This new scheme will make the multicast communication in NGN more reliable and efficient.

Keywords: next generation networks, route request, IPT, NACK, ARQ, DTN

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4601 Key Concepts of 5th Generation Mobile Technology

Authors: Magri Hicham, Noreddine Abghour, Mohamed Ouzzif

Abstract:

The 5th generation of mobile networks is term used in various research papers and projects to identify the next major phase of mobile telecommunications standards. 5G wireless networks will support higher peak data rate, lower latency and provide best connections with QoS guarenty. In this article, we discuss various promising technologies for 5G wireless communication systems, such as IPv6 support, World Wide Wireless Web (WWWW), Dynamic Adhoc Wireless Networks (DAWN), BEAM DIVISION MULTIPLE ACCESS (BDMA), Cloud Computing and cognitive radio technology.

Keywords: WWWW, BDMA, DAWN, 5G, 4G, IPv6, Cloud Computing

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4600 Cellular Architecture of Future Wireless Communication Networks

Authors: Mohammad Yahaghifar

Abstract:

Nowadays Wireless system designers have been facing the continuously increasing demand for high data rates and mobility required by new wireless applications. Evolving future communication network generation cellular wireless networks are envisioned to overcome the fundamental challenges of existing cellular networks, for example, higher data rates, excellent end-to-end performance, and user coverage in hot-spots and crowded areas with lower latency,energy consumption and cost per information transfer. In this paper we propose a potential cellular architecture that separates indoor and outdoor scenarios and discuss various promising technologies for future wireless communication systemssystems, such as massive MIMO, energy-efficient communications,cognitive radio networks, and visible light communications and we disscuse about 5G that is next generation of wireless networks.

Keywords: future challenges in networks, cellur architecture, visible light communication, 5G wireless technologies, spatial modulation, massiva mimo, cognitive radio network, green communications

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4599 3G or 4G: A Predilection for Millennial Generation of Indian Society

Authors: Rishi Prajapati

Abstract:

3G is the abbreviation of third generation of wireless mobile telecommunication technologies. 3G is a mode that finds application in wireless voice telephony, mobile internet access, fixed wireless internet access, video calls and mobile TV. It also provides mobile broadband access to smartphones and mobile modems in laptops and computers. The first 3G networks were introduced in 1998, followed by 4G networks in 2008. 4G is the abbreviation of fourth generation of wireless mobile telecommunication technologies. 4G is termed to be the advanced form of 3G. 4G was firstly introduced in South Korea in 2007. Many abstracts have floated researches that depicted the diversity and similarity between the third and the fourth generation of wireless mobile telecommunications technology, whereas this abstract reflects the study that focuses on analyzing the preference between 3G versus 4G given by the elite group of the Indian society who are known as adolescents or the Millennial Generation aging from 18 years to 25 years. The Millennial Generation was chosen for this study as they have the easiest access to the latest technology. A sample size of 200 adolescents was selected and a structured survey was carried out which had several closed ended as well as open ended questions, to aggregate the result of this study. It was made sure that the effect of environmental factors on the subjects was as minimal as possible. The data analysis comprised of primary data collection reflecting it as quantitative research. The rationale behind this research is to give brief idea of how 3G and 4G are accepted by the Millennial Generation in India. The findings of this research would materialize a framework which depicts whether Millennial Generation would prefer 4G over 3G or vice versa.

Keywords: fourth generation, wireless telecommunication technology, Indian society, millennial generation, market research, third generation

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4598 Big Data Strategy for Telco: Network Transformation

Authors: F. Amin, S. Feizi

Abstract:

Big data has the potential to improve the quality of services; enable infrastructure that businesses depend on to adapt continually and efficiently; improve the performance of employees; help organizations better understand customers; and reduce liability risks. Analytics and marketing models of fixed and mobile operators are falling short in combating churn and declining revenue per user. Big Data presents new method to reverse the way and improve profitability. The benefits of Big Data and next-generation network, however, are more exorbitant than improved customer relationship management. Next generation of networks are in a prime position to monetize rich supplies of customer information—while being mindful of legal and privacy issues. As data assets are transformed into new revenue streams will become integral to high performance.

Keywords: big data, next generation networks, network transformation, strategy

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4597 Advanced Hybrid Particle Swarm Optimization for Congestion and Power Loss Reduction in Distribution Networks with High Distributed Generation Penetration through Network Reconfiguration

Authors: C. Iraklis, G. Evmiridis, A. Iraklis

Abstract:

Renewable energy sources and distributed power generation units already have an important role in electrical power generation. A mixture of different technologies penetrating the electrical grid, adds complexity in the management of distribution networks. High penetration of distributed power generation units creates node over-voltages, huge power losses, unreliable power management, reverse power flow and congestion. This paper presents an optimization algorithm capable of reducing congestion and power losses, both described as a function of weighted sum. Two factors that describe congestion are being proposed. An upgraded selective particle swarm optimization algorithm (SPSO) is used as a solution tool focusing on the technique of network reconfiguration. The upgraded SPSO algorithm is achieved with the addition of a heuristic algorithm specializing in reduction of power losses, with several scenarios being tested. Results show significant improvement in minimization of losses and congestion while achieving very small calculation times.

Keywords: congestion, distribution networks, loss reduction, particle swarm optimization, smart grid

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4596 Optimization Method of Dispersed Generation in Electrical Distribution Systems

Authors: Mahmoud Samkan

Abstract:

Dispersed Generation (DG) is a promising solution to many power system problems such as voltage regulation and power loss. This paper proposes a heuristic two-step method to optimize the location and size of DG for reducing active power losses and, therefore, improve the voltage profile in radial distribution networks. In addition to a DG placed at the system load gravity center, this method consists in assigning a DG to each lateral of the network. After having determined the central DG placement, the location and size of each lateral DG are predetermined in the first step. The results are then refined in the second step. This method is tested for 33-bus system for 100% DG penetration. The results obtained are compared with those of other methods found in the literature.

Keywords: optimal location, optimal size, dispersed generation (DG), radial distribution networks, reducing losses

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4595 IACOP - Route Optimization in Wireless Networks Using Improved Ant Colony Optimization Protocol

Authors: S. Vasundra, D. Venkatesh

Abstract:

Wireless networks have gone through an extraordinary growth in the past few years, and will keep on playing a crucial role in future data communication. The present wireless networks aim to make communication possible anywhere and anytime. With the converging of mobile and wireless communications with Internet services, the boundary between mobile personal telecommunications and wireless computer networks is disappearing. Wireless networks of the next generation need the support of all the advances on new architectures, standards, and protocols. Since an ad hoc network may consist of a large number of mobile hosts, this imposes a significant challenge on the design of an effective and efficient routing protocol that can work well in an environment with frequent topological changes. This paper proposes improved ant colony optimization (IACO) technique. It also maintains load balancing in wireless networks. The simulation results show that the proposed IACO performs better than existing routing techniques.

Keywords: wireless networks, ant colony optimization, load balancing, architecture

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4594 Performance Analysis in 5th Generation Massive Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output Systems

Authors: Jihad S. Daba, Jean-Pierre Dubois, Georges El Soury

Abstract:

Fifth generation wireless networks guarantee significant capacity enhancement to suit more clients and services at higher information rates with better reliability while consuming less power. The deployment of massive multiple-input-multiple-output technology guarantees broadband wireless networks with the use of base station antenna arrays to serve a large number of users on the same frequency and time-slot channels. In this work, we evaluate the performance of massive multiple-input-multiple-output systems (MIMO) systems in 5th generation cellular networks in terms of capacity and bit error rate. Several cases were considered and analyzed to compare the performance of massive MIMO systems while varying the number of antennas at both transmitting and receiving ends. We found that, unlike classical MIMO systems, reducing the number of transmit antennas while increasing the number of antennas at the receiver end provides a better solution to performance enhancement. In addition, enhanced orthogonal frequency division multiplexing and beam division multiple access schemes further improve the performance of massive MIMO systems and make them more reliable.

Keywords: beam division multiple access, D2D communication, enhanced OFDM, fifth generation broadband, massive MIMO

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4593 Use of Social Networks and Mobile Technologies in Education

Authors: Václav Maněna, Roman Dostál, Štěpán Hubálovský

Abstract:

Social networks play an important role in the lives of children and young people. Along with the high penetration of mobile technologies such as smartphones and tablets among the younger generation, there is an increasing use of social networks already in elementary school. The paper presents the results of research, which was realized at schools in the Hradec Králové region. In this research, the authors focused on issues related to communications on social networks for children, teenagers and young people in the Czech Republic. This research was conducted at selected elementary, secondary and high schools using anonymous questionnaires. The results are evaluated and compared with the results of the research, which has been realized in 2008. The authors focused on the possibilities of using social networks in education. The paper presents the possibility of using the most popular social networks in education, with emphasis on increasing motivation for learning. The paper presents comparative analysis of social networks, with regard to the possibility of using in education as well.

Keywords: social networks, motivation, e-learning, mobile technology

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4592 Ecological Networks: From Structural Analysis to Synchronization

Authors: N. F. F. Ebecken, G. C. Pereira

Abstract:

Ecological systems are exposed and are influenced by various natural and anthropogenic disturbances. They produce various effects and states seeking response symmetry to a state of global phase coherence or stability and balance of their food webs. This research project addresses the development of a computational methodology for modeling plankton food webs. The use of algorithms to establish connections, the generation of representative fuzzy multigraphs and application of technical analysis of complex networks provide a set of tools for defining, analyzing and evaluating community structure of coastal aquatic ecosystems, beyond the estimate of possible external impacts to the networks. Thus, this study aims to develop computational systems and data models to assess how these ecological networks are structurally and functionally organized, to analyze the types and degree of compartmentalization and synchronization between oscillatory and interconnected elements network and the influence of disturbances on the overall pattern of rhythmicity of the system.

Keywords: ecological networks, plankton food webs, fuzzy multigraphs, dynamic of networks

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4591 Artificial Intelligence Based Meme Generation Technology for Engaging Audience in Social Media

Authors: Andrew Kurochkin, Kostiantyn Bokhan

Abstract:

In this study, a new meme dataset of ~650K meme instances was created, a technology of meme generation based on the state of the art deep learning technique - GPT-2 model was researched, a comparative analysis of machine-generated memes and human-created was conducted. We justified that Amazon Mechanical Turk workers can be used for the approximate estimating of users' behavior in a social network, more precisely to measure engagement. It was shown that generated memes cause the same engagement as human memes that produced low engagement in the social network (historically). Thus, generated memes are less engaging than random memes created by humans.

Keywords: content generation, computational social science, memes generation, Reddit, social networks, social media interaction

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4590 Optimal Planning of Dispatchable Distributed Generators for Power Loss Reduction in Unbalanced Distribution Networks

Authors: Mahmoud M. Othman, Y. G. Hegazy, A. Y. Abdelaziz

Abstract:

This paper proposes a novel heuristic algorithm that aims to determine the best size and location of distributed generators in unbalanced distribution networks. The proposed heuristic algorithm can deal with the planning cases where power loss is to be optimized without violating the system practical constraints. The distributed generation units in the proposed algorithm is modeled as voltage controlled node with the flexibility to be converted to constant power factor node in case of reactive power limit violation. The proposed algorithm is implemented in MATLAB and tested on the IEEE 37 -node feeder. The results obtained show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

Keywords: distributed generation, heuristic approach, optimization, planning

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4589 Improvement of Ground Truth Data for Eye Location on Infrared Driver Recordings

Authors: Sorin Valcan, Mihail Gaianu

Abstract:

Labeling is a very costly and time consuming process which aims to generate datasets for training neural networks in several functionalities and projects. For driver monitoring system projects, the need for labeled images has a significant impact on the budget and distribution of effort. This paper presents the modifications done to an algorithm used for the generation of ground truth data for 2D eyes location on infrared images with drivers in order to improve the quality of the data and performance of the trained neural networks. The algorithm restrictions become tougher, which makes it more accurate but also less constant. The resulting dataset becomes smaller and shall not be altered by any kind of manual label adjustment before being used in the neural networks training process. These changes resulted in a much better performance of the trained neural networks.

Keywords: labeling automation, infrared camera, driver monitoring, eye detection, convolutional neural networks

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4588 Comparing Community Detection Algorithms in Bipartite Networks

Authors: Ehsan Khademi, Mahdi Jalili

Abstract:

Despite the special features of bipartite networks, they are common in many systems. Real-world bipartite networks may show community structure, similar to what one can find in one-mode networks. However, the interpretation of the community structure in bipartite networks is different as compared to one-mode networks. In this manuscript, we compare a number of available methods that are frequently used to discover community structure of bipartite networks. These networks are categorized into two broad classes. One class is the methods that, first, transfer the network into a one-mode network, and then apply community detection algorithms. The other class is the algorithms that have been developed specifically for bipartite networks. These algorithms are applied on a model network with prescribed community structure.

Keywords: community detection, bipartite networks, co-clustering, modularity, network projection, complex networks

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4587 Unbalanced Distribution Optimal Power Flow to Minimize Losses with Distributed Photovoltaic Plants

Authors: Malinwo Estone Ayikpa

Abstract:

Electric power systems are likely to operate with minimum losses and voltage meeting international standards. This is made possible generally by control actions provide by automatic voltage regulators, capacitors and transformers with on-load tap changer (OLTC). With the development of photovoltaic (PV) systems technology, their integration on distribution networks has increased over the last years to the extent of replacing the above mentioned techniques. The conventional analysis and simulation tools used for electrical networks are no longer able to take into account control actions necessary for studying distributed PV generation impact. This paper presents an unbalanced optimal power flow (OPF) model that minimizes losses with association of active power generation and reactive power control of single-phase and three-phase PV systems. Reactive power can be generated or absorbed using the available capacity and the adjustable power factor of the inverter. The unbalance OPF is formulated by current balance equations and solved by primal-dual interior point method. Several simulation cases have been carried out varying the size and location of PV systems and the results show a detailed view of the impact of PV distributed generation on distribution systems.

Keywords: distribution system, loss, photovoltaic generation, primal-dual interior point method

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4586 Pareto System of Optimal Placement and Sizing of Distributed Generation in Radial Distribution Networks Using Particle Swarm Optimization

Authors: Sani M. Lawal, Idris Musa, Aliyu D. Usman

Abstract:

The Pareto approach of optimal solutions in a search space that evolved in multi-objective optimization problems is adopted in this paper, which stands for a set of solutions in the search space. This paper aims at presenting an optimal placement of Distributed Generation (DG) in radial distribution networks with an optimal size for minimization of power loss and voltage deviation as well as maximizing voltage profile of the networks. And these problems are formulated using particle swarm optimization (PSO) as a constraint nonlinear optimization problem with both locations and sizes of DG being continuous. The objective functions adopted are the total active power loss function and voltage deviation function. The multiple nature of the problem, made it necessary to form a multi-objective function in search of the solution that consists of both the DG location and size. The proposed PSO algorithm is used to determine optimal placement and size of DG in a distribution network. The output indicates that PSO algorithm technique shows an edge over other types of search methods due to its effectiveness and computational efficiency. The proposed method is tested on the standard IEEE 34-bus and validated with 33-bus test systems distribution networks. Results indicate that the sizing and location of DG are system dependent and should be optimally selected before installing the distributed generators in the system and also an improvement in the voltage profile and power loss reduction have been achieved.

Keywords: distributed generation, pareto, particle swarm optimization, power loss, voltage deviation

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4585 Pruning Algorithm for the Minimum Rule Reduct Generation

Authors: Sahin Emrah Amrahov, Fatih Aybar, Serhat Dogan

Abstract:

In this paper we consider the rule reduct generation problem. Rule Reduct Generation (RG) and Modified Rule Generation (MRG) algorithms, that are used to solve this problem, are well-known. Alternative to these algorithms, we develop Pruning Rule Generation (PRG) algorithm. We compare the PRG algorithm with RG and MRG.

Keywords: rough sets, decision rules, rule induction, classification

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4584 Intelligent Computing with Bayesian Regularization Artificial Neural Networks for a Nonlinear System of COVID-19 Epidemic Model for Future Generation Disease Control

Authors: Tahir Nawaz Cheema, Dumitru Baleanu, Ali Raza

Abstract:

In this research work, we design intelligent computing through Bayesian Regularization artificial neural networks (BRANNs) introduced to solve the mathematical modeling of infectious diseases (Covid-19). The dynamical transmission is due to the interaction of people and its mathematical representation based on the system's nonlinear differential equations. The generation of the dataset of the Covid-19 model is exploited by the power of the explicit Runge Kutta method for different countries of the world like India, Pakistan, Italy, and many more. The generated dataset is approximately used for training, testing, and validation processes for every frequent update in Bayesian Regularization backpropagation for numerical behavior of the dynamics of the Covid-19 model. The performance and effectiveness of designed methodology BRANNs are checked through mean squared error, error histograms, numerical solutions, absolute error, and regression analysis.

Keywords: mathematical models, beysian regularization, bayesian-regularization backpropagation networks, regression analysis, numerical computing

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4583 Worst-Case Load Shedding in Electric Power Networks

Authors: Fu Lin

Abstract:

We consider the worst-case load-shedding problem in electric power networks where a number of transmission lines are to be taken out of service. The objective is to identify a prespecified number of line outages that lead to the maximum interruption of power generation and load at the transmission level, subject to the active power-flow model, the load and generation capacity of the buses, and the phase-angle limit across the transmission lines. For this nonlinear model with binary constraints, we show that all decision variables are separable except for the nonlinear power-flow equations. We develop an iterative decomposition algorithm, which converts the worst-case load shedding problem into a sequence of small subproblems. We show that the subproblems are either convex problems that can be solved efficiently or nonconvex problems that have closed-form solutions. Consequently, our approach is scalable for large networks. Furthermore, we prove the convergence of our algorithm to a critical point, and the objective value is guaranteed to decrease throughout the iterations. Numerical experiments with IEEE test cases demonstrate the effectiveness of the developed approach.

Keywords: load shedding, power system, proximal alternating linearization method, vulnerability analysis

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4582 Impact of Series Reactive Compensation on Increasing a Distribution Network Distributed Generation Hosting Capacity

Authors: Moataz Ammar, Ahdab Elmorshedy

Abstract:

The distributed generation hosting capacity of a distribution network is typically limited at a given connection point by the upper voltage limit that can be violated due to the injection of active power into the distribution network. The upper voltage limit violation concern becomes more important as the network equivalent resistance increases with respect to its equivalent reactance. This paper investigates the impact of modifying the distribution network equivalent reactance at the point of connection such that the upper voltage limit is violated at a higher distributed generation penetration, than it would without the addition of series reactive compensation. The results show that series reactive compensation proves efficient in certain situations (based on the ratio of equivalent network reactance to equivalent network resistance at the point of connection). As opposed to the conventional case of capacitive compensation of a distribution network to reduce voltage drop, inductive compensation is seen to be more appropriate for alleviation of distributed-generation-induced voltage rise.

Keywords: distributed generation, distribution networks, series compensation, voltage rise

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4581 Homogenization of Culture and Its Effect on Preferred Reading of Media Communications Aimed at Members of Generation Z

Authors: Philip Katz

Abstract:

The research examines preferred reading of contemporary ads aimed at Generation Z through digital media. A qualitative analysis of focus groups consisting of members of Generation Z from 13 countries in Europe, the Middle East, South America and Asia has shown that, among this cohort, the influence of national culture does not create a strong impediment to understanding media communications targeting Generation Z. The familiarity of members of Generation Z with other countries’ popular culture through the spread of digital media has allowed a homogenizing effect and allowed a greater understanding of those cultures among this generation that lessens the impact of geographic separation.

Keywords: audience, Generation Z, marketing communication, preferred reading

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4580 Examination of Activity Preferences in Leisure Time of Y and Z Generations

Authors: Esma Ozkan, Sumeyye Belhan

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to examine the activity preferences of individuals in Y and Z generation. 90 Y and 90 Z generation individuals with a mean age of 32,76 ± 4,76 and 15,35 ± 2,61 years respectively, participated in the study and their activity preferences assessed. Results show that Y and Z generations preferred swimming and cycling among health related activities. For leisure activities, listening to music was favored by 87.5% and 100% of the Y and Z generations respectively. Reading (90%) was the most popular among Y generation and the second preferred for Z generation after technology (77.5%). Therefore, school based occupational therapy including activity analysis is key to enable adolescents to engage in proper activities. Inviting/visiting friends and family (socialization) was chosen by 100% of Y generation compared to 75% for Z generation. Since our culture and traditions are based on eating and socializing, these activities are well regarded across generations in Turkish society. Educational activities were preferred by 35% of Z generation compared to 75% in Y generation. Also, Z generation was more interested in history compared to sciences. Educational system changes, due to domestic politics and society, may have caused such differences among generations.

Keywords: activity preference, lifestyle, values, Y and Z generations

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4579 Attractiveness of Cafeteria Systems as Viewed by Generation Z

Authors: Joanna Nieżurawska, Hanna Karaszewska, Anna Dziadkiewicz

Abstract:

Contemporary conditions force companies to constantly implement changes and improvements, which is connected with plasticization of their activity in all spheres. Cafeteria systems are a good example of flexible remuneration systems. Cafeteria systems are well-known and often used in the United States, Great Britain and in Western Europe. In Poland, they are hardly ever used and greater flexibility in remuneration packages refers mainly to senior managers and executives. The main aim of this article is to research the attractiveness of the cafeteria system as viewed by generation Z. The additional aim of the article is to prioritize using the importance index of particular types of cafeteria systems from the generation Z’s perspective, as well as to identify the factors which determine the development of cafeteria systems in Poland. The research was conducted in June 2015 among 185 young employees (generation Z). The paper presents some of the results.

Keywords: cafeteria, generation X, generation Y, generation Z, flexible remuneration systems, plasticization of remuneration

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4578 The Load Balancing Algorithm for the Star Interconnection Network

Authors: Ahmad M. Awwad, Jehad Al-Sadi

Abstract:

The star network is one of the promising interconnection networks for future high speed parallel computers, it is expected to be one of the future-generation networks. The star network is both edge and vertex symmetry, it was shown to have many gorgeous topological proprieties also it is owns hierarchical structure framework. Although much of the research work has been done on this promising network in literature, it still suffers from having enough algorithms for load balancing problem. In this paper we try to work on this issue by investigating and proposing an efficient algorithm for load balancing problem for the star network. The proposed algorithm is called Star Clustered Dimension Exchange Method SCDEM to be implemented on the star network. The proposed algorithm is based on the Clustered Dimension Exchange Method (CDEM). The SCDEM algorithm is shown to be efficient in redistributing the load balancing as evenly as possible among all nodes of different factor networks.

Keywords: load balancing, star network, interconnection networks, algorithm

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4577 Load Forecasting Using Neural Network Integrated with Economic Dispatch Problem

Authors: Mariyam Arif, Ye Liu, Israr Ul Haq, Ahsan Ashfaq

Abstract:

High cost of fossil fuels and intensifying installations of alternate energy generation sources are intimidating main challenges in power systems. Making accurate load forecasting an important and challenging task for optimal energy planning and management at both distribution and generation side. There are many techniques to forecast load but each technique comes with its own limitation and requires data to accurately predict the forecast load. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is one such technique to efficiently forecast the load. Comparison between two different ranges of input datasets has been applied to dynamic ANN technique using MATLAB Neural Network Toolbox. It has been observed that selection of input data on training of a network has significant effects on forecasted results. Day-wise input data forecasted the load accurately as compared to year-wise input data. The forecasted load is then distributed among the six generators by using the linear programming to get the optimal point of generation. The algorithm is then verified by comparing the results of each generator with their respective generation limits.

Keywords: artificial neural networks, demand-side management, economic dispatch, linear programming, power generation dispatch

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4576 Performance Analysis of Heterogeneous Cellular Networks with Multiple Connectivity

Authors: Sungkyung Kim, Jee-Hyeon Na, Dong-Seung Kwon

Abstract:

Future mobile networks following 5th generation will be characterized by one thousand times higher gains in capacity; connections for at least one hundred billion devices; user experience capable of extremely low latency and response times. To be close to the capacity requirements and higher reliability, advanced technologies have been studied, such as multiple connectivity, small cell enhancement, heterogeneous networking, and advanced interference and mobility management. This paper is focused on the multiple connectivity in heterogeneous cellular networks. We investigate the performance of coverage and user throughput in several deployment scenarios. Using the stochastic geometry approach, the SINR distributions and the coverage probabilities are derived in case of dual connection. Also, to compare the user throughput enhancement among the deployment scenarios, we calculate the spectral efficiency and discuss our results.

Keywords: heterogeneous networks, multiple connectivity, small cell enhancement, stochastic geometry

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4575 Future of Electric Power Generation Technologies: Environmental and Economic Comparison

Authors: Abdulrahman A. Bahaddad, Mohammed Beshir

Abstract:

The objective of this paper is to demonstrate and describe eight different types of power generation technologies and to understand the history and future trends of each technology. In addition, a comparative analysis between these technologies will be presented with respect to their cost analysis and associated performance.

Keywords: conventional power generation, economic analysis, environmental impact, renewable energy power generation

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4574 An Efficient Tool for Mitigating Voltage Unbalance with Reactive Power Control of Distributed Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems

Authors: Malinwo Estone Ayikpa

Abstract:

With the rapid increase of grid-connected PV systems over the last decades, genuine challenges have arisen for engineers and professionals of energy field in the planning and operation of existing distribution networks with the integration of new generation sources. However, the conventional distribution network, in its design was not expected to receive other generation outside the main power supply. The tools generally used to analyze the networks become inefficient and cannot take into account all the constraints related to the operation of grid-connected PV systems. Some of these constraints are voltage control difficulty, reverse power flow, and especially voltage unbalance which could be due to the poor distribution of single-phase PV systems in the network. In order to analyze the impact of the connection of small and large number of PV systems to the distribution networks, this paper presents an efficient optimization tool that minimizes voltage unbalance in three-phase distribution networks with active and reactive power injections from the allocation of single-phase and three-phase PV plants. Reactive power can be generated or absorbed using the available capacity and the adjustable power factor of the inverter. Good reduction of voltage unbalance can be achieved by reactive power control of the PV systems. The presented tool is based on the three-phase current injection method and the PV systems are modeled via an equivalent circuit. The primal-dual interior point method is used to obtain the optimal operating points for the systems.

Keywords: Photovoltaic system, Primal-dual interior point method, Three-phase optimal power flow, Voltage unbalance

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4573 A Finite Memory Residual Generation Filter for Fault Detection

Authors: Pyung Soo Kim, Eung Hyuk Lee, Mun Suck Jang

Abstract:

In the current paper, a residual generation filter with finite memory structure is proposed for fault detection. The proposed finite memory residual generation filter provides the residual by real-time filtering of fault vector using only the most recent finite observations and inputs on the window. It is shown that the residual given by the proposed residual generation filter provides the exact fault for noise-free systems. Finally, to illustrate the capability of the proposed residual generation filter, numerical examples are performed for the discretized DC motor system having the multiple sensor faults.

Keywords: residual generation filter, finite memory structure, kalman filter, fast detection

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